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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of six parts which involve background of the study, statement of problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, and definition of key terms.

1.1 Background of the Study Teaching and learning English has spread widely to the entire global. Some States obligate to teach English in early age. People all over the world struggle to learn it or they would be better in their future. t is assumed that English is as either first language or second language for among countries. !nowing that learning a second language or English is not easy way, the learners, therefore, have to be trained by professional teacher. n teaching learning English, there are four language components of skill, they are speaking, listening, reading, and writting. "ne of those components, speaking is become a major problem in learning English. t is generally accepted that knowing a language and being able to speak it are not synonymous. #or instance, she knows ndonesian does not entail the statement she can speak ndonesian. $et, in teaching English or second language carries out important role to speak and know English. Speaking is mostly taken part in daily life. Such everyday matters are interacting with each other. That is, speaking becomes the most important part in
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social interaction and further education. %aker & 'estrup ()**+,-. claims /Students who speak English well may have a greater chance of further education, of finding employment, and gaining promotion0. Those students who are able to speak English well would help them to seek information in specific domain which is in English. Speaking is essentially has different elements. t lies in fluency and accuracy. #olse ()**1,+*. /Simply put, fluency here refers to the amount of language produced in task, while accuracy refers to the linguistic correctness of what is said in the task0. 2ccuracy and fluency are terms characteristic for a successful and carry out meaningful conversation. Every speaking lesson should be based on communicative activities which fulfil two important language learning needs. They encourage the learners to ac3uire language knowledge and prepare them for real4life language use. 5oncerning language learning, teachers sometime find difficulty to get students to talk in classroom activity. Students are not able to communicate although they have already learned the grammar. "n the other side, the method of teaching learning English cannot attract to the students. Sometimes, teacher only askes the students to read the dialogue written in the handbook or just askes them to practice the dialogue in front of class. 6nfortunately, most of those techni3ues made few students gave responds. 2s conse3uently, this situation make students are not be able to engage in classroom activity and the classroom are not alive. %esides, they are also afraid of making mistake when they practice English in front of class or bored of doing the same activities.This monotonous teaching learning activities in class can cause students less their curiosity in learning speaking. Thus, English cannot be ac3uired as good as possible by the students.

2s a matter of fact the students had some problems in their speaking. #irst, the students did not have enough vocabularies, so when they wanted to speak, they still confused to pick word are supposed to be. Second, they did not have confidence to express their ideas, sometime they felt afraid so speak up. 2nd the last about grammar, some of them still had many grammatical errors when they were speaking. 2s the fact, when the researcher did the PP7 of S8P 9egeri : !romengan the researcher found that students had some problem in learning speaking skill. Students found difficulty to participate in giving idea on the classroom because they did not feel confidence and tend to silent in conversation activity. %esides, the students had less vocabulary conse3uently, they less talk. 2s a facilitator a teacher has an importanat role in developing students oral language in a classroom. The teachers should give a chance and encouragement to the students to speak and explore their own think. The teacher should encorage students to bring their ideas and background of knowledge into the class learning activities where they will be free to express their own ideaa without fear. Th problems above need to cope with in order to students master in speaking skill, because speaking is one of the four skills which is very important in social interaction. %y creating fun, and attractive classroom students will be more active in practicing English orally, and wake the students; spirit in studying English. Pictures is the changer of places<things or human lives which can describe the things, and can help students to know them without imagine what the

components in the place. Teaching English by using pictures is one of the interesting which can help students to stimulate their ability in speaking English. =ust as teaching and learning process in the classroom, usually students are asked to tell about something or to give idea without any tool that can help the students to do that, so that students are confusion what they have to talk. 6nder the circumstances in teaching English subject, teachers have to make concepts or techni3ues, and choose which one of the techni3ues is suitable with the students along with creativity in using it. Some teachers teach English with many techni3ues but without media it will be less interesting because of media are endorser of the teaching and learning process in the classroom. Teaching learning process especially English has the purpose to make the students to speak. "ne of the interesting methods in speaking is picture . Pictures can increase the students senses and make them imagine what they see, analy>ed them in thought then explained and expressed the pictures in speaking. %y picture in speaking, it could be the interest instrument for the students because they would not get bored, they would enjoy studying English well, they could be easier to imagine and improve their speaking. t was as mentioned by ?oodman ()**@., picture are often neglected, whereas they are enjoyable. t is necessary for the teacher in Senior Aigh School to use pictures as the media in teaching learning process to improve the studnts; ability because the students not only listened and taught what the teacher explained but also saw and noticed the object on the teacher;s explanation in speaking.

%ased on reasons above, the researcher is interested to conduct a research entitiled / 8PB"C 9? ST6DE9TS; SPE2! 9? 2% 7 T$ %$ 6S 9? P 5T6BES 2T # BST $E2B ST6DE9TS "# S8P 9E?EB :

!B"8E9?290. 1. State!ent of "ro#$e! 2ccording to background of study above we can find statements of problems as below, Aow can picture as instructional media to improve the students; speaking skill at first year students of S8P 9egeri : !romenganE 1.% O#&ect'(e of )tudy The objective of the study is to examine how pictures as instructional media can improve students; speaking skill at first year students of S8P 9egeri : !romengan. 1.* S'gn'f'cance of the Study Theoretically, the result of this study is expected to provide useful information which is about students; prior knowledge in speaking skill by using pictures as instructional media. Practicaly , this study is expected for students, English teacher, and future reseacher as follows ,

Student) This study is expected for the students to be more active and minimi>e the students; problem in English. This study will enable the students to analy>e picture as well as interprate the picture. Eng$')h Teacher This study can encourage students to be more active in speaking class. The teacher can create an active classroom athmosphere so that the students can learn and ac3uire the target language. The reseacher expects this study will be useful and give some contribution to improve the 3uality of students; speaking skill. +uture Re)eacher This study provides information for future reseacher in teaching learning by using picture as instructional media. 1., Sco"e and The -'!'tat'on of the )tudy The researcher limits the written on teaching speaking through pictures as instructional media at first year students of S8P 9egeri : !romengan )*:+ year intake. %y using this media students are expected to be able to improve their speaking skill 1.. Def'n't'on of /ey ter!

