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# Natural or Intrinsic

Coordinates
O
1
2
P
x
1

x
2
= x
1
+ L
L
2

L
1

x =
1
x
1
+
2
x
2

L

1
= L
1
/ L

2
= L
2
/ L
Natural coordinates:
L
1
+ L
2
= L

1
+

2
= 1

Not independent:
1
2
L
1
1

1
= L
1
/ L

2
= L
2
/ L
x =
1
x
1
+
2
x
2
e.g.

1
=
2
= 1/2

x =

(x
1
+ x
2
)/2

)
`

=
)
`

)
`

=
)
`

x
1
1 x
1 x
L
1
x x
1 1
x
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
{ } | |
| | | |
2 2
1 1
2 1
2
1
N
N
N
N
=
=
=
)
`

|
|
= |
| is an arbitrary variable. For example, it
could be displacement u.
O
1
2
x
1

L/2
L
3
L/2
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
N
1
=
1
(2
1
-1)
N
2
=
2
(2
2
-1)
N
3
= 4
1

2

| = a
1

1
2
+ a
2

2
2
+ a
3

2
1
2
3
N
1
=
1
(2
1
-1)

1
= 1 at node 1 (2
1
-1) = 1 at node 1

1
= 1/2 at node 2 (2
1
-1) = 0 at node 2

1
= 0 at node 3 (2
1
-1) = -1 at node 3

1
(2
1
-1)
Write N
1
directly:
N
1
=
1
- N
3
/2
N
2
=
2
- N
3
/2
N
1
+ N
2
+ N
3
=
1
+
2
=1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
x
2 2 1 1
u
u
u
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
u u u
u
=
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
= c
+ =
= |
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= c
= |
.
|

\
|

c
c
=
c
c
= |
.
|

\
|

c
c
=
c
c
)
`

=
)
`

)
`

=
)
`

L
1
u
L
1
u
L
1
L
x x
x x
L
1
L
x x
x x
x
1
1 x
1 x
L
1
x x
1 1
x
1
2 1 x
1 2
2 1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
| | | | | |
( )
1 ! 0
dL
dL B B AE k
L
2
k
1
L
T
=
+ +
=
=
}
}
! l k 1
l! k!
L
l
Natural Coordinates for a Triangular Element
(Area Coordinates)
x
y
A
3

A
2

A
1

1
2
3
side 1
side 2
side 3

i
= A
1
/A

j
= A
2
/A

m
= A
3
/A

i
+
j
+

j
= 1

Natural Coordinates for a Triangular Element
(Area Coordinates)

m
= 1

m
= 0.75

m
= 0.5

m
= 0.25

m
= 0
1 or i
2 or j
3 or m
Natural Coordinates for a Triangular Element
(Area Coordinates)
Centroid:

i
=
j
=
m
= 1/3

(
(
(

(
(
(

y
x
1
A
y y y
x x x
1 1 1
A
y y y
x x x
1 1 1
y
x
1
1
3
2
1
m j i
m j i
3
2
1
m j i
m j i
| |
( ) ( )( )
i 2 1 m i m 1 j
m m m
j j j
i i i
1
y y x x y y x x A 2
A 2
1
A
+ =
(
(
(

| o
| o
| o
=

If i-j-m counterclockwise!
i j m m i j j m i
j i m i m j m j i
j i j i m i m i m j m j m j i
x x x x x x
y y y y y y
x y y x x y y x x y y x
= = =
= | = | = |
= o = o = o
Shape Functions

i
= N
i

j
= N
j

m
= N
m

| = N
i
|
i
+ N
j
|
j
+ N
m
|
m

y y y y
x x x x
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
c
c
c
| c
+
c
c
c
| c
+
c
c
c
| c
=
c
| c
c
c
c
| c
+
c
c
c
| c
+
c
c
c
| c
=
c
| c
Derivatives by the chain rule.
A 2 y A 2 y A 2 y
A 2 x A 2 x A 2 x
i 3 i 2 i 1
m 3
j
2 i 1

