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 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

|x
o c

&|^ w~x]

jh] u ^ w~x]

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

Y BDMV=?=W\OdZ \FAWTY+=AWTEVcZ9OAKRKC ^ BTFWT E2YTW\OMV=;WmE$BDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$E$S C ^ B]


EBDC O ^ =W\B ^ BDY
X
X
FU[@ OW\BTKXa@$W\BmBDH$E
FW ^ =H FWTYhBTTBZ9OY+=
W21 (Q)
F 4 grad
C O ^ Y\BDH9=A@9=?Z \H BqBDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$H9=W ^ E$bGBDH BTKROW ^ E @ OAFM$E$cC BZ E$H BTK=?c-fH$E FWT=?]
H BDYTIVW\F
IC BD@$WTEBD@ OYTEV> H KLEp%FAKfH9=C ^ E KRO ^ "?%dXVOAFdZ E[@ OAFWT X@$W\BjMVZ=DFAF;C Od]
^ E BA> E$@ OAFM$EVc [H$M<$E$SH9=M$[VTOQKRB?PQH B ^ =DFAFAK=W ^ E$Y+=DWTM$=MMVZ=DFAF' [H$M<$E$S
H9=W\B ^ OqpH9=NKLH B?PjOAFWTY\OJTOb ^ =H$<
E dfR B>$Z9IC BZ H BDWT E$Z9B?PjOH$E$I>9BDMV=?=?]
W\OdZ \FWTY+=_AWTEVcZ9OAKRKC ^ E$Y\Od>9OH$ Y ^ =>9OdZ9OApYQY+= ^ E9=H$W\OTX$C ^ Od>$Z9B?PjOH$H BTKmC B
KRBTOSJC ^ BTF\TO f9a=?> TOMVBDYTKdf
E FW\OAKL[ pTf??=C$E$_OAKYBA> H BDSUE$_BTD_OC ^ E$H$IVWTacU`B ^ K ]aYY\OM$W\B ^ H BDS
`B ^ KRO$*


u
t

4u + hu, i u + grad p = f,
div u = 0.

p f 

u
t

p f \

=MM$=MKL E jOAK ^ O_OH$E O'?=?>=A@$EYNMVZ=DFAFAOFEVZ TH$ac ^ O_OH$E$S/X1W\BKL


"
KRBGP_OAKmC BD@VZ9OH$H B'C BA>9OS FWTY\BDY+=W\H9=_C O ^ Y\BTO[ ^ =YTH OH$E OFE FW\OAKL p f aBDC9O ^ =?]
W\B ^ BTK
f$"BDb
>=VX9F[@ OW\BTKZ9OAKRKL f i_EJFdZ9Od>9FWTYTE$IJE$Z9OAKRKL f  XVC BZ [@9=DOAK

4u + F hu, i u = F f ;
div u = 0.

"=M$E K BT ^ =GBTKX$KL2E FMVZ ;@$EVZ E>=YDZ9OH$E O


E$ FE FW\OAKL`f9W\KROWTE KX$@$W\B
p(t, x)
WD=M$E OQBDC O ^ = $E$EC BE FMVZ ;@ OH$E$ >=YDZ9OH$E$I ^ =H OAOj[P_OjC ^ BA>9OdZ Y+=?Z E9Fp%FAKfX
H9=C ^ E KRO ^ X1 i$? X/ "?%df
g FEVZ [Z9OAKRKL f VXOFdZ E
f2 (Q) XW\B 4u L
f2 (Q) f"BmOAFWToC ^ B]
u L
FW ^ =H FWTY\B f
IVYDZ I$OW\F
IE$H$Y+= ^ E9=H$WTH$KmBDWTH BTFE$W\OdZ TH B)BDC O ^ =W\B ^ =j=CVZ=?]
L (Q)
f\L=M'MV=2M'C ^ =Y+=I)@9=DFWTjC O ^ Y\BDbGB`[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I)Yp f \LWD=M$P_OC ^ E$H9=?>$Z9OPQE$W
FG=
4
X$W\B)C BZ [@9=DOAKX9@$W\B)E FcBG> H9=IJ?=?>=A@9='`=YT\Od]W\BDMVFG=NpTf?a]pTf \M YTEV]
f
L2 (Q)
Y+=?Z9OH$WTH B ^ Od> 
[ $E ^ BDY+=H9=QM?=?>=A@ O

p f

u
t

4u + F hu, i u = f, (t, x) ;
u|t=0 = 0, x Q,

^ =DFAFAK=W ^ E$Y+=DOAKRBTSYQC ^ BTFW ^ =H FWTY+O L


f2 (Q) f
ghAW\BTKm[ ^ =YTH OH$E$ENF
>9OdZ=DOAKm?=DKROH$[E FMVBTKRBDSN 
[ H$M<$E$E
f
u(x, t) = v(x, t)et
1BDbe>=_H BDY+=IE FMBTK=I [H$M<$E$I
IVYDZ I$OW\FeI ^ O_OdH E AO K ?=?>=A@$E

v
t

4v + v + et F hv, i v = et f, (t, x) ;
v|t=0 = 0, x Q,

 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p f T

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

m

gDE ^ =I
]C ^ BTFW ^ =H FWTY\B f
X
L2 (Q)
Y)M$=A@ OAFWTY\O
]BDC O ^ =W\B ^ =CVZ=DFG=
F`BTZ=DFWTT

A
(4 + E)
T
X
2
f

YQM$=A@ OAFWTY\O

D (A) = W2 (Q)

L2 (Q)

]C ^ OABT ^ =GBDY+=H E O t


X
e F hu, i v
C BZ [@9=DOAK Y\BDGKRBGPQH BTFWT?=C$E FG=WThE F
c+BG> H$[ ?=?>=G@$[ `=YT\Od]W\BDMVFG= pTf?]
pTf \YYTEV>9O?=?>=G@$E pVf XLMBDW\B ^ [ KL H9=AY+=?Z E +>OI"JVML9-"
UR"QJ> s +;U9Af
I O
E ]
Y Z INC ^ E KROH OH$E$IW\OAB ^ OAKL i'H9=DK2BTFWD=DOW\FeIUC ^ BDY\O ^ E$WT[+FdZ9BDYTE$v
 f
r`9B<9?"99?`MDB>;>
IVYDZ I$OW\FeI'BD@ OYTEV> H$Kf Y Z IQYT ^ =H$H BDbGBjH9=DKLE
BDC O ^ =W\B ^ =
fZ9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH B X
f # BDW\BTKL[JC ^ BDY\O ^ M$[[+FdZ9BDYTE$
S 
0 = 1
A = A
]F_KLC ^ BDY\
Od>9OAK >$Z IBDC O ^ =W\B ^ =
f
A = A
OAKX-@$W\B'>$Z INY\FAOdc
YTC BZ$]
: B>;>? CE6'MDB>;>
> # BDM$=Pj
u, v D(A)
H OH B_H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B

YQM$=A@ OAFWTY\O

BDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$E$I

B (u, v)




n
o




kB (u, v)kH ea K A+1/2 u kA vkH + A+1/2 v kA ukH
H

p f \

C ^ EH O MVBDW\B ^ BTK
f
0 < < 1/2
H OdZ E$H OS$H$S
B ^ BD_BoE$AY\OAFWTH B$X;@$W\BYhFEVZ [[\FdZ9BDYTE$I
div u = 0
KRBGP_OW'DWT)C ^ Od>9FWT=YDZ9OHY)FE KRKROW ^ E$@$H \
B KmYTEV>9O

@VZ9OH

hu, i v

hu, i v =

3
X

(uj v) .
xj
j=1

BTBDWTY\OW\FdWTY+OH$H B;EDEVZ E H OS$H$S_BDC O ^ =W\B ^



KRBGP_OW;DWT?=C$E FG=HjY> ^ [+]
B (u, v)
bABTK YTEV>9OTf # BDAW\BTKL[E KROAOK

"=MJMV=M


2
kB (u, v)k2H = et F h, ui v L2 (Q) ea kF h, ui vk2L2 (Q) .

F
e

]BDb ^ =H E$@ OH$H$SC ^ BTOM$W\B ^ X W\B


f9Z9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH9B$X
kF k = 1

kB (u, v)k2H

kh, ui vk2L2 (Q)

|h, u(x)i v (x)|2 dx =

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?



[+cVWT= ^ \=S

Z X
3
Q k=1

W\OdZ9\=DOY

2
3 X
3 Z
X




|h, u(x)i vk (x)| dx =
xj (uj (x) vk (x)) dx =
Q
2

k=1 j=1


3 Z
3 X
X
uj (x)
vk (x) 2

=
xj vk (x) + uj (x) xj dx.
Q
k=1 j=1

# ^ E KROH OH$E OAKmZ9OAKROH$WT= ^ H$acJH O ^ =Y\OH FWTYBDW\F>=jC BZ [@9=DOAK

ea kB (u, v)k2H

(


2 )

uj (x) 2

v
(x)
k

|vk (x)|2 + |uj (x)|2

2
xj dx
xj
k=1 j=1

!1/2 Z

1/2
3 Z
3 X
X
uj (x) 4
4

dx
2
+
|vk (x)| dx
Q xj
Q
k=1 j=1

4 !1/2
Z
1/2 Z


p f \
v
(x)
k

+
|uj (x)|4 dx

xj dx

Q
Q
( Z

 Z
3 Z
3 X
X

Z

|u(x)|4 dx
4

|u(x)| dx

1/2

1/2 Z

1/2

|v (x)|4 dx

|v(x)| dx

1/2 )

BDb
Z=DFH BW\OAB ^ OAK=DKYDZ9B?PjOH$E$IN Tk?9>$Z IQY\FAOdc' [H$M<$E$S
E$C ^ BTFW ^ 
= H F WTY+=
u
pMBDW\B ^ BTO)EOAFWTJH9=FG=DKRBTK2>9OdZ9O)BDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$H BTO'H9=DKLEqC ^ T
B FW ^ 
= H F WTY\B
H22 (T 3 )
d

$
X
\
Y
O
H
Q
B
H
O

=
\
Y

O
H

F
T
W
\
Y
B
2
^
^

W2 (Q)

|u(x)| dx C

kuk2W 2 (Q)
2

=C

 !"#&%' ()

Z

|(4 + E) u(x)| dx

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

2



[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=


C ^ EY\FAOdc
f # BDAW\BTKL[E$p f \C BZ [@9=DOAK
2 > 3(1/2 1/4) = 3/4

ea kB (u, v)k2H
 
2  R

R

2

+1/2
|(4
+
E)
v
(x)|
dx
+
dx
(4
+
E)
u
(x)
C


Q
Q

 Z
Z
2


+1/2
=
|(4 + E) u(x)|2 dx
+
v(x) dx
(4 + E)
Q
Q

2


k(4 + E) v (x)k2L2 (Q) +
=C (4 + E)+1/2 u (x)
L2 (Q)


2


+ (4 + E)+1/2 v (x)
k(4 + E) u (x)k2L2 (Q) ,
L2 (Q)

b
>9O

]RZ TBTO $
@ E FdZ9B$X$[?>9BDYDZ9OWTY\B ^ IV;_OAO H O ^ =Y\OH FWTYT[
f

> 3/8
"=M$E K BT ^ = GBTKX[\FdZ9BDYTE O YTC BZ H OH B C ^ E Y\FAOdc
E$ E$H$W\O ^ Y+=?Z=

f
(3/8, 1/2)
YTC BZ$]
: B>;>? CE6OMDB>;>
, # BDM$=PjOAKX9@$W\BQ>$Z IY\FAOdc
u, v D(A)
H OH B_H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B





A B (u, v)




n
o




ea K A1/2 u kvkH + A1/2 v kukH ,
H

b
>9O
f
3/2 < < 3/4
988* #.# ^%\
|}\

p fGk\

 x>^ w} %^ \M^ w


a| | a j2w \| ] |}x a| ,
w ^
F o
cp
p

p c o e n
r

b o q
p
^ a
\ ^}"j4^%\>a|z}|Q| ^%\
M
|}\
x w
a

x
g
q
p i
cp
c
c c c (43 + E) , 0 c
n
^ | \>% a&]

o p
u(x) L2 (Q)

F (43 + E) u(x) = (43 + E) F ( u(x)) .

Y BDMV=?=W\OdZ \ FW\Y\BJ=H9=?Z9BDbAE$@$H B>9BDM$=?=W\OdZ \FWTYT[Z9OAKRKL f 'E>$Z INC BZ H BDWT


E$Z9BGP_OH$E$IC ^ $
E Y\Od>9OH B)Y ^ =>9OdZ9OAVf
K OAOAK
# BDAW\BTKL[E R




A B (u, v) =
H








= et F (43 + E) hu, i v
= et (43 + E) F hu, i v
L2 (Q)

L2 (Q)

"=M)M$=M
E
XTW\B C BZ TA[TI$FE$H$W\Ob ^ =?Z TH$K
kF k = 1 3 > 2 > 3(1 1/2) = 3/2
C ^ Od>9FWD=YDZ9OH$E OGK >9OS FWTYTE$I
XVC BZ [@9=DOAK

(43 + E)

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

iTk

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

2
2




2a
A B (u, v) e (43 + E) hu, i v
H

= e2a

L2 (Q)

Z
b
y)

m(x,

|hu, i | dy dx,
|x y|
Q

]LH OC ^ O ^ YTH9=I [H$M<$E$IQ> YT[+c= ^ bA[VKROH$W\BDY X$=


m(,
b )
= 3 + 2 (0, 3/2)
C ^ E
f
3/2 < < 3/4
W\Fa>=_E KROAOAK
b
>9O

2



A B (u, v)
H
Z
Z
 Z m(x,
b
y)
|(u,
)

(y)|
m(x,
b
) |(u, ) ()| 
e2a dx
dy

d .
|x y|
|x |
Q

1OC O ^ 'C BTKROH$I$OAK C B ^ I>9BDMJE$H$W\Ob ^ E ^ BDY+=H E$I


2


A B (u, v)
H

2a

Z Z 

|hu, i (y)| |hu, i ()|

Q Q

W\Fa>=VX$WT=MJMV=M

]BDb

=H$E$@ OH9=VX=


m(x,
b
y)m(x,
b
)

dx dyd.
|x y| |x |
C BZ [@9=DOAKX$@$W\B

^
m(,
b )
(0, 3/2) ,

2


A
B
(u,
v)

K ((u, ) (dy))2 K kukL2 (Q) k, kL2 (Q) .
H

;AW\BDbGBH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=jYTW\OM$=DOW_YTC BZ H OH$E O;[+FdZ9BDYTE$IUpVf i\C ^ EY\FAOdc


3/2 <
f$"BQOAFWT)[\FdZ9BDYTE9O4
ijYTC BZ H OH B$f
< 3/4
YTC BZ H9OdH9B
: B>;>? CE60MDB>;>
`E # BDM$=PjOAKX@$W\B`>$Z I'Y\FAOdc
u D(A)

[\FdZ9BDYTE O`B ^ W\BDbGBDH9=?Z TH9BTFWTE

p fT?

hB (u, u) , uiH = 0.

o[@ OW\BTKmFG=DKRBTFABDC ^ IVPjOH$H9BTFWTENBDC9O ^ =W\B ^ =


pZ9OAKRK=r f?E KROAOAK
F

hB (u, u) , uiH = et (F hu, i u, u)L2 (Q) = et (hu, i u, F u)L2 (Q) .


 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

;FdZ9Od>9FWTYTE$IZ9OAKRKL f )E KROAOAK

Fu = u

>$Z IY\FAOdc

iV

f2 (Q) f # BDAW\BTKL[
uL

et hB (u, u) , uiH = (hu, i u, u)L2 (Q) .

=DFM ^ Y+=IFM$=?Z I ^ H$O C ^ BDE$AY\Od>9OH$E I-X9D[?>9OAKE KROWT

et hB (u, u) , uiH =
=

hu (x) , hu, i u(x)i dx =

3
3 Z X
X
j=1

Q k=1

Z X
3
Q j=1
3

X
uj (x)
uj (x) uk (x)
dx =
xk
j=1

uj (x) (hu, i uj (x)) dx =


Z X
3
Q k=1

(uj (x))2
uk (x)
dx.
xk
2

;H W\Odb ^ E ^ [TIC BTFdZ9Od> H$E$SUE$H$W\Ob ^ =?ZC B)@9=DFWI$KXF`[@ OW\BTKoC O ^ E BG> E$@ OAFM$EVcNM ^ =?]
OdYTc[\FdZ9BDYTE SpTf \
 dX$C BZ [@$E K
et hB (u, u) , uiH =

3 Z
X
j=1

3 Z X
3
X
(uj (x))2
uk (x) dx =
2
xk
Q
j=1

k=1

!
(uj (x))2
div u(x) dx.
2

"=MjMV=M>$Z IY\FAOdc 
[ H$M<$E$S
K OAOWKROAFW\B
pZ9OAKRK=H f dX
f (Q) E R
uL
div u (x) = 0
W\BJE$'C BTFdZ9Od> H ObGB ^ = Y\OH FWTY+=C BZ 2[@9=DOAK
f1L=M$E K BT ^ =GBTKX
hB (u, u) , uiH = 0
[\FdZ9BDYTE O4FjYTC BZ H OH B$f
: B>;>? CE6vMDB>;>
(r
 KROAOAK


cP (u) = (E P )B (E P )u, (E P )u B (u, u) =
B


= B (E P )u, P u +P B (E P )u, P u B(P u, u)P B(u, u)+P B(P u, u).

# BG>9FWT=YDZ IVIJF>=jY\KROAFW\B

C OABT ^ =GBDY+=H$E O t
XVC BZ [@9=DOAK
B (u, v) ^
e F hu, i v

cP (u) et = F h[E P ] u, i P u + P F h[E P ] u, i P u


B
F hP u, i u P F hu, i u + P F hP u, i u.

