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Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) - Users Manual -

Manual Version 2005

Reinhard Pekrun Thomas Goetz Department of Psychology University of Munich Germany Raymond P. Perry University of Manitoba Canada

Suggested further citation for the AEQ: Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students selfregulated learning and achievement: A program of quantitative and qualitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91-106. Please address correspondence to Dr. R. Pekrun, Department of Psychology, University of Munich, Leopoldstrasse 13, D-80802 Muenchen, Phone +49-89-2180-5149, Fax +49-89-2180-5250, E-mail <pekrun@edupsy.uni-muenchen.de>.
2005 R. Pekrun, T. Goetz, R. P. Perry. All rights reserved.

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Acknowledgement
The development of the AEQ was supported by two research grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG) to the first author (Pe 320/7-1, 320/7-3) and by a TransCoop grant to the first and third author from the German American Academic Council. We want to thank Stefan Molfenter, Wolfram Titz, Sabine Brettmann, Michaela Burger, Anne C. Frenzel, Steve Hladkyj, Michaela Hochstadt, Barbara Jacob, Klaudia Kramer, Barbara Lerch, and Ute Reit for their help in developing the AEQ.

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Contents

1.

Introduction
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 General Description Theoretical Framework of the AEQ Development of the AEQ Item and Scale Characteristics Administering and Scoring the AEQ Using the AEQ to assess Course-Specific and State Achievement Emotions 3 3 4 5 5 5

2.

Listing of Scales and Instructions


2.1 2.2 2.3 Class-Related Emotion Scales Learning-Related Emotion Scales Test-Related Emotion Scales 7 16 25

3. 4.

The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire Alternative Instructions for Assessing Course-Specific and State Emotions
3.1 3.2 Assessment of Course-Specific Achievement Emotions Assessment of State Achievement Emotions

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48 49

5. 6.

References Appendix: Scale Correlations

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1.
1.1

Introduction
General Description

The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) is a multidimensional self-report instrument designed to assess college students achievement emotions. It is based on a program of quantitative and qualitative research that examined students emotions experienced in academic achievement situations (for a summary, see Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, & Perry, 2002a). The AEQ measures a number of discrete emotions for each of the three main categories of academic achievement situations, that is, attending class, studying, and writing tests and exams. In its current version, the AEQ can be used to assess eight different class-related emotions, eight learning-related emotions, and eight test emotions. The test emotions section of the instrument has been published under the name Test Emotions Questionnaire (TEQ; Pekrun, Goetz, Perry, Kramer, & Hochstadt, 2004). The Test Emotions Questionnaire is an integral part of the AEQ. There are three sections to the AEQ, containing the class-related, learning-related, and test-related emotion scales. The class-related emotion scales include 80 items and measure the following eight emotions: class-related enjoyment, hope, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom. The learning-related emotion scales consist of 75 items assessing the same set of emotions in situations of studying. The eight test emotion scales include 77 items pertaining to test-related enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, and hopelessness. Within each section, the items are ordered in three blocks assessing emotional experiences before, during, and after being in achievement situations addressed by the section. For example, the section on test emotions contains three blocks of items pertaining to emotions experienced before, during, and after taking tests. Sequencing items this way is in line with principles of situation-reaction inventories (Endler & Okada, 1975) and aims at helping respondents to access their emotional memories. The AEQ assesses students typical, individual emotional reactions in achievement situations (trait achievement emotions). By using alternative instructions, it can also be used to measure emotions experienced in single courses (course-specific emotions), or in specific situations at specified points of time (state achievement emotions; see sections 1.2, 1.6 and 4). There are German-language versions of the AEQ scales (Molfenter, 1999; Titz, 2001), as well as domain-specific variants assessing middle and high school students emotions experienced in mathematics and language-related subjects (Achievement Emotions Questionnaire Mathematics, AEQ-M; Goetz, 2004; Pekrun et al., 2003; Achievement Emotions Questionnaire Language, AEQ-L; Goetz, Pekrun, Hall, & Haag, in press). Currently, the AEQ-M is available in English, German, and Chinese language versions, and the AEQ-L in English and German versions.

