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Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE

The Relationship Between Stress and Exercise for Female Distance Education Graduate Students CAAP 617 Group 2: Karen Boileau, Charlotte Edwards, Bronwyn MacKenzie, Amanda Mitchell, Kristen Murray, and Sarah Restoule November 24th 2011 Dr. Jo-Anne Willment

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Problem Statement The literature has explored the benefits of exercise on an individual's physical, psychological and emotional health. It would be of key interest for our course demographic to

explore how this specifically pertains to women encountering their daily life stressors in addition to the stressors imposed by their graduate study endeavours. Research Question What is the relationship between exercise and stress amongst female graduate distance education students? Study Rationale Given the unique concerns faced by female graduate students who study online, combined with the dearth of data focused on the role of exercise on stress in this population, our study goal is to illuminate the gaps in this area for the use of clinicians working with this population, educators, and graduate students themselves. The rationale for this study, therefore, comes from reviewing the literature and finding a lack of current research that focuses specifically on whether or not exercise is effective as a form of stress management for female distance education graduate students. Ethical Considerations Due to the potentially sensitive nature of talking about ones sources of stress, we have taken ethical considerations seriously since there is a possibility this could elicit an emotional response for which they may need support. We respected anonymity and confidentiality and provided participants with information regarding how our study results would be used. Individual responses were masked by our analysis of aggregated data. Literature Review

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE The relationship between stress and physical exercise is a topic that many researchers have examined over the years. For the purpose of this study, a search was conducted using ez Proxy, Springer Link, and EBSCO Host to find articles pertaining to this topic. A review of the literature revealed that some research focuses on exercise as a means to reduce specific anxiety or depression symptoms (Herring, OConnor, & Dishman, 2010; Salmon, 2010; Weinstein, 2010), whereas other research focuses on using exercise to increase overall well being and reduce psychological risk factors (Lavie, Milani, OKeefe, & Lavie, 2010; Poole, Steptoe, Wawrzyniak, Bostock, Mitchell, & Hamer, 2011; Starkweather, 2007). Other research is directed towards specific groups; for example, ten Have, de Graaf, and Monshouwer (2011) found that Dutch residents with mental health disorder who were physically active experienced

fewer mood and anxiety symptoms and recovered better. In addition, Starkweather (2007) found that older adults who participated in an exercise program reported higher levels of quality of life, mood, and less stress compared with older adults who did not participate in the exercise program. Although research literature on exercise and stress in general is quite extensive, there is still an identifiable gap related to the role of exercise in reducing stress amongst female distance graduate students. With this, there is impetus to explore the relationships between stress, exercise, and mental health amongst this target population. This population is important to examine because female distance graduate students are under a great deal of stress not only from their school work, but also from their family lives, finances, jobs, and other responsibilities (Hyun, Quinn, Madon, & Lustig, 2006). These authors found that female graduate students tend to experience more stress and stress-induced mental health issues compared with their male counterparts. Furthermore, female graduate students also tend to be at prime child rearing age

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE

and tend to take the bulk of responsibility for childcare and household duties compared with their male counterparts (Hyun et al., 2006). The additional component of studying online also means there may be a more limited amount of peer support available to distance education students compared to those enrolled in a campus-based program (Kaufman, 2006). This is significant because peer-support tends to be a buffer for students experiencing stress and women tend to cite peers as more supportive than academic advisors or family and tend to see peers as their primary source for support (Kaufman, 2006). Any means of reducing stress for this population is important information not only for the students themselves, but also for educators and clinicians who are supporting these women as they further their education. Lab 1 (Qualitative Study) Method/Procedures A single focus group was conducted in one Skype session that lasted approximately two hours. During this focus group discussion, six female graduate student in the distance education Campus Alberta Applied Psychology (CAAP) program at the University of Calgary were asked to respond to questions relating to exercise and stress in their lives. Each student responded to the following questions: (a) how important is exercise to you as a form of stress reduction?, (b) to what extent is exercise a form of stress reduction for you?, (c) how much exercise do you get in a typical week?, (d) describe what kinds of stresses you are currently experiencing, and (e) in general, do you believe that exercise reduces stress? The data generated from this focus group was organized into an Excel spreadsheet and then imported into a software application (NVIVO 9). In this application, nodes (information containers) for text were created for each participant so that the responses from each participant could be coded. Next, attributes (demographic information) were assigned to each persons