S"eak'ng Sk'$$ refers to students; ability in communicating actively in English every time.

P'cture can increase the students senses and make them imagine what they see, analy>ed them in thought then explained and expressed the pictures in speaking.

0ed'a is a tool which is used to help students to understand and to focus at the subject even have general description.

S0P Neger' /ro!engan is located at =l.9ailun 6tara no -@, East =ava4 ndonesia.

CHAPTER II RE1IE2 O+ RE-ATED -ITERATURE

This chapter provides types of theories that support this thesis. Some points that will be discussed covers the following topics, the nature of speaking, , elements of speaking, teaching speaking, communicative activities , picture, assessing speaking and previous study. .1 The Nature of S"eak'ng The terms /speaking0 has often been viewed as language production, whereas listening and reading are referred to reception. Speaking and writing are essentially the product of learning outcome. 2ccording to %rown()**@, +1., /Performance is actual production (speaking, writing. or the comprehension (listening,reading. of linguistic events0. Speaking is an interactive skill and as such needs to be developed and practiced by correcting grammaticalrules. 2s we know that speakingrefers to convey information, message, and intention in meaningful ways in real time. The existence of speaker and listener may build up mutual communication in speaking activity. 5ommunication is referred to as expressing thoughts, ideas, feelings and opinions.

#urthermore, success in communication often dependent as much as on both listener and speaker. Thus, being a good English speaker may not lead to context. 5oncerning interactional conversation, it should be transactional and unsuccessfulness communication or language barrier within

to carry out functions of language and choosing forms of nteractional is representing how

language in social context.

communication works when one wants to convey message and then the others giving feedback which in turn maintains a good conversation whereas transactional focuses on comprehending the message and

transfering information.Belated to this, ?ebhard ()**:,:F1. argues , 'hen language is used to fulfill an interactional communicative function, the focus is on creating harmonious interaction among individuals. 6nlike interactional use of language, transactional use focuses attention on the content of the message.

nteraction as means of aggreement between speakers and listeners in which takes place a feedback from both to maintain social relationship while transaction is dealing with understanding the whole message which is actually speaker;s intended. t can be assumed that both interactional

and transactional are bound and shaped each other which are as functions of language to maintain social relationship. 2gain, the nature of speaking is as productive skill to convey message and creates harmonious relationship within a certain context. The comprehension of language is as important as production. 5onversation

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takes place in which there are some obvious interaction and transactional or it can be called as exchanging information between speaker and listener. 2s a listener is more likely to get the whole message which is actually the speaker saying. Therefore, Speaking and listening are intertwined linked. t is not possible to have a conversation without good listening ability. . E$e!ent) of S"eak'ng Speaking covers some different aspects including two major categories G accuracy, involving the correct use of vocabulary,

grammatical awarness, and pronunciation practiced through long activities and complex undertaking, and fluency, regarding to the amount of language produced in the task. The ability to speak fluently and accurately is not merely knowing the language features but also the abilty to process the information within context. Aarmer ()**:,)1H. states /2mong the elements necessary for spoken production (as opposed to the production of practice examples in language drills, for example., are the following, 5onnected speechis the modifying in sounds production or utterances which is involving assimilation, ommision, addition, weakened (through contractions and stress patterning.. t is emphasi>ed on sound and spelling knowing that there are great number of different spelling in English. 2 word can be different in spelling such as , enough through < ru,<. <Inf<,

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2n expressive device is the alteration of the speed, volume, and stress of utterance to show the feeling. The use of this device contributes the ability to convey meaning. 7exis and grammarinvolves variety of common lexical phrases in different functions such as agreeing, disagreeing, expressing surprise, shock, or approval. %y using certain useful phrases, it would help students to produce spoken language in interaction. 9egotiation languageis 3uite benefits in enggaging conversation to seek clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying. t takes place between speakers when some misunderstanding occurs. 'hen the students are involved in conversation, both speaker and listener clarify each other. The students are unconciously learning and evaluating their mistakes to aid and facilate ac3uisition. !nowing these elements of

language, it is definetly significant in speaking skill. #urthermore, Aarmer ()**:, )@:. states that the other element of the speaking is mental<social processing except the language skill for the speaker, but the rapid processing skill is also necessary, such as language processing, interaction, and information processing. The language processing is the effective speaker to convey their intention to someone else and they process the words or retrieval of words or phrases from memory to communicate with people. t helps the students to develop habits of rapid language processing English. Then, interaction is the student interacting with the other and they understand each other. 7astly,

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information processing is related to the perception of some else concerning the response to other feeling in using the language. 5onse3uently, the mental has important role to succeed the communication particularly in speaking ability. Speaking is as primary skill for students who learn English or secondlanguage. "ne way to have students engage in conversation and be able to exchange topics is the students not only to work at comprehending the interaction but also to consider what sort of topic is and how the interaction is maintained. .% Teach'ng S"eak'ng #or most people, the ability to speak a foreign language is synonymous with knowing that language because speech is for them the basic means of human communication. English learners no longer expect the traditional approach of their teachers based on developing mainly the grammatical competence and using methodology popular in the past. Today, teachers are expected to provide their students with useful active knowledge of the foreign language, not just theory about the language. Producing spoken language has often meant a difficulty and an obstacle for English learners. There might arise a 3uestion why. The answer is obvious. n the natural spoken language students are re3uired to be aware of characteristics of fluent speech, such as reduced forms, use of slang or idioms, fixed phrases, collocations and most importantly the pace of speech. 2ll of these have to be taken into consideration while practising

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conversation in class. 'ithout these, our spoken language would sound bookish and unnatural. To avoid this, it is essential to introduce and practise /real0 communication with our students within the learning process. f it is neglected, it may be a reason why students are often shocked and disappointed when using a foreign language for the first time whilst interacting in foreign environment. They have not been prepared for spontaneous communication and could not cope with all of its simultaneous demands. The embarrassment is usually caused by students; inability to adjust to native speakers; speech. This is natural and adjures patience while learning to speak or communicate in a foreign language. 9ative speakers are a great support and the opportunity to communicate with them means even greater encouragement for our students. 2lthough it is 3uite demanding for students to keep up in conversation with them, they take it as an advantage in their studies. 8ost English learners are actually familiar with the fact that the best way to advance their speaking skills is adjusting to it in an English speaking environment. Teachers should be aware of whether their main goal in a speaking activity is accuracy or fluency and adapt their role in class eligibly. f the main aim is to get students to speak, then one way to achieve that would be reducing teacherJs contribution. t is supposed that the less he or she speaks, the more time and space it will allow the students to. f the main aim is accuracy, the teacher should concentrate on studentsJ mistakes and devote time to their correction.

