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PAR AUR F. Kiessling « P. Nefzger PAE MU tile at ea : Power Lines F. Kiessling - P. Nefzger - J.F. Nolasco - U. Kaintzyk Overhead Power Lines Planning, Design, Construction With 402 Figures and 193 Tables Springer Berlin Heidelberg ‘New York Hong Kong London C1 onuke inary Milan i i a Engineering LI Tokyo http://www.springer.de/engine/ Springer Dr.-Ing. Friedrich Kiess Dipl.-Ing. Peter Nefeger Rosenstrage 18 Kocnigsberger W 91083 Bairsdort 40566 Hemtainge Germany Germany E-mail: fckiessling @ easynet.de peternefeger@t-online.de Dipl.-Ing. Joao Felix Nolasco Rua Rodrigues Caldas 726/5905 Siemens AG 30190-120 Belo Horizonte Power Transmission and Distribution MG Paul-Gossen-StraBe | Brasil 91052 Erlangen/Germany E-mail: jfrolasc@ bis.com.br Dipl.-Ing. Ulf Kaintzyk E-mail: ulf.kaintzyk@ siemens.com ISBN 3-540-00297-9 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York Catlogingin- Publication Data applied for Bibliographic information publihed by De Deutsche Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibithek lit this pulation inthe Detach Natioalbiliogra detailed bibliographic data aval inthe Internet t chupada tbc This works abject to copyright Alrights are reserved, whether the whole or pert are reserved, whether the whole or part ofthe material is concerned, special the rights of teanslation, reprinting. reuse of iiatations rekon, broadcasting reproduction on icofin arin other wa and storage in databank, Duplication of ‘hispublicationor pars thereofs permite only under the provision the German Copyright La of september 9,196, in ie current version, and permission for use mun abways be obeoed row Springer-Verlag. Violations are liable for prosecution act under German Copyright Li Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York | member of BertelsmannSpringer Science+Business Media Grabi butp:/twww springer.de © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003, Printed in Germany Theuseof genera descrip , ve names, episeed names, ademas, inthis publication does aot imply, even in the absence of «specif statement tat such names se creme om he ekvene protective avs and regulations and therefore efor general ae ‘Typesetting: Camera ready by authors Cover-design: deblik, Berlin Printed on acid-free paper 62/3020 hu-5.43210- Foreword It is a groat honour to be asked by the authors to prepare a foreword to this book on overhead lines. Electricity has been used as a major energy source since the late 19 century. In 1891, ‘throe-phase alternating current transmission started, when a 175 km long line was com- missioned to supply electricity to an international electrical engincering exhibition held in Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Since electric energy cannot be stored, generation in power plants and consumption need to be permanently balanced requiring powerful transmission systems. Such systems were installed in many parts of the world in the 20" century utilising step by step rising voltages. The 110 kV voltage was used in Germany in 1912; lines adopting 220 kV were opened there in 1929; in 1952, 400 kV transmission started in Sweden; the first 750 KV line was installed in Canada in 1965 and a 1200 KV line in the former Soviet Union in 1985. Even in developing countries such as South Africa, electric streetlights were used in Kimberly alzeady in 1882, a time when London still relied on gas. As in other parts of the world, industrial development such as mining activities, resulted in many independent power producers being formed to supply small networks in South Africa. Transmission voltages of up to 44 kV were used in the 1930's. As development grew, it became apparent that it was more cost effective to transmit energy over long distances in the form of electricity than to transport coal or gas and generate at the load. This led to developments of higher and higher voltages generally 275 kV in the 1950s, 400 eV in the 1960's and 765 kV in the 1980"s. Transmission lines form the backbones in power networks, being the installations which transmit power over long distances. They are the most valuable constituents of the net work often costing as much as or more than an entire substation. In addition, lines are uniquely designed for every application. Other devices such as breakers and transform- ers can be standardized to a large extent. Bach line has a different number of towers, foundation types and unique problems that need to be solved. Lines are installations that can be tailor made to the requirements on the individual network. Thus, specific conductor, tower and foundation combinations can be used to provide for the optimum impedance and power transfer characteristics of the line. The lines determine the power flow and influence the ability to control the network under normal and emergency con- ditions. Thus, designing and installing incorrect lines can have serious impacts on the viability of the network. In the deregulated environment, this is even more important and inappropriate designs can affect trading ability as well as economic profitability of asset owners and traders. It could be argued that overhead transmission lines are but one solution to transmit power over long distances, the other being underground cables. However, overhead lines have distinct advantages over cables. The costs of cables vary between three and ten times the costs of overhead lines, the higher ratios being found at higher voltages Overhead lines are a lot more forgiving when it comes to overloading than eables. In ‘most cases, the integrity of a line is not at all affected with short-term overloads and catastrophic failures are extremely rare. Line damage can be more easily discovered and repaired rapidly, e. g. with emergency structures being put in place. Transmission lines can be altered in situ to accommodate the change in requirements of the network being especially important in the light of the deregulation of the industry and power trading. On the other hand, an overhead line could be a fragile system constituent VI. Foreword where one failed joint or such a component would render ineffective the entire line, stretching over many kilometres. his is why line operation and maintenance practices are so important to the integrity of systems and gain growing significance in ageing works. AA line is thus the result of solving a complex combination of mechanical, electrical and civil design, construction, operation and maintenance issues. As such, there are very few