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Republic of the Philippines Polytechnic University of the Philippines

BHNHS Intensified Dropout Quezon City Branch Reduction Program (BIDORP): Case Analysis
Batasan Hills National High School Cooperating School
Irinco, Franz Dave A. Sioco, Rogelio Jr., Q. Proponents
Bachelor in Business Teacher Education 4-1


INTRODUCTION In line with the Education for All commitment of the government the Department of Education, through the Bureau of Secondary Education has adopted one creative initiative which is now popularly known as Dropout Reduction Program (DORP). There were selected schools in the country (De Guzman, et. al, 2012) . The Dropout Reduction Program has three (3) major components 1. EASE (Effective Alternative Secondary Education) for the SARDO 2. OHSP (Open High School or Distance Education Program) 3. SII (School Initiated Interventions) 4. Dropout rate had been one of the problems of the government for several years. High Drop Out rates will contribute a lot to the illiteracy rate, poverty rate and other factors that might be affected due to dropping out of the students. According to Buhat (2013), students in Division of Quezon City experienced by the students from the following areas: 1.Family 2.Individual 3.) Community 4.) School

Lack of parental or family educational support Ineffective parenting To many household tasks Unstable family income Broken family Sickly family members To many siblings to care for large family size Extravagant Need to work to augment family

12 9 7 6 6 4 3 3 2

22.00 17.00 13.00 11.00 11.00 7.00 5.00 5.00 4.00

1 2 3 4.5 4.5 6 7.5 7.5 9.5

income others



absenteeism laziness Less commitment to work Peer pressure Poor Health/ disability Tardiness Many vices Broken marriage/broken families Lack of self confidence /Self esteem

21 13 7

34.00 21.00 11.00

1 2 3

6 4 3 3 2

10.00 7.00 5.00 5.00 3.00

4 5 6.5 6.5 8.5



presence of internet cafs Busy Parents presence centers Uncooperative stakeholders Rugged terrain in going to school No support from LGU/Brgy. of recreational

7 6 4

30.43 26.08 17.39

1 2 3




Unruly students/pupils Distance from school Limited funds Negative attitude of of house




3 1 1 1

15.79 5.26 5.26 5.26

2 4 4 4

teachers/SH Overlapping activities

For the family, top list is Lack of parental or family educational support. Studies of dropping out have attributed the phenomenon mainly to poverty (Barton, 2006). Low socioeconomic status has been shown to bear the strongest relation to students tendency to drop out students. Drop out is four times higher than that students of a higher socioeconomic status (Education Week 2004) For the individual reason, the absenteeism ranks as first. This is maybe connected to the reason of family, according to the research conducted by the National Youth Commission (2010), 26% of the 15-17 years bracket up to 48% (25-30 years old) and 30-48% of age groups 18 24 and 25 30 had to drop out of school due to financial hardship. For the Community, presence of internet cafs topped. Most of the students are playing computer games and less to physical activities that is why, there is no physical activities that could be done with the students. Most of the time, they are facing the computer and browsing the World Wide Web. Internet is also attractive to the youth for

computer gaming (48.7%). This leisure activity is usually done by the youth aged 15-17 years old (51.8%) followed by 18-24 years old (49.8%) (National Youth Commission Youth Study, 2010). And for the school factors, its sad to say that one reason of drop out is also the person/ people behind the students. For the school factors, Unruly students/pupils also ranked as first for the factors affecting the students in school. With the commitment of reducing the dropout rate and As a learner centered public institution, the Department of Education continuously improve itself to better serve its stakeholders and to save the student of being in school, Batasan Hills National High School created a committee to which they can monitor and handle the identified Student-At-Risk-of-Dropping-Out (SARDO). One of the curricular offering of Batasan Hills National High School aside from the regular students (K to 12 Curriculum Clients) is the Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) or known as Home Study Program (HSP). The administration of BHNHS created two (2) committees which are assigned to monitor, visit, guide and save the SARDOs.