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Aowever important speaking without mistakes is, a promoted trend at present seems to be to lead students to a fluent conversation in every day situations. Taking this into consideration, this approach best fits the needs of todayJs society which is based on fast exchanges of information. 9evertheless, it would be injudicious to 3ualify accuracy as less important in communication and underestimate its importance. t is also essential for the ability to speak a foreign language well. .%.1 Pronunc'at'on 8ostly teachers get students to study which focuses on

vocabulary and grammar without getting their students to teach them pronunciation. %esides, pronunciation is considered as the most difficult for students to learn English and very important for utterances considering there are some obvious different phonemes. #or the most part, the writer encounters some problems regarding concentrating in sounds, stress, and encourage them to make in their mouth. t is indeed not simply task for teaching pronunciation. 8orever , they are not familiar and unaccustomed about what they are hearing. 2ccording to Aarmer ()**:, :KF4:K-. there are two particular occur in much pronunciation teaching and learning as the followingL 'hat students can hear. Some students have great difficulty hearing pronunciation features which they want to reproduce. "ne way to get students attention is through sort of diagrams, draw the sounds, and give explanation. n this way teachers are not painstaking to train students;

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ears. Thus, when they can hear correctly they are on the way to being able to speak correctly. The intonation problems. #re3uently, students have difficulty to recogni>e specific tunes. t depends on when students are being

enthusiastic or bored, when they are suprised, or when they are really asking a 3uestion rather than just confirming something they already know. "ne of teachers tasks is to give students chance to recogni>e such moods and intentions either on tape or through the way teachers as a model. t can then get students to imitate they way these moods are articulated. The key to succesful teaching pronunciation is through listening and noticing how English is actually spoken either from tape or from teachers. The more enrich practice the greater chance for students intelligibility will rise. n other words, teachers must expert in teaching pronunciation and ensure students to be good imitative in producing spoken language. .%. 3ra!!ar ?rammar is crucial part of learning second language. 8ost young language learners make grammatical mistakes while speaking in English. The fact that, it has been a common reason for students to rehearse and aid their lack of constructing words order. mproving grammar is consuming time and hard effort but it is wortwhile as long as there is a willingness to learn. 5ox ( :HHH,+HF. states / Besearch on both grammar

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and writing suggests that the most effective way to teach grammar and language converntion is in the context of meaningful reading and writing0. n such circumstance, by writing teacher recogni>es what errors students make in making sentences. t is possible that making errors may actually help students to learn when they self4correct the errors they make.

.%.% 1oca#u$ary "ne of the main reasons teachers are interested in improving studentsM vocabularies is to help make them better readers. 7earning new words is foundational to success in school. "ne of the things that effective teachers must be able to do is support and increase the vocabulary growth of their students.5ox (:HH:, 1*. argues / "ne way to do is to provide many interesting , hands4on experiences in the classroom, encouraging students to experiment with and discover things fro themselves0. Teacher should provide chance for students to expand their wordplay. %y pictures or types of media can support their vocabulary knowledge.

.%.* Co!"rehen)'on n language learning , comprehension main role on students; ability to catch the whole meaning or message. Each student has different ability in understanding something. There are some students who 3uickly to grasp the lesson while teaching learning process. Dealing with comprehension, %rown()**F,+K., states ,

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n child language, most observational and research evidence points to the general superiority of comprehension over production, children seem to understand /more0 than they actually produce0. Students; comprehension relies on teacher;s explanation. !nowing students; comperehension is through 3uestions and tasks. Students grasp first of what have been explained then they able to produce. The goal of succesfull teaching is that the comprehensible input comes to be understood as the teacher;s responsibility to make what is being taught as comprehensible as possible to the students. n the i N :, the teacher should always be raising the bar. To make something comprehensible does not mean it has to be said in the mother tongue or that it has to be accompanied by a complex definition. 'hat teacher knows about all students, those at all levels and in all subject areas, is that they learn more from examples than from definitions. f a teacher gives a definition, for example, the students can write it down and even memori>e it, but it will have very little meaning for them. f the students are given examples, on the other hand, they can start to make connections and begin to figure things out, or start asking 3uestions. .%., +$uency and Accuracy "ne of the goal in language learning is developing fluency in language use. Bichards ( )**1, :F. states0 / #luency is developed by creating classroom activities in which students must negotiate meaning, use communication strategies, correct misunderstandings, and work to avoid communication breakdowns.

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#luency practice can be contrasted with accuracy practice, which focuses on creating correct examples of language use0. n an accuracy based activity the teacher is re3uired to correct studentsJ mistakes whenever possible. 'hile practising accuracy, students become aware of their own mistakes in speaking straight away because the teacher does not wait until finishing the task. This approach is suitable while focusing on grammar mainly and enables the students to reali>e and correct their mistakes and also prevent their recurrence. There are some activities in fluency and accuracy task according to Bichard ()**1, :F. as the following L Activities focusing on fluency :. Beflect natural use of language ). #ocus on achieving communication +. Be3uire meaningful use of language F. Be3uire the use of communication strategies -. Produce language that may not be predictable 1. Seek to link language use to context Activities focusing on accuracy :. Beflect classroom use of language ). #ocus on the formation of correct examples of language +. Practice language out of context F. Practice small samples of language -. Do not re3uire meaningful com communication 1. 5ontrol choice of language .* Co!!un'cat'(e A""roach Teaching speaking cannot be separated from communicative appproach by which communication comes through real life situation. Empha>ing interaction as