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

iTi

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

`=E KROH$T_OAOQFABTTFWTY\OH$H BTOQ@$E FdZ9BBDC O ^ =W\B ^ ==CVZ=DFG= ^ =YTH BH$[?Z _f/BTBDWTY\OWD]


FWTYT[;jE KLEFABTTFWTY\OH$H$KREY\OM$W\B ^ =DKLED[?> [WJW ^ OdcVMBTKLC BDH OH$WTH O'Y\OM$W\B ^ =JF
C BTFW\BGIVH$H$KLEpH O?=YTE F
IVjE KLEQBDW MVBTKLC BDH OH$WD=DKRE/fBD@ OYTEV> H B$X@$W\BC O ^ YTO
x
> Y+=QFdZ=b=DOAKLacBT ^ =Q=;W\F
IYQH$[?Z X$C BDAW\BTKL[
p fGi\

cP (u) et = (E P ) F hP u, i u P F hu, i u.
B

# BDMV=P_OAKX@$W\B
P F hu, i u
W\B

YTW\B ^ T
B O dF Z=b=DOAKRBTO >9OAF BT ^ =Q=DOW\FeI Y H$[?Z f"=M MV=M
]aY\OM$W\B ^
F C BTF W\BGIVH$H$KLEopH Oj?=YTE F
IVjE KLEBDW
MBTKLC BDH OH$WT=DKLE/X

P F hu, i u =
"=MJM$=M

3
X

hF hu, i u, ek iL2 (Q) ek .

3
X

hhu, i u, F ek iL2 (Q) ek .

k=1

]FG=DKRBTFABDC ^ IVP_OH$H$SC ^ BTOM$W\B ^ X W\B

P F hu, i u =

@$E$WTY+=I-X9@$W\B

Z [@9=DOAK

k=1

p%FAKfBDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$E OJp f \C ^ BTOM$W\B ^ =


dXBDW\F>=)C B]
F ek = ek
F

P F hu, i u =
+
* 3
3
3
X
X
X
(uj uk ) , ek
=
hhu, i u, ek iL2 (Q) ek =
xj
k=1

j=1

k=1

ek = 0.
L2 (Q)

# BTFdZ9Od> H OAO ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BQZOdbAMVB)C BZ [@9=DOW\FeIJE$H$W\Ob ^ E ^ BDY+=H$E9OAKoC B)@9=DFW?I$KmY'FM$=?]

Z I ^ H BTKC ^ BDE$AY\Od>9OH$E$E/X$WT=MMV=M
]RY\OM$W\B ^ F;C9BTFdW\B?IVH$H$KLEpH O?=YTE F
IVjE KLE
ek
MVBTKLC BDH OH$WT=DKLE/f

BDW
x
"=M$E KoBT ^ =GBTKX

cP (u) et = (E P ) F hP u, i u.
B

# ^ E FWT[C9=DOAK MC BZ [@ OH$E$


C BZ [@9=DOAK
Za
0

dt

B OH$M$EpiVf i\df "=MM$=M

k(E P ) F hP u, i uk dx

 !"#&%' ()

Za
0

dt

p f\

]RC ^ BTOM$W\B ^ `X$W\B

khP u, i uk2 dx.

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

i$

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

"=MMV=M
]Y\OM$W\B ^ F C BTFW\BGIVH$H$KLE pH O`G=YTE9F
IVjE KLENBDW
MBTKLC BDH OH$WT=DKLE/X
Pu
x
W\B

Pu =

3
X
k=1

Ck (t)ek

3
X
k=1

hu, ek iL2 (Q) ek ,

b >9O
]\=AE FY_C O ^ Y\BTK FABTTFWTY\OH$H BTKmC BA> C ^ BTFW ^ =H FAWTY\O
f$<-=jWD=?]
e
{u : 4u = 0}
E
f
MBDS\k=AE F`KRBGPQH B)YTAIVWT)Y\OM$W\B ^
(1, 0, 0) , (0, 1, 0) (0, 0, 1)
# BDAW\BTKL[E KROAOAK

Za
0

max max

0ta 1k3

dt

khP u, i uk2 dx

kP uk (t, )k2L2 (Q)

max max

0ta 1k3

kuk (t, )k2L2 (Q)

 (Z

 (Z

3
aX

0 k=1
3
aX

0 k=1

kgrad

uk (, )k2L2 (Q) d

kgrad

uk (, )k2L2 (Q) d

W\Fa>=_EE `B OH$M$EV)f BDC =piVf?C BZ [@9=DOAK

Za
0

dt

k(E P ) F hP u, i uk2 dx

3 Z
X
k=1

a
0

kfk (, )k2L2 (Q) d

)2

W\Fa>=_EE 'p f\


 FdZ9Od> [\OW)YTC BZ H OH$E O`[+FdZ9BDYTE$I0 f
WD=M/X?Y\FAO[+FdZ9BDYTE$I`W\OAB ^ OAKL`XW\B;OAFWT;[\FdZ9BDYTE$IE]YTC BZ H9OdH `f # B]
W\BTKL[JE$jW\OB ^ OKL iQC BZ [@9=DOAKF[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E O ^ O_OH$E$I
?=?>=A@$E p f
u(t, x)
EB OH$M$E>$Z IH ObGB$f Y =YDZ9OH$E O
Y\BTFAFWT=H9=YDZ E$Y+=TOW\FeIYFEVZ [[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I
p(t, x)
p f 
 "E)[\FdZ9BDYTE$INpTf  f+ OH$M$E)>$Z I
YTW\OM$=;WE$jp f 
 p%F[@ OW\BTKopTf 

df

p(t, x)

"=M$E KmBT ^ =GBTKX W\OAB ^ OAK=JYTW\OM$=DOW)E$`W\OAB ^ OAKL

&j7v3" :j!- !
3,- *o,- 4"( 98;:-

iVf

(+*"641,-:'4"3"4"L:j28;4L8; 1,-:

4"./*91D*-,/7

gAW\BTK ^ =>9OdZ9OKLBDC$E$_OAKpH OYTC BZ H OFW ^ BDbGB+LMVZ ;@ O YTOEV>9OE/X\H9=MVBDW\B ^ O


BDC$E ^ =DOW\F
I>9BDM$=?=W\OdZ \FWTY\BW\OAB ^ OAKLiqpE ^ =DTBDWD=Y0 Od9
Z BTKdf # BZ H BTOQ>9BDMV=?=?]
W\OeZ9\FdWTY\B)W\OAB ^ OAKL ijC ^ E$Y\Od>9OH B)Y)FdZ9Od> [E$c> YT[+c ^ = >9OdZ=?c-f
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i 

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

f
Y Z I[C ^ BD_OdH E$IE$Z9B?PjOH$E$IJYQAW\BTK ^ =>9OdZ9OF@$E$WT=DOKX @$W\B
AE
pVf C O ^ OSV>9OAKmMAM$YTE$Y+=?Z9OH$WTH BTKR[[ ^ =YTH9OdH E$

pVf?

v + L(v, v) = f ,
b
>9O

v(t) = u0 (t) + Au(t)

L(v, v) = B(T v, T v),

Tv =

eA(t) v()d.

<9>9OAF'BDC O ^ =W\B ^ A(t) C BDH$E K=DOW\FeIJY)FAKLFdZ9O`FC OM$W ^ =?Z TH BTbGB ^ =Z9B?PjOH$E$IE*


e

eA(t) () =

ej (t) j ()ej .

j=1

1OC O ^ QFW ^ OAKLE KRFeIB OH$E$WT_H B ^ KL[ Y


@ O O;H B ^ KL[ Y
f
v H1 (0, a) ^
f H1 (0, a)
# BZ9BGPQE K

R(v) = A2 v

2
A v

H1

kvk2H1

v,

Dv f (v) = f + Lv f,
S(v) = Dv f

hDv f, viH1
kvk2H1

pVf i\

hDv f, RiH1
kRk2H1

R,

]@$E dF Z9BE$[\FdZ9BDYTE$IiVX= ]OAFWTBDC O ^ =W\B ^ XFABDC ^ IVPjOH$H$S_MjBDC O ^ =W\B ^ [

Lv
XVMBDW\B ^
SJ>9OS FWTYT[\OW'C BQ`B ^ KL
?[ Z9O
Lv
b
>9O

Lv g = L(v, g) + L(g, v).


C9= ^ =DKROW ^ f =DFAFAKRBDW ^ E KFAOAKROS FWTY\B 
[ H$M<$E S
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v(, )
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O

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O
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=
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=
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@
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H1 = H1 (0, a)
^

# [\FWT
[0, )
AH9=A@ OH$E$I$KLE)Y
(

dv
d

pVf \

= ()R(v()) ()S() + d(),

v|=0 = v H1 (0, a).

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+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

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[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=


< >OF
E
]FM$=?Z I ^ H$OQ [H$M<$E$E/X=
() 0 ()
d()
X WD=M$=I-X$@$W\B
V
H=A@ OH$E$I$KLEY

iT

Y\OM$W\B ^ ] [H$M<$E$IUFAB

H1 (0, a)

pVf 

hd(), v()iH1 = hd(), R()iH1 = hd(), S()iH1 = 0.

E
KRBGPQH BYTAIVWT
Y Z I'BTTOAFC O@ OH$E$I ^ =Y\OH FWTYpVf X+OAFdZ E
R() 6= 0 S() 6= 0,

d()

E ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=

d() = g()
b
>9O

hg(), v()iH1 v ()
kv ()k2H1

hg(), R()iH1 R ()
kR ()k2H1

hg(), S()iH1 S ()

]C ^ D
B E$AY\BZ TH9=DI [H$M<$E$IFAB_AH9=G@ OH$E$I$KLEJY
f
g()
H1 (0, a)
;TBDAH9=A@$E K

kS ()k2H1

plVf \

f (()) = v() + L (v(), v()) .

W\KROWTE KX$@ W\B_C BQC BTFW ^ BTOH$E$

p%FAKf/pVf i\

pVf

hv(), R()iH1 = hv(), S()iH1 = hR(), S()iH1 = 0.

X
# BDAW\BTKL[\X1C BZ TA[TI$F ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=DKLEpVf XpVf E[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I$KLE>$Z I
v ()
H9=?c+BG> E K

kv()k2H1

= 2 hv(), v ()iH1 = 0,


2 
E
D


= 2 A2 v(), v
A v()
H1

= 2 A2 v()



A v() 2

H1

kv()k2H1

H1

v(), v

pVf T

=
H1

= 2 hR(v()), v iH1 = 2() kR(v())k2H1 ,






kf (v())k2H1 = kv() + L(v(), v())k2H1 = 2 hD f (v), v i =

2 hDv f, RiH1

() + () kS(v())k2H1 .

pVf \

Y =?Z9OAOBTTBTFH BDYTY+=DOW\FeIp | | w
| a| \ i a| LY\BDGKRB?PQH BTFWTQYTTB ^ =
p
d prcp e
p
d
WD=M$EVc M$[\FABD@$H B]lH OC ^ O ^ YTH$co [$
H M<$E$S
E Y\OM$W\B ^ ] [H$M<$E$E
X
(), ()
d()
@$W\BTD2>$Z IH OMVBDW\B ^ BDbGB
Y C BZ H I+Z9E F'[\FdZ9BDYTE$I
T
1 (0, ]

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[+cVWT= ^ \=S



kv()kH1 = v

H1

W\OdZ9\=DOY

C ^ E
(0, 1 ]

lim kR(v())kH1 = 0
1


A v() H O Y\BD ^ =DFWD=DOW'Y (0, 1 )
H1

(iiii)
b
>9O

kf (v())k2H1

kv() +

L(v(), v())k2H1

2

m 2



+C

f
A
v
,

v

H1
H1
H1

X
E
]H O?=YTE FeIVW'BDW f
(0, 1)
v
YTW\OM$=DOWX9@$W\BQC ^ EH OMBDW\B ^ BTKFABTTFWTY\OH$H BTKoAH9=?]
Y ?= Z9OAOTX E$
R (v ( )) = 0
@ OH$E$E b BDC O ^ =W\B ^ = 1 E KROAOW_KROAFW\B
b2 v (1 ) pYjFAKLFdZ9O H1 (0, a) df

A
A2 v (1 ) =
# ^ BTFWTKLE ^ =DFAF[P_>9OH$E$I$KLEFdZ [@9=SmM ^ =WTH BDbGBqFABTTFWTY\OH$H BDbGBAH9=A@ OH$E$I b

FY\BA> E$W\FeIMFdZ [@9= BDC O ^ =W\B ^ BDYFC ^ BTFdWTKLEFABTTFWTY\OH$H$KREAH9=G@ OH$E$I$KLE/f


)FdZ E BDC O ^ =W\B ^
Y
H OE KROAOWhM ^ =WTH$ac FABTTFWTY\OH$H$ac @$E FAOdZ1X;W\BoE$
A
H
C BTFdZ9Od> H ObGB ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=YTW\OMV=DOWDX@$W\B
Xb
>9O
]QFABTTFWTY\OH$H$S
v(1 ) = (t)e
e
Y\OM$W\B ^
Y)C ^ BTFW ^ =H FWTY\O
X
fW\Fa>=_EJE$ E KROAOAK

C m

H (t) L2 (0, a)

2

2
2
2
v = kv(1 )kH1 kv(1 )kH1 + kL(v(1 ), v(1 ))kH1 +
H1

+2 hL(v(1 ), v(1 )), v(1 )iH1 2 hL(v(1 ), v(1 )), v(1 )iH1 =
B

= kv(1 ) + L(v(1 ), v(1 ))k2H1 2 hL(v(1 ), v(1 )), v(1 )iH1 .

v(1 ) = (t)e
(T v(1 ))(t) =

XVC BDAW\BTKL[

eA(t) ()ed =

Z

t
0


b
e
e(t) ()d e = (t)e,

e
e
e 2 (t)B(e, e).
L (v(1 ), v(1 )) =B((T v(1 ))(t), (T v(1 ))(t)) = B((t)e,
(t)e)
=
Z9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH B$X

2
D
E

2
e 2 (t)B(e, e), (t)e
v kv(1 ) + L(v(1 ), v(1 ))kH1 2
H1

= kf

(v(1 ))k2H1

Za
0

e 2 (t)(t) hB(e, e), ei dt.

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+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

H1

i&

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1OC O ^ Y\BTFC BZ TA[\OAKRFeIU[\FdZ9BDYTE OAK2B ^ W\BDbGBDH9=?Z TH BTFAWTEQFVX-='?=W\OAK
C B Z [9
@ =DOAK

f9"BDb
>=

2
m 2

2



2

+C
.
v
A
f
v

v kf (v(1 ))kH1


H1
H1
H1

pVf \

H1

[\FdZ9BDYTE$IiUEoE$NH9O ^ bAOWTE$@9OFAMBTbGBH O ^ = Y\OH FWTY+=p%FdZ=DTBDS=C ^ E B ^ H BDS


B  OH$M$EWTE$C9= BDC j=)piVf?
dX\M$=MD[?>9OWjC BA> ^ BTDH BjC BDMV=?=H BjY ^ =>9OdZ9OhX\YTW\Od]

MV=DOWDXV@ W\B




A v

H1 (0,a)

C kf (v)k2H1 .

