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EDS: 6610

Spring 2014

First Name: Randall Age: 4-30-06, 7 years 9 months Gender: Male Grade Level: Second Grade Primary Language: English List any type of augmentative or alternative communication used by learner: None This urban elementary school contains kindergarten to grade 4 and serves a daily average of 353 students. The schools demographic breakdown is 54.2% white, non-Hispanic, 25.6% black, nonHispanic, 13.9% multi-racial, and 5.5% Hispanic. 85.4% of the student population is economically disadvantaged and 21.4% of the students have disabilities. 100% of teachers have at least a bachelors degree, 81% have a masters degree, and 100% of elementary and secondary core subject classes are taught by properly certified teachers. For the 2012-2013 state School Year Report Card in the category of achievement, this elementary school received a performance index of 80.7 points out of a possible 120 points which resulted in a score of 67.3% or D. For indicators met, they received a score of 1 out of 4 which resulted in 25% or F. For third grade, 43.5% of the students passed the states mathematics test and 62.9% of the students passed the states reading test. For fourth grade, 52.5% of the students passed the states mathematics test and 76.3% of the students passed the states reading test. In the category of gap closing, this elementary school received a score 8% or F for annual measurable objectives. In the

category of progress, the value added score for overall was C, gifted was not reported, students with disabilities was C, and lowest 20% in achievement was C. At this school, there are three classes for each grade level. One class in each grade level is designated as an inclusive classroom and receives daily support of an intervention specialist and sometimes also a Title 1 teacher. Randalls second grade inclusive classroom contains 14 students. Extra support for this inclusive classroom comes in the form of daily assistance of the intervention specialist in teaching math with the general education teacher in the classroom, the Title 1 teacher works with a small group of students during the reading period in a separate classroom, and the Title 1 teacher co-teaches writing with the general education teacher. Randall is currently on an IEP for speech. He is slightly below grade level in reading. His classroom teacher has expressed concerns about Randalls reading comprehension, sequencing, and logical thinking skills. Although I am the Title 1 teacher in Randalls classroom, Randall is not

included in the small group of students that I work with on reading skills in my separate classroom. I will be tutoring Randall on Mondays from 3:00-4:00 and Tuesdays from 3:00-4:00 weekly. Randall will be the only student that I will be working with in my classroom after school. MacMillian McGraw-Hills Treasures reading series is used in the second grade. The school district administers AimsWebs Reading Curriculum-Based Measurements (R-CBM) benchmark assessments for oral reading fluency for all second grade students during the fall, winter, and spring. For students who do not meet the benchmarks for R-CBM, interventions are implemented and students are regularly progress monitored. The school district utilizes Scholastics Fastt Math program to provide students repeated math fact practice and monitors their level of mastery. Scholastics Math Reading Inventory (SMI) is administered five times during the school year. For students who do not meet the end of year benchmarks on the SMI, the classroom teacher is notified and it is up to him/her to teach the skills needed. The school district does not have a regular progress monitoring tool in place for math. 2

Learning Targets Math Correctly answering second grade geometry questions with 80% accuracy. Language Arts Increasing oral reading fluency speed for grade 2 passages to come closer to the 106 words read correct (WRC) benchmark.

Baseline Data Knowledge Math Information from Randalls Scholastic Math Inventory (SMI) quarterly assessment administered through the school on 1/16/14 indicated: Randall was in the 275 quartile, 46 percentile rank, and was proficient in grade 2 end of year quartile range of 200-400. Randall missed problems with operations and algebraic thinking and geometry skills.

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Language Arts Randall was assessed through AimsWebs Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) on 210-14 and the results were: For grade 2 reading passage, Randalls oral reading fluency rates for words read correct (WRC) with three different passages were 53, 56 and 58. Since the median rate of 56 WRC per minute was recorded as the fluency rate, Randall placed between the 10t h and 25th percentile when compared to other second grade students during the winter of second grade. For grade 1 reading passages, Randalls oral reading fluency rates for WRC with three different passages were 39, 48, and 49. Since the median rate of 48 WRC per minute was recorded as the fluency rate, Randall placed between the 25th and 50th percentile when compared to other first grade students during the spring of first grade. Randalls reading pace was too slow.

