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Chapter #34: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Big Picture Themes 1.

. When it became evident that both Japan and Germany were marching toward militarism, FDR (and Europe) made it clear they wanted peace. This effectively gave the dictators a goahead sign. 2. Events showed war as inevitable. Japan attacked China. Spain became a dictatorship, and Italy and Germany did as well. 3. After watching Hitler go on the move, he finally broke a pledge to not attack Poland. England and France went to war. The U.S. still wanted to stay out. 4. As the situation overseas deteriorated, the U.S. began to support England and France more openly with words and supplies. Finally, when Pearl Harbor was attacked, the U.S. entered WWII. Chapter #34: IDENTIFICATIONS Nuremburg Trials Nuremburg Trials was when Nazi leaders were tried after the war for crimes of humanity. Cordell Hull Cordell Hull was the secretary of State under President Franklin D. Roosevelt and founder of the United Nations. Winston Churchill Winston Churchill was a noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West. Charles Lindbergh Charles Lindbergh is associated with the America First Committee, which was an isolationist committee. Good Neighbor Policy Good Neighbor Policy was FDRs foreign policy with Latin America, which was successful making a better image of America. Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act was designed to leave U.S. export trade from the Depression. It reversed the high tariff policy. Rome-Berlin Axis Rome-Berlin Axis was a formal alliance forged between Anzi Hitler and Fascist Mussolini in 1936.

Nye Committee Nye Committee investigated arms manufacturing and bankers of WWIIt calimed they had caused Americas entry into WWI. Neutrality Acts Neutrality Acts staed that when the president claims foreign war, certain restrictions go into effect. Russo-German Nonaggression Pact Russo-German Nonaggression Pact was an agreement between Stalin and Hitler. They promised not to fight one another. This opened the door for Germany to attack Poland. "cash and carry" Cash and Carry allowed European democracies to buy arms and war materials if they paid cash and transported the arms themselves. America First Committee America First Committee is an isolationist committee that wished to spare American lives and protect America before they went to war. Lend-Lease Act Lend-Lease Act sent arms to victims of aggression. It required the borrowed arms to be returned after the war. Atlantic Charter Atlantic Charter was a formal agreement between FDR and Churchill which outlined post-war peace goals. It included a pledge that no territorial changes would be made without the consent of the inhabitants and affirmed the right of a people to choose their own government. Chapter #34 Guided Reading Questions The London Conference Know: London Economic Conference 1. What were the results of Roosevelt's decision not to help stabilize currencies? Roosevelts decision plunged the countries into deeper economic depression. The collapse of the London Conference also strengthened the global trend toward extreme nationalism, making international cooperation ever more difficult as the powerful, dangerous decade of the 1930s unfolded. Also, powerful dictators from the world began to emerge as problems. Freedom for (from?) the Filipinos and Recognition for the Russians Know: Tydings-McDuffie Act 2. What was the reason for America's decision to free the Philippines? There was a promised agreement that promised Philippines freedom. With a selfish eye to their own affair, and with apparent disregard for the political situation in Asia, the U.S> left the

Philippines to their fate, while imposing upon the Philippines economic terms so ungenerous as to threaten the islands with economic prostration. Becoming a Good Neighbor Know: Good Neighbor Policy 3. Was the United States serious about the Good Neighbor policy? Explain. Yes, President Roosevelt was using it to strengthen the power of the western hemisphere. The Good Neighbor Policy was a success. His earnest attempts to usher in a new era of friendliness, though hurting some U.S. bondholders, paid rich dividends in goodwill among the peoples to the south. Secretary Hull's Reciprocal Trade Agreements Know: Cordell Hull, Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act 4. Were reciprocal trade agreements a good idea? Explain. The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act set up low tariff policies. The act cut down the most offensive parts of the Hawley-Smoot tariff law merely amending them. In some instances, tariff rates were cut in half, provided the other nation did the same. The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act started to reverse the high-tariff trend and stated a low-tariff trend that would dominate the post World War II period. Storm-Cellar Isolationism Know: Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Fascism 5. What were the reasons for American isolationism? America stayed isolationist. The events were an ocean away, or more, the U.S. had her own problems, and America didnt want to get drawn into Europes problems like with WWI. Trying to avoid getting sucked further into foreign problems, Congress passed the Johnson Debt Default Act which forbade countries that owed money to the U.S. from getting any more loans. Congress Legislates Neutrality Know: Gerald Nye, Neutrality Acts 6. How did the Neutrality Acts attempt to keep the U.S. out of war? The Neutrality Acts said that when the president declared a goreign war existed, certain restrictions would start. Americans could not sail on a belligerent ship, sell/haul munitions, or make loans to belligerents. These were clearly to avoid the same mistakes that had occurred at the outset of WWI. In WWII, the U.S. declared absolute neutrality, no matter how hideous one side would be. America Dooms Loyalist Spain Know: Francisco Franco, Spanish Civil War 7. How did the Spanish Civil War contribute to WWII? Knowing that hed soon put them to use, Hitler used the Spanish Civil War as a testing ground for his tanks and planes. General Francisco Franco and his fascist government won the fight with the help of Italy and Germany. This victory helped embolden the dictators, especially Hitler.