W\F>=_EE$B OH$M$EpVf \C BZ [@9=DOAKoB OH$M$[

2

v C
H1

b
>9O

2


1+
f

H1 (0,a)

l


+
f

H1 (0,a)

pVfGk\

E
]H O?=YTE FeIVW'BDW E
v f
C l
C ^ E B ^ H9=IB OH$M$=pVfGk\OAFWT_B OH$M$= 0

@ O O;C ^ =YT[2@9=DFWT_[ ^ =YD]


u + Au ^
H OH$E$IpVf fMjAW\BDSUB OH$M$EKL Y ^ =>9OdZ9O,QC BZ [@9=DOAKW\OAB ^ OAKL[NiVfL=MNM$=M
WT=
B  OH$MV=opWf OTfplVfGk\
_OAFWTFEVZ TH9=ImB OH$M$=VXW\BF[_OAFWTYT[+OWKLH BDbGBC$[W\OS
p%FAKfX H9=C ^ E KRO ^ X Y ^ =DTBDWD=?cNjf jf$=?> P_OH FMBDSaYTY\BG>=_W\OAB ^ OAKL i_E$`B OHV]
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O 'C ^ Od>$Z=bA=DOAKFY\BDSqC$[WTYTY\BG>=E$)
B  OH$M$EpVfGk\;W\OAB ^ Od]
Y ^ =>9OdZ9
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[ ^ =YTH OH$E$S/f # BZ H$SYTY\BA>N
B  OH$M$EpVfGk\aKLC ^ E$Y\Od>9OAK Y ^ =>9OdZ9O f
;FH BDYTH$OW ^ [?> H$OKRBTKROH$WT ^ =DTBDWT FABTF ^ Od>9BDW\BD@ OH$ E KROH$H B Y ^ =>9Od]
Z9O *b
Z=YTH$O_W\OdcVH$E$@ OAFM$E O_W ^ [?> H BTFWTE?=MVZ ;@9=;W\F
INYYTTB ^ OjC BG>$cBA> IVjEVc
E
f BDW?IKL C B'F[_OAFWTYT[JFdZ9Od> [+OAKmE$Z9B?PjOH$H BTKR[JY'AW\BTK ^ =]
(), () d()
>9OdZ9OC BG>$cBA> [+X\H9=DKC ^ EVcBA> E$W\FeI ^ =?> EW\OdcVH$E$@ OAFM$EVc'[?>9BTTFWTYjH OAFMVBZ TMB_BDWTMVZ9B]
H$E$WT\F
IJBDW)[MV=?=H$E$SJAW\BDbGB ^ =d>OeZ=_C ^ E ^ OG=?Z E$?= $E$ENObGBQEV>9OS/f

V_5"( !"4"( /*"0 49" "./* ( U "!9


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+
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4"49+4

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X
# [+FWT b L
H
h, i A
]aFG=DKRBTFABDC ^ V
I PjOH$H SUZ E$H OS$H$SBDC O ^ =W\B ^ Y b =
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H, L(, )
^ YTH BTOC ^ AO BT ^ =GBDY+=H$E OTfa"BOAFWT XOAFdZ E g E v H
b XW\B L(g, v) ]Z E$H9OdS H BTO
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i$

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

C ^ OABT ^ =GBDY+=H$E OjC _


B Z 
TBTKL[E$FY\BDEVcN= ^ Ab [VKROH$W\BDY'C ^ N
E E$MVFE ^ BDY+=H$H BTK > ^ +
[ ]
@
O

O

T
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bGBTKf # ^ E
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Lu
gH
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Lu g = L (u, g) + L(g, u),

=j@ O ^ O
]FABDC ^ V
I P_OH$H$SM
BDC O ^ 
= W\B ^ f
L
L
+[?>9OAK u E FC BZ TG BDY+=WT2H$E$PjOu YTC$E FG= H$H$O[\FdZ9BDYTE$I
p f df

p f?dX_p f i\dX_p f \E

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16 2 100

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^ aa | \>| w \ aw
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p c pro H = j=0 Gj d Gj
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e
n
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^ | ^%\
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b
n
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c A M = dimH
p
w

^ w
\ j4^%\>a|mw
9

d q dim
cmb
prq
. Eh ~w x]
b

dim G1 20.

u H, e G1 G1 = {x : Ax = x} p

L(e, u) = L(u, e) = Lu e = Lu e = Le u = Le u = 0.

p f i\QE p f Q@$E$WT=W\OdZ
?=DKROWTE$WDX@$W\BAWTE
[\FdZ9BDYTE$INKRBGPQH BBTFdZ=DDE$WT f `X @$W\BTD [VKROH$TjE$WTBTD/OAK ^ =DTBDWT`X9AWTEN[\FdZ9B]
YTE$ITO ^ OAK Y)H9=C$E FG=H$H BDSYT_O``B ^ KROTf
 KROAOW'KROAFW\B

# ^ EE FC BZ TGBDY+=H$E Eh[+FdZ9BDYTE$S

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+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

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i$

 4"( 98*-#%$#"[ i w
}| xa>^ a i w~x| 
] O
u E. u E ]O E [F\M^
p q`o n
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n
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z ^
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f + f ,

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d q C1 l b c$o
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q
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z ^
d f = u + L u, u .

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b

p f?

i wkx| 
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OABTAcBA> E KRBF ^ =A[JBDbGBDY\B ^ E$WT\F


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B OH$MV=C ^ EH O_K=?Z acUAH9=A@ OH$E$Ic
f XW\BYH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\Op f?YFMBTDMVOj>$Z I

[G>BTTFdWTY+=_>9BT\=YDZ9OH9=)Od> E$H$E$@$MV=Vf

WT[JW\OAB ^ OAKL[NKL FH9=G@9=?Z='>9BDMV=P_OAKYFdZ [@9=DOTXMVBDb


>= b ]aMVBDH O@$H TB KRO ^ H TB O
H
C ^ BTFW ^ =H FWTY\B$f # ^ EJAW\BTKmD[?>9OAK C BZ [@9=WTB OH$M$E/X H O ?=YTE F
IVjE OBDW ^ 
= GKRO ^ ]

H T
B FWTEmC ^ BTFW ^ = H FWTY+= b f<-=W\OAK 9
> BDM$=PjOAK \
W OAB ^ OAKL[ fYqC BZ H BTK BTD/OAKROTfg
H
MBDH< O;AW\BDbGB ^ = >9OdZ=_KLhC BZ [@$E
K W\OAB ^ OAKL[ f iVXY_MVBDW\B ^ BDSD[?>9OWQFH$IVW\Bj[+FdZ9B]
YTE O)p f df
KL`f

Y Z IQ>9BDMV=?=W\OdZ \FW\Y+=W\OAB ^ OAKLH9=DKqH$[PQH$oH OMVBDW\B ^ OC BTFW ^ BTOH$E$IE)Z9OAK"]

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Tk

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

gY\Od>9OAK Y ^ =DFAFAKRBDW ^ OH$E9OFdZ9Od> [;jE O Y\OM$W\B ^ =*

R (u) =

A2 u

k A u k
kuk2

u,

Du f = f + Lu f,
S (u) = Du f

f,u>
<Du
u
kuk2

f,R>
<Du
R,
kRk2

EFMV=?Z I ^ 4*

K (u) = < Du f, R > kRk2 ,

u f,ui

(u) = hDkuk
2 ,

(u) =

k A u k
kuk2

p f i\

<9>9OAF pE2Y\F> [oY>=?Z TH OS$_OAKXOAFdZ E2H OBDbGBDY\B ^ OH B C ^ BDWTE$YTH BTO?


]QE$

[\FdZ9BDYTE$SJW\OAB ^ OAKL fTf


WTEQY\OM$W\B ^ = E)FMV=?Z I ^ oBDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$`X+OAFdZ E
fD`ObAMB>9BDM$=?=WT X
u 6= 0, R 6= 0
@$W\BQYTC BZ H OH$ FdZ9Od> [;jE O[+FdZ9BDYTE$IB ^ W\BDbABDH=?Z TH BTFWTEt*

hu, si = hu, Ri = hR, si = 0.

g >=?Z TH OS$_OAK

KRBGP_OWDWTY\OM$W\B ^ ] [H$M<$E O SQBDW;C9= ^ =DKROW ^ =


f
u
(0, )
1BDbe>=
X E
WT=M$PjO ?=YTE FeIVW'BDW f 29
@ =DFW\BQY\KROAFW\B

S, R, f Du f

K(u()),
(u()), (u()), S (u ()) , R (u()) , f (u())
D[?>9OAKC$E FG=WT

K(),
(), (), S () , R(), f (),

=E$H BDbe>=JFABDY\FAOAKH O'BDW\KRO@9=DOAK ?=YTE FE KRBTFWTUBDW


EBDW
]C$E$_OAKC ^ BTFW\B

u()
f
K,
, , S, R, f
gaFa> [YNAW\BTK ^ =>9OdZ9OTXROAFdZ EH OBDbGBDY\B ^ OH BUC ^ BDWTE$YTH BTOTXRF@$E$WT=DOAK YTC BZ$]
H OH$H$KLEJ[+FdZ9BDYTE$Ip f?dX1p f i\dX1p f \Ep f df
u ]Q^ w~x]
988
^%\ |^
* -#$# w~x]
b

w| g w

p`o

^ aa|^

o
u1 , u2 , . . . , uk H, 1 k < 20
=
u |:a ^ w}'w| g w
a ^ a]>
^| %^ \
}| \
^ aa 1 ^ |}\
b c e
c p
c A p
e
c d p
p o
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n
o p

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+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

V

u
| %^ \
}| \
]
& | u
|
x w^}
kek = 1
huj , ei = 0 d
cp
c A : Ae = 1 e prc
ep
o

j = 1, 2, . . . , k
|m
^%x w
|& = GKRO ^ H BTFWT AF BTTFWTY\OH$H BDb?B C AB >9C ^ BTFW ^ = H FWTY+=$XJFABTBDWTY\OWD]
cmbcp
q p`o
]H OmKROH OAOiTkVf FdZ9BDYTE$I
FdWTYT[jObGB FABTTFWTY\OH$H BTKL[ @$E FdZ [
1
hu , ei = 0
>$Z IqY\FAOdc
>=;W
[ ^ =YTH OH$E$S BDWTH BTFE$W\OdZ TH BUMBDG` jE<$
 E OH$W\BDY
j = 1, 2, . . . , k,
k
H OE$AY\OAFWTH BDb?BFABTTFWTY\OH$H BDbGBY\OM$W\B ^ =VXMBDW\B ^
ShKL E$_OAK YYTEV>9O
c1 , . . . , c20
X\b
>9O
]LB ^ W\BDH B ^ 
K =?Z \H9=IFE FW\OAK=`E$
e = c1 e1 + c2 e2 + + c20 e20
e1 , e2 , . . . , e20
f&MVZ=DFAFE$@ OAFMBDSW\OAB ^ E$E)Z E$H OS$H$ac=?Z bGOA ^ =E$@ OAFM EVc'[ ^ =YTH OH$E$S'E$AY\OAFWD]
G 1

H B$X@$W\BWT=M$=IUFE FW\OAK=E KROAOWH OW ^ E$YTE9=?Z TH9BTO ^ O_OH$E OTXWD=MMV=MMBZ E$@ OAFWTY\B
H OE$AY\OFWTH$cJTBZ T_O MVBZ E$@ OAFWTY+=Q[ ^ =YTH OH$E$S/f # D
B AW\BTKL[Z9OAKRK=j>9BDM$=G=H=Vf

Y Z IH9=DF`D[?>9OW)Y+=PQH BDSFdZ9Od> [;Q=IE$H$W\O ^ C BZ I$E9BDH$H9=I
u | xx g |z}|
988
* -.# -# wkx]
b o n |xa>^ a|4a>^%\ c$o ^ aw p`o |
<<0 p
uH
d




2
2
2(1/)
A
u

2
kuk
A
u



.

^%x w
|& BDb
Z=DFH B`[+FdZ9BDYTE$ p f \1Y\FAOC ^ TB FW ^ =H FWTY\B b KRB?PjOWDWT
H
cmbcp
q p`o

=
G

$
E
\
W
Q
B
9
H
Q
=
B
\
W
D
B
bGBDH9=?Z TH$[ F[VKRKL[FABTTFWTY\OH$H$acJC AB > C ^ BTFW ^ =H FW\Y
^
^
b = NM Gn f # BDAW\BTKL[JC ^ BDE$AY\BZ TH$SUZ9OAKROH$W u H
b KRB?PjOWDWT'C ^ Od>$]
H
FdWT=YDZ9OHn=0
YQYTEV>9O

|m

M
X

u=

un
n ,

n=1

b
>9O

un G n

f$"BDb
>=

2
M
M




X
2 X
kun k2 ,
un =
A u =


n=1

n=1

kuk2 =

M
X

n=1

A u =

kun k2 2
n ,

M
X

un ()
.
n

n=1

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

Ti

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

E KROAOAK
# BDAW\BTKL[>$Z IC ^ BDE$AY\BZ TH BTbGB e
1

M


X
X
2 X
kun k2 n2() =
kun k2 n2() +
kun k2 n2()
=
A
u


n=0

e n

e n
<

2

X
2
2()
e
kun k2 2

A u +
n n
e n
<


2
2()
e
e2 kuk2 .

A u +

gDE ^ =DOAK W\OC O ^ e E$ [+FdZ9BDYTE$I

B_E$`[\FdZ9BDYTE$I

0 = 1


2

e2 = kuk2

A u .

Z9ObAMVBQYTEV>9OWT X$@$W\B e
f # BDAW\BTKL[
1



2
e2 kuk2 .
A u 2

Z9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH B X C BZ [@9=DOAK



2
2
A u 2 kuk

`OAKRK=j>9BDM$=?=H9=Vf
988'
* -T# S-# wkx]

kuk

kA uk

2
2

= 2 kuk2

2


A u .

u |
w| g w
^ aa ^ |}\0| %^ \
|}\
p`o
n o p
c p
c
u
i ^
^mw i& ^ w
&|^ ]w~x| b u
| 2
\ ] j
|
x a>^ a|
b u >
p`o pprc
e
e< o n
A2 p
ep
A u = u
a>^%\ ^ aw
|
c$o
p`o
u 6= 0 R (u) = 0 p

kuk ku + L(u, u)k kf (u)k .

Yp f i\F ^ =A[qE KROAOAKX"@$W\B


] FABT]
^%x w
|& BDC ^ dO >9OdZ9OH$E$I
R(u)
u
cmb cp
q p`o


F WTY\OH$H$SY\OM$W\B ^ BDC O ^ =W\B ^ =
T
X
C
$
E
@
K
\
f
a
g
T
B

F
C

B
Z
T

[
\
OAKRFeI

b = A u 2 kuk2
A2 ^
[\FdZ9BDYTE OAK p f i\*
f "BDb
>=QC BZ [@$E K
$

hu, L (u, u)i = 0

kuk2 kuk2 + kL (u, u)k2 = kuk2 + kL (u, u)k2 + 2 hL (u, u) , ui =


= ku + L (u, u)k2 kf (u)k2 .
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=


OAKRK=_>9BDMV=?=H9=Vf
988
* -# # [ i w

a|mw

\ 
a w
|
c p`o
&|
(j = 1, 2, ...) prc o
]

b
prq uj H

prqh

kuj k = kuk ,

|rw i& ^ w
p

p`o

i ^
p

\>| w

$


b
&| a>^ e a|j4^%\>a|& w~x] | w~x>^ d | o cp %^ x q
H

ep

lim kuj + L (uj , uj )k = f , lim kR (uj )k = 0,

b prc &| u ep |


u0 H

ku0 k = kuk f = ku0 + L (u0 , u0 )k .

^ w
F| a
^
a]<a] \M^ ^kx
d q lim b cec p
d
X
X9W\B'YFEVZ [JMVBDH O@V]
|m
^%x w
|& "= MNM$=M
lim kR (uj )k = 0 kuj k = kuk
cmbcp
q p`o
j

H BTKRO ^ H BTFWTE b R
K BGPQH BYT ^ =WT_C BA> C BTFdZ9Od>9BDY+=W+OdZ TH B\FWT
FcBA> IVj[FeI
H
{uj,k } ,
MH OMBDW\B ^ BTKL[
X WD=M$[_X$@$W\B
V

u0

lim kR (uj,k )k = 0,

j,k

b
H

uj,k u0 .

W\F>=_EE$`H OC ^ O ^ YTH BTFWTEUDEVZ E$H OS$H BDbGB'BDC O ^ =W\B ^ =


E KROAOAK
L (, )
b
H

L (uj,k , uj,k ) L (u0 , u0 ) .

f Vf
`OAKRK=j>9BDM$=?=H9=Vf

[ ;j[ BD@ O YTEV> $
H [ 9
Z OAKRKL[\f
2@9=DFW\B)D[?>9OAK E FC BZ TGBDY+=WTFdZ9Od> 
988
* -.#

# [ i w
<|z
x >
\ | ] |}x a| z}|
b o n |xa>^ p w}
prq Cb 1
d cd

bo q
uH
| a|`] i wkx| ] p f \up f }up f \ ] p f

# BDAW\BTKL[ ^ OA[?Z ?WT=WQ>9BDM$=AY+=DOAKRBDSJZ9OAKRKLYTW\OM$=DOW'E$Z9OAKRKL

p f \

b
R (u) 6= 0, K (u) C,

b S(u) 6= 0, kS(u)k kR(u)k2 101 ,


R (u) 6= 0, K (u) > C,
b kS(u)k < 101 kR (u)k2 ,
R (u) 6= 0, K (u) > C,
R (u) = 0,

p f 
p f \
p f

g \ a| wkx>^ i ^
z ^
]

] p f i\}u
a
^ a]>^ b g i ^
d K (u) , R (u) S (u) b
cb ce
c
o
d
C d po n
x>^%jj4^m
 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

 

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

g FdZ9Od> [;_OSZ9OAKRKROC ^ E$Y\BG> E K


H OS$_OAKmB OH$M$E/f
i
988
* -#T-# \
^ x]
^%\

W\OdZ9\=DOY

FE FW\OAK=WTE$@ OAFM$EmE FC BZ TA[+OKLOYN>=?Z D]

u ]O
^ a]O a
$c o d o n `
p o
d
u
x
e g = Lg f Lu Lu g, hLu f, ui kuk2 w \ c$o ^ d x] o n
c d
f (u), Lu g, Lu g, L
f
| >^ a&]
2


kf (u)k kuk + 2C A u kuk2(1/) ,



2
2
2(1/)

2
,
|
| khDu f, uik kuk 16 1 + C A u kuk
/



kLu gk 4C kuk1/ A u kgk ,

/



kLu gk 4C kuk1/ A u kgk ,

kLu Lu gk

^ w

16C2


2

A u kgk ,

2(1/)

kuk


2





e
2(1/)


,
Lf g = Lg f 4C kgk kuk +2C A u kuk

q C
[ i w


Lg f C kgk kf k .

i w~x| ] ( E
o
^ |}\M^kj
F]
p`q u
b`p
n

F]

 `]

wkx]
e
K(u)
= (1 +
(u) + (1 )K(u))

2
7/8 1/
/


2
4
b
,
C = 2 4000 (1 + C ) 1 + u + u
A u





1
kuk = u , A u A u u , u 1,
2
1/4 E
b
K(u) C,
kf k kuk

|
w w~x]

o n

|xa>^ a
n

K(u) < K(u)


< 2K(u).
2

i wkx| 
u
]  i a
|
o

prc
p

2/7 (u).
kR(u)k < 2K
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

T

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

|m

cmbcp

^%x

w
| f # BZ TA[\I$F)[+FdZ9BDYTE OAK
q `
p o

p f?EZ9OAKRKRBDS f iVXVE KROAOAK

2



kf (u)k = ku + L (u, u)k kuk + kL (u, u)k kuk +C A u
2



kuk + 2C A u kuk2(1/) .

# O ^ Y\BTO H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BQ>9BDM$=?=H B$f

Y =?Z9OAO E KROAOAK




|hDu f, ui|
|hf + Lu f, ui| hf, 2u + 2L(u, u) ui hf, 2f ui
=
=
=

kuk2
kuk2
kuk2
kuk2
2 kf k2 2 kf k

+
2
kuk
kuk2

kf k 1
+
kuk 2

FC BZ9T[+OAKm>9OAF)C ^ Od> a> [jE$S ^ OA[?Z WD=WDX$W\BDbe>=

2


2

2
|hDu f, ui|

1 2

2 2 + 2C A u kuk

kuk2
16

1+C2



4

2 4
A u kuk .