Randall was assessed through the tutor-created math pre-test on geometry on 2-10-14 and the results were: Randall correctly answered 2/10 problems. He correctly answered problems that involved a given amount of items and the partitioning of those items into thirds or halves. Randall missed 8/10 questions. He missed all of the problems that involved looking at a shape and describing the fraction that is shaded and problems that involved equivalent fractions.

Learning Goals Math When presented with the second grade geometry post-test, Randall will independently and correctly write the answers to 8 out of 10 geometry questions during a single session by April 2014. Language Arts When presented with the three written oral reading fluency benchmark assessments for grade 2 in a single session, Randall will orally read the passages and achieve the median words read correct (WRC) rate of 82 or higher in one minute per passage by April 2014.

Learning Segment #1 (60 minutes) State-Adopted Learner Academic Content Standards Math CCSS.Geometry.3: Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. Math Language Arts CCSS.ELA-Literacy 2.4b: Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

Lesson Objectives Language Arts Randall will understand that a fraction is made Randalls oral fluency rate will be 60 WRC for the up of a numerator and denominator and will unpracticed reading of Our Great Forests. correctly identify the numerator and denominator Proficiency of this skill is 106 WRC in one minute. in 3 out of 4 fraction pictures provided. Teaching Strategies Math I will provide direct teaching to Randall using a powerpoint handout on fractions to explain numerators and denominators. I will provide guided practice by presenting images of fractions for Randall to practice finding numerators. I will provide guided practice by present images of fractions for Randall to practice finding denominators. I will provide fraction information to Randall using a multi-sensory approach by showing a video clip at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7WhRMvl Qwo about numerators and denominators. I will provide a symbol and quality match activity to Randall by presenting a worksheet showing four shapes with shaded parts for him to independently complete the fractions. Language Arts I will present Randall with repeated practice of high frequency words by using the SuperSpeed 1000 word list. I will set the timer for one minute and record his rate of words read and his rate of errors. I will deduct the errors from the words read to determine the current correct word rate. I will identify words he misread at that quick pace and ask him to read the words again. If Randall continues to mispronounce the words, I write the words on an index card and have Randall practice saying the words. I will present Randall with a new passage, Our Great Forests. I will set the timer for one minute and record Randalls ending point and errors. I will count the number of words read minus errors to obtain Randalls cold WRC rate for Our Great Forests. I will have Randall record the results on the graph on the backside of the reading passage. I will then chorally re-read Our Great Forests with Randall and give him a copy of the passage to take home and practice.

Assessment Tools Math Worksheet with four shapes that have parts shaded in. Randall will fill in the numerator and denominator for each shape. Language Arts SuperSpeed word list that ending point and errors will be marked on and words read correct rate will be recorded. Our Great Forests reading passage with ending point and errors marked on to determine WRC rate for the cold read. Rate will be recorded on the backside of the reading passage and graphed.

Learning Segment #2 (60 minutes) State-Adopted Learner Academic Content Standards Math Language Arts Geometry.3: Partition circles and rectangles into CCSS.ELA-Literacy 2.4b: Read grade-level text two, three, or four equal shares, describe the orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a expression on successive readings. third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. Lesson Objectives Math Randall will correctly identify the numerator or denominator 5 times in a row when presented with fractions. Randall will correctly write the fraction for images of circles, squares, and rectangles that have been equally divided into parts and a certain amount shaded for 24 out of 30 problems. Language Arts Randall will obtain an accuracy score of 12 out of 15 higher on each one of the short vowel picture and word sorts (LN-A26, LN-A27, & LN-A28). Randalls oral fluency rate will be 70 WRC for the practiced reading of Our Great Forests. Proficiency of this skill is 106 WRC in one minute.