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both the means and the ultimate goal of learning. 5anale & Swain ()**),). states, / 2 communicative (or functional<notional. approach on the other hand is organi>ed on the basis of communicative fuctions (e.g. apologi>ing, describing, inviting, promising. that a given learner or group of learners needs to know and emphasi>es the ways in which particular grammatical forms may be used to express these functions appropriately0. The aim of the communicative approach is to provide students with real life communication lessons that try to mimic the natural progression of language learning. The emphasis of genuine

communication that imitate real life situations is supposedly more fun and more helpful for the students as they are learning a language in situations that it is used every day. t is the product of learning outcome, when students engage in conversation through real life situation instead of theory. 2hmed ()*:+,:H:. claims, /The review of related literature on 57T provides ample proof of its usefulness in English language teaching, despite the fact that some problems still persist. Aere, a need arises to evaluate the feasibility of applying a communicative approach in those non4native countries where traditional methodology is still being used in E7T.0 %efore carrying out any activities, teacher must ensure that students have enough vocabulary and understanding of the situation in which they are learning. Students do not really need to be knowledgeable about English grammar or the rules thereof, but instead they need to know what language is used for any given situation. #or example, when practising ordering inside a restaurant, students need to know how to make re3uests, asking for information, and so on. 5ommunicative language teaching involves developing language functions through interations embeded in meaningful contexts. t provides chance and

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encourage students for learning that go beyond repetition and memori>ation of grammaical patterns. 2 central concept of the communcative approach to language teaching is communicative competence in which the students; ability to understand and use language appropiately to communicate in social interaction. Bichards ()**1,). states / 5ommunicative language teaching sets as its goal the teaching of communicative competence0. Ae suggested that communicative competence takes into account for students; ability or produce sentence in language those are , vocabulary, language conventions (grammar, punctuations, and spelling., syntax ( sentence structure .. Thus, the terms competence refers to knowledge of grammar, sociocultural rules of language and rules of discourse, and of how to overcome problems when faced with difficulties in

communication. Therefore, the goal of communicative approach to laguage teaching is having more than grammatical competence in order to communicate effectively in a language, but also need to know how language is used by members of a speech comunity to accomplish the purposes. 5ommunicative approach focuses on a balance between fluency and accuracy that suitable for those students whose aim is to gain confidence in speaking and conversational abilities. 9evertheless, speaking in a foreign language has often been viewed as the most demanding of the four skills.

., Co!!un'cat'(e Act'('t'e) Every speaking lesson should be based on communicative activities which fulfil two important language learning needs. They

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encourage the learners to ac3uire language knowledge and prepare them for real4life language use. 2chieving the outcome re3uires the participants to interact, which means not only speak with a person but also listen to what he or she is saying and react to it. .*.1 Ty"e) of co!!un'cat'(e act'('t'e) 5ommunicative activities are dealt with in a large number of methodology books and their classification is distinguished according to each authorJs point of view. Aowever, all of them mention the same or similar communicative tasks but in different extent. The activities of speaking class are as follows (Aarmer, )**:,)@:4)@F.. :. 2cting from a script. n this section the teacher asks the students to perform the play based on the dialogue in the script. Thus, the teacher as the director and the students perform the dialogue. ). 5ommunication ?ames. 2 game is one of activities that can help students relaxed in learning the language. This techni3ue is particularly suitable for the children in mastering the language. t is designed to provoke

communication between students, so that the students has to talk to a partner in order to solve a pu>>le, draw a picture, puts the things in right order, and differences between picture. +. Discussion. The problem in conducting the discussion is the students; reluctant to give opinion in front of their friends. Particularly when the students are

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not mastering the topic of discussion. Therefore to encourage the students is to provide activities which force the students in expressing the ideas through the topic which is familiar with student;s world. #or instance, are, their daily activity, the situation of their class, and describing. F. Prepared Talks. 2 popular kind of activity is the prepared talks where the students (or a student. makes a presentation on a topic of their own choice. Such talks are not designed for infromal spontaneous conversationL because they are prepared, they are more / writing Glike. Prepared talks represents a defined and useful speaking genre, and if properly organised, can be extremely interesting for both speakers and listeners. -. Bole Play 2 popular way of the aspect of speaking activities is to use simulations and role plays. This is where students pretend that they are in a different situation, either as themselves or playing the role of someone is 3uite different. 'e could ask them to be guest at some parties and go there as different characters. They could, as themselves, pretend to be at an airport trying to check luggage, or either as themselves or another character take part in a television program. n all these cases the students are using language in order to participate in the activity rather than other way roundO Some students find it very comfortable to use language in a simulated environment, playing the role of someone else Git allows them to experiment freely to be another people. 1. nformation ?ap

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nformation gap is useful activity in which one person has information that the other lacks. They must use the target language to share that information. #or instance, one student has the directions to a party and must give them to a classmate. "ne type of speaking activity involves the so4calledPinformation gap;4where two speakers have different parts of informationmaking up a whole. %ecause they have different information, there is a Pgap;between them.

.*. The ro$e of a teacher 'n co!!un'cat'(e act'('t'e) The teacher is a facilitator of studentsJ learning and as such he<she has many roles to fulfill. #reeman ()***,:)H. statesL The teacher facilitates communication in the classroom. n this role, one of his major responsible is to establish situation likely to promote communication. During the activities he acts as adviser, answering studnets; 3uestions and monitoring their performance.

t describes teacher as a manager of classroom activities. n this role, one of his major responsibilities is to set up activities that promote communication. During the communicative activities teacher acts as a consultant answering studentsJ 3uestions, offers advice and provides necessary language items. "ne of the most important roles is to make sure that students know what they are supposed to practise and check if they do it effectively. These roles are called a conductor and a monitor. 2lthough there is a great

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number of various activities which may be used in speaking lessons, their use would be confusing and pointless if they would not be logically organised. %eing a good organiser should be an ability possessed by every skillful teacher. 5onsidering the facts mentioned above we can conclude that the teacherJs personality in a learning process is very important not only while participating in the activity but also while monitoring the students. The teacherJs less dominant role in communicative activities offers the students the opportunity to be involved in conversation and improve their speaking skills to be able to cope with the real4life situations. Teacher should provide chance for the students to enggage in conversation which is real4life situation. !nowing that teacher less dominant in communicative activity , the students have to responsible in their own learning. ., Ut'$'4'ng P'cture 'n Teach'ng S"eak'ng Teaching speaking is not an easy task in which teachers have to be able to encourage students to speak up and be active in class. n fact, students are afraid to actively talk especially if they have to communicate using English, as their foreign language. #acing those problems in teaching speaking, teachers have to be able to creatively find an instructional media that can be applied. "ne of the encouraging media in teaching is picture as it is activate students; visuali>ation. %y having visuali>ation, students will be easily absorb the materials taught and in turn memori>e it better. 'ulandari ()*:),)H. states / Pictures give real description of an object which are portable and can be used anytime and help an

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understanding on objects which are difficult to be observed0.