persons who are knowledgeable in the entire ambit of line design and implementation, "This new book covers all aspects of overhead line planning, design, construction, oper- ation and maintenance and allows engineers to understand the complexity as well as the interdependence between its components. An example is that in order to improve the power transfer ability of a line, phases may need to be brought closer together, ‘This impacts the tower and foundation loading as well as the corona inception voltage ete, Exactly how and to what extent the one option affects the other components takes long periods of study to determine. The book has been written pursuing a three step procedure, with the theory been dealt with initially and followed then by the main com- ponents. The third area covers the planning, construction, operation and maintenance of specific lines. The study of all aspects of transmission lines has been the subject of International Council on Large Electric Systems (Cigré) for many years. In the 1960's, the Study Committee SC22 was formed devoted entirely to the study of all aspects of transmis. sion lines. Over the years, $C22 has presented papers in the open sessions, developed and published reports in Electra as well as numerous brochures. These formed the basis for preparing the book together with standards from IEC and CENELEC. The authors have participated and contributed actively in Cigré for many years. They have been recognised as experts in their fields by being appointed in some cases as Special Re- porters on more than one occasion. The book can, therefore, be considered a result of ‘$C22's activities as wel. ‘To my knowledge, there is no book on the market that so comprehensively covers all aspects relating to overhead lines. In this regard, this book is a must for all design, maintenance and construction engineers that are in any way linked to overhead lines. With more than two billion people still not having access to electricity in the world, the need for optimum lino design, construction and maintenance practices will continue if not increase, The need for sharing the expert knowledge, as is to be found in this book, is thus critical for sustainable development in the future. ‘Therefore, I would like to thank the authors for their efforts to gather all the details and prepare the text for printing. I hope and wish that the book will be well received by the overhead power line community. Johannesburg, September 2002 Robert Stephen Chairman of Cigré Study Committee “Transmission Lines Preface Overhead transmission lines are the highways to transport electric energy within power supply systems, which have extended across national borders already for a long while. With the expansion of economic regions beyond national borders, the conditions were established for long distance transport of electric energy and, therefore, for liberalization of the electric energy market. Overhead transmission lines are very long lasting assets that require long-term investment of a large amount of money. Electric power supply systems have reached an outstanding technical status in the industrialized countri ‘guaranteeing supply of electric energy with very high reliability. This is not the case in all parts of the world. In some countries, many inhabitants do not have any access to reliable electric energy. There, eléctric supply networks will be installed or improved in the near future and new overhead lines constructed as well. Raising the supply quality requires the reliability of overhead power lines to be increased further. ‘The transition from smaller regional to larger national and international economic en- tities is described by the term of globalization. This trend also has led to new and bigger organisational units within the electric power industry as well as to modified targets and, as a consequence, also to the adjustment of international technical stip- ulations and of standards resulting thereof. These new stipulations comply also with ‘the requirement on elimination of trading restrictions within the enlarged economic re- gion. Buropean and international standards have been introduced. Nationally oriented ‘engineering practices will be replaced by more and more internationally adopted en- gineering solutions. The consumers, especially those from producing industries, expect from more liberalization and globalization of the electric energy market in addition to economic advantages an enhanced reliability of supply, an expectation which requires to increase further the reliability of overhead power lines Politics have become increasing influence through approval of rights-of-way and by establishing many stipulations and requirements, e. g. concerning environmental pro- The basic elements of overhead power lines technology have been known for many years and can be considered to a high extent as mature. Technological progress, therefore, is achieved in small steps, Overhead powar lines technology has been continuously devel- oping, e. g to adjust the line design to restrictedly available rights-of-way and to the limited environmental resources, to take efficiently care of the interdependence with en- vironment and landscape and to transport the electric energy at lower costs. Economical solutions are of paramount interest for further development, since the costs for energy transport are a considerable share of the total expenditures for energy. Many existing overhead line installations have reached an age of 80 years and more and, therefore, are approaching their economic and technical lifetime. Many overhead line operators are developing strategies for maintenance with the target to extend the operational life of a line depending on its condition. Investments will be necessary for replacement, when an increased transmission capability is stipulated. Many lines designed and constructed in the past become much more important and require an increased reliability now. These requirements should be met without the need of additional rights-of-way. Standard BN 50341-1 sets general requirements and EN 50341-3 contains supplemen- tal National Normative Aspects for many European countries, which take care of any climatic conditions within these countries. Through the introduction of the new stan- dards, the basis of design and verification for all aspects and steps in overhead line planning and construction have changed throughout Europe. For many years, stan- dards for overhead line components have been based on international rules prepared by