Teaching Strategies Math I will provide fraction information to Randall using a multi-sensory approach by showing a video clip explaining numerators and denominators at https://www.khanacademy.org/math/arithmeti c/fractions/understanding_fractions/v/numerat or-and-denominator-of-a-fraction. I will provide a multi-sensory activity for Randall to complete at https://www.khanacademy.org/math/arithmeti c/fractions/understanding_fractions/e/recogni zing_fractions. He will be shown fractions and asked to identify either the numerator or denominator. Language Arts I will provide word study to Randall using word sorts of short vowel words (LN-A26, LN-A27, & LN-A28) for Randall to identify the differences between the short vowel sounds. Errors will be addressed with Randall after the completion of each word sorting activity. I will present Randall with repeated practice of high frequency words by using the SuperSpeed 1000 word list. I will set the timer for one minute and record his rate of words read and his rate of errors. I will deduct the errors from the words read to determine the current correct word rate. I will identify words he misread at that quick pace and ask him to read the words again. If Randall continues to mispronounce the words, I write the words on an index card and have Randall practice saying the words. I will chorally re-read Our Great Forests with Randall. I will then set the timer for one minute and record Randalls ending point and

I will provide a symbol and quality match activity to Randall by presenting a worksheet with images of circles, squares, and rectangles that have been divided into equal parts with certain parts shaded and he will write the fraction for each of the images.

errors. I will count the number of words read minus errors to obtain a practiced WRC rate for Our Great Forests. I will record the results on the graph on the backside of the reading passage. Assessment Tools Math Computer program requiring Randall to identify either the numerator or denominator of given fractions. Fraction worksheet with circles, squares, and rectangles that are equally divided and have shaded parts. Randall will write the numerator and denominator for each image. Language Arts Each word sort will be cut apart, sorted, and glued into needed categories on another sheet of paper. SuperSpeed word list that ending point and errors will be marked on and words read correct rate will be recorded. Our Great Forests reading passage that ending point and errors will be marked on to determine WRC rate for practiced read. Rate will be recorded on the graph on the backside of the reading passage and graphed.

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Learning Segment #3 (60 minutes) State-Adopted Learner Academic Content Standards Math 11 Language Arts

Geometry.3: Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. Math

CCSS.ELA-Literacy 2.4b: Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

Lesson Objectives Language Arts Randalls word correct rate for the SuperSpeed 1000 word list will be 60 words correct or higher for one minute. Randalls oral fluency rate will be 95 WRC or higher for the practiced reading of Our Great Forests. Proficiency of this skill is 106 WRC in one minute. Randalls oral fluency rate will be 65 WRC or higher for the unpracticed reading of Jakes Jar. Proficiency of this skill is 106 WRC in one minute. Language Arts I will present Randall with repeated practice of high frequency words by using the SuperSpeed 1000 word list. I will set the timer for one minute and record his rate of words read and his rate of errors. I will deduct the errors from the words read to determine the current correct word rate. I will identify words he misread at that quick pace and ask him to read the words again. If Randall continues to mispronounce the words, I write the words on an index card and have Randall practice saying the words. I will chorally re-read Our Great Forests with Randall. I will then set the timer for one minute and record Randalls ending point and errors. I will count the number of words read minus errors to obtain a practiced WRC rate for Our Great Forests. I will record the results on the graph on the backside of the reading passage. I will identify words he misread and ask him to read the words again. If Randall continues to mispronounce the words, I write the words on an index card and Randall will identify which number in a fraction is the numerator and which is the denominator by correctly answer 16 of the 20 problems on the worksheet. Randall will divide whole shapes into halves by correctly answering 8 out of 10 problems on the shapes worksheet. Randall will divide sets of circles into halves by correctly answering 6 out of 7 problems on the sets of circles worksheet.