%y utili>ing

pictures students are given visual stimuli to help them transfer their idea more easily and build up their interest. t is very attractive for students and effective to develop their visual literacy. t implies that pictures not only provide students with a stimulus to make them be able absorb materials taught but it also help students to communicate ideas and develop their understanding and expression. Thus, providing a variety of activities for the students help them to learn and comprehend better. There are some activities for teacher to teach speaking through picture according to Peskova ()**K,)+4)F. as the following, :. Sharing information, t is based on the principle of the information gap. Student communicate with each other in order to gain the information they need. #or instance, students get a picture of a famous English person with incomplete information about him<her and mutually ask in pairs for the missing information. ) Sharing opinions, t is used in order to exchange views about a given topic. #or example, students are given a picture of a famous English person with some theoretical background and they should express their subjective view on the person (their sympathy, antipathy, etc... +. Developing short4turn talk, These activities are based on practising dialogues. #or instance, each student gets a picture of a famous person which he or she should play and create a dialogue.

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F. Developing long4turn talk, Students create their own stories based on some given information, discuss the differences between celebrating 5hristmas in England and their home country, etc. -. #unctional writing, These activities involve students in note4taking or notemaking (e.g. while listening or reading.. 1. 5reative writing, Students write their own texts based on given pictures, e.g. stories, inner monologues, poems, book blurbs, etc. @. Cocabulary, Students revise or learn new vocabulary through pictures (e.g.pictures showing customs typical for 5hristmas in the 6!, the 6S2. K. 7istening skills, #or instance, students organise pictures according to what they hear. H. 'arm4ups, They function as a kind of revision or introduction to a new topic. :*. ?rammar, These activities focus on the presentation or revision of certain grammatical structures, based on the cultural background of the ES5. ::. Developing social skills, this category includes several of the above categories and subcategories, focusing on involving the students in social concerns, such as giving and receiving personal feedback, understanding cultural differences,etc. n summary, besides as one of attractive teaching techni3ue in language teaching, Picture also contributes positively to the E#7 language teaching. t effectively empowers students to speak up and share their ideas, activates students; modalities through its elements and creates supportive and active

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learning atmosphere. 8oreover, digital storytelling enables students to connect the materials learned with their own background of knowledge. There are some studies that have been conducted previously about the use of picture in a language teaching. .,.1 Ad(antage) and D')ad(antage) of P'cture) In Teach'ng S"eak'ng 2s particular media, pictures offer some benefits for its use in teaching speaking. There are some benefits in utili>ing picture in communicative activities according to Peskova ()**K,)*4): . as follows, :. 2vailability, Pictures are inexpensive and easy to get G teachers can prepare cuttings from maga>ines, copies of pictures in books, calendar posters, etc. ). nterest, Personal pictures of the learners or of the teacher even better increaseinterest by the learners. They like talking about themselves and getting to know personal information of other people. +. Beaction, well4chosen visuals evoke an immediate response from learners in any class G /a personal reaction which is the vital seed of all meaningful language4learning0. F. Diversity, There is a wide spectrum of pictures G different types and formats, also the subject matter differs. 'hat is more, learners usually cannot anticipate what will be the task.

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-. 'ide usage, Pictures can be used for various focuses on the language and from various aspects, discussion, essays, grammar practice, vocabulary, etc... 1. Stimulus, They function as a stimulus (for writing, speaking, reading, listening exercises.. @. ntegrating subjects, There is usually more than one topic the picture relates to, which is an advantage mainly for primary schools pupils. .,. D')ad(antage) P'cture 'n Teach'ng S"eak'ng nstead of the benefit of using picture, there are some disadvantages in using picture as follows, :. Demanding preparation, Preparation of the activities is time4consuming for the teacher (searching for appropriate pictures, cutting, etc... ). nsufficient knowledge of vocabulary, f learners do not have

sufficient knowledge of vocabulary, assistance of the teacher is often necessary. The most rapid method is handing out a ready4made vocabulary sheet as the picture is introduced. 'rite down only words the students do not already know, which becomes more efficient. %ut the 3uantity of vocabulary should not be overwhelming, which could deprive students. +. 8other tongue, %y group work activities, learners tend to use their mother tongue. The reasons might be adapted according to Aarmer

29

(:HHK,:):., learners share the same language, they feel less /exposed0 and it is much easier. F. nappropriate level, The teacher may not predict the performance of the learners. f the activities are too demanding or do not correspond with the English level of the learners, they make the learners lose their interest. .. A))e))'ng S"eak'ng 2ssessing students; performance is considered as very important aspect when the teaching and learnign takes place. 2ssessing , both informaly and formaly takes place at the begining to the end section of most language course. t should be included invarious time during the courses itself. Teachers should provide preparation for assessment and have to clarify what is student needs. n assessing speaking can be form of oral test or spoken test. ronicaly, the problem is mostly teachers are not paying attention toward assessing speaking. Teachers, particularly in ndonesia, more likely to assess of what have been done in students; competence such listening, writing, and reading. t should be done by teachers to assess their speaking ability as well as listening, writing, and reading. %y doing so, to access knowledge have greater impact in productive skills. There are five types of spoken test regarding assessing speaking according to Aarmer, ()**:, :)-4:)1. as the followingL

30

nterviews Gthese are relatively easy to set up, especially if there is a room apart from the classroom where the learbers can be interviewed. 7ive monologues Gthe candidates prepare and present a short talk on a pre4selected topic. This eliminates the interviewer effect and provides evidence of the candidates;ability to handle an extended turn, which is not always possible in interviews. Becorded monologues Gthese are perhaps less stressful than amore public performance and, for informal testinf, they are also more practicable in a way that live monologues are not. 7earners can take turns to record themselves talking about a favourite sports or pastime. Bole Gplays Gmost students will be used to doing at least simple role4plays in class, so the format can be used for testing. The role4plays should not re3uire sophisticated perfomance skills or a lot of imagination. 5ollaboorative tasks and discussions4 these are similiar to role4 plays except that the learners are not re3uired to assume a role but simply to be themselves. t seems clear that assessing speaking is 3uite impotant to gain students; confidence in producing spoken language. 9evertheless, assessing speaking might consuming time to set up, making scoring criteria, and designing students; needs to be test. Begardless of painstaking while assessing speaking, it is worthwhile for students in oder to give awarness and enrich student;s prior knowledge.