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1.2

Theoretical Framework of the AEQ

Definition and components of achievement emotion. In line with contemporary component process models of emotions (Scherer, 2000), we view emotions as sets of interrelated psychological processes including affective, cognitive, physiological, and motivational components (e.g., feeling tense and uneasy, worrying, being activated physiologically, and wanting to escape in anxiety). Such a conception is in line with component models of test anxiety addressing affective, cognitive, and physiological facets of this emotion (Zeidner, 1998). However, it extends beyond traditional models of test anxiety by taking motivational components into account as well. Achievement emotions are defined as emotions that are directly linked to achievement activities or achievement outcomes. In past research, studies on achievement emotions typically focused on emotions relating to achievement outcomes (like anxiety, pride, or shame linked to success and failure). The definition used by the AEQ implies that emotions pertaining to achievement-related activities are also considered as achievement emotions. Examples are enjoyment of learning, boredom experienced in classroom instruction, or anger at the task demands of academic learning. Emotions assessed by the AEQ: Representing the valence x activation circumplex. Four positive emotions (enjoyment, hope, pride, and relief) and five negative emotions (anger, anxiety, hopelessness, shame, and boredom) are assessed by the AEQ. The decision to include these emotions was based on two main criteria. First, the AEQ addresses emotions that are experienced frequently by college students (Pekrun, 1992; Pekrun et al., 2002a). Second, emotions can be grouped according to the two dimensions of valence (positive vs. negative) and activation (activating vs. deactivating; see Tellegen, Watson & Clark, 1999; Watson & Clark, 1992). These two dimensions can be regarded as being essential for the effects of emotions on learning, achievement, personality development, and health. Combining the two dimensions provides four categories of emotions. The AEQ represents emotions of each of these four categories (positive activating: enjoyment, hope, pride; positive deactivating: relief; negative activating: anger, anxiety, shame; negative deactivating: hopelessness, boredom). Contextualizing emotional experiences: Class-related, learning-related, and test-related emotions. Attending class, studying, and taking tests and exams are the three most important types of achievement situations at college and university. These situations differ concerning their functions and social structures. By implication, it can be assumed that emotions regarding these situations can differ as well. For example, enjoyment of classroom instruction may be different from enjoying the challenge of an exam. Some students may be excited when going to class, others when writing exams. Therefore, the AEQ provides separate scales for class-related, learning-related, and testrelated emotions. Trait vs. state achievement emotions. As emotions generally, achievement emotions can be conceptualized in trait-like or state-like ways. The defining characteristic of the trait vs. state distinction is the temporal generality of the emotion under consideration. For example, habitual test anxiety as measured by traditional test anxiety scales is being regarded as a trait emotion, whereas anxiety experienced an hour before a specific exam would be viewed as a state emotion (Spielberger, Anton & Bedell, 1976). On a conceptual continuum representing emotional traits versus states, emotions typically experienced by a student in a specific semester-long course would be located in between trait and state emotions. The AEQ can be used to assess all three types of

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achievement emotions (trait, course-specific, state) in each of the three types of achievement settings (classroom instruction, studying, tests and exams) by adapting the instructions accordingly (see sections 1.6 and 4).

1.3

Development of the AEQ

Scale and item development of the AEQ was based on student reports gained in qualitative, exploratory studies on students emotional experiences in different achievement situations (Pekrun, 1992; Molfenter, 1999; Titz, 2001). Concerning test-related anxiety, item construction was based on Sarasons (1984) Reactions-to-Tests Questionnaire and Hodapp and Bensons (1997) Integrative Test Anxiety Questionnaire. From an initial item pool, items were selected for preliminary versions of the scales by using expert judgment and criteria of redundancy. Selection of items for the final German versions was based on item statistics of the preliminary versions and on results of confirmatory factor analysis (see Titz, 2001, for the class-related and learning-related emotion scales; and Molfenter, 1999; Pekrun et al., 2004, for the test emotion scales). The final German AEQ scales were translated into the English language by a team of three experts, two of them bilingual. A backtranslation procedure was used to ensure content-related item equivalence. The English AEQ scales were administered to a sample of N = 389 students enrolled in undergraduate psychology courses at a large midwestern Canadian university (234 females, 155 males; mean age 20.63 years, SD = 3.48). Item and scale characteristics reported in section 2 are based on this sample.

1.4

Item and Scale Characteristics

The scales of the AEQ are detailed in section 2 of this manual. The section includes all items of the AEQ, ordered by scale. Descriptive item statistics (means, standard deviations, part-whole corrected item-total correlations) and scale statistics (means, standard deviations, reliabilities) are reported as well. These statistics indicate that there is sufficient item score variation, and that item-total correlations are robust. Also, there is sufficient variation of scale scores for each scale. The reliabilities of the AEQ scales range from adequate to very good (Alpha = .75 to .93, with Alpha > .80 for 20 of the 24 scales). Scale correlations are shown in the Appendix. Most of these correlations are low to medium, thus indicating discriminant validity. As is typical with emotion scales, higher correlations are found for neighboring emotions (e.g., test anxiety and test hopelessness). However, as a general rule, even correlations for neighboring emotions are low to medium when the AEQ is used to assess state achievement emotions (for a more detailed discussion of interrelations of achievement emotions, see Pekrun et al., 2002a, and Pekrun et al., 2004). The internal structural validity of the AEQ scales in terms of emotion component structures has been analyzed by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (Goetz, 2004; Molfenter, 1999; Pekrun et al., 2004; Titz, 2001). The AEQ has been shown to be predictive for students academic achievement, course enrollment, and dropout rates. For example, in the study reported by Titz (2001), correlations between university students class-related and learning-related enjoyment, hope, and pride, on the one hand, and their

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grades on mid-studies exams, on the other, ranged from r = .27 to .45. Correlations for class-related and learning-related anxiety, shame, and hopelessness were in the range of r = -.24 to -.46. Also, achievement emotions as assessed by the AEQ relate to components of students learning processes such as study interest, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to learn, cognitive and metacognitive strategies of learning, the investment of study effort, and the self-regulation of academic learning. Furthermore, scales of the AEQ relate to students health and well-being. Gender, social feedback, teachers classroom management and instructional behavior, and the social climate of classrooms have been shown to be further important correlates of the achievement emotions assessed by the AEQ. A more detailed discussion of these relations is beyond the scope of this manual (see Goetz, 2004; Goetz, Pekrun, Hall, & Haag, in press; Kleine, Goetz, Pekrun, & Hall, 2005; Molfenter, 1999; Pekrun, 2000; Pekrun & Goetz, 2005; Pekrun et al., 2002a, 2002b; Pekrun et al., 2004; Perry, Hladkyi, Pekrun, & Pelletier, 2001; Perry, Hladkyj, Pekrun, Clifton, & Chipperfield, 2005; Ruthig et al., 2005; Spangler, Pekrun, Kramer, & Hofmann, 2002; Titz, 2001).