Teaching Strategies Math I will provide review the definition of a numerator and denominator with Randall. I will provide a symbol and quality match activity to Randall by presenting a worksheet to practice identifying which number in the fraction is the numerator and which fraction is the denominator I will provide guided practice by presenting Randall with images of a circle and a rectangle that have been divided into two parts in several different ways and ask him to color the ones that are cut in and ask him to explain why he selected the chosen shapes. I will provide guided practice by presenting Randall with My Fraction Book and we will work on dividing the shapes into halves and coloring of each shape as directed in the booklet. I will provide a symbol and quality match activity to Randall by presenting different shapes for him to practice dividing into and 12

coloring . I will provide guided practice by presenting Randall with My Fraction Book: Sets and we will work on dividing sets of items into halves as directed in the booklet and using manipulatives. I will provide a symbol and quality match activity to Randall by presenting different sets of circles to practice dividing into with manipulatives and coloring on the worksheet.

have Randall practice saying the words. I will present Randall with a new passage, Jakes Jar. I will set the timer for one minute and record Randalls ending point and errors. I will count the number of words read minus errors to obtain Randalls cold WRC rate for Jakes Jar. I will record the results on the graph on the backside of the reading passage. I will identify words he misread and ask him to read the words again. If Randall continues to mispronounce the words, I write the words on an index card and have Randall practice saying the words. I will give Randall a copy of Jakes Jar to take home and practice.

Assessment Tools Math Numerator and denominator identification worksheet will have 20 answers recorded on the form. Finding Half worksheet with shapes will have 10 answers recorded on the form. Finding Half worksheet with sets of circles will have 7 answers recorded on the form. Language Arts SuperSpeed word list that ending point and errors will be marked on and words read correct rate will be recorded. Our Great Forests reading passage that ending point and errors will be marked on to determine WRC rate for practiced read. Rate will be recorded on the graph on the backside of the reading passage and graphed. Jakes Jar reading passage that ending point and errors will be marked on to determine WRC rate for cold read. Rate will be recorded on the backside of the reading passage and graphed.

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18 circles for counting and dividing into sets Finding Half circles worksheet

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Analyze Language/Communication Demands for One Task: Math Randall will learn the terms numerator and denominator, what those terms mean, that a fraction is made of up of those two parts, how to orally read a fraction, and how to write a fraction. Randall will then transfer that knowledge to identify which number is the numerator and which is the denominator when examining a fraction. He will then examine images of shapes that have been divided into equal parts with certain parts shaded, write the fraction for those images, and orally read the name of the fraction. He will also examine sets objects that have been divided into equal parts with certain parts shaded, write the fraction for the set of objects, and orally read the name of the fraction. No augmentative devices are used. Assessments Math Randall will complete a worksheet at the end of each lesson to assess his proficiency of the newly learned fraction skill. Reading Randall will graph his WRC rate for oral reading fluency each time he reads the passage. The reading graph will show the students WRC rate for the third lesson.

Instructional Strategies Math VAK attack: Providing visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning experiences (Harmin & Toth, 2006, p. 187). Think aloud: Talking aloud while working 17 Reading Repeated readings High frequency word drills Think aloud

out a problem so students hear how we think (Harmin & Toth, 2006, p. 184). Teaching in layers, not lumps: Planning not for mastery at any one time, but rather planning to return to topics as often as necessary until mastery is reached ((Harmin & Toth, 2006, p. 153). Reteach review: Overlapping lessons by briefly reteaching prior material before introducing new material (Harmin & Toth, 2006, p. 153).

Check-yourself message: Directing students to check what they have done, with the expectation that they will then notice error corrections needed ((Harmin & Toth, 2006, p. 64). Clear learning target: Providing a clear learning target for students (Harmin & Toth, 2006, p. 163).

Generalization for Math & Reading Math If I were able to work with this child in the future, I would have the student work more with dividing real objects and sets of items into fractions. Reading If I were able to work with this child in the future, I would continue with repeated reading practices, but I would stress the importance of not re-starting sentences multiple times when he suspects an error. Randall does this in an attempt to read every word accurately, but this disrupts his reading rhythm and decreases his WRC rate.

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Focus Learners Information Learning Targets Math Correctly answering second grade geometry questions with 80% accuracy. Language Arts Increasing oral reading fluency speed for grade 2 passages to come closer to the 106 words read correct (WRC) benchmark.