31

There are five components in an oral test such as pronunciation, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary, and grammar. 2fterward, all scores of the components are accumulated. The following are five components of oral proficiency test scoring categories according to #olse ( )**F ,+K*. as followsL S"eak'ng A))e))!ent Date, Category 3ra!!ar , "o'nt) 5our Score 3u'de )F4)- Excellent. #ew errorsL communication of ideas is clear. ))4)+ Very good. "ne or two errors, but communication is mostly clear. )*4): Good. Several errors in syntax, but main ideas are mostly clear. :K4:H Fair. 9oticable errors that occasionally confuse meaning. :)4:@ Weak. 7anguage is marked by errors. 7iteners; attention is diverted to the errors rather than the message. 8eaning is often unclear or broken. *4:: Unacceptable. 5ommunication is impeded. Too many errors in this task for a students at this level. 9ame,

32

1oca#u$ary 6 "o'nt)

)*

Excellent. 5orrect selection of words and idioms. Cariety of vocabulary.

:K4:H Very good. 5orrect selection of words and idioms. Some variety of vocabulary :14:@ Good. 8ostly correct choice of vocabulary. 8eaning is clear. :F4:- Fair. 9oticable vocabulary errors that occasionally confuse meaning. Beliance on simple vocabulary to communicate. :)4:+ Weak. 8any vocabulary errors. 7isteners; attention is diverted to the errors rather than the message. 8eaning is often unclear or broken. *4:: Unacceptable. Too many errors in this task for a student at this level. 5ommunication is impeded. +$uency %6 "o'nt) )H4+* )@4)K Excellent. 9o hesitations at all. Very good. Aesitations in oneor two places but immediatelly continued. )F4)1 Good. "ccasional hesitations but recovered well.

33

):4)+

Fair. 9oticable gaps that catch listeners; attention usually followed by recovery.

:)4)*

Weak. Several short periods of silence. Several gaps that disrupt the flow of information. 7isteners; attention is diverted to the gaps rather than message.

*4::

Unacceptable. Periods os silence. ?aps without good recovery.

Pronunc'at'on , "o'nt)

)F4 )- Excellent. #ew errorsL native4like pronunciation. ))4)+ Very good. "ne or two errors, but communication is mostly clear. )*4): Good. Several pronunciation errors, but main ideas are understood without problem. :K4:H Fair. 9oticable pronunciation errors that occasionally confuse meaning. :)4:@ Weak. 7anguage is marked by pronunciation errors. 7isteners; attention is diverted to the gaps rather than message. 8eaning is

34

often unclear. *4:: Unacceptable. Too many errorsin this task for a student at this level. 5ommunication is impeded.

$our score , 5omments

%y giving a test , students will know how far their speaking proficiency level and make them aware to practice a lot in their achievement. "n the other hand, teacher is being able to clarify what is actually the core problem to resolve and develope the students; prior knowledge.

.7 Pre('ou) Study There are some previous studies which is related to this study. The research had been conducted by !arolQna PeRkovS ()**K. entitled /Teaching about English Speaking ountries through !ictures0. The result of her study could improve the students speaking skills. This method should be concerned with accelerate students; learning which retain the information through storage system easly due to the use of picture. The second previous studies which is concerned with using picture for teaching speaking that had been conducted by Beisty 'ulandari ()*:). entitled

35

/The Use of !ictures To "#prove The Students$Speaking Ability %f &" "S ' %F S(A ) * +AS",A) ") The Acade#ic -ear of '.**/'.*' 0. Picture have positive result towars students; speaking abilty. The students were more motivated and more interested in involving the English lesson. t was easier for the students to perform speaking by using pictures. Belated to the speaking skills by Saeed 2hmad ()*:+. conducted a study entitled /Applying 0anguage1 a o##unicative Approach in Teaching English as a Foreign

ase Study of !akistan /. The result of her research showed that

through communicative approach could improve the students; speaking ability. This method should be concerned with conversation class in teaching speaking. The students; learning outcome become useful to produce spoken language. #rom the previous study above the researcher have the similar to the teaching speaking by using picture. 9evertheless, the research is conducted in different setting and subject of the study, materials, media, and of course the result of the research. n this study investigates students positive attitude toward English as well. This media should be concerned with accelerate students; learning which retain the information through storage system easly due to the use of picture . Therefore, the reseacher tries to find out the effective way to implement it for students in teaching and learning process. CHAPTER III RESEARCH 0ETHOD

36

n this chapter, the researcher would like to discuss about methodology taken by the researcher in supporting and finishing her work. The researcher takes some points will be discussed more detail. They are research design, setting and subjects of the study, data source, and data collection, instrument of collection data, research procedure, criteria of success, and procedure of data analysis. %.1 Re)earch De)'gn The design of this research is 5lassroom 2ction Besearch (52B.. 2ccording to !asbolah and Sukaryana ()**:, H., classroom action research is one of the efforts made by a teacher or a practitioner in the form of various activities which are carried out in order to improve an unsatisfactory condition or to increase learning 3uality in class. n addition, 7atief ()**+, HH. states that 5lassroom 2ction Besearch discovering learning4teaching strategies in learning English. The purpose of 5lassroom 2ction Besearch is to improve a teaching in classroom, department, or school. 'hile there is no re3uirement that the findings be generali>ed to other situations the results can add to knowledge base. 5lassroom 2ction Besearch goes beyond personal reflection to use informal research practices such as a brief literature review, group comparisons, and data collection and analysis. 5lassroom 2ction Beserach English nstruction is an approach to English teacher;s professionla development and to improve student;s learning in which English teachers systematically collect the data and reflec on their works and make changes in their classroom practice. n this study involves in (52B. for English learning is aimed style at and

