Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 22

ChE 304

Chemical engineering laboratory - III


Experiment No. 1

Group No. 03 (A2)

Name of the experiment:

Study of heat transfer coefficient in a


double pipe heat exchanger
Submitted by:
Md. Hasib Al Mahbub
Student Id: 0902045
Level: 3; Term: 2
Section: A2

Date of performance: 04/03/2014

Partners Student Id. 0902041

Date of submission: 14/03/2014

0902042
0902043
0902044

Department of Chemical Engineering.


Bangladesh University of engineering and technology, Dhaka.

Summary
The objectives of this experiment were to study a double pipe heat exchanger and hence to
obtain individual and overall heat transfer coefficients. Also the variation of heat transfer
coefficient with Reynolds number and fluid velocity and also the experimental and theoretical
heat transfer coefficient was compared. In this experiment, steam was used as the hot fluid
while water was used as the cold fluid. Water was passed through the pipe and steam was
passed through the annulus. Steam pressure was controlled by the valve opening. The inlet and
outlet water temperature was recorded. This same process was done for several steam pressures
of 5, 10 and 15 psig and different flow rate of water. Then by proper mathematical operation,
heat transfer coefficient was determined. In this experiment, the overall theoretical heat transfer
coefficient was found to be varied from 674.1697 W/m2.oC to 1501.875 W/m2.oC while the
experimental values varied from 763.644 W/m2.oC to 1644.788 W/m2.oC. And, the individual
steam side heat transfer coefficient was in the range of 7979.871 W/m2.oC to 8377.854 W/m2.oC
while waterside heat transfer coefficient was from 987.6382 W/m2.oC to 1981.433 W/m2.oC.
Graph of Nusselt number vs. Reynolds number, heat transfer coefficient vs. velocity and
Wilson plot was drawn. The possible discrepancies are discussed at the end of the report.

Experimental Setup
Pressure
Gauge
Saturated
steam inlet
Outlet
Temperature

Inlet
Temperature

Water
Outlet
Water
Inlet

Steam
Trap

Figure 1: Experimental setup of a double pipe heat exchanger.

Observed data
Tube Length = 7 feet 4 inch
Inner Tube: Nominal Diameter 1 inch; Schedule 40
Table 1: Observed data for double pipe heat exchanger.
Steam

Obs.

Water temperature

Pressure,

No.

(C)

P (psig)
5

10

15

Water

Inlet

Outlet

01

28

61

1.0

02

28

59

03

28

04

Condensate

Volume(L) Time(s)

Weight(kg)

Time(s)

10.19

0.25

60

1.0

8.8

0.3

60

49

1.0

4.15

0.65

60

28

43

1.0

2.94

0.95

60

05

28

64

1.0

10.03

0.45

60

06

28

57

1.0

6.78

0.55

60

07

28

50

1.0

4.56

0.65

60

08

28

46

1.0

3.44

0.75

60

09

28

68

1.0

12.47

0.35

60

10

28

58

1.0

6.87

0.45

60

11

28

53.5

1.0

5.25

0.55

60

12

28

49.5

1.0

4.06

0.65

60

Calculated data
Length of the pipe, L= 7 ft 4 inch = 7.33 ft. = 2.234184 m.
Outer diameter of the pipe, Do=1.32 inch. = 0.033528 m. (Donald Q. Kern, Process Heat
Transfer, page: 843.)
Outside surface area, Ao = D0L = 0.2344 m2.
Table 2: Data for experimental overall heat transfer coefficients.
Mass flow
Steam
Obs. No.

Pressure
(psig)

Saturation

Heat of

temperature, condensation,
TS (oC)

S (kJ/kg)

Wt. of

rate of

condensate,

condensate,

WC (kg)

Mc
(kg/s)

0.25

0.0042

0.3

0.005

0.65

0.0108

0.95

0.0158

0.45

0.0075

0.55

0.0092

0.65

0.0108

0.75

0.0125

0.35

0.0058

10

0.45

0.0075

0.55

0.0092

0.65

0.0108

11
12

10

15

108.39

115.21

120.97

2234.347

2215.612

2199.242

Table 3: Data for properties of water at mean temperature.

Mean
Obs.

temperature

No.

of water, TM
(oC)

Tube wall
temperature

Density,

on steam

side,Tw

(kg/m3)

(oC)

Mass Flow
rate of
Water
(kg/s)

Viscosity,

Prandtl

No.