Learners Exceptionality Math Information from Randalls Scholastic Math Inventory (SMI) quarterly assessment administered through the school on 1/16/14 indicated: Randall was in the 275 quartile, 46th percentile rank, and was proficient in grade 2 end of year quartile range of 200-400. Randall missed problems with operations and algebraic thinking and geometry skills. Language Arts For grade 2 reading passage, Randalls oral reading fluency rates for words read correct (WRC) with three different passages were 53, 56 and 58. Since the median rate of 56 words per minute was recorded as the fluency rate, Randall placed between the 10t h and 25th percentile when compared to other second grade students during the winter of second grade. For grade 1 reading passages, Randalls oral reading fluency rates for WRC with three different passages were 39, 48, and 49. Since the median rate of 48 words per minute was recorded as the fluency rate, Randall placed between the 25th and 50th percentile when compared to other first grade students during the spring of first grade. Randalls reading pace was too slow.

Randalls results from tutor-created math pre-test on geometry: Randall correctly answered 2/10 problems. He correctly answered problems that involved a given amount of items and the partitioning of those items into thirds or halves. Randall missed 8/10 questions. He missed all of the problems that involved looking at a shape and describing the fraction that is shaded and problems that involved equivalent fractions.

Learners Goals and Benchmarks in IEP (I have not seen his IEP) Math CCSS.Geometry.3: Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. Language Arts CCSS.ELA-Literacy 2.4b: Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

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Learners Accommodations or Modifications Math I chucked the information to focus on one fraction concept (numerator and denominator or halves) at a time. I used a multi-sensory approach through use of online video clips, songs, and games. I had Randall thinking aloud to process the math problem to self-monitor his progress and correct his work. Language Arts I chucked the information that was repeatedly read into smaller sections. Randall was able to read the section(s) with little error slowly before we concentrated on his reading pace. Randall was shown his reading errors and used word study skills to self-correct his reading errors and self-monitor re-readings of the same passages to avoid repeated errors.

Learners Behavior Management Plan Randall is a very quiet, polite, and well-behaved individual. According to his teacher, Randall is a motivated learner and very enjoyable to have in her class. Randalls mother reported that he was very bashful, his feelings easily got hurt, and he needed encouragement to stay on track. Otherwise, no behavior concerns were expressed by Randalls parents or teacher. I will encourage Randall to think aloud by verbally expressing his thought process and explaining why he makes particular selections or how he arrives at a particular answer. When presented with second grade math problems, Randall will think aloud as he works through each math problem to explain his thought process. When presented with words that Randall misses in his second grade cold read oral reading fluency passages, Randall will think aloud in practicing how to correctly pronounce the words.

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Knowledge of Focus Learner to Inform Teaching of the Lesson Segment What Does the Learner Know? Math Information from Randalls Scholastic Math Inventory (SMI) quarterly assessment administered through the school on 1/16/14 indicated: Randall was in the 275 quartile, 46th percentile rank, and was proficient in grade 2 end of year quartile range of 200-400. Randall missed problems with operations and algebraic thinking and geometry skills. Language Arts For grade 2 reading passage, Randalls oral reading fluency rates for words read correct (WRC) with three different passages were 53, 56 and 58. Since the median rate of 56 words per minute was recorded as the fluency rate, Randall placed between the 10t h and 25th percentile when compared to other second grade students during the winter of second grade. For grade 1 reading passages, Randalls oral reading fluency rates for WRC with three different passages were 39, 48, and 49. Since the median rate of 48 words per minute was recorded as the fluency rate, Randall placed between the 25th and 50th percentile when compared to other first grade students during the spring of first grade.