Definition of Terms

1. ADM

Alternative Delivery Mode


Batasan Hills NHS Intensified Drop Out Reduction

Program. A program formulated by the administration of Batasan Hills National High School for strengthening the retention of the students who are at risk of Dropping Out.

3. DORP -

Drop Out Reduction Program. A program of Department of

Education intended to strengthen the thrust towards the attainment of Education for All or EFA.

4. HSP

Home Study Program. HSP is an Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM)

of BHNHS to address classroom congestion. HSP is also School Initiated Intervention (SII) conceived to address the increasing number of dropouts.


Student-At-Risk-of-Dropping-Out. Student in disadvantage

situation due to the factors attributed to the family, school and community.

6. PTC

Parents Teachers Consultation

7. PTD

Parents Teachers Dialogue

Related Studies

WHAT IS DORP? It is an intervention program to reduce the high dropout rate and improve learning outcomes in public and private schools of the country, using formal, non-formal and informal approaches. The program aims to facilitate access of every Filipino to quality basic education which equips him with the basic literacy tools and content that are essential for his growth and development as a person or as a citizen of a democratic society. The specific objectives of DORP are the following: 1. reduce, if not totally eliminate school dropout; 2. increase retention rate; 3.increase significantly the achievement level of Students-at-Risk of dropping out (SARDO) 4. retrieve learners who are out of school; 5. increase the capability of schools to establish, implement, monitor, evaluate and continuously improve the DORP; 6. design and continuously improve DORP practices and learning materials and 7. benchmark the best DORP practices.

eWhat are the factors that affects the students to leave their school? Studies of dropping out have attributed the phenomenon mainly to poverty (Barton, 2006). Low socioeconomic status has been shown to bear the strongest relation to students tendency to drop out students. Drop out is four times higher than that students of a higher socioeconomic status (Education Week 2004) Five different theories have been developed to explain the process of dropping out of school. One of these is the Poor Family Socialization Theory. This theory back to the childs development within his family and it states that a students performance in high school is directly affected by his family history. Including divorce, stress and parental behavior. The most important aspects of this theory are the educational level of student parents and their aspirations for their child. If neither parents finished high school, it is easy to see why the student would drop out himself (Battin- Pearon et al, 2000) (Claro, 2004) study the youth of Milaor Camarines Sur and he found out that there were more male students in the adolescent stage that belongs to a big family size, and middle born are being out of school youth for a long time. There are the students who belong to the parents that did not finish their high school, but have a permanent house, these have some real properties and their fathers were gainfully employed but it is within the average and below poverty line income. Based on the findings of the recent study conducted by (Rumberger, 2001) family provides the most important foundation, experiences and learning

for later life including success and failures. Strong relationship between students and parents can decrease the likelihood of dropping out of school at any level.

ATTITUDE AND HEALTH Attitude and health more very much common as an agent of dropping our from the students residing at the urban areas. More urban school dropouts acknowledged that they left school because they were lazy to attend the class (32%) and because they were sick. STUDENTS WITH POOR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. Student with poor academic achievement (poor grades, history of course failure) and a history of retention (repeating on or more grades) are more likely to drop out. Students with low academic engagement (time on task, credit accrual) are also at risk for dropping out ( Lan, W and Lanthier R. 2003) students who have negative attitude toward school, school work irrelevant do not like school, and do not feel they fit in these are critical indicators for dropping out A study conducted by Harde and Reave that students is not engaged in class work because they feel like their teacher is not helping them they begin to get aggravated. It leads the student to think negatively about their school work and their future. ( Hard and Reave,2003) According to the study conducted at CNHS, parents educational background affects the SARDO student as well it supports some researches that

the child of lower educational background parents do not climb well in the educational ladder as compared to those professional parents. LEISURE TIME and EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES According to the research conducted at Cacayaran National High School, it seems that the SARDO students are seemed to be more interested in activities that challenge their physical ability rather than their cognitive skills like reading, chess, scrabble, filming view and etc Based on the study of Rombokas (1995), extracurricular activities help the students to receive better grade than those who did not participate or get involved with the activities. It help the students to receive better grade through character building lesson, teaching them life long skills and helping them with regards to their social skill helps the student being not on the risk of dropping out. Students who have a low participation in extracurricular activities or students identified as socially isolated are at high risk of dropping out (Berson, 1996). Alienation and decreased levels of participation in school have been associated with decreased likelihood dropout.