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE node. Demographic information collected included: sex, age, school status (full-time/part-time),

employment status (full-time/part-time), average sleep hours, and ethnicity. All text information was then coded by theme and placed in each respective theme node (see figure 1). The three primary themes that emerged from the data are reported in the next section. Analysis and Findings The qualitative data imported into NVIVO 9 was examined systematically using the data display method (Miles & Huberman, 1994, 2002). Three prominent themes emerged: (a) the benefits of exercise, (b) multiple role responsibilities, and (c) attitudes toward exercise. The participants in this focus group spoke of the many positive benefits of exercise: stress reduction, increased productivity, better mind-body connection, increased overall well-being, and improved physical health. Having multiple role responsibilities was also identified as a primary source of stress for this group, some of which included: multiple roles as mothers, students, employees, breadwinners, partners, friends, and caregivers to elderly parents. Time taken away from these responsibilities to exercise was considered a significant stressor in itself. Although there was some heterogeneity of personal characteristics in our group; age, school status, and employment status (see Table 1), and the uniqueness of our stressors (see Table 3), there was considerable homogeneity in terms of our sleep hours, ethnicity, ideas about the positive benefits of exercise (see Table 2), our attitudes toward exercise (see Table 4) and our prioritizing exercise as a means to reduce stress. Over half of the participants in this focus group reported that they utilized exercise daily or weekly as a way to manage these stresses. Lab 2 (Quantitative Study) Methods/Procedures A 10-item survey was administered through SurveyMonkey.com. An email link was sent

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE to 19 female students at the University of Calgarys faculty of Education, Calgary Applied Counselling online program through the Universitys Blackboard web site. These emails contained the link to our study survey and stated, Your feedback is important to us in order to accurately complete our study. Our study involves the relationship between exercise and stress in women. This survey should only take about five minutes of your time. Your answers will be completely anonymous. Recruitment was conducted in mid-November, a period of high stress due to pending

assignments for this course. All potential participants were aware that the study survey was part of the curriculum for this course. No consent form was used in this study. This protocol was approved by the course instructor prior to data collection. Measures We developed a 10-item, non-validated self-report survey to measure the outcome variables for this study. The questions pertained to participants demographics, stress levels, use of exercise to mediate stress, post-exercise mood, and barriers to exercise (see Appendix B). The survey comprised five Likert-style and five single or multiple response format questions. For the purpose of this study, stress is operationally defined as any demands that tax or exceed an individuals available internal or external resources (Markowitz & Arent, 2010), and exercise is defined as anything requiring bodily movement resulting in perspiration and a raise in heart rate (Longfield, Romas, & Irwin, 2006). Analysis Association Between Exercise and Stress The association between students stress levels and the number of hours they exercised was tested. No significant correlation, rs (2, N = 18), P = .562, p < .05 or differences between

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE groups, X (2, N=18) P = .434, p < .05 was found. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) also shows that there is no significant differences regarding stress levels between the different exercise groups (H(2) = .412, P = .814) with a mean rank of 10.10 for low exercise level, 8.70 for moderate exercise level, and 8.83 for high exercise level. Both groups (parents and non-parents) experience similar levels of stress, X (2, N=19) P = .278, p < .05. However some differences are noted. The elevated stress group is significantly different from both the manageable and extreme stress level groups (X (2, N=18) P = .009, p < .05). Students with children (42.1%) report significantly fewer hours of exercise per week, X (2, N=19) P = .036, p < .05. Finally, the low exercise level group seems to be related to elevated and extreme levels of stress, although this difference is not significant probably due to categories having cell counts fewer than five (See Appendix A, Chart 1, Association Between Exercise and Stress Levels). Attitudes Towards Exercise Students who agree that exercise is a form of stress management (63.1%), also endorse exercise as a way to improve mood (89.5%). A strong positive correlation, rs (2, N=19) P =