strategies

that match

learner;s

37

observing teacher practice, student;s learning difficulty and learning environment for the purpose of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting the action.The final product of classroom action research result in speaking is to improve speaking skill by using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy. The researcher will conduct collaboratively with one of the teacher at S8P Baden #atah %atu. Aere, there is an agreement of each role in this research between the researcher and her collaborator. The role of the researcher will be as an observer for the students; activities while she is teaching speaking to the students by using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy and the role of the researcher;s partner is as the observer. The collaboration focuses on formulating the researcher problem carrying out the action of the research and doing reflection. t is expected that there will be a lot of input sharing ideas for success of this research and can be very helpful in applying all the research procedure. %. Sett'ng and Su#&ect) of the Study The subjects of the research are the eigth grade students of S8P Baden #atah %atu which involved +F students consisting of :- male students and :H female students in the academic year )**:)<)**:+.The students are not confident to speak up because they just known little about English. The teacher neither has various ways in teaching English nor supports the students to speak up English when they are studying in the classroom, so the students need interesting method to study English speaking. %.% Data Source The researcher will take the data from several sources as follows,

38

%.%.1 Student) The researcher needs the data from the student since they become the subject of study. The data are taken from the observation, interview, speaking test, 3uestionnaire, and documentation. The researcher gets some data, such as, "pinion from students about 5ooperative 7earning Strategy, score students from test, and picture and topic when students do the techni3ue from 5ooperative 7earning Strategy. %.%. Teacher and Re)earcher %ased on the condition in the class before and after the method was implemented, the data are collected from the interview and report of field done by the researcher or teacher. %.* Data Co$$ect'on The researcher got data collections have some steps as follows, :. "bserving the class situation in S8P Baden #atah %atu class C 4%. ). ?iving 3uestionnaire to know whether the students have good score in speaking skill or not. +. Taking documentation of the students; scores from their teacher. F. ?iving a test to the students to know the students ability in speaking skill. -. 8aking the result of the research.

%., In)tru!ent of Data co$$ect'on

39

Belated to variable written in the title of thesis, the suitable instruments for this thesis are observation, interview, speaking test, 3uestionnaire and documentation. %.,.1 O#)er(at'on "bservation is the action of watching something or someone carefully. The purpose of observation is to check or to clarify the result of 3uestionnaire. The researcher uses observation sheet to collect the data during the instructional process. t deals with performance of both the students and teacher. #or this purpose, two observation sheets are prepared, the observation of the students speaking involvement, and observation of the teacher;s performance which are observed by the collaborator. The observation sheet is in the form of giving a check sign to the /yes0 and /no0 column. The researcher writes all the things that the researcher expects to happen during the observation. This onservation is conducted because the researcher wants to know whether the students enjoy or not their learning and not to get bored, and make students more active in studying speaking using this strategy. %.,. Inter('e8 The interview will be done directly by the researcher to the teacher as an English teacher. The data obtained through the data interview are whether or not the teacher uses media, what the difficulties in available the media, what the preparation by the teacher before teaching, what the books used by the English teacher, what media he<she is used in his teaching activities and some problems faced by the teacher in preparing the media. 2nd the researcher will interview the

40

students before and after using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy in teach learning speaking.The purpose of interview to the teacher is the researcher wants to know about students speaking skill and the researcher does interview after applying 5ooperative 7earning Strategy because the researcher wants to know the teacher;s opinion whether this strategy is interesting and students speaking skill can be improved or not. %.,.% S"eak'ng Te)t 2ccording to 2rikunto (:HHK,1., a test is a set of 3uestion or exercise or instruments that are used to measure the skills, knowledge and intelligence owned by individual person or group. %ased on 2rikunto statement, we know that the test is very important to know the students ability in speaking, writing, reading and listening. t can be applied in a group and individually. n this case, the researcher will conduct an oral test to the students by giving a score for elements of speaking those are vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, fluency and comprehensibility. Some elements above can measure their ability in speaking. The researcher get some topic to the students about recount and

narrative text. #or example, %eauty and the beast and aladin for the narrative, and %ambang Pamungkas and S%$ figure for descriptive. %.,.* 9ue)t'onna're The 3uestionnaire will be distributed to the students. t is used to see the students; responses in implementation of 5ooperative 7earning Strategy during the teaching and learning process, whether the strategy can improve their speaking skill or not.

41

n this case, the researcher will conduct a 3uestionnaire to the students . t is to see the students responses and opinion during the teaching and learning process by using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy. The 3uestionnaire contains several aspects, they are student motivation, interest, discipline, factors that influence the teaching process of English language, learning facilities, learning activities strategy and also the instructional material used. +.-.- Docu!entat'on The document taken from students activities are used to know and understand the students; condition in the class. t is really needed by researcher because from documents taken, the researcher will get a great deal of information. The document taken by researcher, such us, score, lesson plan, and pictures. The purpose of the documentation is to know clearly about students; speaking skill and activities of teaching speaking using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy.

42

%.. Re)earch Procedure %...1 3enera$De)cr'"t'on of The Re)earch


Preliminary research Observing the teaching of speaking eight grades of SM !aden "atah #at$ Finding :. ). +. F. The teacher did not make a plan The teacher did not use any strategies The teacher;s techni3ue in teaching English were centered Student;s achievement in speaking skill is satisfying because they could not speak up fluently, they had a little vocabulary -. 2nd the last, they were never confident to speak up

Planning :. ). +. F. Preparing lesson plans for first, second, third, and fourth Preparing teaching techni3ue Preparing instructional media Preparing 3uestionnaire

Implementation the Action %arr&ing o$t the teaching strateg& $sing %ooperative 'earning Strateg&

Observing (he researcher observes the c)ass activit& d$ring teaching )earning b& $sing %ooperative 'earning Strateg&

Reflection or analyzing *na)&+ing the res$)t of the observation and doing ref)ection on the res$)t ,ns$ccessf$) S$ccessf$)

!evising the techni-$e and contin$e the ne.t c&c)e (he *ction !esearch Step /*dopted fro0 1e00is and Mc taggart2 19993454