Rel;ated Local Studies ( From the National Youth Commission, 2010) 5,850 Filipinos aged 15 30 from 17 regions (urban and rural) of the country, served as respondents. They were classified as OSY (Out of School Youth), ISY (In School Youth), WY (Working Youth); and SYG (Specific Youth Group). A. The objective of the research is to conduct a situational analysis on the socio-economic characteristics, vulnerabilities, and other issues

confronting the youth sector. Education 1. 26% of the 15-17 years bracket up to 48% (25-30 years old) and 30-48% of age groups 18 24 and 25 30 had to drop out of school due to financial hardship. 2. 7.4% of youth dropped out of school after becoming drug dependent 3. 62.5% of youth would like to go to school if given the chance. 4. 57.3% claim they could have been more active in school if they could speak better English. 5. Computer Literacy ranges from 40-50% at the highest level (always/very often) over three age groups.



1. 73.9% of the youth feel that OFW phenomenon is not healthy for family stability despite its economic advantage. 2. 54.4% of the respondents agree that the youth have entrepreneurial skills but they lack collateral for loans to start a business. Health and Wellness 1. 82% of two respondent agree that health information campaigns and userfriendly health services and facilities for adolescents and youth should be available to reduce risky behavior among young people. 2. Most families, particularly low-income groups, do not get proper nutrition and the most affected are the children and youth. Their health and academic performance are affected by having low grades and eventually disinterest to finish studies. The problem of having proper and adequate nutrition is rooted in low and irregular income, high cost of goods, and large family size. 3. Many of the youth claimed that what makes them happy are family, friends, and girlfriend/boyfriend, order of which changes according to circumstances. They are happy to have friends with whom they can open up about their joys and difficulties. 4. 73% believe that the youth resort to substance abuse to escape from their desperate situation. Family Income and expenditures


1. 83.3% of the youth wants to extend financial assistance to their families. Expectedly the most contributors are the working youth (85.1%). 2. 91.2% of the youth are interested to find a job that can support family needs.

Leisure 1. Internet is also attractive to the youth for computer gaming (48.7%). This leisure activity is usually done by the youth aged 15-17 years old (51.8%) followed by 18-24 years old (49.8%). 2. 52% of 15-17 years olds and 50% of 18-25 years old, dropping to 37% of 25-30 years old play computer games. 3. 66% of 15-17 age group dropping to 52% of 25-30 age group use social networking sites. Concerns of Specific Youth Group 1. 12-14% of all ages claim that their lives are disrupted because of armed conflicts B. To identify issues and attitudes on youth participation and volunteerism. 1. Participation in the family, school and their organization is characterized by more control in those decisions that refer to their individual needs and less control on those that involve family budget.

2. More that two-thirds of the youth have not been members of any youth organization. WHAT CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE DROP OUTS Re entry and retrieval programs 1. Comprehensive School Improvement 2. Increasing students sense of belonging in school (School Membership) 3. Curriculum and effective instruction there is no magical, quick fix solution in the drop out problem. The problem to complex and requires a complex array of solution drop out have dissimilar characteristics and therefore need different kinds of programs which respond to their individual circumstances and need.

SIX themes for restructuring high school Personalization, coherency, time, technology, professional developed leadership. The strategies identified in the report addressing the achievement gap. A challenge for Washington Educators (Shannon and Bylsma, 2002) also applies to reduce the drop out rate. Five strategies synthesized from research and professional literature 1. Challenge believe and attitudes

2. Culturally responsive teaching 3. More effective teaching 4. Greater opportunities to learn 5. increase family and community involvement Students who drop out of school or who are at risk of dropping out, benefit from teachers who believe they can succeed care about them, hold high expectations and persist in teaching them.