What Can the Learner Do? Math Randalls information from Randalls Scholastic Fastt Math report from 2/3/14 indicated: Randalls recognition of addition facts on numbers 0-9 within the allotted 1.5 seconds per problem was 56/100=56%. Randall was at the developing level for this skill. Randalls assessment results from the tutorcreated math pre-test on Operations and Algebraic Thinking were: Randall received a score of 7/10 on the pretest of operations and algebraic thinking. Randalls assessment results through the tutorcreated math pre-test on Geometry were: Randall correctly answered 2/10 problems. He correctly answered problems that involved a given amount of items and the partitioning of those items into thirds or halves. Language Arts Randalls information from AimsWebs Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) were: For grade 2 reading passage, Randalls median reading fluency rate was 56 WRC per minute. For grade 1 reading passages, Randalls median oral reading fluency rate was 48 WRC per minute.

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What Is He Learning to Do? Math Language Arts Randall is learning to solve fraction problems that Randall is learning to increase oral reading fluency involve looking at a shape or set of objects and speed for grade 2 passages. correctly writing the fraction describing the area or items indicated. a. Math Randall has no knowledge of the term fractions, numerators, or denominators. He does understand how to break a whole item or set of items into equal parts (such as food) to share. Prior Learning and Experiences Language Arts Randall is progress monitored weekly on his oral reading fluency rate by his classroom teacher. He is accustomed to being timed for 1 minute when given a passage to read.

b. Social and Emotional Development Randall is a very quiet, polite, and well-behaved individual. According to his teacher, Randall is a motivated learner and very enjoyable to have in her class. Randalls mother reported that he was very bashful, his feelings easily got hurt, and he needed encouragement to stay on track. Otherwise, no behavior concerns were expressed by Randalls parents or teacher c. Personal, Family, and Cultural Assets Randalls teacher reported that his attendance was nearly perfect, and he is a motivated learner who always turns his homework in on time. Randall lives in a two-parent household. He is the youngest of five children, and his closest sibling is one year older than him and in grade 3. The other three siblings ages range from late teens through early twenties. Randall is very close to his immediate family. Social activities revolve around spending time with these family members and spending time at church activities. d. Other Relevant Information Randall has attended this urban elementary school since the 2011-2012 school year when he started kindergarten. He receives speech services at school for 20 minutes two times weekly. Randalls teacher reported that his parents do not want him tested for special education services, aside from speech services. However, the parents proactively seek after-school tutoring services for their children.

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Supporting Learning a. Explain how the following guided your choice of the lesson objectives, learning tasks, materials, and supports, including any adaptations, modifications, or accommodations. a.1 Focus Learners Prior Learning and Experiences & Choice of Lesson Objectives Math Randall lacks prior knowledge with fractions and terms related to factions. He does understand how to divide a whole item into equal parts or a set of items into equal parts to share. Language Arts Randall is progress monitored weekly on this oral reading fluency rate by his classroom teacher. He is accustomed to being timed for 1 minute when given a passage to read. He understands that he is to attempt reading the passage as quickly and accurately as possible.

a.2 Focus Learners Interest and Personal/Family/Cultural/Community Assets Randalls teacher reported that his attendance was nearly perfect, and he is a motivated learner who always turns his homework in on time. Randall lives in a two-parent household. He is the youngest of five children, and his closest sibling is one year older than him and in grade 3. The other three siblings ages range from late teens through early twenties. Randall has older siblings and adults to help him with repeated readings. a.3 Focus Learners Education Goals and Benchmarks Math CCSS.Geometry.3: Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. Language Arts CCSS.ELA-Literacy 2.4b: Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

b. If there is not at least one learning target linked to the general education or early childhood curriculum, justify why that is not appropriate for the focus learner(s), given the learning needs. NA c. Explain how your choices provide your focus learner with the appropriate level of support and challenge needed to access and engage with the curriculum and instruction. Math Randall can accurately count and add single digit numbers. He lacks experience in reading fractions, writing fractions, and examining images and determining what fraction is shaded. Language Arts Randall is reading grade 2 passages with expression and accuracy, but his pace is too slow.