(kg/m.s)

Pr

44.5

76.445

990.42447

0.097195728

0.000585

3.7295

43.5

75.945

990.83579

0.112594976

0.000596

3.8043

38.5

73.445

992.7838

0.239225012

0.000654

4.2178

35.5

71.945

993.8621

0.338048333

0.000694

4.5018

46

80.605

989.7944

0.09868339

0.00057

3.6217

42.5

78.855

991.24

0.14620059

0.000607

3.8816

39

77.105

992.5973

0.217674846

0.000648

4.1733

37

76.105

993.3316

0.288759186

0.000673

4.3561

48

84.485

988.9303

0.079304755

0.00055

3.4857

10

43

81.985

991.0388

0.144256012

0.000601

3.8426

11

40.75

80.86

991.93

0.188939048

0.000627

4.0232

12

38.75

79.86

992.6908

0.244505123

0.000651

4.1954

Table 4: Data for properties at mean temperature (Contd)

Velocity of
Obs.No.

Water,
V
(m/s)

Reynolds

Nusselt

No.

No.

Re

Nu

Water side

Film

heat

temperature,

transfer

hio

Tf

coefficients,

(W/m2.oC)

(oC)

hi
(W/m2.oC)

0.175932999

7.94E+03

46.99696

1124.823

893.8938

84.43125

0.203722416

9.03E+03

52.45477

1253.147

995.8725

84.05625

0.431989701

1.75E+04

92.06636

2178.535

1731.276

82.18125

0.609781381

2.33E+04

118.3597

2783.741

2212.231

81.05625

0.178739508

8.28E+03

48.12093

1154.83

917.74

89.25625

0.264418475

1.15E+04

64.13742

1529.407

1215.415

87.94375

0.393148522

1.61E+04

85.72424

2030.458

1613.599

86.63125

0.521150366

2.05E+04

105.6861

2493.319

1981.433

85.88125

0.143765618

6.89E+03

41.01053

987.6382

784.8731

93.60625

10

0.260954478

1.15E+04

63.70505

1520.507

1208.342

91.73125

11

0.341477573

1.44E+04

77.64805

1845.46

1466.581

90.8875

12

0.441565828

1.80E+04

93.88314

2222.617

1766.307

90.1375

Table 5: Data for properties at film temperature.

Obs. No.

Density, f

Viscosity, f104

(kg/m3)

(kg/m.s)

Thermal
conductivity,
kf (W/m.oC)

Condensation
heat transfer
coefficients, ho
(W/m2.oC)

968

3.28

0.67285

8377.854

969

3.29

0.67262

8334.933

970

3.37

0.67145

8130.011

971

3.42

0.67072

8013.865

965

3.10

0.67565

8323.548

966

3.14

0.67492

8187.492

967

3.19

0.67417

8057.763

967

3.22

0.67373

7986.179

962

2.95

0.67793

8308.74

10

963

3.01

0.67698

8126.193

11

964

3.04

0.67654

8047.844

12

964

3.07

0.67613

7979.871

Table 6: Data for experimental heat transfer coefficients.


Experimental
Rate of heat

Rate of heat

Mean rate of

Log mean

overall heat

Observation

taken-up by

given-up by

heat

temperature

transfer

No.

water,

steam,

transfer,

difference,

Coefficient,

Qw(J/s)

Qc (J/s)

Qm(J/s)

Tlm (oC)

UOE
(W/m2 oC)

13044.73587

9309.779167

11177.25752

62.4434

763.6442362

14195.63681

11171.735

12683.6859

63.6365

850.318422

20431.4906

24205.42583

22318.45822

69.36097

1372.749895

20627.7093

35377.16083

28002.43507

72.63203

1644.788241

14444.87987

16617.09

15530.98493

67.62034

979.8600024

17243.33618

20309.77667

18776.55642

71.73568

1116.665483

19476.23921

24002.46333

21739.35127

75.67779

1225.520398

21144.10264

27695.15

24419.62632

77.86355

1337.972592

12898.12542

12828.91167

12863.51854

71.10465

771.7989638

10

17609.33134

16494.315

17051.82317

76.99841

944.7816707

11

19594.58522

20159.71833

19877.15178

79.5399

1066.133263

12

21384.90708

23825.12167

22605.01437

81.74934

1179.676555

Table 7: Data for calculation of theoretical heat transfer coefficients


Theoretical
Overall heat
Obs. No.