Background of the Study The History of BHNHS Batasan Hills National High School was established on April 22, 1996 as newly legislated Public Secondary School through a House Bill sponsored by former Cong. Dante V. Liban which was enacted into law known as Republic Act No. 7987. On 1998, there were 20 teachers and 582 students transferred from Bagong Silangan High Shool to Batasan Hills National School. The first principal who took the task of facing and managing the challenges of the school was Dr. Romulo B. Rocena. During his administration, the school started to develop. One of the remarkable achievements of Dr. Rocena was the introduction of the Home Study Program (HSP) in the school. Biggest High School in the country in terms of population of 12, 432 for the school year 2012-2013 and offers other special programs like ESEP or the Engineering and Science Education Program, SPA or the Special Program for the Arts with different major choices as Dance, Music, Theatre Arts, Visual Arts, Media Arts and Creative Writing; and the Technical-Vocational Education Program. BHNHS is also one of the congested high school in NCR. The estimated average number of students graduating per school year is 2440 for the past three consecutive school years. (SY 2010- 2011 to SY 2012-2013). The Home Study Program (HSP)


HSP was conceived by its pioneer Principal, Dr. Romulo B. Rocena. It was continued by his predecessors, Dr. Rowena A. Cacanindin, Dr. Gil T. Magbanua and by the schools present administrator, Dr. Diego M. Amid Jr. HSP was implemented since School Year 1999-200 with an initial student of three (3), Now, HSP has a population of 2, 194 learners (SY 2013-2014) HSP is an Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) of BHNHS to address classroom congestion. HSP is also School Initiated Intervention (SII) conceived to address the increasing number of dropouts. Legal Basis Article XIV of the 1987 Philippine Constitution which encourages the development of non traditional forms of education that are responsive to community needs. Objectives To provide affordable secondary education for underprivileged students such as: Financially incapacitated Working Over-aged and / or Sickly students who cannot attend school on a daily basis To help improve school performance in terms of: Decongestion of classrooms in the regular program (ADM) Reduction in the number of drop outs (DORP)


Target Learners Over aged students 17 years old and above, who wish to finish secondary education in a diploma track scheme (ALS is also an option of these learners) Learners with health condition Working students Students whose studies were interrupted by early marriage or early pregnancy Victims of physical / sexual / drug abuse The Curriculum implementation for grades 7 and 8 of the Home Study Program is offering Enhanced Basic Education Program (EPED) or K 12. For Years III and IV, HSP is offering 2002 Basic Education Curriculum, Modular Approach and Blended Technology. Currently, the school is run by Dr. Diego M. Amid, Principal IV, who is dynamically and inspiringly leading more than 400 teaching and non-teaching personnel and 12, 433 learners. Also with his administration, the National Achievement Test rose from the average of 44.82 to 9.6%.


The BIDORP The Batasan Hills National High School created a committee of two (2). One for the regular students and one for the Home Study Program, the proponents focused on the Home Study Program which they think more crucial than the regular class. The CI Team (Continuous Improvement Team) was created by the administration of BHNHS created committee members to serve as implementer of the Intensified Dropout Reduction Program of the Department of Education. The Working Committee

Mr. Cerilo P. Castillo

Assistant-to-the Principal for Administration Head Teacher Filipino Department

Mrs. Josephine Q. Miranda

Master Teacher I Fourth Year Level English Coordinator 19


Mrs. Elgerra Trinidad Mr. Amado D. Suarez, Jr. Mr. Raymond Poblador

: : :

Science Teacher TLE Teacher AP Teacher

Facilitators: Mrs. Ruth G. Yap : Master Teacher II Head, Values Education Department

Mr. Shalom Baluloan

Master Teacher II Fourth Year Level AP Coordinator

The Members of the committee was sent for a training under the partnership of Australian Aid, PAHRODF (Philippine Australia Human Resource and Organizational Development Facility.