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d. Explain how the plans for instruction are sequenced in the learning segment to build connections between each focus learners prior learning and experiences and new learning. Math The first lesson introduces Randall to new vocabulary terms related to fractions. He is then provided guide practice in identifying numerators and denominators when examining fractions. Each lesson begins with a review of the previous lessons to activate his prior knowledge about fractions. Language Arts Randall is progress monitored weekly on this oral reading fluency rate by his classroom teacher. He is accustomed to being timed for 1 minute when given a passage to read. He will understand that he is to attempt reading the passage as quickly and accurately as possible.

e. Explain how, throughout the learning segment, you will help the focus learner(s) to generalize, maintain, or self-manage the knowledge, skills, and supports, as appropriate. Math As Randall learns the fraction related vocabulary terms and their definitions, he will use them in to describe the fraction images shown. Randall will begin with learning about halves. However, he will be able to transfer that knowledge when learning about thirds, fourths, and fifths. Language Arts The first time Randall reads the fluency passage, his WRC is recorded and graphed. The tutor then practices the fluency passage with him. Randall is given the fluency passage to take home and practice. The next time Randall works with the tutor, he will read the fluency passage again and the updated WRC rate will be recorded. Each time Randall reads the fluency passage, his WRC rate will increase and his reading rate will be faster. This skill will transfer to other passages he may read.

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Monitored Learning Explain how the assessments and the daily assessment record for each focus learner will provide evidence of: 1. Math At the end of each lesson, Randall will complete an assessment that checks his understanding of new fraction information, as well as, previously taught fraction concepts. 2. Math I will see if Randall can generalize his learning by checking if he continues to divide whole shapes or sets of items into the number of equal parts that the denominator states. 3. Math Student is successful if by the third lesson: He identifies which number in a fraction is the numerator and which is the denominator by correctly answer 16 of the 20 problems on the worksheet. He divides whole shapes into halves by correctly answering 8 out of 10 problems on the shapes worksheet. He divides sets of circles into halves by correctly answering 6 out of 7 problems on the sets of circles worksheet. Progress toward the lesson objectives Language Arts The graphs from Randalls cold and hot readings of grade 2 passages will indicate if he has reached his fluency goal.

Generalization and maintenance, or self-directed use of learned skills Language Arts I will see if Randall can generalize his learning by checking his cold reading rate on a new grade 2 fluency passages.

The conditions under which each focus learner was or was not successful Language Arts Student is successful if by the third lesson, he reaches 65 WRC on a cold reading when presented with a grade 2 fluency passage.

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Instruction Commentary 1. Which lesson or lessons are shown in the clip(s)? Identify the lessons by lesson plan number. For the clip, I used lesson number 2. 2. If applicable, provide any additional information needed to understand the learning environment or interaction seen in each clip. This was taken after school. 3. Promoting a positive learning environment. Math While Randall worked on the computer game of examining fractions to identifying numerator and denominator, I gave him chips for thinking aloud as he determined each answer. After the computer activity, I had Randall self-evaluate his learning by asking him if he felt he understood numerators and denominators better today than yesterday. Language Arts For the word sort, I gave Randall a chip for each word that he thought aloud about when checking over his work. I also asked Randall if his blizzard bag #1 was completed yet and he stated that it was already completed and returned. I stated that was wonderful and expressed that I was proud of him.

4. Engaging and Motivating the Focus Leaner 4a. Explain how your strategies engaged and motivated each focus learner to develop and apply the targeted knowledge and skills. Math I used manipulatives and the whiteboard to introduce the lesson. Then I moved onto a worksheet. With the guided practice, I initially provided verbal and physical prompts. I then faded to just verbal prompts. Finally, I encouraged Randall to solve the problem independently. For the independent fraction worksheet, I checked over his work upon completion and provided immediate feedback. Language Arts With the word sorts, I model for Randall how to say and sound out the word to check over his work. By the third word, Randall too over and I faded the prompt. I checked over his sorts and provided immediate feedback. With the reading passage, he graphed his practice reading and compared it to his cold reading. I gave him chips for each word that he increased from the cold reading of the same passage.