1.5

Administering and Scoring the AEQ

The three sections of the AEQ can be used together or singly. Within each section, the different emotion scales can also be used separately. The instrument is designed to be modular and can be used to fit the needs of the researcher. It can be given in class and takes approximately 40-50 minutes administration time when all three sections are administered. Because self-report measures of emotions can generally be subject to response bias under unfavorable circumstances, the AEQ should preferably be administered on a voluntary basis, and the data be used in a depersonalized way. Students rate their emotional experiences on a five point Likert scale from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Answer sheets can be used by students to record their ratings. Scales are computed by summing the items of the scale and taking their mean.

1.6

Using the AEQ to assess Course-Specific and State Achievement Emotions

The instructions given in the original version of the AEQ request students to describe their general, typical emotional experiences when attending class, studying, and taking tests at college and university (trait achievement emotions). By changing the instruction accordingly, the instrument can also be used to assess students emotions in a specific course (course-specific emotions), or in a given achievement situation on a single day (state achievement emotions). The items do not contain any references to temporal generality, such that they can be used under instructions of different temporal and situational specificity. The instructions for the original version of the AEQ are presented in sections 2 and 3. Alternative instructions for use of the AEQ to assess course-specific and state achievement emotions are described in section 4.

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2.
2.1

Listing of Scales and Instructions


Class-Related Emotion Scales

This section of the questionnaire includes the eight class-related emotion scales assessing classrelated enjoyment, hope, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom. The items of the scales pertain to the four different emotion component subscales within emotions (affective, cognitive, motivational, and physiological component subscales as indicated by the 4th letter - A, C, M, or P - within item labels). In the following, items are presented in a systematical order. In the questionnaire, items are presented in three blocks pertaining to emotional feelings experienced before, during, and after being in class (indicated by the last letter - B, D, or A - within items labels). Items are mixed within blocks in the questionnaire.

INSTRUCTION

"Attending classes at university can induce different feelings. This part of the questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when being in class at university. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of being in class which you have experienced during the course of your studies."

(1) BEFORE CLASS

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE being in class. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before you go to class."

(2) DURING CLASS

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING class. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during class."

(3) AFTER CLASS

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER having been in class. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after class."

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CLASS-RELATED ENJOYMENT (10) Item 1 24 67 5 71 76 11 32 41 CJOA1B CJOA2D CJOA3A CJOC1B CJOC2A CJOC3A CJOM1B CJOM2D CJOM3D I get excited about going to class. I enjoy being in class. After class I start looking forward to the next class. I am looking forward to learning a lot in this class. I am happy that I understood the material. I am glad that it paid off to go to class. I am motivated to go to this class because its exciting. My enjoyment of this class makes me want to participate. Its so exciting that I could sit in class for hours listening to the professor. I enjoy participating so much that I get energized. M SD rit .64 .70 .57 .60 .45 .43 .65 .55 .45

2.89 1.06 3.39 .97 2.73 1.05 3.71 3.84 3.86 .95 .80 .86

3.35 1.06 3.40 .99 2.25 1.10

49

CJOP1D

2.55 1.00

.50

Scale statistics: M = 31.99 SD = 6.47 ! = .85

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CLASS-RELATED HOPE (8) Item 7 9 20 23 37 4 13 16 CHOA1B CHOA2B CHOC1B CHOC2B CHOC3D CHOM1B CHOM2B CHOM3B I am confident when I go to class. I am full of hope. I am optimistic that I will be able to keep up with the material. I am hopeful that I will make good contributions in class. I am confident because I understand the material. Being confident that I will understand the material motivates me. My confidence motivates me to prepare for class. My hopes that I will be successful motivate me to invest a lot of effort. M 3.51 3.41 3.63 3.24 3.52 3.58 2.99 3.49 SD .91 .97 .94 .95 .80 .88 .93 .97 rit .54 .61 .40 .41 .50 .53 .53 .43

Scale statistics: M = 27.39 SD = 4.67 ! = .79

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10

CLASS-RELATED PRIDE (9) Item 70 30 40 74 53 46 77 80 CPRA1A CPRC1D CPRC2D CPRC3A CPRC4A CPRM1D CPRM2A CPRM3A I am proud of myself. I take pride in being able to keep up with the material. I am proud that I do better than the others in this course. I think that I can be proud of what I know about this subject. I am proud of the contributions I have made in class. When I make good contributions in class, I get even more motivated. Because I take pride in my accomplishments in this course, I am motivated to continue. I would like to tell my friends about how well I did in this course. When I do well in class, my heart throbs with pride. M 3.31 3.55 3.58 3.12 3.69 3.70 SD .99 .87 .87 .93 .96 .88 rit .57 .50 .49 .62 .55 .52 .54 .41

3.28 1.11

3.34 1.03

60

CPRP1D

3.63

.94

.50

Scale statistics: M = 31.20 SD = 5.50 ! = .82

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CLASS-RELATED ANGER (9) Item 28 73 44 59 78 8 69 39 54 CAGA1D CAGA2A CAGC1D CAGC2D CAGC3A CAGM1B CAGM2A CAGP1D CAGP2D I feel frustrated in class. I am angry. Thinking about the poor quality of the course makes me angry. Thinking about all the useless things I have to learn makes me irritated. When I think of the time I waste in class I get aggravated. I wish I didnt have to attend class because it makes me angry. I wish I could tell the teachers off. I feel anger welling up in me. Because Im angry I get restless in class. M SD rit .58 .67 .51 .50 .60 .57 .57 .68 .67