Project Title Program

Batasan Hills NHS Intensified Drop-out Reduction

I. Get Organized ( the team prepares to identify all the SARDOs in the HSP program)

School Performance Background

Based on the enrollment records of Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) Program for 2012 - 2013, drop - out rate is 14% or 409 out of 2,903 enrollees. Of these students, Grade 7 registered enrollees had the highest percentage with 18% or 108 out of 611 students dropped from school.

For the school year 2013 - 2014, there are 17 identified SARDOs; 8 of them were SARDOs last year while 4 are Grade 8 repeaters and the remaining 5 SARDOs are transferees.

ALTERNATIVE DELIVERY MODE (ADM) Enrollment Data S.Y. 2012- 2013



ENROLLMENT 2012-2013








879 722 691 2903

127 99 75 409

14 14 11 14

II. Talk with Customers ( the team called for a meeting after identifying the SARDOs ) List of Identified SARDOs


The following are the reasons of stated by the SARDOs of their consecutive absences. Reasons Nale-late 2 Lack of Interest 1 Barkada (Naghihintayan) 2 Nagkakasakit 3 Natatakot 1 Tinatamad 2 Walang gamit; Walang pang gastos 1 Droga (Marijuana) 1 Maraming requirements 0 Parents 7 6 2 0 2 0 SARDOs 9 7 4 3 3 2 Total Percentage 28 22 13 9.4 9.4 6

1 0 1

2 1 1

6 3 3


III. Current State SIPOC The implementation of the BIDORP was significantly plan and organize to follow the conceptual framework of SIPOC or the Suppliers, Input, Process, Output and Customers framework which will be the basis of implementing the program.

The SUPPLIERS are the persons in charge or the coordinator of the program primarily their duty is to gather the necessary data from the registrar about the SARDO students. The INPUT are the data gathered by the supplier which includes the forms of the students, their behavioral reports and current profile. 24

PROCESS includes the parents- teacher consultation as well as the parent-teacher dialogue for the adviser will properly address the problems of the SARDO students to their parents. OUTPUT is the result of the parent teacher consultation. The conversation of the parents and the teachers will directly needed to increase the attendance of the SARDO students and this is done through formal and verbal agreement of the parents and teachers CUSTOMERS are the students under the Alternative Delivery Mode that needed to be guided of not becoming the SARDOs and this can be done in properly monitoring their attendance


Current State Process Details The clouds are referring to the issues concerned with the process. For the first step, gather data from the registrar, the main issue is being Lack of work orientation, many teacher are confused in how they will going to get the forms or what are the process of gathering the necessary information about the students attendance. Second issue is insufficient data, in preparing a list of the SARDOs, teachers are all self-styled in making their own strategy of gathering the attendance of the identified or identifying SARDO. During the PTD another issue is that some teachers had a difficulty in Counseling Skills. Mostly, teachers are going to seek an advice to other teachers or recommend to the authority such problems that cannot be handled.


For the agreement , main issue is that the teachers are lacking of commitment. They dont follow up the agreement that has been agreed during the PTD (Parent-Teacher Dialogue). And the last issue is that, there is no appropriate monitoring form, since,, all of the teachers are self styled in gathering the information, some style doesnt fit and as a result, the checking of attendance is inconsistent.