1OC O ^ X [@$E$WTY+=IJBDb ^ =H$E$@ OH$H BTFWTBDC O ^ =W\B ^ =


*
C BZ [@$E K
A A 1,



2
4


2 4
2(1/)

kuk

.
A
u
A
u

kuk

W\F>=_YTW\OM$=DOW'FC ^ =Y\Od>$Z $
E Y\BTFAWT'YTW\B ^ BDbGB)H O ^ 
= Y\OH F WTY+=Vf
# O ^ Odc+BG> E K Mq>9BDM$=?=W\OdZ \ FWTY\[W ^ OWT\ObGBNH O ^ = Y\OH F WTY+=Vf FC BZ TA[\OAK
YTE O)p f?EZ9OAKRKL[ f 
i *

kLu gk kL(u, g)k + kL(g, u)k

/









2C A u A g 4C kuk(1/) A u kgk .

^ OWT\O H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BQ>9BDM$=?=H B$f

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[+FdZ9B]

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

Y =?Z9OAOTX+>$Z IB OH$M$E

Lu g

W\OdZ9\=DOY

X+C BZ TA[\I$Fj[P_OC BZ [@ OH$H$KLEB OH$M$=DKLE/XE KROAOAK

kLu gk = sup hLu g, vi = sup hg, Lu vi


kvk=1

kvk=1


/


sup kgk kLu vk kgk 4C kuk(1/) A u .
kvk=1

X OWTY\O ^ W\BTO`H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BQ>9BDM$=?=H B$f

H9=?Z9BDbAE$@$H BQ>$Z IC$IVW\BDbGBQH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=)E KROAOK

kLu Lu gk = sup hLu Lu g, vi = sup hLu g, Lu vi =


|v|=1

|v|=1

= kLu gk sup kLu vk .


kvk=1

1OC O ^ 'C ^ E KROH$E K

^ =H OAO>9BDMV=?=H$H BTO`W ^ OWT\O`H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B$X W\BDbe>=





/
/




kLu Lu gk 4C kuk1/ A u kgk sup 4C kuk1/ A u kgk =
kvk=1

= 16 C2 kuk2

# IVW\BTO H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BQ>9BDM$=?=H B$f


Y Z I
E KROAOAK
Lf g = L g f

2


A u kgk .



Lf g = sup Lg f, v = sup hf, Lg vi kf (u)k sup kLg vk
kvk=1

kvk=1

kvk=1


2


2(1 )
kuk +2C A u kuk
4C kgk .

gaFAOH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=)C$[H$M$WD=)=\Z9OAKRKL>9BDMV=?=H$`f


Y BDMV=P_OAKmC$[H$M$W df KROAOAK



K(u)
= (1 ) K(u) + 1 hDu f, ui kuk2 ,
hDu f, ui = hf, u + 2L(u, u)i = 2 kf k2 hf, ui .
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

Y BDMV=P_OAK B OH$M$[h>$Z I fL=M MV=M



XVK(u)


W\BQC BZ [@9=DOAK

A u
A u 1/2 u
= (u) =

kuk 1

2
A u
kuk

&

X= E$q[+FdZ9BDYTE$I2Z9OAKRKL

1
< .
4

FC BZ9T[+OAK >9BDMV=?=H$H BTO`YTW\B ^ BTO`H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B)C$[H$M$WT=Qt\dX$W\BDbe>=




2



khDu f, uik kuk2 16 1 + C2 A u kuk2(1/)


16 1 +

16 (1 + C )
16(1 + C )

C2



2
2(1/)

A u u



2
2(1/)
1 + A u u

2
7 1/
b
C
K(u)
/
8
=

.
1 + u + u
A u
250
250



W\F>=jZ9ObAMVBQYTW\OMV=DOW'[WTY\O ^ P_>9OH$E O`C$[H$M$WT= Z9OAKRKL`f


f  FC BZ TA[TI[+FdZ9BDYTE$IC$[H$M$WD= Z9OAKRKLE>9BDMV=?=H$H$O
Y BDMV=P_OAK C$[H$M$W)F?d<
YQC$[H$M$W\O=\H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=VX9C BZ [@9=DOAK




/
kf k (1 + 4C kuk1/ A u )
kDu f k
hDu f, R(u)i
b

C K(u) =
kR(u)k
kR(u)k
kR(u)k2

/


kuk1/4 (1 + 4C kuk1/ A u ) kR(u)k1


1/4 5/4/
/


A
u
kR(u)k1
4 (1 + C ) 1 + u + u




1/4 5/4 


4 (1 + C ) 1 + u + u
kR(u)k1 C 5/7 kR(u)k1



W\Fa>=_EE C$[H$M$WT= Z9ObAMB)C BZ [@9=DOAK

b 5/7 K 1 (u) K 2/7 (u) < 22/7 K


2/7 (u) 2K
2/7 (u).
kR(u)k C
 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

$

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

`OAKRK= f >9BDMV=?=H9=Vf
988
* -# #h[ i w
a>^ &|



|}\

W\OdZ9\=DOY

u x&| |}\>|z}|

p
ku1 k = u d

|}\

prq u1
p
n
o p
|}xa>^ a| p f \ }u z ^ b ] x>^kjj
u
^ |}\M^kj
]
o n
d C
b
n
c u
bp
n
u \M^ _`^ a]>^
] 4| _r]
b cd ce
u () c

&

\M^ %^ x]j
d

p f T

u = R (u) , 1 < < 2 ;


u |=1 = u1 ,

z ^
w j x>^ 
| u & | |}\>|
|}xa>^ w}<|  g | a|h] i w~x|
d 2 c c
oc p e c o
p
o n
p
p
n d
b
]
o
b EVZ E R(u()) = 0.
K(u()) 2C
<|z
x0x g |
| &] u
&| u
|
|xa>^ a \ ^ aw
d c,d
p e
ep 1 2 o n
n $c o
p o c
`
prc
2


2
u() = ku1 k ,

]a>^%\

c$o

^ aw

p`o

Z




2 2
A u() = A u1 2

Z

 2

2

b
f u()
kf (u1 )k + 4C

z ^ b ] x>^%jj
d C
b
n
x

kR (u ())k2 d,

kR (u ())k2 d,

]
^ |}\M^%j
&
b,p
n
u z ^
|xa>^ a
| >^ a
c
c 2 1 (r0 )
d
2 1 o n )
r0 =
(
u
a>^ \M^%\
a
 a
i a$] u

c ()

no c
c [0, )
p c c
r
min 1, inf kR()k
(1 ,2 )
u
|
\>]

ep (0) = 0 (t) 6= 0


t>0
|
^%x w
|&  KROAOAK
cmb cp
q p`o



ku()k2 = 2 hu () , u ()i ,


2 
E
E
D
D


= 2 A u, A u = 2 A2 u(), u ,
A u()

kf (u)k2

= 2 f (u) , u + Lu() u = 2 hDu f (u) , u i .

 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p f \

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

$

1OC O ^ X E FC BZ TA[\IBDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$E$I


u u1=QWD=M$P_O ^ = Y\OH FWTY+=
R S
hR, ui = hs, ui =
X$Y)FEVZ [[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I>$Z I
E p f \C BZ [@9=DOAK
$

hR, si = 0

u ()

kf (u ())k2
= 2

ku ()k2

= 2 hu, Ri = 0,


2 


= 2 kRk2 ,
A u ()

= 2 hDu f (u) , u i = 2 hDu f (u) , Ri =

hDu f (u) , Ri
b kRk2 .
kRk2 = 2K (u) kRk2 4C
2
kRk

YTC BZ9H OH B


# ^ EjYTY\BG>9OC BTFdZ9Od> H ObGB H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=;[@$W\OH B$X@$W\B;C ^ E
(1 , 2 )
 

H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B
f
K(u()) < 2C u
C BZ [@9=DOAK
H$W\Ob ^ E ^ [TIJAWTE ^ = Y\OH FWTY+=VX$>$Z I
E
kuk A u
2>$Z I

Z

2

2


ku()k = ku1 k , A u() = A u1 2

kf (u ())k

^ =Y\OH FWTY+=

kRu ()k2 d.

C BZ [@9=DOAKmH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B

b
kf (u ())k2 kf (u1 )k2 + 4C

kR (u ())k2 d.

H9OdH E K ^ =AH BTFWT


f # E
H OABTGcBA> E KRBTO`H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B'BD@ O YTEV> H B$f
2 1 ^ r0 = 0
)FdZ E
X$W\BQWD=MJM$=M
C E
X$W\BQY'FEVZ [H OC ^ O ^
YD]
r0 6= 0
R () r0 ^ [1 , 2 ]
H BTFWTE
E
YTC BZ H O H B ^ =Y\
OH FWTY\B
f

B
b

u ()

K (u ())

K (u (2 )) = 2C
Z 2
Z 2
|[K ()] | d
[K ()] d K (1 ) +
K (u (2 )) K (2 ) = K (1 ) +
K (1 ) +




kR k


1

d.
(Du f ) kRk + 3 kDu f k
kRk2

1OC O ^ X ^ =DFM ^ Y+=I


E
XVH9=?cBA> E K
(Du f ) R

(Du f ) = (f ) + (Lu f ) = u + Lu u + (Lu u + Lu L(u, u)) =


 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

+k

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

= u + Lu u + Lu u + Lu Lu u + Lu f.


u 2
2 !
2

A
A u
A u

2
A2 u
u
=
A
u

u=

2
2 u
2
kuk
kuk
kuk

R =

2
A u

= A2 u

kuk2

u +

1OC O ^ X C BZ TA[TI$F'`OKRKRBDS f X$C BZ [@9=DOAK

2 kRk2
u
kuk2

K (u (2 )) K (2 ) K (1 ) + (2 1 ) m(kuk)
b
>9O

]'H OC

YTH9=I

1
,
r02

[H$M<$E$I-fW\Fa>=VXWT=MMV=MY C ^ BTKROPQ[WTMVO

^ ^
m () > 0
[H$M<$E$I
]C BTFW\B?IVH$H9=VX$W\BQY)FEVZ [FABTBDWTH BD_OH$E$S
[1 , 2 ]
ku()k

b K(u(1 )) C
b
K (u (2 )) = 2C,

C BZ [@9=DOAKX$@$W\B

`OAKRK=j>9BDM$=?=H9=Vf

b
2 1 C

988*'-# -#<[ i w

a>^ &|

prq u1
&| |}\>|z}|
|xa>^ a| p f }u
p
o n
M
\ ^ ^%x]j
\>]
d
u ()
> 1

|}\

r02
2(r0 ).

m( u )

u ] x


d
ku1 k = u

u |=1 = u1 ,

o n

 &

S
,
kSk2

u = R+ < Du f, R >

]x]

]x]

p
n o p
p c
r
e p

z ^ b ] x>^%jj
u
^ |}\M^%j
]
d C
b
n
c u
bvp
n
\M^ _`^ a]>^
] 4| _r]
c
b cd ce

X | a>^ g i ^
|
}^ |}\E
1 2
p

c
d p
i kw x| 
]
o
]x]

&| u

|}\

|}xa>^ a|,<|
p

 g
n

| 
a |]
\M^}
d
bp

b
K(u(2 )) 1/2C,

p fGk\

kS(2 )k kR(202 )k ,
R (u (2 )) R(2 ) = 0.

 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

p f \

:E<>=-7?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

<|z

d c,

\>]

1 2 o n

|xa

w}\
p

Z

2



2
A u() = A u1 2

|m

cmbcp

^%x

inf

(1 ,2 )

p`o c

kR()k2 d, ku()k = ku1 k2 ,

Ox>^ 
| u x&| }| \>|
|xa
o c p e c d
p
o 
n
p fGk\
u z ^
^ aw
|
a>^ \M^
F
p`o 2 1 1 (r0 ) d 1 ()

u
\>]
]
1 (0) = 0
1 (t) 6= 0
t > 0 c
j

kR()k

E
w
|& @$E$WTY+=I ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=
hu, Ri = hu, si = hR, si = 0
q `
p o

Du f = hDu f, ui
C BZ TA[TI$FNp f \XVC BZ [@9=DOAK

^ aw

kf (u ())k2 = kf (u1 )k2 ,

z ^
]
^ |}\M^kj
u
w
d
bp
n
c 2
w}0<
|  g | a|r] i wkx| ]
p
p
n d
b
o
x
|xa>^ a|`a>^%\
c$o
2 1 o n
\
a  i a&] u
 u
|
no c
r
p
c
c

e
p
(
)

r0 = min 1,

c$o

ku ()k

= 0,

u
hDu f, Ri
R + S,
2 +
kuk
kRk2


2 


= 2R,
A u ()

kf (u ())k2

= 0.

;H W\Odb ^ E ^ T[ IAWTE ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=VX C ^ EVcBA> E KmM ^ = Y\OH FWTY+=DKmAW\BDSZ9OAKRKL`f


 OH$E K ^ =AH BTF WT

f # ^ E
H OABTA cBA> E KRBTOH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BBD@ OYTEV> H9B$f

r =0
)FdZ E
Xa\
W B E 2 KROAOA1KEVZ E 0
b EEVZ E
1
20

r0 6= 0
K (u (2 )) = 1/2C
kS (u (2 ))k =
f
kR (u (2 ))k2
g FdZ [@9=DO
M =>$Z I ^ =A H BTFWTE
>9BDM$=AY+=DOW\F
I
b B OH$V
K (u (2 )) = 1/2C
2 1

WD=MJPjOTX$M$=M>9BDM$=?=H9='=H9=?Z9BDbAE$@$H9=IB OH$MV=_YQZ9OAKRKRO f f


BTTBDAH9=A@$E K2@ O ^ O D
W =M$[W\BD@V]
g FdZ [@9=DO
1
kR (u ( ))k2
kS (u (2 ))k = 20

M$[oH9=BDW ^ OAMO
XaH9=A@$E$H9=IFUMBDW\2B ^ BDSY\Fa> [YTC BZ H O H B 1H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B
[1 , 2 ]
f$1BDbe>=_E KROAOAK
2
1

kR (u (2 ))k , 1 < 2



R 2  kS(u())k 
kS (u(1 ))k
kS(u(2 ))k


d

= kR(u( ))k2
2
2

1 kR(u())k
2
kR(u( 1 ))k

R  kS(u())k 
1
d.
10
2 kR(u())k
2
1

kS (u ())k
1
20

10

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p fT?

+i

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

g@$E dF Z E KEB O H$E


K C BA> E$H$W\Ob ^ =?Z \
H BTO YT ^ =PjOH$E O>$Z I
X+[@$EV]
1 < 2
EJ[ ^ =YTH OH$E O$
> Z I
X
WTY+=IJBDC ^ dO >9OdZ9OH$E O
S
u ()

kS (u ())k
kR (u ())k2

2 hR, R i

kR (u ())k

kS (u ())k +

OAFdZ9BGPQH B)[+FWD=H BDYTE$WT X @$W\B

(kS (u ())k) =
W\Fa>=_C BZ [@9=DOAK



kS (u ())k

1 
2

(kS (u ())k)
kR (u ())k2

hS, S i
.
kS (u ())k





kS (u ())k  2 hR, R i


hS, S i

.


kS (u ())k +


2
4
2
kR (u ())k
kR (u ())k
kR (u ())k kS (u ())k

Y Z I

Y Z I

E KROAOAKoB OH$M$[


2 !

2




2
A
u,
u
A
u



u
u

kR k = A2
4 ku k .

2
2


kuk
kuk

|hS, S i|

E KROAOAKmB OH$M$[

D
E


|hS, S i| = S, (Du f ) +
e u +
eu + K R + KR =

@9=DOAK

D 
E



eu + KR .
= S, u + Lu u + Lu u + Lu Lu u + Lu f +

# ^ E KROH$E K B OH$M$EE$;Z9OAKRKL f fV"BDb
>=VX[@$E$WTY+=I-XV@$W\B
A 1 XC BZ [+]
|hS, S i| kSk

h


i
1 + 4C kuk + 4C2 kuk2 + 2C kf k ku k +


i
h 
+ kSk 16 1 + 4C2 kuk2 ku k + kKR k

 FC BZ TA[\OAKX @$W\B

hDu f, Ri

kR k kDu f k 4 ku k
kKR k = K kR k =
kRk
kRk2
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

"

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

(1 + 4C kuk) (1 + 2C kuk)
(1 + 4C kuk) kf k
ku k 4
ku k .
kRk
kRk

1BDbe>=QD[?>9OAKE9KROdWTFE FC BZ TGBDY+=H$E OGKoB OH$M$E>$Z I

E$ Z9OAKRKL


|hS, S i| kSk ku k 1 + 4C kuk + 4C2 kuk2 + 2C kuk (1 + 2C kuk) +


(1 + 4C kuk) (1 + 2C kuk) 
+ kSk ku k 16(1 + 4C2 kuk2 ) + 4

r0

 kSk ku k
kSk ku k
21 + 30C kuk + 104C2 kuk2
30 (1 + 2C kuk)2 .

r0
r0

 AWTEVcJB OH BDMJYTW\OM$=DOWQ>$Z IY\FAOdc


1 < 2



kS (u ())k  4 ku k kS (u ())k 30 (1 + 2C kuk)2 ku k



3
2
kR (u ())k2
kR (u ())k
r0 kR (u ())k
4 ku k
30 (1 + 2C kuk)2 ku k

+
10 kR (u ())k
r0 kR (u ())k2

14
+ 30 (1 + 2C kuk)2 ku k .
3
r0 10

 [ ^ =YTH OH$E$Ip f \?=DKROH$I$OAK


XVW\BDbe>=
u



kS (u ())k 


14


2

+
30
(1
+
2C
kuk)
kR
(u
())k
+
kD
f
k

u
kR (u ())k2 r03 10


14
2
+
30
(1
+
2C
kuk)
ku
()k
+
kf
k
(1
+
C
kuk)

r03 10





m(
u )
1 4
ku ()k + kuk (1 + C kuk)2 =:
.
3
+ 30 (1 + 2C kuk)2
r0 10
r03

W\Fa>=_EE 'p fT?aE KROAOAK

1
1

2 1
20
10



m
u
r03

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

$

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

WTM$[?>=_EC BZ [@9=DOAKmB OH$M$[ ^ =AH BTFWTE


*
2 1 2 1

(2 1 )

1
r03
.