.000, p < .05, shows that most of the students in this sample strongly agree that exercise is a form of stress management and improves mood. A closer examination of responses reveals that there is a significant difference (H(2) = 13.364, P = .004), between those who strongly agree that exercise improves mood (Mean Rank =15.00) compared to those who only agree, neither agree or disagree and strongly disagree that exercise improves mood, with Mean Rank equal to 9.90, 6.50, and 4.83 respectively (see Appendix A, Chart 2, Exercise for Stress Management and Improved Mood). Parenting, Exercise and Stress

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Students with children (42.1%) report significantly fewer hours of exercise per week, X (2, N=19) P = .036, p < .05 (See Appendix 1, Chart 3, Parenting and Exercise Levels). Both groups (parents and non-parents) experience similar levels of stress, X (2, N=19) P = .278, p < .05. Age, Exercise and Stress In our sample, nearly half of the students (47.4% ) were in the 20-29 age group. The remaining students were in the 30-39 age group (21.1%) and over 40 age group (31.6%). Individual stressors including: financial, family, friendship, health of self, health of

other, employment, education and environmental, and overall perceived stress was examined for each age group. Although there was no significant difference between age and overall perceived level of stress, X (2, N=18) P = .314, p < .05; (H(2) = 2.280, P = .320), there was a strong positive correlation between financial stress and students in the 20-29 age group, rs (2, N=18) P = .018, p <.05 ; X (2, N=18) P = .014, p < .05. (See Appendix A, Chart 4, Age and Financial Stress). Although students in the age group 20-29 report working more hours (31 hours or more per week) and report significantly less free time compared to other student age groups (H(2) = 5.65, P = .05), all age groups had similar weekly levels of exercise, rs (2, N=19) P = .389, p <.05 ; X (2, N=19) P = .769, p < .05. This indicates that the 20-29 age group makes exercise a priority. Of the 47.4% of students in this age range, 21.1% exercise between zero to three hours per week, 15.8% exercise three to five hours per week, and 10.5% exercise six or more hours per week. Surprisingly, students between the ages of 20-29, regardless of financial and time limitations, do not report that stress interferes with their ability to exercise more than the other age groups, X (2, N=18) P = .402, p < .05.

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Results The results of this analysis indicate that low weekly exercise is related to both elevated

and extreme stress although not statistically significant. This result can be observed in Appendix 1, Chart 1, Association Between Exercise and Stress Levels. While students with children may not be able to exercise as regularly as other students, this sub-sample did not report greater levels of stress. All students endorsed the idea that exercise is a form of stress management and improves mood. Finally, nearly half of the students in our sample, in the 20-29 age range, experience both greater time constraints and financial stress than students in the two higher age categories and yet takes time to exercise regularly, reporting only equal, but not greater, levels of overall stress compared with older students. Discussion In line with other research (Herring, OConnor, & Dishman, 2010; Lavie et al., 2011; ten Have et al., 2010; Weinstein, 2010) our study has demonstrated that lower levels of exercise are associated with increased stress. The findings also reveal that younger students appear to take time to exercise even though they work more, have less free time and fewer financial resources. This finding is consistent with a previous study (Pfeiffer, Kranz & Scoggin, 2008) that shows that younger graduate students who experience elevated stress levels and time constraints still take an active approach to utilizing exercise to manage stress. Another interesting finding was that students with children reported exercising less than other students. Although it is not possible to ascertain specific reasons for this difference, we can speculate that childcare responsibilities may impose additional barriers (i.e. fatigue, time/financial constraints) to exercise than those experienced by students who work full-time but do not have children.