According to the gathered data of the coordinator of the program there were 17 identified Grade 8 SARDOs in the alternative delivery mode (ADM) program who did not attend classes for 4 consecutive or more absences from June to first week of August.
Probable Cause Class Man Description Nale-late Lack of interest Validation Method VOC Interview VOC Interview Result 7 of 17 SARDO 2 of 17 parents 6 of 17 SARDOs 1 of 17 parents 2 of 17 SARDOs 2 of 17 parents O of 17 SARDOs 3 of 17 parents 0 of 17 SARDOs 2 of 17 parents

Barkada Nagkakasakit Tinatamad Machine Method Materials Walang gamit (walang pang-gastos) Maraming requirments Environment Walang panggastos Droga

VOC Interview VOC Interview VOC Interview

VOC Interview VOC Interview VOC Interview VOC Interview

1 of 17 SARDOs 1 of 17 parents 1 of 17 SARDOs O of 17 parents

0 of 17 SARDOs 1 of 17 parents


This causes and other datum during Parent-Teacher Conference and Parent-Teacher Dialogue and home visitations are gathered and summarized in the Why-Why Diagram (Root Cause Analysis):

The why-why diagram shows that the main root cause of the reason of being unable to wake up early is the (1) Computer gaming and (2) is Barkada. Agrees with the study conducted by the National Youth Commission (2010) that (*1) Internet is also attractive to the youth for computer gaming (48.7%). This leisure activity is usually done by the youth aged 15-17 years old (51.8%) followed by 18-24 years old (49.8%). (*2) Many of the youth claimed that what makes them happy are family, friends, and

girlfriend/boyfriend, order of which changes according to circumstances. They are happy to have friends with whom they can open up about their joys and difficulties.


From that, the Priority Valid Causes was raised. The Priority Valid Causes are: Playing computer games late at night Hindi nakakasunod Poor nourishment / Financial Problem of parents


Objective Statement: To retain the 17 identified Students at Risk of Dropping - Out (SARDOs) with not more than 4 consecutive or more absences in the Alternative Delivery Mode Program until December 2013. The CI Team formulated the Recommended Improvements for the SARDOs according to the Root-Cause Validation:

Priority Root Cause 1. Computer games late at night 2. Hindi nakakasunod sa klase 3. Sickness / Financial Problem

Recommended Improvement Engage parents in a dialogue Give students simplified activities Launch Adopt a SARDO program

1.) Parents are engaged in a dialogue so that, advisers will personally deliver problems that the SARDO is engaged. 2.) SARDOs are given simplified works to at least, give them a chance to show what they can give. 3.) for financially challenged SARDOs, Adopt-a-SARDO program was implemented to help the SARDO not just financially but also, to develop their Entrepreneurial Skills. It also deals with the study of the National Youth Commission (2010) states that 54.4% of the youth respondents agreed that the youth have entrepreneurial skills but they lack collateral for loans to start a business.


Pilot Learning: During the Parent-Teacher Conference

The attendance of SARDOs and parents is 90% successful. The committees assigned for PTC were able to function well during the program. The participants of PTC particularly the parents of SARDOs had the chance to know the performance of their children in school through the dialogue conducted during PTC.


The PTD or the Parent-Teacher Dialogue During PTD, Parents and teachers are having time to talk about the current condition of their students.


The program was attended by the Brgy. Personnel headed by Brgy. Chairman, Jojo Abad, and expressed full support to the program. Moreover, PTC would have been momentously launched if the event had attended by the school authorities from the Division Office. In connection to this, the invitation to school officials must be given in advance so that they can make necessary arrangement of sheduel thus, will make themselves available for the event.


Roll Out Process Performance

After having the PTD, the attendance of SARDOs shows a difference. Before PTD there were only 9 or 10 but after the PTD, it rises to 11 and 14 for the two consecutive Saturdays and it is retained up to now February of 2014.

Improvement Highlights Cognizant of the difficult and tedious process of attendance monitoring, the Team has implemented the Biometric Machine which is readily available for use of the faculty. The team was able to cut manpower hours for other related activities. The biometrics has provided the team with better system of attendance monitoring, inputs of which supplies the much needed data for attendance management


strategies. - In anticipation of students who may attempt to dodge the biometrics, the team has instituted the classroom attendance form to monitor the behavioral response of SARDOs in their studies (in every subject.) The form will provide the adviser with the much needed input so that the feedback mechanism of the program be made effective.










respondents/stakeholders is not the culmination of the CIs objective but rather the commencement of a challenging process. A journey which shall encounter adversities. But the signed document, like a true contract , binds and guides the participants to abide by the agreement. -in comparison with the previous verbal agreement between the teacher on one hand, and the parent and student on the other, the Kasunduan enumerates the responsibilities and duties of the signatories, a very significant yet missing detail of the old practice. This pledge of commitment (Kasunduan) should be displayed

conspicuously to remind everyone of his/her accountability.