20 m(
u )

`OAKRK=j>9BDM$=?=H9=Vf

g2>=?Z TH OS$_OAK2KL [YTEV> E
K X@$W\BQ?CVZ9BAcBDSFdZ [@9=SE]AW\BW\BDWFdZ [@9=S/XMB]
b
>=
BT =Q=DOW\F
IY_H$[?Z f # BDAW\BTKL['H9=DKD[?>9OW_H$[PQH9=jFdZ9Od> [_=I'Z9OAKRK=VX
S () ^
?YTY\BA> IVQ=I
E$ H$[?Z
I Df



S ()

] x
a>^ &| |}\ ^ |}\
& | u
|

p q u1
r
p
n o p
p c
r
e p ku1 k = u d

&| |}\>|z}|
|xa>^ a| p f \}u z ^ b ] x>^%jj
u
^ |}\M^%j
&
]
p
o n
d C
b
n
c u
bvp
n
<|z u ^ wkx]
]
S (u1 ) = 0
d c

988*-# f [ i w



E
1
A u1 < ku1 k
2

g\
|jh|ma|
&| x>^kj4^ a
o n
c prqprc
p
\>]
]
1 b cd ce

(
p

u = e





A u1 A u ,

x\M^ _`^ a]


prc u ep | g
eH
u()
n d

he,ui
u
kuk2

he,Ri
R,
kRk2

u()|=1 = u1

a ^ w}
&|^ u
| \>]
|xa>^ a w| | a| _`^ a]
e > 0 prc
(1 , 1 + e) o n
c d p
ep

n
p
S (u ()) 6= 0,

ku()k = ku1 k ,







A u() = A u1 ,

kf (u())k2 kf (u1 )k2 + C1 ( 1 )2 ,

1b
kS ()k|= C.
1
2
^ w
F]
^ |}\M^%j
u
d q
b,p
n
c C < .

C BZ [@9=;W\FeIQH9=Y\FAOAKBDWD]
|
^%x w
| f =Y\OH FWTY+= >$Z 1 I
ku ()k , A u()
cmb cp
q p`o
^ OAMOTX"be>9O'E KROAOWFKLFeZ [ ^ =YTH OH$E O'>$Z I u () f9;cBTTBTFH BDY+=H$E O=H9=?Z9BDbAE$@$H9B

>9BDMV=?=W\OdZ \FW\YT[WD=M$EVcPjO ^ =Y\OH FWTY'Y_Z9OAKRK=?c f jE f Vf


Y =?Z9OAOTX$E KROAOAK

S () = Du f

hDu f, ui
hDu f, Ri
u

R,
kuk2
kRk2

 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

+

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

S ()

= (Du f )

hDu f, Ri
hDu f, ui
u
+
R
kuk2
kRk2

=u + Lu u + Lu u + Lu f + Lu Lu u
hD f, ui
u 2 u
gTO ^ OAK

kuk

hDu f,

kRk

Ri
2

hDu f,

kRk

hDu f, ui
kuk2
Ri

p f Gi\

R .

WD=M/X$@$W\BTDYTC BZ H$IZ E F'[+FdZ9BDYTE$I

kek = 1, Ae = e, hu1 , ei = hR(u1 ), ei = 0,




hDu f (u), Ri kRk1 |=1 = 0,


hDu f (u), ui kuk2

W\B_Y\BDGKRB?PQH B)Y)FEVZ ['Z9OAKRKL


1OC O ^ X [@$E$WTY+=IYTTB ^

|=1 = 0 .

f Tf
p f\X ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=p fGi\E

u |=1 = e,

R |=1 = A2 u

Y)FEVZ [[+FdZ9BDYTE$Ip f >$Z I

p f\

2
A u
kuk2

S () |=1

2 !
A u
kuk2

C BZ [@9=DOAK

= (1 ) e,
=1

S () |=1 =
= e + Lu1 e + Lu1 e + Lu1 Lu1 e + Le f (u1 )
(u1 )e + K(u1 )(1 )e =

= [1
(u1 ) + K(u1 )(1 )] e = Ke.

p f 

"=MUM$=MNC B[\FdZ9BDYTE$I$KoZOKRKL
X9W\B$XE FC BZ TGBDY+=YJB OH$M$EN>$Z I
0 < 1/2
E E$Z9OAKRKL f XVC BZ [@9=DOAK

(u1 )

1
1
kS () |=1 k K (u) C.
2
2

W\Bj>9BDM$=AY+=DOW'C BTFdZ9Od> H OAO`H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BQZ9OAKRKL`f

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

 C BZ9[@ OH$H BDbGB_>$Z I

S (1 )

W\OdZ9\=DOY

H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=)E ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=


p fG\

S () = ( 1 ) S (1 ) + ( 1 )2 O(1)

YTW\OMV=DOW F[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OWT=MVBDbAB


H$[?Z I-X$OAFdZ E
f
( , + e]
Y Z IB 9OdH M$E 1 1 E KROAOK

X@$W\BY\OdZ E$@$E$H9=

f (u ())

e > 0

kf (u ())k = kf (u1 )k + 2
Z



kS()k

hDu f, u ()i d =

hDu f, Ri
hDu f, ui
u+
R + S, u
2
kuk
kRk2
1
Z
hS(u()), ei d.
= kf (u1 )k2 + 2

= kf (u (1 ))k2 + 2

BDWGZ E$@$H9=BDW



d =

<9>9OAF)E FC BZ TGBDY+=H B)[ ^ =YTH OH$E9O>$Z I


f
u ()
W\Fa>=jEE$)p fG\C ^ EK=?Z c
C BZ 
[ @9=DOAKH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B_Z9OAKRKL>$Z I
1
fV`OAKRK=_>9BDMV=?=H9=Vf
f (u())

988
* -#% ->
# [ i w
& | u
|
b a>^ &| |}\ ^ |}\



xv&|
p

|}\>|z}|

prq u1 H

o n

prc






ku1 k = u , A u1 A u ,

 u

|xa>^ a| i w~x| >


] ^ p f \ ] x>^kjj
o
b
n

ep

|,^ w

prq

b kS(u1 )k < 101 kR (u1 )k2 ,


R (u1 ) 6= 0, K (u1 ) > C,

i a
>
z ^ b

]
x ^kjj
d C b
prc
n
[F\M^ w
]j^z}|
] ^
d pr$c o
oo d

c u

bp

^ |}\M^kj

 &"[
n

i w

prq S(u1 ) 6= 0

S(u1 ) = kS(u1 )k (re + z) ,

z ^
Qw x$\ u
Qa|}\&jh]$\>|
d r
c
o
e
u ^ |}\`] |}\
b
p
{x : Ax = x} z o p
\>] ^%j 2

e
r + kzk2 = 1
<|z
]a ^ w}
d c z 6= 0
c d p
prc

p f

aa
w| g w
^ aa
^ |}\E
n
p`o
n
o p
e G 1 =
u
|z}| a x a|z}| | |xa>^ a]

b
c q
d
G1 z H G
1

&| 0}x>^%j4^ a

b u ep |
u
bH







u)k kf (u1 )k) .
(kb
uk = ku1 k) A u
b = A u1 (kf (b
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

[F\]0

|m

|j
p

R (b
u) 6= 0



]
kS (b
u)k > kS(u1 )k .

^%x w
| =GBTD\OAKmH9=jH OAFMVBZ TMB)[WTY\O ^ P_>9OH$E$S/f
cmbcp
q p`o ^
f
,- ( R "!L-#%$#
z 6= 0
X$W\BDbe>=
X b
>9O
Y BDMV=P_OAKBDW)C ^ BDWTE$YTH BDbGB$f # [\FWT
z=0
S(u ) = kS(u1 )k e
e
f # ^ Od>9FWD=YTE K
Y YTEV>9O
XDb
>9O ]1FMV=?Z I ^ 1X
b G .
G 1
u1
u1 = c
e+u

c
e G1 , u
H
1
1BDbe>=VX$E FC BZ TA[TI[+FdZ9BDYTE$Ip f dX$E KROAOAK



Du 1 f (u1 ) = f (u1 ) + Lu1 f (u1 ) = u1 + L (u1 , u1 ) + Lu1 u1 + Lu1 L (u1 , u1 ) =


= [c
e+u
] + [L (c
e, c
e) + Lu c
e + L (
u, u
)] + [Lu c
e + Lu u
+ Lce c
e + Lce u
] +

+ [Lu L (c
e, c
e) + Lu Lu c
e + Lu L (
u, u
) + Lce L (c
e, c
e) + Lce Lu c
e + Lce L (
u, u
)] =
= c
e+u
+ L (
u, u
) + Lu u
+ Lu L (
u, u
) = c
e + f (
u) + Lu f (
u) =
= c
e + Du f (
u) .

p fmT

"=M$P_O E FC BZ TA[TIJ[\FdZ9BDYTE$Ip f dX$C BZ [@$E K

(u1 ) u1 = c
(u1 ) e +
(u1 ) u,



K (u1 ) R (u1 ) = K (u1 ) (1 (u1 )) e + K (u1 ) A2 u
(u1 ) u
.

 AWTEVc ^ =Y\OH FWTY'D[?>9OAK E KROWT

kS(u1 )k e = S(u1 ) = Du 1 f

< Du 1 f, u1 >
ku1 k2

u1

< Du 1 f, R >
kRk2

R=

= Du 1 f +
(u1 ) u1 + K (u1 ) R (u1 ) =
= c
e + Du f (
u) + c
(u1 ) e +
(u1 ) u
+


+K (u1 ) (1 (u1 )) e + K (u1 ) A2 u
(u1 ) u
=


2
(u1 ) e + D f (
= cK
u
)
+

(u
)
u

+
K
(u
)
A
u

(u
)
u

=
1
1
1
u

(u1 ) e + N
(u,u
cK
1) ,

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p f\

"

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

b
>9O
b G X =_BTTBDAH9=G@ OH$E O K
(u1 ) ]E$ Z9OAKRKL
N (u,u
)H
1
GBTKX KL2C B1Z [@$EVZ E

f f "=M$E KoBT ^ =?]

(u1 ) e + N
(u,u
kS(u1 )k e = cK
1) ,

b
>9O
E
]E$`BG> H BDbGBQC BG> C ^ BTFW ^ =H FWTY+=
X =
]E$ObGBQB ^ W\BDbGBDH9=?Z D]
N (u,u
1)
e e
G 1
H BDbGB_>9BDC BZ H OH$E$I-f # BDAW\BTKL[
E
(u1 ) e = S(u1 ) f
N (u,u
1 ) = 0 cK
B
XVC BDAW\BTKL[

hS (u1 ) , u1 i = 0

(u1 ) he, u1 i = cK
(u1 ) he, ce + u
(u1 ) .
0 = cK
i = c2 K

"=MM$=MC B[\FdZ9BDYTE$ Z9OAKRKL


b X1W\B$X/E FC BZ TA[\IB OH$M$[E$)Z9OAKRKL
K (u ) > C
f9Z9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ 1TH B$X
f X$E KROAOAK
c = 0.
K (u1 ) 6= 0
B_W\BDb
>=
fW\B_C ^ BDWTE$Y\B ^ O@$E$W'[\FdZ9BDYTE$
f # BZ [@ OH$H BTO
S(u1 ) = 0
S(u1 ) 6= 0
C ^ BDWTE$Y\B ^ O@$E O >9BDM$=AY+=DOWX9@$W\B
f
z 6= 0
WTY\O ^ P_>9OH$E9O f>9BDM$=?=H B$f

Y BDMV=P_OAKmW\OC O ^ X$@$W\B)F[_OAFWTYT[\OW)H OABTGc+BG> E KLSJH9=DK Y\OM$W\B ^ f
u
b
BTTBDAH9=G@$E KZ E$H OS$H$SBDC O ^ =W\B ^ X$>9OS FWTYT[;jE$SC ^ EM$=P_>9BTK
X O ^ O
M
u
C BQ`B ^ KL[?Z9O u



Mu g = g +
(u) g + K (u) A2 g + (Lu + Lu + Lu Lu ) g + Lg f (u) .
C ^ Od>9OdZ E KmC ^ E
Y\OM$W\B ^ ] [H$M<$E$
1

b
>9O

u () = eb

u ()

XVM$=M ^ O_OH$E O ?=?>=A@$E

hb
e, Ri
hb
e, ui
R (u) , u ()|=1 = u1 ,
2u
kuk
kRk2

eb = e1

he1 , u1 i
he1 , R (u1 )i
R (u1 ) ,
2 u1
ku1 k
kR (u1 )k2

=jY\OM$W\B ^
D[?>9OW)YT ^ =HJY'D[?> [_OAKf
e1
1BDbe>=VX$[@$E$WTY+=I ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=

XVC BZ [@9=DOAK

hu, Ri = hu, Si = hR, Si = 0






hb
e, Ri
hb
e, ui
2
u
R (u) = 0,
= 2 hu, u i = 2 u, eb
kuk

kuk2
kRk2


D
E
D
E
2
= 2 A2 u, u = 2 A2 u u, u =
A (u)

 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

"


hb
e, Ri
hb
e, ui
u
R (u) = 0,
= 2 hR (u) , u i = 2 R (u) , eb
kuk2
kRk2




hb
e, ui
hb
e, Ri
2

= 2 hDu f, u i = 2 Du f, eb
kf (u)k
u
R (u) =

kuk2
kRk2


< Du 1 f, u >
< Du f, R >
hb
e, ui
hb
e, Ri
=2 S (u ()) +
u+
R, eb
u
R (u) =
kuk2
kRk2
kuk2
kRk2


b
>9O

Pu

= 2 hS (u ()) , ebi ,

E
D
kS(u ())k2 = 2 S (u ()) , S (u ()) =


 E
= 2 S (u ()) , u +
(u) u + K (u) A2 u +
D
E
+2 S (u ()) , (Lu + Lu + Lu Lu ) u + Lu f (u) =


= 2 S (u ()) , Mu() u () = 2 Pu Mu() S (u ()) , eb ,

]BDC9O ^ =W\B ^ XV>9OS FWTYT[;jE$SJC B)`B ^ KL[?Z9O$*

Pu =

h, ui
h, Ri
R (u) .
2 u
kuk
kRk2

 AWTEVc ^ =Y\OH FWTY)C BTFdZ9O`E$H$W\Ob ^ E ^ BDY+=H$E$IJYTY\BG> E K


ku ()k = ku1 k ,






A u () = A u1 ,

kf (u ())k2 = kf (u1 )k2 + 2 ( 1 ) hS (u1 ) , ebi + ( 1 )2 O (1) ,

kS(u ())k2 = kS (u1 )k2 + 2 ( 1 ) hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , ebi + ( 1 )2 O (1) .

@$E$WTY+=I

BDC ^ dO >9OdZ9OH$E O
X[\FdZ9BDYTE$I B ^ \
W BDbGBDH9=?Z TH9BTFWTE
P
hu, Ri = hu, Si =
EJBDC ^ dO >9OdZ9OH$E O u @ O ^ O
X>$Z9I
E
C BZ [@9D
= OAK
hR, Si = 0
eb
e1
f (u ()) S(u ())

kf (u ())k2 = kf (u1 )k2 + 2 ( 1 ) hS (u1 ) , e1 i + ( 1 )2 O (1) ;

kS(u ())k2 = kS (u1 )k2 + 2 ( 1 ) hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , e1 i + ( 1 )2 O (1) .


 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

Tk

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

gaBDA\K KoW\OC O ^ W\BD@$M$[


EC BZ9BGPQE K
f9gTO ^ OAK
WT=M/X
>
u = u ( )

DaZ=`2 H9=DFW\1BZ TMVBjK=?Z=VX+@$W\2B >$Z I 2 pWT=M$PjOTX+M$=M'2E)>$Z I


@$W\BTD ^ =AH BTFWT

u2
YTC BZ H$IV;W\F
IJ2[\FdZ9BD1 YTE$Ip f XVW\B)OAFWT

u1

b kS(u2 )k < 101 kR (u2 )k2 .


R (u2 ) 6= 0, K (u2 ) > C,

1BDbe>=_E$ C BTFdZ9Od> H EVc ^ =Y\OH FWTY'E KROAOAK

ku2 k = ku1 k ,





A u 2 = A u 1 ,

kf (u2 )k2 = kf (u1 )k2 + 2 (2 1 ) hS (u1 ) , e1 i + ( 1 )2 O (1) ,

p f\

kS(u2 )k2 = kS (u1 )k2 + 2 (2 1 ) hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , e1 i + ( 1 )2 O (1) .

1OC O ^ XWD=MUM$=M
X9W\BC ^ E
BDC Od>9OdZ E KhY\OM$W\B ^ ] [H$M<$E$
R (u2 ) 6= 0
2 ^
X$MV=M ^ O_OH$E O ?=?>G= @$E
u ()

u = e
b
>9O

u2

]E$p f\X =

h
e,ui
u
kuk2

h
e,Ri
R,
kRk2

p f iTk\

u()|=2 = u2 ,

e G1 = {x : Ax = x}

WD=MVBDS/X$@$W\B

k
ek = 1, h
e, u2 i = h
e, R (u2 )i = h
e, S (u2 )i = 0,

e (u ())

=2



= K (u ())

=2

= 0.