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Limitations The most evident limitation of this study is the small sample size and a consequent inability to complete a more rigorous analysis of the data. Future studies with larger sample

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sizes would allow for greater statistical power and may reveal more robust findings, as many of the results in this study were close to significance. With a greater sample size there could also be less potential for statistical errors such as false positive results (Type 1 errors). The survey could have been designed to allow for scale level responding and thus parametric analysis (e.g. regression analysis), which may have revealed causal relationships between exercise (independent variable) and stress (dependent variable). Finally, some data was lost due to nonresponse to some of the items, which could have been avoided with changes to the survey design. Integration & Synthesis Findings from the qualitative analysis of a focus group survey involving six female graduate students studying in an online counselling program reveal interesting relationships between stress and exercise. Several life stressors were identified, however the negotiation of multiple roles was named as the primary source of stress. Most group members acknowledged the potential for a relationship between exercise and stress reduction, not only advocating exercise as an effective means of mitigating stress, but also reporting regular use of exercise as a form of stress management. These findings provided impetus to further investigate relationships between stress and exercise by means of a quantitative study. In accordance with our focus group findings and research on the topic (Ekas & Whitman, 2011; Markowitz & Arent, 2010; Weinstein, 2011) our quantitative study revealed that most students surveyed viewed exercise as a mood elevator and stress reliever. Similar to the focus group students, the surveyed students identified a variety of stressors in their lives, citing these

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE

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as barriers to regular exercise. Although most students generally viewed exercise as a stressreliever, quantitative survey results revealed that those individuals who reported elevated or extreme levels of stress only engaged in three hours or less of weekly exercise. The quantitative results support the focus group findings that life circumstances may contribute to an individuals experience of stress and may impact their exercise habits. For example, the results indicated that while students in the 20-29 age range tend to report more financial and time-related stress, however their responses suggested greater commitment to regular exercise. Implications Our quantitative and qualitative research indicates that stress is an everyday reality for female distance education graduate students. Given that stress may interfere with students' academic success and general quality of life, our findings that exercise may mitigate stress could have critical applications to the academic community. We suggest that prospective and current students, course instructors and program developers/coordinators be apprised of possible links between stress and exercise and that program and course literature reflect the role that each may potentially play in the lives of students. Course curricula could specifically address issues related to stress management, with schedules and assignments exhibiting sensitivity and flexibility, to encourage and allow ample opportunity for exercise and other stress-reducing activities. By utilizing this tactic, students could have a better understanding of how to plan for and implement exercise as a coping strategy. This approach could also be valuable within a clinical setting. Practitioners who understand the relationship between stress and exercise would not only be able to use the information for their own self-care, but may also extend this knowledge to assist their

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE clients. While our research findings may not support exercise as a stand-alone stress

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management intervention, it is clear that it could be a valuable addition to a more comprehensive treatment plan. Directions for Future Research Our research findings revealed several possible directions for future research. Firstly, studies involving larger sample sizes would be beneficial in establishing more statistically significant relationships between stress and exercise. Furthermore, the use of a more rigorous research methodologies including experimental design and objective measures of stress and exercise behaviour would produce more robust results and thus allow for more definitive conclusions such as causal relationships. Our study revealed a number of salient variables. It would be of interest to further delineate these variables within the stress and exercise relationship. Future studies could explore the following relationships: distance education versus traditional on campus learning, parents versus non-parents, full-time versus part-time employment, male versus female students, and age and role related differences. In addition, while most students endorsed exercise as a form of stress reduction, there was a discrepancy between those whose behaviour actually reflected this belief. It would be worthwhile to investigate the role of motivation and prioritization of an individuals integration of exercise into their weekly regime. Conclusion It is in recognizing our methodological limitations, that we have gained an understanding of the benefits of utilizing different research modalities for data collection. It is evident that given our small sample size, both the qualitative and quantitative components were instrumental and necessary for us to have an accurate assessment of the stress and exercise

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE relationship. The qualitative study findings provided the content for the quantitative survey, which, in turn, confirmed the themes found within the qualitative component. It is evident through both our qualitative and quantitative analyses that stress plays an integral role in the lives of female graduate students studying counselling in an online

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context. This is particularly true for the female students occupying multiple roles (i.e. mother, wife, employee and student). Though the experiencing of stress was consistent across the board, what was of key salience to our group was the variability in the amount of exercise actually completed per week. There may be additional factors aside from those we have studied which may impact the participants ability/decision to actually complete the exercise rather than just believe that it could be a useful stress management tool. This highlights the necessity to further explore our findings with revised and more explicit research questions and designs.