%onc)$sion and report

43

%... Deta'$) of Re)earch n 5lassroom 2ction Besearch, the researcher will implement the action into two cycles, each consists of four meetings during school hours. Some explanations of the cycles are as follows, %... .1 Cyc$e 1 A. Pre"arat'on of The Act'on n this research, the preparation of the action should be conducted before the researcher implements the action. They are as follows, :. ). +. 5hoosing one class where 5lassroom 2ction Besearch will be conducted. 5onducting the observation to know the students problem in speaking class. 5onducting pre4test to measure the students; abilities in speaking to find the method that is suitable with them. F. -. 1. @. 5hoosing the themes and making a gap filling task they were about a life. 5onstructing the lesson plan for the first, second, third and forth meeting. Preparing the students; worksheet such that paper of gap filing task. 5onstructing the guide of observation in the form of checklist containing the indicator observed. B. The I!"$e!entat'on of The Act'on n this stage, the researcher will teach speaking by using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy as one of the methods in teaching speaking. The detail activities of the action are as follows,

44

:. "n the first meeting, the researcher divides the students into eight groups where each groups consists of about four students. 9ext, the researcher gives a topic to the students and gives some explanation and example about it. 2fter that, the researcher gives a topic and let them discuss it with their groups. The last, the researcher asks the students one by one what the main point of the material and give conclusion. ). #or second meeting, the material will be continued and the researcher gives the students new topic and let them discuss with their groups. 9ext, each student joins another group which has same topic and then go back to their group to clarify about the topic. 2fter that, the students conclude the material. +. #or third meeting, each group will present about the topic and other group who has same topic can add or share their group opinion. 9ext, the researcher concludes the material. F. #or the last meeting, the researcher interviews the students one by one to know students; speaking proficiency after they discuss. C. O#)er(at'on and E(a$uat'on C$a)) O#)er(at'on The classroom action research is conducted in two cycles, hence the observation is four times for each cycle. n observation, it is necessary for the researcher to make a checklist paper to record the students; activities in teaching learning process by using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy. There are some points to observing the students as follows,

45

:. "bserving the students whether they are active or not in discussing their topic with their group. ). "bserving the students whether they are active in asking about their topic to the researcher. +. "bserving the students; effort to complete their gap filling task. F. "bserving the students; performance when they present their task. E(a$uat'on t is necessary for the researcher to take the score of students; speaking to know whatever the 5ooperative 7earning Strategy can improve their speaking. The points that are scores involve the fluency, accuracy, and comprehensibility. Ref$ect'on of The Act'on The number of students who have been successful in improving their speaking proficiency will be calculated in reflection session. The reflection will be done after cycle :, if the cycle unsuccessful in teaching target, the researcher should continue to cycle ). %... . Cyc$e 5ycle ) will be applied if cycle : is not successful. The researcher should revise her plan based on the reflection in cycle : to achieve her goal that is students; improvements of speaking in cycle ). The activities in cycle ) are as follows, A. Re:"$ann'ng The Pre"arat'on of Act'on

46

The researcher will select again the material as sources for the students; worksheet and may change the techni3ue in teaching speaking by using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy. B. I!"$e!entat'on The Ne8 Pre"arat'on of Act'on The researcher teaches speaking with other material and applies it by using techni3ue suitable with the students. C. C$a)) O#)er(at'on and E(a$uat'on The researcher observes the atmosphere of class with her partner, while she implements her action and re4valuates the students; speaking. D. Ref$ect'on of The Act'on The data from the observation and evaluation can be used as reflection whether cycle ) is successful or not in enhancing the students; speaking. %.7 Cr'ter'a of Succe))fu$ S"eak'ng The researcher wants to know whether the students are active or not in learning speaking in the class by using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy. 7earning speaking is successful if :**T students in the class get @- G :**, and the researcher can continue to conclude and report. f not the researcher continue to the cycle ) search new strategy, and plan the material again. The researcher is determining the average score of students; speaking improvement that was @1 in cycle :. There are five criteria that are employed in

47

this guide. The more explanation about the scoring guide is illustrated in the following table, 2556B25$ ?rammatical correct, acceptable #76E95$ 5"8PBEAE9S % 7 T$ S5"BE

Cery confident, 5omprehend and respond 2 no very hesitation, fully and effectively natural, CEB$ EU5E77E9T K1 G :**

vocabulary and systematic and paraphrase, automatic flow

generally easy of thought to understand, very distinctive and clear Structure slightly influenced 7: Slight hesitation by few pause few EU5E77E9T 5omprehend and respond %N and with nearly no hesitation @@ G K-

grammatical errors, wrong choices, rich vocabularies, good pronunciation, few word still in

48

distinctive and clear Structure influenced 7: is #re3uent by hesitation 5omprehend and respond % and with little hesitation @: G @1 ?""D

some few pauses but comprehensible

grammatical errors, wrong choices some word or

diction, having ade3uate vocabularies and a few

pronunciation errors Several serious Cery grammatical fre3uent Sometime and comprehend many hardly respond E9"6?A unable and to 5 can 1* G @*

hesitation

errors, a lot of having wrong choices, word pauses poor

pronunciation and difficult to understand Aaving a lot of Too serious pause many 6nable to comprehend D causing

49

grammatical

conversation

and respond at all

-* G -H #2 7

errors causing impossible serious confusion, unintelligible of words and pronunciation Design by Drs. =oni Susanto, 8.pd.

The formula to analy>e the students; speaking skill test was as follows,

M 5 6. 7

9otes, 8, The mean score x, The total score of the students; speaking improvement test 9, The number of students (Aadi, :HKH,+@. The researcher using the attern to calculate result of observation

5 6. . 1008 9

9otes, P , Percentage of result Vx , The result of observation

50

U , The total score of the observation Bange of the score, K*T W P X :**T , Cery good 1*T W P X @HT , ?ood F*T W P X -HT , Enough )*T W P X +HT , %ad *T W P X :HT , Cery bad %.; Procedure of Data Ana$y)') 2fter the data has been collected by the researcher, she will analy>e and identify them. The researcher indicates whether, a. Students can improve their speaking by using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy. b. Students can improve their speaking by practice using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy. The researcher can know the students improve in speaking through get score from their practice using 5ooperative 7earning Strategy when they speak up one by one. t is 3uite enough to represent the actions are successful or not in improving the students speaking skill.