"=MVBDSJYTTB ^
Y\BDAKRB?P_OHJY'FEVZ [[+FdZ9BDYTE$Iqp f \p%FAKfVZ9OAKRK= f?df
e
g@$E FdZ E K
C E
fn`=MEUYp f XYFEVZ [[+FdZ9BDYTE$I p f F
S (u ()) ^ = 2
[@ OW\BTK YTTB ^ = C BZ [@9=DOAK
e


S () =2 = e + Lu2 e + Lu2 e + Lu2 Lu2 e + Lef (u2 )
(u2 )
e+



e 2 )e
+K(u2 )(1 )
e= 1
(u2 ) + K(u2 )(1 ) e = K(u
e.
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p f iV?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

Y Z I

kf (u ())k2

kS(u ())k2
2

E KROAOAK
2

kf (u ())k = kf (u2 )k + 2
2

= kf (u2 )k + 2

hDu f (u) , u i d =

hS(u()), ei d =
p f iTi\

= kf (u2 )k2 + (3 2 )2 hS (0) , ei + (3 2 )3 O (1) =

e (u2 ) + (3 2 )3 O (1) ,
= kf (u2 )k2 + (3 2 )2 K



kS(u ())k = kS (u2 )k + 2 (3 2 ) hS(u ()), S (u ())i
=2
h
i

+ (3 2 )3 O (1) =
+ (3 1 )2 kS (u ())k2 + hS(u ()), S (u ())i
2

=2


e (u2 )2 + hS(u ()), S (u ())i
= kS (u2 )k2 + (3 1 )2 K

=2

+ (3 2 )3 O (1) .

# ^ E

YTY\BA>9O AWTEVc
YTTB ^
E$ +
[ FdZ9BDYTE$I
^ =Y\OH FWTY E FC BZ TGBDY+=H$
e
E ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B
f
e
hS(u1 ), ei = 0
S (0) = K
YTTO ^ OAK2O_O
ENC BZ9B?PQE K
fgTB ^
E
# BTKLE KRB
2
3 > 2
u3 = u (3 )
2 3
C BA> @$E$H$E Km[\FdZ9BDYTE$I$K

(u2 ) ,
2 (2 1 ) hS (u1 ) , e1 i > h3 2 i2 hS (0), ei = (3 2 )2 K
2 (2 1 ) hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , e1 i <


< (3 2 )2 kS (u ())k2 + hS(u ()), S (u ())i|=2 .

"=MVBDSJYTTB ^
E
Y\BDGKRB?PjOHp?=QFd@9OdW)YTTB ^ =
E
dX OAFdZ E
2 3
3 e1

(u2 ) =
2 (2 1 ) hS (u1 ) , e1 i > (3 2 )2 K


(u2 )2 + hS(u ()), S (u ())i|
= (3 2 )2 K
=2

(u2 )
K
>
(u2 ) + hS(u ()), S (u ())i|
K
=2
2

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p f i$\

Ti

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

p f i 

> g (2 (2 1 ) hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , e1 i) ,

b
>9O

g=

(u2 )
K
.
(u2 ) + hS(u ()), S (u ())i|
K
=2

p f iT\

]"K=?Z9BTO@$E FdZ9B$f+gaKROAFW\BC O ^ Y\BDbGB`H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=


Y OS FWTYTE$W\OdZ TH B +X C$[+FWT
>0
Yp f i$\Y\BDA\K K
E ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=
$

h
i
2 (u2 ) + .
2 (2 1 ) hS (u1 ) , e1 i = (3 2 )2 K

W\Fa>=oH9=SV>9OAK
E ObGBoC BG>9FWD=YTE K Y\BoYTW\B ^ BTOH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BhY
( )2
p f i$\f1BDbe>=)[VTOP_>=DOAKR3FeI-X@$2 W\B'C ^ ENYTC BZ H OH$E$E[+FdZ9BDYTE$Ip f i XTO ^ I
>0
>9BTFWD=W\BD@$H B'K=?Z KX9KRBGPQH B)[?>9BDYDZ9OWTY\B ^ E$WT'YTW\B ^ BTO H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BUp f i$\f
E
WT=M/XT@$W\BTDYTC BZ H$IZ9BTF
1OC O ^ jYTI$FH$E KX\MVBDb
>=`KRB?PQH B`YT ^ =WT
2 3
p f i f
,- (  "!"
 -.# -9
# [F\>]
|xa>^ a]] i w~x| ] p f w x$\>a  ^kx] ]a
o n
o
c
c o
e
c
] p f iT\ w \|z}| |}x|m] ^kx a
g b
p

p
q c
C ^ E
|
^%x w
|& Y OS FWTYTE$W\OdZ TH B X-YT@$E FdZ E K



cmb cp

q p`o

hS(u ()), S (u ())i

hS(u ()), S (u ())i|=2 =




S (u) , u () + Lu() +
D

+ S
+

Lu()

(u) , Lu () f

Lu() Lu()

o 

(u ())


o 

u ()

+
=2

=2

n
o 

S (u) , (e
(u ()) u) + (K (u ()) R (u ()))

=
=2


E
D


= S (u2 ) , u () + Lu2 + Lu2 + Lu2 Lu2 u () + Lu () f (u2 )
+ hS (u2 ) ,
e (u2 ) u + K (u2 ) R (u ())i|=2 .

# ^ E YTY\BG>9OAW\BDbGB ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=KL


FWTY+=DKLE

hu, Si = hR, Si = 0

Y\BTFC 
B Z TGBDY+=?Z9E F[\FdZ9BDYTE OAK
EJYTTB ^ BTK
Y [ ^ =YTH OH$E$Ep f iTk\f
Q
+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

=2

p fi

p f dX ^ =Y\OdH$]

 !"#&%' ()

:E<>=-7?

$

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

Y =?Z9OAOTXV>$Z I

C E
E$p f iTk\YTY\BA> E9K
R (u ()) ^ = 2


h
e, Ri
h
e, ui

u ()|=2 =
=

2u+
2R

kuk
kRk
=

u ()



h
e, R i
1

2u +
2 R
kuk
kRk
R (u ())|=2

1 (u2 )
u2
R (u2 ) ,
2
ku2 k
kR (u2 )k2
=2
h
i
= A2 (u2 ) u ()|=2 .
=

1OC O ^ XVC GB >9FWD=YTE$Y)C BZ [@ OH$H BTOYJp f i F;E FC BZ TGBDY+=H$E OAKmB OH BDME$;Z9OAKRKL
f X$H9=?cBA> E K




 1
1


,
+
hS(u ()), S (u ())i|=2 C0 K (u2 ) kS (u2 )k
ku2 k kR (u2 )k

?=YTE FE$WBDWQMVBDH FWD=H$WT


E$ [+FdZ9BDYTE$Iqp f?df
C0
C
W\Fa>=VXE FC BZ TA[\IB OH$M$[

@ O O e
E$jZOKRKL
K (u2 ) ^
K (u2 )
[\FdZ9BDYTE$Ip f \E$Z9OAKRKL f VXVC BZ [@9=DOAK
b
>9O

f X/='WT=M$PjO

e (u2 ) ,
hS(u ()), S (u ())i|=2 C1 K

b >9O
]_MVBDH FWD=H$WT=hp?=YTE F
IVQ=IhBDWMVBDH FWD=H$WT
E$N[+FdZ9BDYTE$I p f?dX>$Z I
C1
C
MBDW\B ^ BDS
1 b X?= b ]9MVBDH FWD=H$WT=E$Z9OAKRKL f fDW\KROWTE KX?@$W\BH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B
C C
C1 10
E b OAFWT'FdZ9Od>9FWTYTE O`YTTB ^ = b Y_Z9OAKRKRO f f
KROdP_>9[
C
C
C
 C B1Z [@ OH$H BDSNB OH$M$EJYTW\OM$=DOWUpY)FEVZ [
b dXV@$W\B g > 0 f
K>C
WTY\O ^ P_>9OH$E O f ij>9BDMV=?=H B$f

# BDMV=P_OAKX9@$W\B)YTC BZ H OH$E OH O ^ =Y\OH FWTYp f i Y\BDGKRBGPQH B'?=)F@ OW'YTTB ^ =
X$OAFdZ E 2
f Y Z IAW\BDbGB_H OABTGc+BG> E KRBQYTC BZ H OH$E O H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=p%F ^ =YTH$EV]
e1
r 0, 5
Y+=DOKZ9OYTO`EC ^ =YTO @9=DFWTEH O ^ =Y\OH FWTYUp f i 

2 (2 1 ) hS (u1 ) , e1 i > g (2 (2 1 ) hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , e1 i) .

)FdZ E

XRW\BYM$=A@9OFWTY\O

P Mu1 S (u1 ) = 0
]E$`C ^ Od>9FWD=YDZ9OH E$I
e1 = re
r
XVbeu>91O

e1

KRBGP_OAK

YT ^ =WT XH9=C ^ E KRO ^ X

S(u1 ) = kS(u1 )k (re + z) .


 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

p f i&T

:E<>=-7?

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

)FdZ EJP_O

Pu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) 6= 0

W\OdZ9\=DOY

XVW\BQ?=C$E$_OAK C ^ Od>9FWD=YDZ9OH$E9O

P Mu1 S (u1 ) = 1 e + 2 z + d,
b
>9O

f
hd, ei = hd, zi = 0
= FAFAKRBDW ^ E9KoFH9=A@9=?Z=)FdZ 
[ @9=S
f
D
d 6= 0
gUAW\BTKNFdZ [@9=DOYTDE ^ =DOAK
d f?1BDbe>=H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BQp f i&TC ^ OY ^ =WTE$W\FeI
e1 = kdk
Y)FdZ9Od> [;_OAO$*

0 > 2g (2 1 ) kdk ,

MBDW\B ^ BTOBD@ O YTEV> H B)YTC BZ H$I$OW\F


IJY)FEVZ [C BZ9BGPQE$W\OdZ TH9BTFWTE
f
g
1OC O ^ ^ =DFAFAKRBDW ^ E KoFdZ [@9=S
f$1BDbe>=
d=0

Pu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) = 1 e + 2 z.


g

AW\BTKFdZ [@9=DO
D[G>OK2E FM$=WTJYYTEV>9O
f-"BDb
>=H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B
e
e1 = 1 e + 2 z
p f i&TC ^ OY ^ =Q=DO1W\F
IJY





kS(u1 )k 1 r + 2 kzk2 > g 1 1 + 2 2 kzk2 .

p f i$\

ghFdZ [@9=DOTX OAFdZ EBDWGZ E$@ OHNBDWQH$[?Z IJBDC ^ Od>9OdZ E$W\OdZ


r
kzk2
=
1 2 kzk2

W\BN@$E FdZ=
E
KRB?PQH BNYT ^ =WTWD=M/XL@$W\BTDZOdY+=I@9=DFWTop f i$\DaZ=NC B]

Z9BGPQE$W\OdZ TH BD1 S1X9=2 C ^ =Y+=I@9=DFWT ^ =YTH$IZ=DFQH$[?Z _fVgAW\BTK FdZ [@9=DO;H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B
p f&
i TaD[?>9OW)YTC BZ H OH B$f
f
# BDMV=P_OAKX @$W\BQBDC ^ Od>9OdZ E$W\OdZ
6= 0
f
,- (  "!"
 -T# S-#>[F\>] 2
| \M^ ^kx] ^kx
r 0, 5
d
p
q 6= 0
f$"B]
|
^%x w
|& Y BDMV=P_OAKmBDWQC ^ BDWTE$YTH BDbGB$f # [+FWT)BDC ^ Od>9OdZ E$W\OdZ
=0
cmb cp
q p`o
b
>=)Y\OM$W\B ^ =
E
BDM$=PQ[W\F
IC ^ BDC B ^ $E BDH9=?Z TH KLE/f"B'OAFWT
S(u ) P Mu1 S (u1 )
F[_OAFWTYT[\OW)MBDH F1WT=H$WT= u1 XV@$
W\B



# ^ Od>9FWD=YTE K

p f i$\

Pu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) = 1 S(u1 ).


YYTEV>9O

X be>9O

]NFMV=?Z I ^ X
e G1 =

u1
u1 = Ce
e+u
e
C
E KROAOAK
G f$"BDb
>=_E$p f\Ep f iTk\
{x : Ax = x} u
eH
1
X

S (u1 ) = C [
e+
(u1 ) e + K (u1 ) (1 (u1 )) e] + N (u1 ) ,
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p f Tk\

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=


b
>9O

G f9W\Fa>=
N (u1 ) H
1
e (u1 )
kS (u1 )k r = C K

EVZ E

C=

kS (u1 )k r
.
e (u1 )
K

p f V?

X b
>9O
R
]jE$JC ^ Od>9FWT=YDZ9OH$E$I
;p f Tk\_Z9ObAMBq?=DKROWTE$WT X@$W\B
e = e
e
S (u1 ) =
f # BDAW\BTKL[
f

kS (u1 )k (re + z)

1OC O ^ '[VKLH BGPQE K

u1 = Ce + u
e
FM$=?Z I ^ H BQH9= X$W\BDb
>=
Pu1 Mu1 S (u1 )
e

hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , ei = hMu1 S (u1 ) , Pu1 ei .

g@$E FdZ E K

P u1 e

Pu1 e = e

he, u1 i
he, R (u1 )i
C2
C 2 (1 )2
f (u1 ) =
u

R
(u
)
=
e
e
e+M
1
1
ku1 k2
kR (u1 )k2
ku1 k2
kR (u1 )k2


kS (u1 )k2 r2 (1 )2 
kS (u1 )k2 r2
f (u1 ) ,

e+M
= 1
e (u1 )2
e (u1 )2
ku1 k2 K
kR (u1 )k2 K

b
>9O f
b G f
M (u1 ) H
 FC BZ TA[TIAW\B ^ =1Y\OH FWTY\B$XLWT=MM$=M
b X ku1 k kR (u1 )k X"W\BNY
K (u ) > C
FdE$Z [[+FeZBDYTE$Iqp f \E$ Z9OAKRKL f _C BZ [@9=DOAK 1




1 
1
c (u1 ) , be>9O
c (u1 )
P u1 e = 1
e+M
.
M

b
b
5C
2C

# BDAW\BTKL[+X?E FC BZ TA[TIjB OH$M$EE$Z9OAKRKL f EC BZ [@ OH$H$OYT_OFABTBDWTH BD_OH$E$I-X


D[G>OK E KROWT

hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , ei =


D


E
= S (u1 ) + Lu1 + Lu1 + Lu1 Lu1 S (u1 ) + LS(u1 ) f (u1 ) , Pu1 e +
D


E
+
e (u1 ) S (u1 ) + K (u1 ) A2 (u1 ) S (u1 ) , Pu1 e
D


E
e (u1 ) r he, Pu ei kS (u1 )k K (u1 ) A2 (u1 ) z, Pu e
kS (u1 )k K
1
1
kPu1 ek kS (u1 )k

K (u1 )

100

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY



K (u1 ) 
1
e

kS (u1 )k K (u1 ) r 1
K (u1 ) 2

2
b
100
2C


kS (u1 )k e
K (u1 ) .
4

p f Ti\

gC T
B FdZ9Od> H OAKNH9O ^ =Y\OdH9FdWTY\OaE FC BZ TGBDY+=H B[WTY\O ^ P_>9OH$E9OZ9OAKRKL f
B YT?=E KLH BDS
B OH$MO
E e
X =_WD=M$P_O C ^ Od> C BZ9B?PjOH$E I-X @$W\B 2
E
f
1
K (u ) K (u )
< 16
r2 0, 5
FMV=?Z I ^ H B)H9= XVW\BDb
>2=
Y =?Z9OAOTX$[V1KLH B?P_=DOAK 1

Pu1 Mu1 S (u1 )

|hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , zi| = |hMu1 S (u1 ) , Pu1 zi|


D
E




S (u1 ) + Lu1 + Lu1 + Lu1 Lu1 S (u1 ) + LS(u1 ) f (u1 ) , Pu1 z +
D


E


e (u1 ) S (u1 ) + K (u1 ) A2 (u1 ) S (u1 ) , Pu1 e
+





C0 kzk Lu1 + Lu1 + Lu1 Lu1 S (u1 ) + LS(u1 ) f (u1 ) +
D


E


+
e (u1 ) z + K (u1 ) A2 (u1 ) z, Pu1 e kS (u1 )k +

p f $\

e (u1 ) kS (u1 )k r.
+ |he, Pu1 zi| K

1OC O ^ 'E FC BZ TA[\OAKmH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=





1
2
c

2
,
A z 2 kzk , M (u1 )
b
2C


^ =Y\OH FWTY\B P e = 1 1 e+ M
c (u1 ) XD=WT=M$PjOH O ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=Z9OAKRKL
u1
b
E$p f $\YTY\BA> E K

f X?W\BDbe>=

5C

1e
(u1 ) kS (u1 )k kzk2 .
|hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , zi| K
5

p f  

p f Ti\Ep f  aH9=?c+BG> E KmFABTBDWTH BD_OH$E O

e (u1 ) kS (u1 )k kzk2


4
|hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , zi|
1/5K
kzk2 .

kS(u
)k
1
e (u1 )
|hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , ei|
5
K
4

E
Y O H$
\
Y Z IFM$=?Z I ^ H$acC ^ BDE$AY\Od>9OH$E S
hS (u1 ) , ei hS (u1 ) , zi ^

hS (u1 ) , ei = kS (u1 )k r, hS (u1 ) , zi = kS (u1 )k kzk2 .