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE

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References Ekas, N. V., & Whitman, T. L. (2011). Adaptation to daily stress among mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder: The role of daily positive affect. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1202-1213. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1142-4 Herring, M. P., O'Connor, P. J., & Dishman, R. K. (2010). The effect of exercise training on anxiety symptoms among patients: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170(4), 321-331. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.530 Hyun, J. K., Quinn, B. C., Madon, T., & Lustig, S. (2006). Graduate student mental health: Needs assessment and utilization of counseling services. Journal of College Student Development, 47(3), 247-266. doi:10.1353/csd.2006.0030 Kaufman, J. A. (2006). Stress and social support among online doctoral psychology students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 20(3), 79-88. doi:10.1300/J035v20n03_07 Lavie, C. J., Milani, R.V., O'Keefe, J. H., & Lavie, T. J. (2011). Impact of exercise training on psychological risk factors. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 53(1), 464-470. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2011.03.007 Longfield, A., Romas, J., & Irwin, J. D. (2006). The self-worth, physical and social activities of graduate students: A qualitative study. College Student Journal, 40(2), 282-292. Markowitz, S. M., & Arent, S. M. (2010). The exercise and affect relationship: Evidence for the dual-mode model and a modified opponent process theory. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(5), 711-730. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE (2nd. Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (2002). The qualitative researchers handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pfeifer, T. A., Kranz, P. L., & Scoggin, A. E. (2008). Perceived stress in occupational therapy students. Occupational Therapy International, 15(4), 221-231. doi:10.1002/oti.256 Poole, L., Steptoe, A., Wawrzyniak, A. J., Bostock, S., Mitchell, E. S., & Hamer, M. (2011). Associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses in women. Psychophysiology, 48,11651172. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01184.x

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Salmon, P. (2000). Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: A unifying theory. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(1), 33-61. 7358(99)00032-X Starkweather, A. (2007). The effect of exercise on perceived stress and IL-6 levels among older adults. Biological Research for Nursing, 8(3), 186-194. doi:10.1177/1099800406295990 ten Have, M., de Graaf, R., & Monshouwer, K. (2011). Physical exercise in adults and mental health status: Findings from the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study (NEMESIS). Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 71(1), 342-348. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.04.001 Weinstein, A. J. (2010). The role of depression in short-term mood and fatigue responses to acute exercise. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17(1), 51-57. doi:10.1007/s12529-009-9046-4 doi:10.1016/S0272-

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Appendix A Tables, Charts and Figures Table 1 Characteristics of Participants Respondent ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sex Age Student Status FT PT PT PT PT PT Employment Status PT PT FT PT FT PT Avg Sleep hrs. 7 7.5 7.5 7 8 7 Ethnicity

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Female Female Female Female Female Female

38 24 27 43 38 46

Caucasian Caucasian Caucasian Caucasian Caucasian Caucasian

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Table 2 Raw Data, Benefits of Exercise Benefits Stress Reduction

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Raw Data I stop thinking about everything Im stressed aboutwhen I exercise. Exercise is extremely important to me as a form of stress reduction Exercise is a key way in which I manage stress. when I dont exercise I am very aware of my irregular heartbeat It is important to keep myself from becoming more overweight. When I exercise regularly, I eatbetter quality foodsleep more regularly/deeplyfeel more relaxed.

Improved Physical health

Better Mind-Body Connection/Well-Being

I know that physically I will feel better and my physical self impacts my emotional self greatly I have a clear mind-body connection. I feel amazing when I am exercising regularly.

Increased Productivity

in the long run it will make me more productive. ...I recently read that several of the top CEOs of Fortune 500 companies exercise daily

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Table 3 Raw Data, Multiple Role Responsibilities Age Range 20-29 yrs.