Appeasing Japan and Germany Know: Quarantine Speech, Panay, Rhineland, Sudentenland, Munich Conference, Appeasement 8. What actions were taken by fascist governments that showed that they were a threat? Back in Germany, Nazi government were slaughtering Jews, claiming that German was a master race Nazi government, then proceeded to take over Sudetenland and then Czechoslovakia. Hitler's Belligerency and U.S. Neutrality Know: Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, Cash and Carry 9. How did the United States respond to the start of WWII in Europe? America rooted for Britain and France, but was committed to neutrality. The Neutrality Acts were invoked which cut supplies to belligerents. Wanting to help Britain and France, FDR and Congress passed the Neutrality Actof 1939 which said the U.S. would sell war materials on cash and carry basis. The U.S. improved her moral standing with this law, but also made some profits. The Fall of France Know: Phony War, Blitzkrieg, Winston Churchill 10. What further steps did the United States take after the fall of France? Americans now realized Britain was not the only major European country left standing between the U.S. and Nazi Germany. FDR called for America to build up the military. Congress appropriated $37 billion. A conscription law was passed, which was Americas first peacetime draft. It would train 1.2 million troops yearly and 800,000 reserves. Also, at the Havana Conference, it was agreed that the Europe-stay-away policy of the Monroe Doctrine would be shared by 21 American countries. Makers of America: Refugees from the Holocaust Know: Anti-Semitism, Albert Einstein, American Jewish Committee, Father Coughlin, American Jewish Congress 11. Why did America not make more room for European Jews in the 1930's? Americans still had the restrictive immigration laws and feared an onrush of immigrants that would flood the cities and jobs. Anti-Semitism was also prevalent in America during and before the war. Bolstering Britain with the Destroyer Deal (1940) Know: Battle of Britain, Royal Air Force, Fortress America, America First, Charles Lindbergh, Destroyer Deal 12. Describe the conflict between interventionists and isolationists in America in 1940. In America, two voices spoke to FDR on whether the U.S. should get involved. Isolationists set up the America First Committee. Interventionists set up the Committee to Defend the Allies. Both sides campaigned their positions. However, the pattern showed the U.S. was clearly taking steps from isolation toward intervention.

FDR Shatters the Two-Term Tradition (1940) Know: Wendell Wilke 13. Interpret the results of the 1940 election. Wendell L. Willkie was nominated for the Republican candidate for the election of 1940. Willkie criticized some of the New Deal mishandlings, but the New Deal was not the big issue anymore, the war was. Also, Willkie stated that FDRs third term was an attack to the two-term tradition which was around since George Washington. FDRs camp came back with, Better a third term a thirdrater. FDR won big again, 449 to 82. Congress Passes the Landmark Lend-Lease Law Know: Lend-Lease 14. What was so controversial about Lend-Lease? FDR wanted to help Britain, but did not want another WWI-like debt mess. His solution was to simply loan weapons and ships to the British. Some argued that lending tanks would be like lending chewing gum, that you dont want it back afterward. The Lend-Lease Bill passed and the U.S. would become the arsenal of democracy. By 1945, America had sent about $50 billion worth of arms to the Allies. This marked an almost official abandonment of isolation. Hitler's Assault on the Soviet Union Spawns the Atlantic Charter Know: Atlantic Charter 15. What was the reaction in America to the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union? The Nazi invasion on the Soviet Union was a great news for the democracies. Now those two could beat up on one another. FDR sent $1 billion to Russia to help defend Moscow. The red army slowed the Nazis until the winter set in. U.S. Destroyers and Hitler's U-Boats Clash 16. How did America's implementation of the Lend-Lease policy bring us closer to war? Sending war materials to Britain would be risky with German sub wolfpacks prowling around. FDR concluded that a convoy system would be used. However German attacks still destroyed American destroyers. In November of 1941, Congress stopped pretending and pulled the plug on the outdated Neutrality Act of 1939. America's Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent 17. Was United States entry into WWII sudden or gradual? Explain. The United States entry into WWII was gradual. America had been riding a teeter-totter for several years. America wanted to stop Germany and Japan, but America tried to do it from a convenient distance. However those days were over when Japan provoked America by attacking Pearl Harbor.