2.15 1.02 1.57 .87

2.27 1.13 2.50 1.20 2.13 1.04 1.64 .90

1.74 1.03 1.62 1.78 .88 .99

Scale statistics: M = 17.39 SD = 6.24 ! = .86

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CLASS-RELATED ANXIETY (12) Item 17 21 50 3 12 15 25 6 56 CAXA1B CAXA2B CAXA3D CAXC1B CAXC2B CAXC3B CAXC4D CAXM1B CAXM2D Thinking about class makes me feel uneasy. I feel scared. I feel nervous in class. Even before class, I worry whether I will be able to understand the material. I worry whether Im sufficiently prepared for the lesson. I worry whether the demands might be too great. I worry the others will understand more than me. Because Im so nervous I would rather skip the class. I get scared that I might say something wrong, so Id rather not say anything. When I think about class, I get queasy. I get tense in class. When I dont understand something important in class, my heart races. M SD rit .65 .60 .59 .63 .47 .53 .57 .42 .54

1.97 1.01 1.87 1.01 1.97 .97

2.32 1.14 2.79 1.03 2.83 1.17 2.58 1.20 1.68 .92

3.09 1.33

19 35 65

CAXP1B CAXP2D CAXP3D

1.76

.97

.54 .63 .43

2.09 1.03 2.73 1.24

Scale statistics: M = 27.68 SD = 8.30 ! = .86

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CLASS-RELATED SHAME (11) Item 43 58 64 34 47 68 CSHA1D CSHA2D CSHC1D CSHC2D CSHC3D CSHC4A I get embarrassed. I am ashamed. If the others knew that I dont understand the material I would be embarrassed. When I say anything in class I feel like I am making a fool of myself. Im embarrassed that I cant express myself well. I am ashamed because others understood more of the lecture than I did. After I have said something in class I wish I could crawl into a hole and hide. Id rather not tell anyone when I dont understand something in class. When I say something in class I feel like I turn red. Because I get embarrassed, I become tense and inhibited. When I talk in class I start stuttering. M SD rit .63 .54 .65 .76 .69 .55

1.92 1.03 1.58 .84

2.46 1.21 2.56 1.23 2.66 1.23 2.08 1.04

38 72

CSHM1D CHSM2A

2.24 1.21 2.51 1.16

.69 .55

27 52 62

CSHP1D CSHP2D CSHP3D

3.02 1.35 2.12 1.11 2.08 1.14

.59 .65 .55

Scale statistics: M = 25.22 SD = 8.80 ! = .89

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CLASS-RELATED HOPELESSNESS (10) Item 14 48 10 55 79 18 22 2 CHLA1B CHLA2D CHLC1B CHLC2D CHLC3A CHLM1B CHLM2B CHLM3B The thought of this class makes me feel hopeless. I feel hopeless. Even before class, I am resigned to the fact that I wont understand the material. I have lost all hope in understanding this class. I feel hopeless continuing in this program of studies. Because Ive given up, I dont have energy to go to class. Id rather not go to class since there is no hope of understanding the material anyway. Its pointless to prepare for class since I dont understand the material anyway. Because I dont understand the material I look disconnected and resigned. I feel so hopeless all my energy is depleted. M 1.82 1.63 1.71 1.64 1.77 1.65 1.65 1.81 SD .91 .85 .90 .87 .91 .93 .91 .92 rit .72 .65 .70 .67 .62 .70 .67 .57

31 75

CHLP1D CHLP2A

2.18 1.02 1.71 .90

.61 .68

Scale statistics: M = 17.56 SD = 6.68 ! = .90

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CLASS-RELATED BOREDOM (11) Item 36 63 51 61 26 66 29 42 33 57 45 CBOA1D CBOA2D CBOC1D CBOC2D CBOM1D CBOM2D CBOM3D CBOP1D CBOP2D CBOP3D CBOP4D I get bored. I find this class fairly dull. The lecture bores me. Because I get bored my mind begins to wander. Im tempted to walk out of the lecture because it is so boring. I think about what else I might be doing rather than sitting in this boring class. Because the time drags I frequently look at my watch. I get so bored I have problems staying alert. I get restless because I cant wait for the class to end. During class I feel like I could sink into my chair. I start yawning in class because Im so bored. M SD rit .80 .67 .79 .74 .63 .70 .71 .76 .79 .45 .78

3.03 1.21 2.39 1.08 2.70 1.12 3.33 1.18 2.45 1.18 2.86 1.21 3.31 1.21 2.77 1.17 3.01 1.18 2.15 1.12 2.84 1.23

Scale statistics: M = 30.84 SD = 9.88 ! = .93

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2.1

Learning-Related Emotion Scales

This section of the questionnaire includes the eight learning-related emotion scales assessing learning-related enjoyment, hope, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom. The items of the scales pertain to the four different emotion component subscales within emotions (affective, cognitive, motivational, and physiological component subscales as indicated by the 4th letter "A", "C", "M", or "P" within item labels. In the following, items are presented in a systematical order. In the questionnaire, items are presented in three blocks pertaining to emotional feelings experienced before, during, and after studying (indicated by the last letter "B", "D", or "A" within items labels). Items are mixed within blocks in the questionnaire.

INSTRUCTION

"Studying for your courses at university can induce different feelings. This questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when studying. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of studying which you have experienced during the course of your studies."

(1) BEFORE STUDYING

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE studying. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before you begin to study."

(2) DURING STUDYING

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING studying. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during studying."

(3) AFTER STUDYING

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER having studied. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after having studied."