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Raw Data Mostly time pressures of fitting everything in my life. This year, with getting married and planning a wedding, I am trying to have more balance in my life by allotting more time for my personal life Balancing working full time with school, feeling the pressure financially...because my husband has not been able to find full time work...my best friend may be moving to Nunavut. School, running a household with 2 kids, finding time for my husband, teaching my son to drive....and work... Family issues are a constant stress for me...as I have a difficult father and a drug addicted brother..I find it hard to separate myself from the struggles of family members School....work...two elementary aged children...a sickly mother, a newly widowed mother in law, a lifelong friend with cancer, a household to run, siblings with issues, and my own health issues.... Right now my biggest stress is financial. I am paying for school with my savings so my budget is very tight..

30-39 yrs.

40-49 yrs.

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Table 4 Raw Data, Attitudes Toward Exercise Age Range 20-29 yrs.

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Raw Data I try to make an effort to do some form of exercise every day, even if its going for a ten minute run or a walk. I try to frame it as giving myself time for exercise in instead of I have to exercise. I cycle to and from work everyday, so I get about 5 hours per week doing thatelliptical trainer 3 times a week and do weightstotal hours per week is about 14 hours. Right now I am getting 5 days a week minimum.Am I getting behind in my schoolwork? Yes! However, I was very aware of my irregular heartbeat and I wasnt sleeping at night. So I had to make a change.

30-39 yrs.

40-49 yrs.

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Table 5 Frequency of Variables Category Age Rating 20s 30s 40+ n 9 4 6 Percent 47.4 21.1 31.6

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Hours Worked Per Week

0-15 16-30 31+ Not Working

2 4 10 3

10.5 21.1 52.6 15.8

Parenting Status

Parent Non-Parent

8 11

42.1 57.9

Courseload

One Course Two Courses

9 9

47.4 47.4

Stress Levels

Manageable Elevated Extreme

2 12 4

10.5 63.2 21.1

Exercise Levels

Low Moderate High

11 5 3

57.9 26.3 15.8

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Satisfied with Free Time

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree Strong Agree

10 6 1 1 1

52.6 31.6 5.3 5.3 5.3

Stress Interferes with Exercise

Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

1 1 7 10

5.3 5.3 36.8 52.6

Exercise for Stress Reduction

Disagree

31.6

Neither Agree Strongly Agree

1 5 7

5.3 26.3 36.8

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Figure 1 NVIVO Schematic of Analysis

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Note: This schematic shows how the focus group text information was organized in the NVIVO software. Sources (text data) for each participant was organized into theme Nodes: (a) stressors, (b) benefits of exercise, (c) importance of exercise, and (d) competing responsibilities.

Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Chart 1 Association Between Exercise and Stress Levels

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Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Chart 2 Exercise for Stress Management and Improved Mood

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Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Chart 3 Parenting and Exercise Levels

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Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Chart 4 Age and Financial Stress

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Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Appendix B Stress and Exercise Survey 1. Which category below includes your age? 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-59 60 or older 2. List any of the following that describe your current situation (select all that apply): Employed 0-15 hours per week Employed 16-30 hours per week Employed 31+ hours per week Co-parent Caregiver (of partner/elderly/disabled person etc.) 2 courses per semester 1 course per semester 3. My current level of stress is: Extreme Elevated Manageable Low

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Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Nonexistent 4. List any of the following that describe your current stressors (list all that apply) Financial Family Friendships Health (of self) Health (of other) Employment Education Environmental Recent life change 5. In a typical week, how many hours do you exercise (i.e. running, cycling, weights, yoga, sports, etc.)? Under an hour 1-2 hours 2-3 hours 3-4 hours 4-5 hours 5-6 hours More than 7 hours 6. I am satisfied with the amount of free time I have each day Strongly agree Agree

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Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree 7. Stress reduction is a motivator for me to exercise: Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree 8. The stressors in my life interfere with my ability to exercise: Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree 9. I use exercise as a form of stress management: Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree 10. My mood improves after I exercise: Strongly agree

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Running head: STRESS AND EXERCISE Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree

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