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Manifestations of transposable elements in the garden

Manifestations of transposable elements in the garden QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompres are needed to

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Manifestations of transposable elements in the garden QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompres are needed to

Variegated phenotypes first characterized in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1940’s as “unstable genetic loci” Her findings proved not only to be true, but also a ubi uitous and fundamental feature of all or anisms

Genetics meets genomics QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. •

Genetics meets genomics

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Transposons are found in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes studied to date

Genome-sequencing projects reveal that transposons contribute significantly to nucleotide content of many eukaryotic genomes

45% of human genome 50-80% of some large plant genomes (e.g. maize and barley)

Mutable nature of transposons recognized as a driving force of evolution

Types of transposons

Class I Elements: Retrotransposons

Integrated

RNA POL II

Types of transposons • Class I Elements: Retrotransposons Integrated RNA POL II RNA retroelement intermediate RT

RNA

retroelement

intermediate

RT

INTEGRASE cDNA copy Integration to a new site
INTEGRASE
cDNA
copy
Integration to
a new site

ss II Elements: “cut and paste” DNA-type transposo

TRANSPOSASE

Integrated DNA element

Types of transposons • Class I Elements: Retrotransposons Integrated RNA POL II RNA retroelement intermediate RT

Excision from donor site

TRANSPOSASE

Types of transposons • Class I Elements: Retrotransposons Integrated RNA POL II RNA retroelement intermediate RT

Integration to a new site

Basic structure of transposons

Transposons are mobile genetic elements capable of jumping around the genome

Terminal repeats (TR, TIR) Subterminal regions

Autonomous

Encode functional transposase which catalyzes excision and reinsertion activity

Non-autonomous

Internally deleted elements

Activated in trans by autonomous

element transposase

Transposase Trse
Transposase
Trse

DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism

DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to

Transposase

Donor site

 
Transposon
Transposon

Transposon

Transposon
Transposon
DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to
DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to

Transposase binds to subtermi

DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to

regions of transposon

DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to

Transposase dimerization

brings transposon ends together

DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to

Transpososome attacks

DNA at new target site

DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to
DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to

Transposase clips transposon from donor locus

DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to

New insertion results in

 
DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to
DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to
DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to
DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to
 
DNA-type transposons move via a “cut and paste” mechanism Transposase Donor site Transposon Transposase binds to
   
   

duplication of target

site sequence

Transposon regulation

Because of mutagenic nature, survival of the host depends on keeping transposition under control

Many elements are reversibly inactivated

Silenced by various host mechanisms including methylation, chromatin modification, and RNAi

Active elements are strictly regulated by the host

Various strategies to minimize damage to host Host-directed alternative splicing of Drosophila P-element restricts transposition to germline