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LEARNING-RELATED ENJOYMENT (10) Item 81 124 139 131 150 110 146 154 LJOA1B LJOA2D LJOA3D LJOC1D LJOC2A LJOM1D LJOM2A LJOM3A I look forward to studying. I enjoy the challenge of learning the material. I enjoy acquiring new knowledge. I enjoy dealing with the course material. Reflecting on my progress in coursework makes me happy. I study more than required because I enjoy it so much. I am so happy about the progress I made that I am motivated to continue studying. Certain subjects are so enjoyable that I am motivated to do extra readings about them. When my studies are going well, it gives me a rush. I get physically excited when my studies are going well. M SD rit .44 .55 .39 .53 .44 .46 .50 .41

2.51 1.07 3.51 4.14 3.23 3.61 1.78 3.37 .94 .84 .90 .88 .88 .98

3.48 1.25

117 136

LJOP1D LJOP2D

4.00 1.03 3.47 1.13

.40 .41

Scale statistics: M = 33.09 SD = 5.78 ! = .78

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LEARNING-RELATED HOPE (6) Item 88 98 83 94 104 113 LHOA1B LHOA2D LHOC1B LHOC2B LHOM1D LHOM2D I have an optimistic view toward studying. I feel confident when studying. I feel confident that I will be able to master the material. I feel optimistic that I will make good progress at studying. The thought of achieving my learning objectives inspires me. My sense of confidence motivates me. M 3.19 3.29 3.28 3.49 3.83 3.19 SD .93 .87 .90 .86 .93 .90 rit .45 .69 .49 .55 .41 .55

Scale statistics: M = 20.27 SD = 3.70 ! = .77

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LEARNING-RELATED PRIDE (6) Item 144 107 152 129 LPRA1A LPRC1D LPRC2A LPRM1D Im proud of myself. Im proud of my capacity. I think I can be proud of my accomplishments at studying. Because I want to be proud of my accomplishments, I am very motivated. When I solve a difficult problem in my studying, my heart beats with pride. When I excel at my work, I swell with pride. M SD rit .50 .38 .54 .56

3.64 1.00 3.42 3.59 3.43 .98 .97 .99

122 135

LPRP1D LPRP2D

3.60 1.11 3.91 .98

.44 .49

Scale statistics: M = 21.59 SD = 4.00 ! = .75

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LEARNING-RELATED ANGER (9) Item 90 115 121 92 128 84 100 LAGA1B LAGA2D LAGA3D LAGC1B LAGC2D LAGM1B LAGM2D I get angry when I have to study. Studying makes me irritated. I get angry while studying. Im annoyed that I have to study so much. I get annoyed about having to study. Because I get so upset over the amount of material, I dont even want to begin studying. I get so angry I feel like throwing the textbook out of the window. When I sit at my desk for a long time, my irritation makes me restless. After extended studying, Im so angry that I get tense. M SD rit .65 .72 .66 .56 .67 .49 .54

2.04 1.10 2.63 1.10 2.04 1.05 2.95 1.17 2.80 1.15 2.56 1.17 2.01 1.15

106 143

LAGP1D LAGP2A

3.02 1.24 1.95 1.04

.55 .53

Scale statistics: M = 22.00 SD = 7.04 ! = .86

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LEARNING-RELATED ANXIETY (11) Item 86 118 147 96 125 141 82 102 LAXA1B LAXA2D LAXA3A LAXC1D LAXC2D LAXC3A LAXM1B LAXM2D When I look at the books I still have to read, I get anxious. I get tense and nervous while studying. When I cant keep up with my studies it makes me fearful. I worry whether Im able to cope with all my work. The subject scares me since I dont fully understand it. I worry whether I have properly understood the material. I get so nervous that I dont even want to begin to study. While studying I feel like distracting myself in order to reduce my anxiety. When I have to study I start to feel queasy. As time runs out my heart begins to race. Worry about not completing the material makes me sweat. M SD rit .51 .56 .53 .56 .52 .52 .42 .53

2.94 1.16 2.41 1.00 3.51 1.20 3.28 1.08 2.77 1.15 3.30 1.11 2.07 1.06 2.67 1.26

85 111 132

LAXP1B LAXP2D LAXP3D

1.70

.99

.39 .57 .55

3.33 1.24 2.71 1.25

Scale statistics: M = 30.69 SD = 7.76 ! = .84

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LEARNING-RELATED SHAME (11) Item 127 89 99 105 134 138 148 142 151 LSHA1D LSHC1B LSHC2D LSHC3D LSHC4D LSHC5D LSHC6A LSHM1A LSHM2A I feel ashamed. I feel ashamed about my constant procrastination. I feel ashamed that I cant absorb the simplest of details. I feel ashamed because I am not as adept as others in studying. I feel embarrassed about not being able to fully explain the material to others. I feel ashamed when I realize that I lack ability. My memory gaps embarrass me. Because I have had so much troubles with the course material, I avoid discussing it. I dont want anybody to know when I havent been able to understand something. When somebody notices how little I understand I avoid eye contact. I turn red when I dont know the answer to a question relating to the course material. M 1.74 SD .99 rit .63 .46 .61 .57 .61 .66 .57 .57 .48

