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Chloride

Brittany Garcia HSCI 342

Functions of Chloride
Helps with digestion
Found in acid produced by stomach

Used during immune responses


EX: WBCs attack foreign material

Helps body remove CO2 Functions as electrolyte Nerve function Contributes to ability of sodium chloride to raise BP

Sources
Most chloride in form of table salt
60% of salt made of chloride

Some fruits & vegetables


EX: seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, olives

Recommendations
AI: 2300 mg/day RDA: 2-2.3g/day DV: 3400 mg/day

UL: 3600 mg/day


Average adult consumes an excess amount

Side Effects
Too little
Occurs when lose body fluids
Excessive sweating Vomiting Diarrhea

Too much
Increase BP Neg. impact on muscle and nervous system function Buildup of fluid in people with heart failure, cirrhosis, & kidney disease

Symptoms of Deficiency
Muscle weakness Loss of appetite Irritability Dehydration Lethargy Heat cramps

Deficiency Can Cause


Hair loss Teeth loss Impaired digestion

Imbalance of fluid levels in body

Studies
Excess chloride consumption increases risk for osteoporosis
Salt reduces bone mass

Reduction of sodium chloride intake prevents hypertension and cardiovascular disease

References
Frassetto, L. A., Morris Jr., R., Sellmeyer, D. E., & Sebastian, A. (2008). Adverse Effects of Sodium Chloride on Bone in the Aging Human Population Resulting from Habitual Consumption of Typical American Diets. Journal Of Nutrition, 138(2), 419S-422S. He, F. J., Campbell, N. c., & Macgregor, G. A. (2012). Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Revista Panamericana De Salud Publica, 32(4), 293-300. Wardlaw, Gordon, Smith, Anne. (2009). Contemporary Nutrition 8th Ed. Chapter 9: Water and Minerals. P 364 National Institutes of Health. Medline Plus. (2013). http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002417.htm Value Food. Health Benefits of Chloride. (2013). http://valuefood.info/Nutrients/Health-Benefits-Sources-Mineral/health-benefitsof-chloride.html