 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p f T\
^ =Y\OH FWTY+=

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

&

W\F>=

hS (u1 ) , zi
kzk2
=
> 2 kzk2 .
hS (u1 ) , ei
r

^ = YTH$E$Y+=DOAK C BZ9[@ OH$H BTO`F)p f T\f R


K OAOAKmF[@ OW\BTK C ^ BDC B ^ $E BDH9=?Z TH9BTFWTE
Y\OdM W\B ^ D
B Y
E
%p FAKf1p f $
i \

S(u1 )

Pu1 Mu1 S (u1 )

|hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , zi|


4
hS (u1 ) , zi
=
kzk2 .
2 kzk2 <
hS (u1 ) , ei
|hPu1 Mu1 S (u1 ) , ei|
5

fW\BC ^ BDWTE$Y\B ^ O@$E$W


# BTFdZ9Od> H9OOKRB?PjOWDWTYTC BZ H OH BqW\BZ TMVBUC ^ E
z = 0

P >9OH$E$ f Tf
WTY\O ^ _
# BZ [@ OH$H BTO C ^ BDWTE$Y\B ^ O@$E9O >9BDMV=AY+=DOW WTY\O ^ P_>9OH$E O f Vf

=M$E KmBT ^ =GBTKX$H9=DKLEJC BDM$=?=H B$X$@$W\B_YTC BZ H OH$E O`H O ^ =Y\OH FWTYUp f i Y\BD]
"
KRBGPQH BQ?=QF@ OW)YTTB ^ =
X$OAFdZ E 2
f
e
r 0, 5
KRB?PQH BYT ^ =WT
WT=M/X-@$W\BTD YTC BZ H$I]
Z9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH B$X1C ^ E 1 2
r 0, 5
e1
Z9BTFp f $
i \`pC ^ EK=?Z ac
E
df

3 2
1OC O ^ Y p f iTi\`Y\BDA\KR2OAK 1
fL1BDbe>=VX"[VKROH$TjE$YUC ^ EH OABTAcBA> E KRBTFWTE
=
EJC BZ9BGPQE$Y
XVE$`C O 3^ YTac ^ =Y\OH FWTYNp f \aEp f iTi\C BZ [@9=DOAK

2 1

u
b = u (3 )

kf (b
u)k = kf (u (3 ))k kf (u1 )k ,

=jE$ YTW\B ^ ac ^ =Y\OH FWTYUp f\Ep f iTi\YTY\BA> E KoFW ^ BDbGBTO H O ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B

kS (b
u)k = kS (u (3 ))k > kS (u1 )k .

"=M$E KmBT ^ = GBTKX C ^ E 2


[WTY\O ^ P_>9OH$E O Z9OAKRKL2>9BDM$=?=H B$f
r 0, 5
D
=
A
F
A
F
R
K
D
B
W
E
o
K
\
W

O
C
O
'

d
F
Z

[
9
@

=
S
f$"BDb
>=
f

^
^
r2 < 0, 5
kzk2 0, 5
gAW\BTKFdZ [9
@ =DOY\BDA\K K
X
E2BDC ^ Od>9OdZ E KY\OM$W\B ^ ]
0 6= e G 1 k
ek = 1
[H$<
M $E$
C ^ E
X$MV=M ^ O_OH$E O`FdZ9
Od> [;_OSJ?=?>=A@$E
u ()

u = e

h
e,ui
u
kuk2

h
e,Ri
R
kRk2

h
e,Si
S,
kSk2

p f

u()|=1 = u1 .

gTB ^
C BG> @$E$H$E K>9BDC BZ H E$W\OdZ TH$Ko[\FdZ9BDYTE$I$K
e



h
e, u1 i = h
e, R (u1 )i = h
e, S (u1 )i = (
(u ())) =1 = (K (u ())) |=1 = 0

p f &T

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

$

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

W\BQY\BDGKRBGPQH B)Y)FEVZ 
[ Z9OAKRKL fTf
@$E$WTY+=IYTTB ^ p f &TX [+FdZ9BDYTE Op f dX=QWD=M$P_O`[+FdZ9BDYTE$IB ^ W\BDbGBDH9=?Z TH BD]

FWTE

hu, Ri = hu, Si = hR, Si = 0

X$Y\O ^ H$O C BQC BTFW ^ BTOH$E$_X E KROAOK

S (u ()) |=1 =




p f $\
= u + Lu1 + Lu1 + Lu1 Lu1 u +Lu f (u1 )+
u +(KR) |=1 =
e.
= e +
e + K (R (u ())) |=1 = e +
(
u) e + K (1 ) e = K

Y Z I

S (u ()) |=1 = 0

C BZ [@9=DOAK

S (u ()) |=1 =



= u + (Lu + Lu + Lu Lu ) u + Lu f (u) + (
u) + (KR) |=1 +


+ (Lu + Lu + Lu Lu ) u + L u (f (u)) |=1 .

1OC O ^ $
X E FC BZ TA[TI[+FdZ9BDYTE$Ip f dX ^ =Y\OH FWTY+=
EYTTB ^
hS, ui = hS, Ri = 0
p f $\XVC B Z 
[ @9=DOAK


E
D

(u) u + K (u) (R (u)) |=1 +
hS, S i =1 = S (u) , u +

Y Z I

D
E
+ S (u) , (Lu + Lu + Lu Lu ) u + Lu f (u) |=1 =
E
D


= S (u) , u +
(u) u + K (u) A2 u |=1 +
D
E
+ S (u) , (Lu + Lu + Lu Lu ) u + Lu f (u) |=1 .
u

E$`[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I>$Z I


XV[@$E$WTY+=IYTTB ^
u ()

p f &TX$H9=SV>9OAK





he
e, Ri
he
e, Si
he
e, ui

u
R
S |=0 =
u =1 =

kuk2
kRk2
kSk2



S (u1 )
u1
(1 ) R (u1 )
=
he
e, S (u)i =0
.
2
2
kuk
kRk
kS (u1 )k2
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

p f $\

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

# BA>9FWT=YDZ IVI

$

=Y\OH FWTY\Bp f $\X[@$E$WTY+=I-X-@$W\B

u ^
hS, ui = hS, Ri = 0
X$E KROAOAKmFE FC BZ TGBDY+=H E OAKoB OH BDMJZ9OAKRKL f
S (
u) = kS (
u)k z H G1
X

hS, S i |=1 =
h
D
E
i
(u1 ) 1 +
K
(u1 ) + K (u1 ) ( A2 z, z (u1 ) kzk2 ) C1 K (u1 )


(u1 ) 1 +
K
(u1 ) + K2
C1 K (u1 )
2


1
(u1 ) 1 +
K
(u1 ) + K (u1 ) C1 K (u1 ) ,
16

b
>9O`C BTFW\BGIVH$H9=I
?=YTE F E$WBDW
E$[\FdZ9BDYTE$Ip f?EWD=MVBDY+=VX $
@ W\B
C1
C
0 < C1
f
100
XA[@$E$WTY+=IYTTB ^ b p%FAKfAZ9OAKRKL[ f E
# BDAW\BTKL[ C ^ EjK?= Z ac
C
1
K (u1 ) >
V
X
E
R
K
A
O
A
O
K
b

kS (u ())k2 = kS (u1 )k2 + 2 hS (u) , S (u ())i |=1 ( 1 ) +


+2

Z  Z


kS (u ())k2 + hS (u ()) , S i d d =



2 (u1 ) K
(u1 ) (1 +
= kS (u1 )k2 + ( 1 )2 K
(u1 ) + K (u1 )) +

1
2 (u1 ) + ( 1 )3 O (1) .
( 1 )2 K
4
W\Fa>=YTW\OMV=DOWDX@$W\BC ^ EqK=?Z ac
Y\OdZ E$@$E$H9=
YFdZ [@9=DO
1
kS (u ())k

F
W
D
B
G
b
Q
B
\
Y
D
B

D
=

F
T
W
D
=

O

W
f
^
r2 < 0, 5 ^
X
E
# BDAW\BTKL[\XWD=M2MV=M2[ ^ =YTH OH$E Oop f  FABGc ^ =H$I$OW H B ^ KL
u () A u ()
XVW\B)KRB?PQH BQYT ^ =WT)W\BD@$M$[
WT=M$[_XV@$W\B
f (u ())
2 > 1
+ ( 1 )3 O (1) kS (u1 )k2 +

kS (u (2 ))k > kS (u (1 ))k , ku (2 )k = ku (1 )k ,








A
u
(
)
=
A
u
(
)


2
1 , kf (u (2 ))k = kf (u (1 ))k .

Z9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH B$X?YTDE ^ =I


XAC BZ [@9=DOAK[WTY\O ^ P_>9OH$E OZ9OAKRKLYFdZ [@9=DO
u
b = u (2 )
f
2

r < 0, 5

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

`OAKRK= fGkj>9BDM$=?=H9=_C BZ H BTFWTT_f


fRgY\Od>9OAK Y
]H OMBDW\B ^ o
S Y\OM$W\B ^ WD=MVBDS/XR@$W\B
# [\FWT

b
u1 H
ku1 k = u
^ =DFAFAKRBDW ^ OH$E O`@$E FdZ9B r(u ) FdZ9Od> [;jE KmBT ^ =GBTKF*
1

b
>9O

p f +k\

r(u1 ) = sup {kS(u)k} ,

supremum

TO ^ OWC BY\FAOAKNWD=M$E K
b XG>$Z IMVBDW\B ^ acYTC BZ H OH B[+FdZ9BDYTE O
uH







(kuk = ku1 k) A u = A u1 (kf (u)k kf (u1 )k) .

C ^ =Y\Od>$Z E$Y+=

9
 88*2-#%$$#9[ i
i
^%\ ^ a]
p`o
d
c
i ^
i& ^ w
c
p`o
&| u
|
ep
|

wkx]

p f  ?

j ^ w |wkx>^ i ]>^
b &| a>^ e a|j4^%\a| u p |z d c ]j4^ p 4
p
d
prq H
]
^ }| \
b ui d | o x>^ p`o |}\ ] i w~x| o ]j p f  ? prc
u
bH
po p
u

kS(b
u)k = r(u1 );

R (b
u) = 0



D
B
C
e
O

>
e
O

Z
d
O
H
$
E
I
FdZ9Od> [+OWXD@$W\BH9=SV>9OW\F
IQWD=M$=IjC BTFdZ9Od]
%^ x w
&|
^
mc b cp
q p`o
r(u1 )
r(u1 ) = + p

XT@$W\B`M$=P_>
SZ9OAKROH$WAW\BDSC BTFdZ9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH BD]
>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH BTFWT
u , u , ..., u , ...
FWTEJ[G>BDYDZ9OWTY\B ^ I$2O W'[\3FdZ9BDYTE n p f  ?EJYTC 
B Z H$I$OW\F
I ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B

p f +i\

lim kS(un )k = r(u1 ).

"=MM$=MC ^ BTFW ^ =H FWTY\B b MVBDH O@$H BTKRO ^ H B$XaW\Bp%OAFdZ EH$[PQH B$XC O ^ OdcBA> IoM
H
C BA> C BTFdZ9Od>9BDY=W\OdZ TH9BTFWTE;KRB?PQH BF@$E$WT=WT X@$W\B'C BTFdZ9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH9BTFWT
[HV]
u
>=DKROH$WD=?Z TH9=Y b EoC BDAW\BTKL[oE KROAOWC ^ Od>9OdZ TH$S2Z9OAKROH$Wf;TBDAH9=G@$En KObGB
H
f  KROAOAK
Y b
b<
u
bH
un u
b H
E BDb ^ =H$E$@ OH$H BTFWTE
E$p f +i\`E
# BDAW\BTKL[YUFEVZ [H9OdC ^ O ^ YTH BTFWTE
f ()
A
p f +k\C BTFW ^ BTOHH OABTAcBA> E KLSZ9OAKROH$WDXV>9BDM$=AY+=;jE$SC$[H$M$W Z9OAKRKL`f
c
KRBGP_OW DWT ^ =YTH$K
fn`=MjZ9ObAMVB;YTEV>9OWTE$aBDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$E$I
X E FdZ9B
r(u1 )
+
Y\OM$W\B ^ =
XAAW\BKRBGP_OW ^ OG=?Z E$GBDY+=WT\FeIW\BZ TMBYFdZ [@=DO
f # BDAW\BTKL[
S
kR(un )k 0
C$[H$M$WN WT=MJPjO>9BDMV=?=H/f
`OAKRK= fT>9BDM$=?=H9=_C BZ H BTFWTT_f

Y Z IJ[?>9BTTFWTY+=_>=?Z TH OS$jEVcFAFaZ9BDMNC ^ E$Y\Od>9OAKmYTW\OM$=;_OAO`E$`Z9OAKRK fGk
E fT
 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

7R3,-!"2-#%$#[ i w
a ^ a|j4^%\>a| u ] x'}x>^%j4^ a
b 4&| >
b o n
p q H
r
e
d
prc u1 H
|}xa>^ a| i wkx| ]>^ p f \ ] x>^k
j j
"F<|z u ^ wkx]

o
b
n
d c












ku1 k = u , A u1 < 2 ku1 k , A u1 A u ,
2

 u

z ^
]
^ |}\M^%j
d u
bvp
n
&| u
|
prc
e p

x(x g |z}|

jh|ma|

| w

\>| ]

b
prq u H


 



(ku k = ku1 k) A u = A u1 kf (u )k2 kf (u1 )k2 +

u x] g | x
| xa>^ w| a|] i w~x| 
] p f \X 
] x]
]Vx] g |
d
n
p
d
b
o
kR(u )k = 0
u o 
p f
 dX ]x] p f df
E
?X W\B;FC BTKRBDjT Z9OAKRKL f C BTF W ^ BDE K
|m
^%x w
|& )FdZ E
cmbcp
q p`o
S(u1 ) = 0 0
u

WT=MVBDS/X$@$W\B

OFdZ E

EYTC9BZ H OH B)[\FdZ9BDYTE O

{kS(
u )k 6= 0}

 





(ku k = ku1 k) A u
= A u1 kf (
u )k2 kf (u1 )k2 + .

)FdZ E

X1W\BNY>=?Z TH OS$_OAK YNM$=A@ OAFWTY\O


TO AO K
f # ^ EAW\BTKX
S(u1 ) 6= 0
u ^
u1
XVW\B)KRB?PQH BQYTAIVWT
f
S (u ) 6= 0
=0
)FdZ EQ>$1 Z I
Z E TB
XDZ E TB YTC BZ H$I$OW\F
I'BG> H B $
E [+FdZ9BDYTE$SNp f \X
u

kR(
u )k = 0

EVZ Ep f XVEVZ Ep f XVW\BQFdZ9Od>9FWTYTE OBDM$=PjOW\FeI>9BDMV=?=H$H Kf # ^ EAW\BTK YQM$=A@9Oe]


FdWTY\O
TO ^ OAK
f
u
u

H9=SV>OdH H$S
gC ^ BDWTE$YTH BTK
FdZ [@9=DOTX\C ^ E KROH$E$YjZ9OAKRKL[ fTjpC ^ E$H$E K=I'?=
u
dX+KLoC BTFW ^ BDE KY\OM$W\B ^ ] [H$M<$E$
XD>$Z I)MVBDW\B ^ BDSYTC BZ H$I$OW\F
1I'[WTY\O ^ P_>9Od]
u
u

H$E O Z9OAKRKL fT

)FdZ E

kS (
u)k = r (
u ) .