3.04 1.24 2.39 1.21 2.63 1.23 2.49 1.19 2.49 1.21 2.43 1.22 2.16 1.02 2.67 1.15

114 120

LSHP1D LSHP2D

2.61 1.25 2.33 1.26

.53 .34

Scale statistics: M = 29.00 SD = 8.32 ! = .86

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LEARNING-RELATED HOPELESSNESS (11) Item 95 130 153 123 145 149 155 LHLA1B LHLA2D LHLA3A LHLC1D LHLC2A LHLC3A LHLC4A I feel hopeless when I think about studying. I feel helpless. I feel resigned. Im resigned to the fact that I dont have the capacity to master this material. After studying Im resigned to the fact that I havent got the ability. Im discouraged about the fact that Ill never learn the material. I worry because my abilities are not sufficient for my program of studies. I feel so helpless that I cant give my studies my full efforts. I wish I could quit because I cant cope with it. My lack of confidence makes me exhausted before I even start. My hopelessness undermines all my energy. M SD rit .62 .70 .54 .65 .62 .61 .60

2.12 1.04 1.84 1.04 2.15 2.05 2.02 .92 .96 .97

2.11 1.07 2.54 1.18

108 116 91 101

LHLM1D LHLM2D LHLP1B LHLP2D

2.26 1.13 1.91 1.07 2.07 1.10 1.97 .99

.66 .60 .66 .68

Scale statistics: M = 23.06 SD = 8.09 ! = .90

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LEARNING-RELATED BOREDOM (11) Item 112 133 137 119 140 109 87 93 97 103 126 LBOA1D LBOA2D LBOA3D LBOC1D LBOC2D LBOC3D LBOM1B LBOM2B LBOP1D LBOP2D LBOP3D The material bores me to death. Studying for my courses bores me. Studying is dull and monotonous. While studying this boring material, I spend my time thinking of how time stands still. The material is so boring that I find myself daydreaming. I find my mind wandering while I study. Because Im bored I have no desire to learn. I would rather put off this boring work till tomorrow. Because Im bored I get tired sitting at my desk. The material bores me so much that I feel depleted. While studying I seem to drift off because its so boring. M SD rit .70 .76 .73 .48 .78 .61 .52 .62 .71 .69 .80

2.33 1.07 2.67 1.13 2.75 1.14 2.22 1.13 3.08 1.24 3.80 1.12 2.22 1.15 3.21 1.26 3.07 1.18 2.30 1.07 3.05 1.14

Scale statistics: M = 30.69 SD = 9.29 ! = .92

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2.3

Test-Related Emotion Scales

This section of the questionnaire includes the eight test emotion scales assessing test-related enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, and hopelessness. Together, the scales constitute the Test Emotions Questionnaire (TEQ; Pekrun et al., 2004). The items of the scales pertain to the four different emotion component subscales within emotions (affective, cognitive, motivational, and physiological component subscales as indicated by the 4th letter "A", "C", "M", or "P" within item labels). In the following, items are presented in a systematical order. In the questionnaire, items are presented in three blocks pertaining to emotional feelings experienced before, during, and after taking tests and exams (indicated by the last letter "B", "D", or "A" within items labels). Items are mixed within blocks in the questionnaire.

INSTRUCTION

"Test and exams can induce different feelings. This part of the questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when taking tests or exams at university. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of test-taking or exams which you have experienced during the course of your studies."

(1) BEFORE TAKING THE TEST / EXAM

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE taking a test or an exam. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before taking a test or an exam."

(2) DURING TAKING THE TEST / EXAM

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING taking a test or an exam. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during taking a test or an exam."

(3) AFTER TAKING THE TEST / EXAM

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER taking a test or an exam. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after taking a test or an exam."

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TEST ENJOYMENT (10) Item 156 181 173 200 204 163 177 169 213 230 TJOA1B TJOA2D TJOC1B TJOC2D TJOC3D TJOM1B TJOM2B TJOP1B TJOP2A TJOP3A I look forward to the exam. I enjoy taking the exam. I look forward to demonstrating my knowledge. I am happy that I can cope with the test. For me the test is a challenge that is enjoyable. Because I enjoy preparing for the test, Im motivated to do more than is necessary. Because I look forward to being successful, I study hard. Before taking the exam, I sense a feeling of eagerness. My heart beats faster with joy. I glow all over. M SD rit .47 .54 .53 .40 .60 .43 .44 .38 .39 .33

2.04 1.08 2.37 1.07 3.10 1.00 3.48 .90 2.70 1.09 2.31 1.02 3.50 .99

3.08 1.09 3.01 .98 2.74 1.09

Scale statistics: M = 28.33 SD = 6.00 ! = .78

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TEST HOPE (8) Item 166 193 171 175 176 158 180 183 THOA1B THOA2D THOC1B THOC2B THOC3B THOM1B THOM2B THOM3D I am optimistic that everything will work out fine. I am very confident. I have great hope that my abilities will be sufficient. Im quite confident that my preparation is sufficient. I think about my exam optimistically. I start studying for the exam with great hope and anticipation. My confidence motivates me to prepare well. Hoping for success, Im motivated to invest a lot of effort. M 3.37 3.00 3.42 2.98 3.16 SD .94 .96 .87 .93 .97 rit .58 .59 .58 .58 .59 .34 .60 .30

3.08 1.07 3.14 3.77 .94 .91

Scale statistics: M = 25.91 SD = 4.93 ! = .80

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TEST PRIDE (10) Item 224 232 187 215 212 160 196 209 220 227 TPRA1A TPRA2A TPRC1D TPRC2A TPRC3A TPRM1B TPRM2D TPRP1A TPRP2A TPRP3A I am very satisfied with myself. I am proud of myself. I think that I can be proud of my knowledge. To think about my success makes me feel proud. Im proud of how well I mastered the exam. Im so proud of my preparation that I want to start the exam now. Pride in my knowledge fuels my efforts in doing the test. When I get the test results back, my heart beats with pride. After the exam I feel ten feet taller because Im so proud. I walk out of the exam with the look of a winner on my face. M 3.32 SD .89 rit .65 .64 .55 .60 .63 .34 .55 .59 .63 .61