4b. Describe how your instruction linked each focus learners prior learning and personal, family, cultural, and/or community assets with new learning. Math In helping Randall understand that fractions need to be equal parts, I showed him images of an item divided into different parts to share with someone else and asked if he thought the parts seemed okay and asked him to explain why or why not. Some of the parts were divided equally and some were not. 26 Language Arts Randall had completed word sorts in a previous tutoring session. I referred to that experience during my instruction of how to complete this word sort. Randall can see with the graph that the more he practices reading, the better his reading skills become.

5. Deepening Learning During Instruction 5a. Explain how you elicited and responded to each focus learners performance to promote application of learning. Math I provided prompts for Randall to think aloud as he worked through each of his problems. Language Arts I provided Randall with his cold WRC rate for the passage before I had him re-read the passage. I encouraged him to read quickly, accurately, and try to exceed his old rate.

5b. Describe opportunities provided to each focus learner to apply feedback to improve performance. Math On the fraction worksheet, Randalls score was 29 out of 30. When I showed Randall the score, he responded I got one wrong? I responded, Just one. Do you want to see? I know that you are worried about the one missed problem, but you did very, very good on this. You just learned about this yesterday. Language Arts With the reading passage, I said Wow, Randall look at that. 81 words and you only had 1 error for a rate of 80 words correct. You improved 22 more words from yesterday. You have been working!

6. Supporting Teaching and Learning 6a. For each focus learner, explain how your materials, supports, and instructional strategies support his/her learning in relation to the lesson objectives and how they reflect the learners development, age, and needs. Math Providing Randall with manipulatives to count total parts of the fraction, and then shaded parts of the fraction helped make the concept of fractions more concrete. Language Arts Graphing the cold reading and the practiced readings allows the student to visually see his improvement.

6b. For each focus learner, describe how your instructional materials and instructional and support strategies facilitate the development or application of a self-directed learning strategy. Math Randall saw that once he figured out how to write a fraction, he could be shown any image and determine its numerator and denominator. Language Arts Through repeated practiced reading with the teacher and also at home, Randall realized that he could greatly improve his reading rate.

27

7. Analyzing Teaching What changes would you make to your instruction to better support learning of each focus learner? Math If I could make changes, I would include images of food items for Randall to examine and determine the fraction shown. Instead of a picture of a circle with blue shaded in certain parts, I could have used a picture of a pizza or a pie with a certain amount missing. I believe this would have made Randall connect the lesson to real life very quickly. Language Arts If I could make changes, I would count Randalls constant re-starting of sentences as a reading error to discourage him from doing this. If Randall suspects he made an error while reading the sentence, he re-reading the sentence from the beginning. He placed greater importance in reading every word accurately than in increasing his WRC rate.

Data What were the results of your lesson segments? Math Language Arts By the third lesson segment,: By the third lesson segment, Randalls cold Randall correctly identified which number in a reading rate was 60 WRC on a grade 2 fluency passage. Therefore, he did not reach the goal of fraction was the numerator and which is the 65 WRC. denominator 20 out of 20 problems. He divided whole shapes into halves by correctly answering 10 out of 10 problems on the shapes worksheet. He divided sets of circles into halves by correctly answering 7 out of 7 problems on the sets of circles worksheet. Therefore, Randall did reach his goal of correctly answering second grade geometry questions with 80% accuracy. What are the continuing needs of this learner? Math Randall needs to expand his fraction knowledge to include thirds, fourths, and fifths. Language Arts Randall needs to continue repeated readings of grade 2 fluency passages. He also needs to learn how to avoid repeatedly re-starting sentences which slows down his WRC rate.

What feedback did you give the student? (Verbal, written, etc.) For both math and reading, I provided written scores and shared them with the student. I also helped him graph his reading WRC rate and compared it to his cold reading WRC rate of the same passage. How do you know that student understood the academic language of the lesson? We reviewed the terms fraction, numerator, and denominator at the beginning of each lesson. As Randall worked through problems and figured out how to write the fractions, he thought aloud and used the terms numerator and denominator in identifying the parts of the fraction. 28

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