XaW\BmFABDbeZ=DFH BmC$[H$M$WT[ Z9OAKRKL fTqC BZ [@9=DOAKX@$W\B


r (
u ) =
f9Z9Od>9FWTYTE O >9BDM$=?=H B$X9OAFdZ EJC ^ E$H$IVWT)?=
H9=SV>9OH$H$S
f
kR(
u)k = 0
u
u

)FdZ E
XW\B>$Z IjC BTFW ^ BTOH$H BDb?B
C ^ BDY\O ^ I$OAKYTC BZ H OH$E O[\FdZ9BDYTE$S
r (
u ) <
u

EVZ E p f \XEVZ E p f XEVZ E p f 


f )FdZ Ec+BDWIoD BG> H BE$NAWTEVc
kR(
u)k = 0,
[\FdZ9BDYTE$SQYTC BZ H OH B$X\W\B;>9BDMV=?=W\OdZ \FWTY+B`FdZ9Od>9FWTYTE$IQ?=Y\O ^ _OH B$X\OAFdZ EQC ^ E$H$IVWT
G=
H9=SV>9OH$H$S
f
u
u

gC ^ BDWTE$YTH BTKoFdZ [@9=DO ^ =DFAFAKRBDW ^ E K

S (
u) = kS (
u)k (e + z) , e G1 , z H G1 , 2 + kzk2 = 1.
 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

[+cVWT= ^ \=S
Z [@9=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

H O Y\BDGKRBGP_OHY)FEVZ [Z9OAKRKL

fGkVf

kzk = 0
XDW\B C B;Z9OAKRKRO fGkVX\FABGc ^ =H$E$Y`H B ^ KL
E
XDH O[Y\OdZ EV]
0 < kzk 1
u
A u

@$E$Y+=I`H B ^ KL[
X?KRB?PQH B;FW ^ BDbGB[Y\OeZ9E$@$E$WT;H B ^ KL[
fW\BC ^ BDWTE$Y\B ^ O@$E$W
f (
u)
S (
u)
BDC ^ Od>9OdZ9OH$E$
XAM$=M`Z9OAKROH$WT=VXGH9=MBDW\B ^ BTK>9BTFWTE$bA=DOW\F
I
f # BDAW\BTKL[+X
u

supremum
>$Z INC BTFW ^ BTOH$H BDbGB
Y\FAObe>=D[?>9OWYTC BZ H OH BJBA> H BE$_[+FdZ9BDYTE$S
X
u

kR(
u)k = 0

)FdZ E

EVZ Ep f \dX$EVZ
E p f X$EVZ Ep f  f
Z9Od>9FWTYTE O >9BDMV=?=H B$f
K W\OC O ^ 'H OC BTF ^ dO >9FWTY\OH$H9B)M>9BDM$=?=W\OdZ \FWTYT[W\OAB ^ OAKL
# O ^ Odc+BG> E

cmb cp

^%x

# [\FWT

w
|
^ |}\M^%j
q `
p o p
n

&| a>^ 
a |j4^%\>a|}j w~x i ^m
e
e c

K
0 f # B_[+FdZ9BDYTE$ W\OAB ^ OAL

0
0
b E f = u0 + L(u,
u)
uH
0

fTf

 C f


A u

=DKH OABTAcBA> E KRBQC BZ [@$E$WT)B OH$M$[qp f?E$ W\OAB ^ OAKL fTXYQMBDW\B ^ BDS
`
E
C
G=YTE9F
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l
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H
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A u C ,

Y;FEVZ [ MBDH9Od@ H BTKRO ^ ]

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>=KRB?PQH BC BZ [@9=WTB OH$M$[JYTEV>=Up f?X9YMBDW\B ^ D
B SUMBDH FWT=H$WT
H,
?=YTE F
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OH$H BTFWTH9=_OSW\OAB ^ AO KLFABTFW\BDE$W
E KROH$H BYW\BTKX@$W\BYH OSC BTFW\B?IVH$H$O
E
H O?=YTE F
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= GKRO ^ H BTFWTE
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u 1,

p f "\

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u f
,

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4

u 1 u > 102 A u u >
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EVZ Ep f XVEVZ Ep f \XVEVZ Ep f f

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0 dX1FW ^ BDE K Y\OM$W\B ^ 1
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E p f \X$EVZ Ep f f
0

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X+[?>9BDYDZ9OWTY\B ^ IV;jE$SBA> H BTKL[)E$;[\FdZ9BDYTE$Sqp f \dX+EVZ E
0 dXFW ^ BDE K 1
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XEVZ E
1
0 dXFW ^ BDE K
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E p f X$EVZ Ep f f
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YTC BZ H OH BQp f \XGW\BC BZ TA[TI$FFdZ9Od>9FWTYTE OAK

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# ^ B OAFAFa>9BZ j
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n+1

u = u (2 )

f jp%YTDE ^ =IjY;Z9OAKRKRO
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p f "\

4n,1

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d(4n,1 ) (rn )
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u()

]/FW ^ D
B bGB`KRBDH BDW\BDH$H9=IQH OABDW ^ E<9=W\OdZ \H9=I) [H$M<$E$I-XDWD=M$=I_@$W\B
u ()
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C ^ E
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YZ9OAKRKRO
XEqC BZ [@$E KX/@$W\B>$Z I
n FW ^ BDE K n+1
u1 = u
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n+1

YTC BZ H OH B

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2
2
 n+1 n 

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 n+1 n   n+1 n   n+1 n







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b
>9O

]?= ^ =H OAO`YT ^ =H$H BTOK=?Z9BTO @$E dF Z9B$f

H OC Od]
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K =
H O
c ^ =H OH$E OAKoH B ^ KL4*
n+1 n p FKfLp f "\X"p f "\X1p f Tk\edX=_H B ^ 
A u
u = u
Y\BD ^ =DFdWT=DOWf
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j=1

H =`W\O
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2

n+1
b
A u + 2.
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gH9=jEVcC BTFW ^ BTOH$E$IcJY\BDGKRBGPQH Q


B > Y+=QFdZ [@9=IE*
C ^ B  OAFF`MVBDH O@ OH/X$W\B)OAFWT'BT ^
Y+=DOW\F
IJH9=_H OMBDW\B ^ BTK
C ^ B  OAFAFTOAFMBDH O@ OH/f

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j+1

p f Ti\

BT Y+=DOW\FeI-X\OAFdZ EQC ^ E
9? ;>B D
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N 2

n N 
o n N  o


R u = 0 f u u .

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N 
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N

u = u f u .

 
# BDAW\BTKL[Y)FdZ [@9=DO Y\FAOb
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N
b
>9O

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f u u



2   2   2
2
N


b
A u + 2,
u f u f u + 4 C

p f $\


7/8 1/
2


/
2
4
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.
A u

"=M MV=M C BNC ^ Od> C BZ9B?PjOH E$I$K

W\OAB ^ OAKL


X$W\B_E$p f $\C BZ [@9=DOAK

u 1


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A u C


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/ 2
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p f 

b
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= max {7/8, 1 /}
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2(1)


/ 2
2 2
+
2
2
+
C
16000
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+
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)
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(1)

1
+

C
u
,
f u

1

b
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+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

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& !"

X$MVBDb
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= FAFAKRBDW ^ E KoW\OC O ^ D
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FeZOe>FdWTYTE I f`C ^ E KROH$I$OW\FeINBG> H9=QE$ Z9OAKRK f _EVZ E f Vf9"=M$E KBT ^ =GBTKX9Y\BD]
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M ]QFdZ [@9=S/XMVBDb
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2 X (1)
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j1

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2
2
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n
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H
C BZ H BTFWTT_f
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>= TOAFMVBDH O@$H BTO@$E FdZ9B

=
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2 X (2)
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u, u, ...
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# BDAW\BTKL[N>=?Z TH OS$jE$SC$[WT>9BDMV=?=W\OdZ \FW\Y+=ZOKRKL f)BDC$E ^ =DOW\F
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0

t
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1/2

H O?=YTE FE$WBDW
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f
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+ 1/2 + < 1
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+1/2

T r
A

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Z 1
2 



+1/2 2
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2 +1/2

T (u1 u2 ) dy+
v0 kA T (u1 u2 )k + kA v0 k A
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+1/2
T (u1 u2 ) kA T u1 k2 + kA T u2 k2
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2

+1/2

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T u 1 + A
kA T (u1 u2 )k A
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+ e

1OC O ^ _E FC B Z TA[+OAKC B Z 


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=0

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C kv0 kH1 ku1 u2 kH1 + 2 e ku1 kH1 + ku2 kH1 ku1 u2 kH1 .

1OC O ^ YTTO ^ OAKFH9=G@9=?Z=


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> 0

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ku1 u2 k .
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Z=DFH B;MVZ=DFAFE$@ OAFMVBTKL[C ^ E$H<$E$C$[FePQE K=;jEVcBDW\BT ^ =P_OH$E$S/X
C ^ E
[ =YTH OH$E O p!f T_E KROAOW ^ O_OH$E OTf # BDAW\BTKL[mE KROAOW ^ O_OH$E O
kgk
1 ^
p!f \dfZ9HOd1>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH B$X9E KROAOW ^ O_OH$E O'p!f i\f
Y\FAOdc
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M
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b
>9O

kuj kH1 C1
C1
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X
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f
, u ) = fj
0<C < u
uj + B(u
"=MM$=M
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:E<>=-7?

Tk

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

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FEVZ TH BUFcBA>9E$W\F
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# BDAW\BTKL[
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u
v H1
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FcBA> E$W\FeIM jk f-Z9Od>9BDY+=W\OdZ TH B$X
v) = f0
f0
v + B(v,
f0 M
f
M =M
"=MQMV=M
BG> H BDY ^ OAKROH$H B`BDWTM ^ W\BE_?=DKLM$H$[W\B$XDW\BBDH B>9BZ PQH B DWT EVZ E
M
C$[\FWTK KLH BGP_OAFWTY\BTK EVZ E2FABDYTC9=?>=WTmFABY\FOAKC ^ BTFW ^ =H FWTY\BTK
f # [+FWTK
H1
BDH BNH OKRB?PjOWqDWT XLWT=M MV=MmFABA>9O ^ PQE$WXRC BUM ^ =S$H OSmKRO ^ OTXLH$[?Z U] Z9OAKROH$W
f # BDW\BTKL[Z9OAKRK=j>9BDMV=?=H9=Vf
C ^ BTFW ^ =H FWTY+=
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# BZ9BGPQE K

= v1 v2
 0
+ A + B(, v1 ) + B(, v2 ) = 0,
(t) |t=0 = 0.

= et v (t) ,

u (t) = T v =

v + Av + v = u

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f 1BDbe>=_C BZ [@$E K

u = B (T u, v1 ) B (v2 , T u) .

W\Fa>=VX$[@$E WTY+=I[\FdZ9BDYTE$IJgTXVE KROAOAK

kukH C




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+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

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f$"B)OAFdWT X9OAFdZ E
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u=0
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)L> E$H FWTY\OH$H BTFW\ ^ O_OH$E$I'>9BDM$=?=H9=Vf # BD1AW\BTKL2['>9BDM$=?=W\OeZ9\FWTY\BQC$[H$M$WT=_=\
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fm f "OAB ^ OAK=)ij>9BDMV=?=H9=QC BZ H BTFWTT_f



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988* #%$# ^%\
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f (x) =

pVf?

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{m}

fm = (fm1 , fm2 , fm3 ) , fk (x) =

fmk eihm,xi , k = 1, 2, 3.

{m}

# [\FWT'FH9=A@9=?Z=

f (x) W21 (Q)

div f (x) =

f$1BDbe>=

[fm1 m1 + fm2 m2 + fm3 m3 ] ieihm,xi =

{m}

{m}

grad

e
4

e
4

1

1

hfm , mi ieihm,xi ,

div f (x) =

div f (x) =

hfm , mi ihm,xi
,
2 ie
|m|
m6=(0,0,0)
P

hfm , mi
ihm,xi
m6=(0,0,0) |m|2 m1 e
P
, mi
m2 eihm,xi
m6=(0,0,0) hfm
|m|2
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E KROAOW)YTEV>

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{m} fm1 e

ihm,xi

P
ihm,xi
F f (x) =
{m} fm2 e

P
ihm,xi
{m} fm3 e

hfm , mi
m1 eihm,xi
|m|2
P
hfm , mi
ihm,xi
m6=(0,0,0) |m|2 m2 e
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hfm , mi
ihm,xi
m6=(0,0,0) |m|2 m3 e
m6=(0,0,0)

pVf i\

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L (Q)
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IjY;W\BTKX?@$W\B
E KROAOW'KROAFW\B ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B
>$Z IZ Dac> YT[+c [H$M<$E$S

f (x) , g(x) L2 (Q)

(F f, g)L2 (Q) = (f, g)L2 (Q)

hfm , mi hgm , mi ihm,xi


e
,
|m|2
m6=(0,0,0)

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F2 = F

f Y Z I

f (x) W2 (Q)

2

1
2
e
F f = E + grad 4
div f =

1
e
e 1 div grad (4)
e 1 div f,
4
divf + grad (4)

1
e
div grad 4
(x) = (x) , (x) L2 (Q) ,

1

1
e
e
F 2 f = f + 2grad 4
divf grad 4
divf = F f.

= f + 2grad

Y Z I W\BDbGB$X2@$W\BTD >9BDM$=?=WT FC ^ =Y\Od>$Z E$Y\BTFW\ AW\BDbGB ^ =Y\OH FWTY+= >$Z I


C ^ BDE$AY\BZ TH$achY\OM$W\B ^ [H$M$E$S
XY\BTFC BZ TA[\OAKRFeIhC ^ Od>9FWT=YD]
f (x) L2 (Q)

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] ]lIJMVBTB ^ > E$H9=WT=)Y\OM$W\B ^ `[H$M<$E$E
f91BDbe>=
F 2f
F 2f k k
E$p Vf i\YT@$E FdZ I$OAK

F 2f

{m}

fmk eihm,xi

hfm , mi
ihm,xi

2 mk e
|m|
m6=(0,0,0)

 !"#&%' ()

+.-/ 0213 5768/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

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[_OAFWTY\BDY+=H$E OFEVZ TH BDbGB ^ OjOH$E I[ ^ =YTH OH$E$I`=YT\Od]W\BDMFG=

3 
X

mk
hfm , mi 2
ihm,xi
=
fmj mj
2
2 mj e
|m|
|m|
j=1
m6=(0,0,0)

3
X
 ihm,xi
mk
hfm , mi
2
= (F f )k
hf
,
mi

m
e
= (F f )k .
m
j

|m|2
|m|2 j=1
m6=(0,0,0)
X

"=M$E KBT ^ =GBTKX 2


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f
F f = Ff
f (x) L (Q)
H=A@$E$WJBDC O ^ =W\B ^
IVYDZ I$OW\FeINC ^ BTOM$W\B ^ BTKhYC ^ BTFW ^ 
= H FWTY\OQY\OM$W\B ^ ] 2[H$M<$E$S
F
f
L2 (Q)
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=  f>9BDMV=?=H9=QC BZ H BTFWTT_f

988* .# -# xx g | w x$\>a| i a&]]
^ |}\>
1

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grad p (x)

\>]a

cd

c
x>^]

p (x) W (Q) o

u |,^ w 2
 \ i | %^ \
}| \
d
c p
c F p
p q
r

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F (grad p(x)) = 0.

|m

cmbcp

^%x

f"BDb
>=oBD@ OYTEV> H B$X;@$W\B
# [+FWTFH9=A@=?Z=
p (x) W22 (Q)
f # BDAW\BTKL[)Z9OY+=I'@9=DFWT_YT ^ =P_OH$E$IpVf \C ^ Od>9FWD=YTE K=

w
|&
q `
p o

div grad p (x) = 4p(x)


YQYTEV>9O

e 1 4p(x).
F (grad p(x)) = grad p (x) + grad (4)

)RFdZ E [H$M<$E$I

[?>9BDYDZ9OWTY\B ^ I$OWC O ^ E BA> E$@ OAFM$E9K M ^ =DOYTK [\FdZ9BDYTE$I$K H9=


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fg2AW\BTKFdZ [@9=DO ^ =Y\OH FWTY\B

p (x)

b ^ =H$E< OjBTZ=DFWTE
4
4p (x) = p (x)
Q
p Vf \aBD@ OYTEV> H B$f
Y Z IW\BDbGB$X/@$W\BTDBTTBTFH BDY+=WT pVf \;>$Z IC ^ BDE$AY\BZ TH$c [H$M<$E$S
p (x)
X$Y\BTFC BZ TA[\OAKRFeIJC ^ Od>9FWT=YDZ9OH$E OAKBDC O ^ =W\B ^ =
Y'`B ^ KRO'pVf i\df # [+FWT
1
W2 (Q)
F
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pm
$E$E
*

p (x)

p (x) =

pm eihm,xi .

{m}

1BDbe>=

]AW\B_Y\OM$W\B ^ FMVBTB ^ > E$H9=WT=DKLE


grad p(x)

grad p (x) =

{m}

pm m1 eihm,xi ,

{m}

pm m2 eihm,xi ,

{m}

pm m3 eihm,xi .

 !"$#&%' ()+.-/ 0213 56/ 0219

:E<>=-7?

pVf 

 

[+cVWT= ^ \=S

W\OdZ9\=DOY

B TBDAH9=A@$E K
T
MBDG` <
E $E OH$WT
X O ^ O
(grad p (x))m
YQW ^ $
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I >t*
[H$M<$E$E
grad p (x)

^ =Z9B?PjOH$E$I

Y\OM$W\B ^ ]

(grad p (x))m = (pm m1 , pm m2 , pm m3 ) .

# BDAW\BTKL[
h(grad p (x)) , mi = p |m|2
# ^ E KROH$IVIMpVf aBDmC O ^ =W\B ^ m Y)`B ^ KRO)pVf i\XVC BZ [@9=DOAK
F

P
P
ihm,xi
{m} pm m1 e
m6=(0,0,0)
P
P

ihm,xi
pm m 2 e
m6=(0,0,0)
F grad p (x) =
P{m}
P
ihm,xi
{m} pm m3 e
m6=(0,0,0)

`OAKRK=r f ij>9BDMV=?=H9=QC BZ


988* #TS-# ^%\
|}\

F
cp
a x
\
|}\>|j
x w
cp
c c c 43 c

pm |m|2
m1 eihm,xi
|m|2
pm |m|2
m2 eihm,xi
|m|2
pm |m|2
m3 eihm,xi
|m|2

H BTFWTT_f

= 0.

x>^ w} %^ \M^ w


a| | a jw \M^}"j4^%\>a j| ^
p

p c o e n
r
p
n

g ^ |}\ f i a&]

2
u(x) W2 (Q)
n o p
p Vf \

F (43 u(x)) = 43 F ( u(x)) .

^%x w
|& n`=MEYC ^ Od> a> [jEVcNZ9OAKRK=?c-X ^ =Y\OH FWTY\BpVf \IVYDZ I$OW\FeI
cmb cp
q p`o
BD@ O YTEV> H$K>$Z9IjTBZ9OAO[AMVBDbGBMVZ=DFAFG=; [H$M<$E$S/f Y OS FWTYTE$W\OdZ \H B$XTOAFdZ EjY\OM$W\B ^ ]
[H$M<$E$I
EJ[?>9BDYDZ9OWTY\B ^ I$OWC O ^ E BA> E$@ OAFM E KoM ^ =DOYTKo[+FdZ9BDYTEV]
u(x) W23 (Q)
I$KXVW\B

F (43 u(x)) = 43 u (x) + grad


= 43 u (x) + grad

e1
4

e1
4

1

1

div 43 u (x) =

41 div u (x) =

1

e1
div u (x) =
= 43 u (x) + grad 41 4

= 43 u (x) + 43 grad
<9>9OAF

41

E FC BZ TGBDY+=H=

e1
4

1

C O ^ OAFWT=H BDY\BD@$H B\FWT

div u (x) = 43 F ( u(x)) .


BDC O ^ =W\B ^ BDY

1 X+MBDW\B

e1
4

1

41

K OAOWQKROAFW\BH9= Z DacFM$=?Z I ^ H$ac`[H$M<$E$Ic


^ =IE R
e1
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