3.36 1.03 3.46 3.66 3.30 .91 .96 .95

2.20 1.05 3.27 3.20 .91 .91

2.73 1.02 2.82 1.03

Scale statistics: M = 31.32 SD = 6.48 ! = .86

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TEST RELIEF (6) Item 221 228 218 210 216 225 TREA1A TREA2A TREA3A TREP1A TREP2A TREP3A I feel relief. I feel freed. I feel very relieved. The tension in my stomach is dissipated. I finally can breathe easy again. I can finally laugh again. M SD rit .62 .52 .58 .46 .52 .39

4.02 .93 3.59 1.06 3.88 1.01 3.34 1.08 3.49 1.12 3.20 1.07

Scale statistics: M = 21.59 SD = 4.00 ! = .77

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TEST ANGER (10) Item 186 214 159 167 194 208 219 226 223 231 TAGA1D TAGA2A TAGC1B TAGC2B TAGC3D TAGC4A TAGM1A TAGM2A TAGP1A TAGP2A I get angry. I am fairly annoyed. I get angry over time pressures which dont leave enough time to prepare. I get angry about the amount of material I need to know. I think the questions are unfair. I get angry about the teachers grading standards. I wish I could tell the teacher off. I wish I could freely express my anger. My anger makes the blood rush to my head. I get so angry, I start feeling hot and flushed. M SD rit .60 .55 .45 .57 .59 .60 .58 .56 .62 .57

1.88 1.08 2.27 1.04 3.33 1.19 2.86 1.18 2.45 2.32 .99 .99

2.11 1.21 2.26 1.16 1.94 1.03 1.95 1.08

Scale statistics: M = 23.36 SD = 7.28 ! = .86

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TEST ANXIETY (12) Item 170 188 197 157 179 182 174 192 201 165 184 190 TAXA1B TAXA2D TAXA3D TAXC1B TAXC2B TAXC3D TAXM1B TAXM2D TAXM3D TAXP1B TAXP2D TAXP3D Before the exam I feel nervous and uneasy. I am very nervous. I feel panicky when writing the exam. I worry whether I have studied enough. I worry whether the test will be too difficult. I worry whether I will pass the exam. I get so nervous I wish I could just skip the exam. I get so nervous I cant wait for the exam to be over. I am so anxious that Id rather be anywhere else. I feel sick to my stomach. At the beginning of the test, my heart starts pounding. My hands get shaky. M SD rit .62 .73 .74 .51 .58 .52 .69 .63 .69 .59 .59 .49

3.46 1.16 3.04 1.32 2.84 1.21 4.05 1.03 3.62 1.05 3.42 1.24 2.57 1.30 2.59 1.28 2.55 1.21 2.31 1.28 3.45 1.23 2.29 1.25

Scale statistics: M = 45.54 SD = 13.00 ! = .92

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TEST SHAME (10) Item 199 211 162 191 207 217 203 222 TSHA1D TSHA2A TSHC1B TSHC2D TSHC3D TSHC4A TSHM1D TSHM2A I feel humiliated. I feel ashamed. I cant even think about how embarrassing it would be to fail the exam. I am ashamed of my poor preparation. I get embarrassed because I cant answer the questions correctly. My marks embarrass me. I get so embarrassed I want to run and hide. When I get a bad mark I would prefer not to face my teacher again. Because I am ashamed my pulse races. When others find out about my poor marks I start to blush. M SD rit .68 .69 .43 .58 .68 .64 .62 .53

1.79 1.01 1.92 .97

3.04 1.40 2.47 1.16 2.00 1.04 2.29 1.11 1.52 .85

2.48 1.21

206 229

TSHP1D TSHP2A

1.79

.95

.66 .56

2.61 1.25

Scale statistics: M = 21.92 SD = 7.52 ! = .87

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33

TEST HOPELESSNESS (11) Item 178 205 164 202 185 195 THLA1B THLA2D THLC1B THLC2D THLC3D THLC4D I get depressed because I feel I dont have much hope for the exam. I feel hopeless. I have lost all hope that I have the ability to do well on the exam. I have given up believing that I can answer the questions correctly. I start to think that no matter how hard I try I wont succeed on the test. I start to realize that the questions are much too difficult for me. I feel so resigned about the exam that I cant start doing anything. Id rather not write the test because I have lost all hope. I feel like giving up. My hopelessness robs me of all my energy. I feel so resigned that I have no energy. M SD rit .67 .74 .69 .69 .72 .65

2.17 1.08 1.79 1.00 1.84 .96

1.92 1.02 2.05 1.07 2.35 1.00

168 172 189 161 198

THLM1B THLM2B THLM3D THLP1B THLP2D

2.17 1.03 1.93 1.00 1.99 1.12 1.98 1.01 1.93 .93

.62 .70 .70 .67 .75

Scale statistics: M = 22.12 SD = 8.42 ! = .92

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University of Munich / Germany Department of Psychology Dr. Reinhard Pekrun Dr. Thomas Goetz

University of Manitoba / Canada Department of Psychology Dr. Raymond P. Perry

Feeling and Thinking about University Experiences - Achievement Emotions Questionnaire This questionnaire concerns your beliefs and opinions about the time you have spent at university up until now. There are no right or wrong answers - we are simply trying to find out how you feel and think about your university experience. We are interested in your personal opinions, so please be candid in your responses. Your identity and your answers will be kept strictly confidential. The information will be used for research purposes only and will not be available for any other reasons.