transfer
coefficients,

1
U OT

1
U OE

1
VM

0.8

UOT (W/m2.oC)
1

753.6054

0.001327

0.00131

4.015338

824.378

0.001213

0.001176

3.570828

1266.447

0.00079

0.000728

1.957137

1501.857

0.000666

0.000608

1.485459

770.0179

0.001299

0.001021

3.964821

967.2557

0.001034

0.000896

2.898455

1200.727

0.000833

0.000816

2.110351

1390.981

0.000719

0.000747

1.684339

674.1697

0.001483

0.001296

4.719282

10

961.9187

0.00104

0.001058

2.929194

11

1117.201

0.000895

0.000938

2.362165

12

1281.277

0.00078

0.000848

1.923108

Table 8: Data for the heat loss calculation and % of heat loss calculation.
Rate of heat

Rate of heat

taken-up by

given-up by

Heat loss

water,

steam,

QL (J/s)

Qw(J/s)

Qc (J/s)

13044.73587

9309.779167

-3734.96

-40.11863911

14195.63681

11171.735

-3023.9

-27.06743229

20431.4906

24205.42583

3773.935

15.59127799

20627.7093

35377.16083

14749.45

41.69201594

14444.87987

16617.09

2172.21

13.07214518

17243.33618

20309.77667

3066.44

15.09834664

19476.23921

24002.46333

4526.224

18.85733166

21144.10264

27695.15

6551.047

23.65413208

12898.12542

12828.91167

-69.2138

-0.539513838

10

17609.33134

16494.315

-1115.02

-6.760003926

11

19594.58522

20159.71833

565.1331

2.803278816

12

21384.90708

23825.12167

2440.215

10.2421915

Observation No.

% of heat loss

10

Sample Calculation
For observation No. 10:
Inlet water temperature, T1 =28oC
Outlet water temperature, T2 =58oC
Volume of water collected, V1 =0.001m3
Time for water collection, tw = 6.87 s
Weight of condensate collected, WC = 0.45 Kg
Time for condensation, tc = 60s
Density of water at 37 oC = 991.0388 Kg/m3
Weight of water collected, Ww = 0.001 991.0388
= 0.9910388 Kg
Mass flow rate of water, Mw = Ww/tw = (0.99103886.87) Kg/s
= 0.1442560116 Kg/s
Mass flow rate of condensate, Mc = WC/tc
= (0.45 60) kg/s
= 0.0075 kg/s
Mean temperature of water, Tm = (T1+ T2)/2 = (58+28)/2 =43 oC
Heat capacity of water at 43 oC, Cp = 4069 J/kg. oC
Rate of heat taken by water, Qw = Mw Cp (T2-T1)
=0.1442560116 4069 (58-28)
= 17609.33134 J/s
Heat of condensation of steam at 15 psig (29.7 psia), s =2199.242 KJ/kg
(Ref: Richard M. Felder, Ronald W. Rousseau, Element Principles of Chemical Processes,
3rd ed.)
Rate of heat given by steam,
QC = MC s = (0.0075 2199242) J/s =16494.315 J/s

Mean rate of heat flow,


17609.33134 16494.315
Qm = QW QC =
= 17051.82317 J/s
2
2

Saturation temperature of steam at 15 psig (29.7 psia), Ts = 120.97 oC


(Ref: Richard M. Felder, Ronald W. Rousseau, Element Principles of Chemical Processes,
3rd ed.)
11

Temperature difference at inlet,


T1 = Ts - T1 = (120.97 28) oC = 92.97 oC
Temperature difference at outlet,
T2 = Ts - T2 = (120.97 58) oC =62.97 oC
Log mean temperature difference,
Tlm =

92.97 62.97 o
T1 T2
=
C =77 oC
92.97
T1
ln
ln
62.97
T2

The outside surface per linear feet = 0.344 ft2/ft


Inside diameter (ID) of the pipe,

Di = 1.049 in. = 0.02665 m. (Donald Q. Kern, Process

Heat Transfer, page: 843.)