Future Potential Problem Analysis Potential Problem CPPTAM 1. Uncooperative Parent 2. Sources for PTC 3. Lack of support of the advisers to the program 4. Transportation for Home Visit Probable Cause Preventive Action

Lack of time No fund for PTC Lack of time

Regular PTD Solicitation Emphasize scheduled PTD and PTC Linkages with Brgy. for transportation and security personnel

Insufficient budget


Conclusions: Three major reason are the primary cause of absenteeism from the SARDO Students. There are the: Unable to wake up early Lack of interest in studying Sickness

Recommendation: Unable to wake-up early There should be a proper line of communication in strengthening in studying and this can be done with a proper line of communication with their parents.

Lack of Interest in Studying The Teachers must strengthen the Values Education subject and create the topic of the lesson more interactive for the students to would be encouraged to involve themselves in the lesson in able for them to become productive.

Create more school organizations and interest clubs to increase the students involvement in School Activities.

Sickness The School should have proper linkages with the health sectors with the government for them to initiate programs such as immunization from diseases and seminars or symposium to increase the students awareness and relation to their health condition.


Conclusion 2 BIDORP is deemed effective as a strategy of the reduction and retention of SARDO Students. The evidence of its effectiveness is the following 16 out of 17 SARDOs retained or saved from dropping out Theres an increase in attendance of SARDOs after the Parent-Teacher Consultation and Parent-Teacher Conference which one of the major strategies in the BIDORP. SARDOs parents were all informed and commits cooperation to save the SARDOs from dropping out. Intensified attendance monitoring system through the use the Biometrics machine shows more reliable record for SARDOs. Recommendation 2 All teachers if possible, should be trained for this kind of program for more intensive reduction of dropout rates. PTC and PTD should be done quarterly for strengthening the community involvement of the parents with regards to the program of the school for the SARDOs Students. School Administration should provide more concentrated supplemental and recovery programs for the SARDOs.


References: BOOKS AND JOURNALS Barton, P.E., the Drop out problems: Losing Ground, Educational Leadership 63, 5, 14-18 (2006) Battin- Pearson S. et al. predictors of educational psychology, 2000. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs9/92042.pdf Education Week. Dropouts, published September 10 2004 Harde, Patricia L. and Johnmarshall Reeve, 2003 A motivational mode of Rural students Intentions to Persist in, Versus Drop Out of High School. Journal of Educational Psychology. Lan, W.& Lanthier, R. (2003) Changes in students academic performance and perceptions of school and self before dropping out of schools, journal of Education for students placed at risk 8 (3) Rombokas, Mary, High School Extracurricular Activities and College Grades, Southern Conference of Counseling Center Personnel (Jekyll Island, GA, October, 25-27 1995) Highlights of the Youth Study 2010, National Youth Commission, 2010

Berson, Judith Sheryl. A Study of the Effects of A service-learning Experience on Student success at an urban community college. Florida International University. 1997, pages 1-132 Claro, Benito A. Occupational Opportunities of the out-of-school youth in Milao, Camarines Sur (Unpublished Masters Thesis) Naga College Foundation, 2004 Deguzman M, Rentoy, Ma. Teresa, Diezmo, A. A study of the SARDOs of Cararayan National High School, SY 2010-2011: Basis For School initiated interventions (Cararayan National High School 2011) Nava, Fe Josefa G. Factors in School Leaving: Variations Across Gender Groups, School Levels and Locations. University of the Philippines, December 2009.