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Professor Nefer Eng 111-09 January 10, 2014 Class Notes What do Paraphrasing and Summary have in common?

These are the things that Paraphrasing and Summary have in common. Paraphrasing Restates in your own words Introduce the signal phrase Speaker tag Parenthetical reference (e.g. Bordo (4)) Work cited Full publication in Full It is 75% to 103% in Length All the main idea, examples, whole piece, evidence, and the detail is use in paraphrasing Can contain quotes (but limited) Summary Restates in your own words Introduce the signal phrase Speaker tag It is 25% in Length It contains only the main idea Should not contain quotes because it is so short.

Quotes Introduce the signal phrase Speaker tag Parenthetical reference (e.g. Bordo (4)) Work cited Full publication in Full It is 75% to 103% in Length All the main idea, examples, whole piece, evidence, and the detail is use in paraphrasing Can contain quotes (but limited)

Professor Nefer Eng 111-09 January 10, 2014 Paraphrasing Tips: Taking notes you do not need to write down whole sentences. You should write down key phrases or words. Re-read your materials Cite your source Sentence Structure-Stay true to the original article Light key ideas Minor supporting details Replace long list of items with a general category The paraphrase has detail and the summary dose not Get the gist of the main idea (gist-whole thing) Replace with synonyms (means the same) . Summary Topic sentence is what is about Main idea Replace biased words Allude: not directly saying it. Make a positive verb into a negative verb 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Replace some of the verb into a negative verb. Use positive verb into a negative verb. (ie: ignored-didnt answer) Change active to passive Change adjectives into verbs and verbs into nouns Combine sentence with connecting words Move parts of sentence around.

Adjectives: describes a noun or a pronoun. Can also be a participle, a verb that functions as a noun. Example: Jaime is thin. (thin is the adjective. It describes Jaime) Verbs: tells what action the subject does or links a subject to another word that describes it. Example: She is a dancer. (link verb is) Nouns: only describes itself. Names a person, place, thing or idea. Pronouns: replaces a noun in a sentence. (Example: he, she, it, we and they are pronouns) Example: Jaime is thin. (thin is the adjective. It describes Jaime)

Professor Nefer Eng 111-09 January 10, 2014 Adverbs: describes an adjective, verb and its self. Adverbs often end in ly. Example: Jaime is extremely graceful.

Conjunctions: connects words to each other. An easy way to remember the seven is FANBOYS. (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

F or
And Nor But Or

Yet
So
Run-on sentence: add a comma and conjunctions Prepositions: connects a noun, pronoun, or verb with information about it. Example: Across, around, at, in, of, on and out. Example: Not Plagiarized Original: excess stress accelerates aging Paraphrase: we lose are youth when we worry too much. Use quotation lightly (sparingly) Summarize, paraphrase or quote Always cite your sources!