Outside diameter (OD) of the pipe, Do = 1.32 in. = 0.033528 m. (Donald Q. Kern, Process
Heat Transfer, page: 843.)
Tube length = 7 ft. 4 in. = 88 in. = 7.33 ft.
Outside area available for heat transfer, Ao = 0.3447.33 ft2 = 0.2344 m2.
Experimental overall heat transfer coefficient, UOE =
=

Qm
Tlm .A0
17051.82317
W/m2.oC
77 0.2344

= 944.78167 W/m2.oC

Tube wall temperature on steam side,


Tw = TS Tm
2

C=

120.97 43 o
C =81.985 oC
2

Properties at mean temperature, Tm= 43 oC


Density of water, m =991.0338 kg/m3
Viscosity of water, m =0.00060102 kg/m.s
Prandtl no. of water,Pr = 3.8426
Thermal conductivity of water, km = 0.63608 W/m.oC (Ref: J P Holman, Suvik Bhattacharyya,
Heat Transfer, page no.: 609)
Inner flow area, Ai = 0.0005576 m2
Velocity of water, vm =

MW
0.1442560116
=
m/s = 0.260954478 m/s
m Ai
991.0338 0.0005576
12

Reynolds no. of water,


Re =

Di . m .v m

0.02665 991.0338 0.260954478


= 11468.05
0.00060102

Water side heat transfer coefficient for turbulent flow


Using Dittus-Boelter equation, hi = 0.023
= 0.023

km
(Re)0.8 (Pr)1/3
Di

0.63608
(11468.05)0.8 (3.8426)1/3
0.02665

= 1520.507 W/m2.oC
Film temperature,
Tf = Ts-0.75 (Ts-Tw)
= 120.97- 0.75 (120.97- 81.985) oC
= 91.73125 C
Properties of condensate at film temperature, Tf = 97.73125 C
Density, f =963.21 kg/m3
Viscosity of condensate, f = 0.00030103 kg/m.s
Thermal conductivity of condensate, kf = 0.67698 W/m.oC (Ref: J P Holman, Suvik
Bhattacharyya, Heat Transfer, page no.: 609)
Steam side heat transfer coefficient using Nusselt equation for film type condensation,
k f . f .g.S
3

ho = 0.725 [

D 0 (TS TW ) f

= 0.725 [

]0.25

(0.67698) 3 (963.21) 2 9.81 2199.242 0.25


]
W/m2.oC
0.033528 (120.97 81.985) 0.00030103

= 8126.193 W/m2.oC

Now, xw= D0 Di 0.033528 0.02665 0.003439.m


2

Carbon-steel metals thermal conductivity, KM = 43 W/m.oC


Log-mean diameter, Dlm =

0.033528 0.02665
D 0 Di
0.03.m
=
0.033528
D0
ln
ln
0.02665
Di

Theoretical overall heat transfer coefficient,

13

UOT = (
=(

D
x .D
1
0 W 0 ) 1
h0 Di .hi K m .Dlm

1
0.033528
0.003439 0.033528 1

) W/m2.oC
8126.193 0.02665 1520.507
43 0.03

= 961.9187 W/m2.oC
Now,

1
1

0.001058 m2.oC/W
U OE 944.78167

1
1

0.00104 m2.oC/W
U OT 961.9187
1
1

2.929194 (s/m)0.8
0.8
v
(0.2609544775) 0.8

Heat loss, QL = Qc-Qw = 1649.315- 17609.331341 = -1115.02 J/s


% of heat loss = (Qc-Qw)*100/Qc = -6.76%

14

Graphs

Nusselt Number,Nu

1000

y = 0.019x0.8686

Power (10 psig)

100

10
7000

10 psig

Reynolds Number,Re

Figure 2: Log-log plot of Nusselt number vs. Reynolds number plot for 10 psig steam
pressure.

1000

Nusselt Number,Nu

y = 0.0214x0.8569
100
5 psig
Power (5 psig)

10
6000

Reynolds Number, Re
Figure 3: Log-log plot of Nusselt number vs. Reynolds number for 5 psig steam pressure.

15

100

Nusselt Number,Nu

y = 0.0197x0.8646

15 psig
Power (15 psig)

10
5000

Reynolds Number, Re
Figure 4: Log-log plot of Nusselt number vs. Reynolds number for 15 psig pressure steam.

Water side heat transfer coefficient, hi


W/m2.C

10000

y = 3842.6x + 469.57

5 psig

1000

Linear (5 psig)

100
0.1

Velocity of water, v(m/s)

Figure 5: Log-log plot of water side head transfer coefficient vs. velocity for 5 psig steam
pressure

16

10000

y = 3894.8x + 480.24

10 psig

1000

Linear (10 psig)

100
0.1

Velocity of water,v (m/s)

Figure 6: Log-log plot of water side head transfer coefficient vs. velocity for 10 psig steam
pressure.