=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
|
=
c
c
|
=
c
c |
=
c
c
m
m
j
j
i
i
| =
c
| c
| =
c
| c
| =
c
| c
| |
| |
( )
A 2 A 2
y x
x x
y x
A 2
1
A 2
1
A
y
x
1
A
i i i i 1
i i i 1
m m m
j j j
i i i
1
1
3
2
1
|
= |
.
|

\
|
+ | + o
c
c
=
c
c
+ | + o =
(
(
(

| o
| o
| o
=

p)! n l (2
p! n! l!
+ + +
= A 2 dA
p
m
n
j
A
l
i
Centroidal Coordinates:
s
2
r
2
s
2
r
2
s
1
r
1 s r
A
s r
y x y x y x A C dA y x + + =
+
r+s 1 2 3 4 5
C
r+s
0 1/12 1/30 1/30 2/105
1

x y

x
2
x y y
2

x
3
x
2
y x y
2
y
3

x
4
x
3
y x
2
y
2
x y
3
y
4

x
5
x
4
y x
3
y
2
x
2
y
3
x y
4
y
5

Pascals Triangle:
Degree of polynomial

0

1

2

3

4

5
Degree of polynomial
p

1

2

3

4

Number of terms
n

3

6

10

15

( )( )
2
6 5
2
4 3 2 1
1 3 6 3 2 5 2 1 4
2
3 3
2
2 2
2
1 1
s
3
r
2
n
1 i
q
1 i
y b xy d x b y b x b b
a a a a a a
2
2 p 1 p
n
2 p
6 n
p s r q
a
+ + + + + = |
+ + + + + = |
+ +
=
=
=
= + +
= |

=
: to Equivalent
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Nodal Numbering Schemes:
1 3 6 3 2 5 2 1 4
2
3 3
2
2 2
2
1 1
a a a a a a + + + + + = |
Node
1

3

1 1 0 0
2 0 1 0
3 0 0 1
4 1/2 1/2 0
5 0 1/2 1/2
6 1/2 0 1/2

N
i
1 2 3 4 5 6
_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 1 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 1 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 1 0 0
5 0 0 0 0 1 0
6 0 0 0 0 0 1

Shape Functions
Can we write shape functions directly?

1
= 1 at node 1

1
= 0 at node 2

1
= 0 at node 3

1
= 1/2 at node 4

1
= 0 at node 5

1
= 1/2 at node 6

N
1
=
1
( 2
1
-1 )

2
= 0 at node 1

2
= 1 at node 2

2
= 0 at node 3

2
= 1/2 at node 4

2
= 1/2 at node 5

2
= 0 at node 6

N
2
=
2
( 2
2
-1 )

3
= 0 at node 1

3
= 0 at node 2

3
= 1 at node 3

3
= 1 at node 4

3
= 1/2 at node 5

3
= 1/2 at node 6

N
3
=
3
( 2
3
-1 )

1
= 1 at node 1

1
= 0 at node 2

1
= 0 at node 3

1
= 1/2 at node 4

1
= 0 at node 5

1
= 1/2 at node 6

3
= 0 at node 1

3
= 0 at node 2

3
= 1 at node 3

3
= 0 at node 4

3
= 1/2 at node 5

3
= 1/2 at node 6

2
= 0 at node 1

2
= 1 at node 2

2
= 0 at node 3

2
= 1/2 at node 4

2
= 1/2 at node 5

2
= 0 at node 6

N
4
= 4
1

2
N
5
= 4
2

3
N
6
= 4
3

1
x
N
x
N
u
x
N
x
u
j
3
1 i
j
i i
i
6
1 i
i
X
=
=
Cubic Element

i
= 1, 0, 1/3, 2/3

N
1
= 1/2
1
(3
1
-1)(3
1
-2)

N
2
= 1/2
2
(3
2
-1)(3
2
-2)
N
3
= 1/2
2
(3
2
-1)(3
2
-2)
N
4
= 9/2
1

2
(3
1
-1)
N
5
= 9/2
2

1
(3
2
-1)
N
6
= 9/2
2

1
(3
1
-1)
N
7
= 9/2
2

3
(3
2
-1)
N
8
= 9/2
2

3
(3
3
-1)
N
9
= 9/2
1

3
(3
1
-1)
N
10
= 27
1