Water side heat transfer coefficient,hi


(W/m2.C)

10000

y = 4147x + 412.63

15 psig

1000

Linear (15 psig)

100
0.1

Velocity of water,v (m/s)

Figure 7: Log-log plot of water side head transfer coefficient vs. velocity for 15 psig steam
pressure.

17

0.0014

Dirt factor = 0.0006658- 0.000608


= 0.0000578
0.0011

1/U

Experimental
Theoretical
Power (Experimental)
0.0008

Power (Theoretical)

0.0005
1.48

2.184

2.888

3.592

4.296

1/v.8
Figure 8: (1/U) vs. (1/V)0.8 plot for Wilson plot at 5 psig steam pressure.
0.0015

Dirt Factor = 0.000747-0.000719


= 0.000028

1/U

0.0012

Experimental

0.0009

Theoretical
Power (Experimental)
Power (Theoretical)
0.0006
1.68

2.344

3.008

3.672

4.336

1/v0.8
Figure 9: (1/U) vs. (1/V)0.8 plot for Wilson plot at 10 psig steam pressure.

18

0.0018

1/U

0.0015

Dirt Factor =0.000848-0.00078


= 0.000068

0.0012

Experimental
0.0009

Theoretical
Power (Experimental)
Power (Theoretical)

0.0006
1.92

2.536

3.152

3.768

4.384

1/v0.8
Figure 10: (1/U) vs. (1/V)0.8 plot for Wilson plot at 15 psig steam pressure.

19

Results and Discussions


Range of the Theoretical Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (UOT), 674.1697 W/m2.oC to
1501.875 W/m2.oC
Range of the Experimental Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (UOE), 763.644 W/m2.oC to
1644.788 W/m2.oC
Ranges of individual steam side heat transfer coefficient - 7979.871 W/m2.oC to 8377.854
W/m2.oC
Ranges of waterside heat transfer coefficient - 987.6382 W/m2.oC to 1981.433 W/m2.oC
Slope of the straight line Nusselt number Vs. Reynolds number Plots areFor 5 psig pressure

0.8569

For 10 psig pressure

0.8686

For 15 psig pressure

0.8646

The theoretical value of Nusselt number Vs. Reynolds number Plots are 0.8
When the values of Nusselt no. is plotted against the values of corresponding Reynolds
no. in a logarithmic plot a straight line with a slope of 0.8569 0.8686 is obtained. According
to Dittus-Boelter equation, the slope should be 0.8. This curve also conforms to Dittus-Boelter
equation. Therefore, this finding is highly satisfactory.
The dirt factor from the 1/U vs. 1/v0.8 plot ranges from 0.000028 to 0.000068.
Nusselt no. vs. Reynolds and water side heat transfer coefficient (hi) vs. velocity (v) plots for
different pressure shows straight lines in log-log coordinate. But 1/U vs. 1/v0.8 plots for
different pressure for both theoretical and experimental overall heat transfer coefficients show
straight lines in normal coordinate. As the experimental findings of overall heat transfer
coefficients were generally lower than the theoretical ones, the 1/U curve for theoretical values
was in below the curve for experimental values.
The possible reasons of the discrepancies of theoretical and experimental values are mentioned
bellow
At the times of calculating the theoretical overall heat transfer coefficients the
resistance due to the formation of scale or dirt was not taken into consideration. Hence,
20

Fouling or other factors are left from the calculation. In reality, the performance and
efficiency of any heat exchanger are subject to these factors and this is why industrial
exchangers are dismantled routinely after operating a certain period for cleaning dirts
that are deposited on the wall. The double pipe heat exchanger used in this experiment
is very old and may not undergo overhauling for a long period. The scale deposited in
the meantime is sufficient to deviate the theoretical values from the experimental ones
especially when dirt formation is neglected in calculation.
Malfunctioning of the stream trap is one of the reason for the heat loss becoming
negative.
The steam pressure was considered constant during the experiment. But in practical it
was not constant throughout the experiment.
Heat lost during the experiment due to convection and conduction were not considered.
Could be the unsteady nature of condensate flow caused some error in the determination
of corresponding condensate for a given flow of water.
Some assumptions were made in determination of steam side heat transfer coefficient
determination; such as the vapor pressure was neglected and the condensation was
considered to be laminar and film type. But in practical could not satisfy those
assumptions.

21