The questionnaire consists of 232 items organized into three sections. All items are to be answered on the provided bubble-sheets. Each row of bubbles is numbered to correspond with the item in the questionnaire. Please be sure to fill in your answer in the row on the bubble sheet that corresponds to the item number in the questionnaire. Please use a pencil (not a pen), and make sure to completely fill in the bubble.

Your participation in this study is vital to its overall success and your time given in completing this questionnaire is very much appreciated.

Thank you for your support!


2000 R. Pekrun, T. Goetz, R. P. Perry. All rights reserved.

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PART I - Class-Related Emotions


Attending classes at university can induce different feelings. This part of the questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when being in class at university. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of being in class which you have experienced during the course of your studies. Read each item carefully and RESPOND USING THE SCALE PROVIDED. Record your answers on the BUBBLE SHEET, using the appropriate number, 1 THROUGH 80. BEFORE CLASS The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE being in class. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before you go to class. Strongly Disagree 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Strongly Agree 5

I get excited about going to class. Its pointless to prepare for class since I dont understand the material anyway. Even before class, I worry whether I will be able to understand the material. Being confident that I will understand the material motivates me. I am looking forward to learning a lot in this class. Because Im so nervous I would rather skip the class. I am confident when I go to class. I wish I didnt have to attend class because it makes me angry. I am full of hope. Even before class, I am resigned to the fact that I wont understand the material. I am motivated to go to this class because its exciting. I worry whether Im sufficiently prepared for the lesson. My confidence motivates me to prepare for class. The thought of this class makes me feel hopeless. I worry whether the demands might be too great. My hopes that I will be successful motivate me to invest a lot of effort.

AEQ

36

Strongly Disagree 1 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Strongly Agree 5

Thinking about class makes me feel uneasy. Because Ive given up, I dont have energy to go to class. When I think about class, I get queasy. I am optimistic that I will be able to keep up with the material. I feel scared. Id rather not go to class since there is no hope of understanding the material anyway. I am hopeful that I will make good contributions in class.

DURING CLASS The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING class. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during class. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. I enjoy being in class. I worry the others will understand more than me. Im tempted to walk out of the lecture because it is so boring. When I say something in class I feel like I turn red. I feel frustrated in class. Because the time drags I frequently look at my watch. I take pride in being able to keep up with the material. Because I dont understand the material I look disconnected and resigned. My enjoyment of this class makes me want to participate. I get restless because I cant wait for the class to end. When I say anything in class I feel like I am making a fool of myself. I get tense in class. I get bored. I am confident because I understand the material. After I have said something in class I wish I could crawl into a hole and hide. I feel anger welling up in me. I am proud that I do better than the others in this course.

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37

Strongly Disagree 1 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66.

Strongly Agree 5

Its so exciting that I could sit in class for hours listening to the professor. I get so bored I have problems staying alert. I get embarrassed. Thinking about the poor quality of the course makes me angry. I start yawning in class because Im so bored. When I make good contributions in class, I get even more motivated. Im embarrassed that I cant express myself well. I feel hopeless. I enjoy participating so much that I get energized. I feel nervous in class. The lecture bores me. Because I get embarrassed, I become tense and inhibited. I am proud of the contributions I have made in class. Because Im angry I get restless in class. I have lost all hope in understanding this class. I get scared that I might say something wrong, so Id rather not say anything. During class I feel like I could sink into my chair. I am ashamed. Thinking about all the useless things I have to learn makes me irritated. When I do well in class, my heart throbs with pride. Because I get bored my mind begins to wander. When I talk in class I start stuttering. I find this class fairly dull. If the others knew that I dont understand the material I would be embarrassed. When I dont understand something important in class, my heart races. I think about what else I might be doing rather than sitting in this boring class.

AEQ

38

AFTER CLASS The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER having been in class. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after class. Strongly Disagree 1 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. Strongly Agree 5

After class I start looking forward to the next class. I am ashamed because others understood more of the lecture than I did. I wish I could tell the teachers off. I am proud of myself. I am happy that I understood the material. Id rather not tell anyone when I dont understand something in class. I am angry. I think that I can be proud of what I know about this subject. I feel so hopeless all my energy is depleted. I am glad that it paid off to go to class. Because I take pride in my accomplishments in this course, I am motivated to continue. When I think of the time I waste in class I get aggravated. I feel hopeless continuing in this program of studies. I would like to tell my friends about how well I did in this course.

AEQ

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PART II - LEARNING-RELATED EMOTIONS


Studying for your courses at university can induce different feelings. This part of the questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when studying. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of studying which you have experienced during the course of your studies. Read each item carefully and RESPOND USING THE SCALE PROVIDED. Record your answers on the BUBBLE SHEET, using the appropriate number, 81 THROUGH 155. BEFORE STUDYING The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE studying. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before you begin to study. Strongly Disagree 1 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. Strongly Agree 5

I look forward to studying. I get so nervous that I dont even want to begin to study. I feel confident that I will be able to master the material. Because I get so upset over the amount of material, I dont even want to begin studying. When I have to study I start to feel queasy. When I look at the books I still have to read, I get anxious. Because Im bored I have no desire to learn. I have an optimistic view toward studying. I feel ashamed about my constant procrastination. I get angry when I have to study. My lack of confidence makes me exhausted before I even start. Im annoyed that I have to study so much. I would rather put off this boring work till tomorrow. I feel optimistic that I will make good progress at studying. I feel hopeless when I think about studying.

AEQ

40

DURING STUDYING The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING studying. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during studying. Strongly Disagree 1 96. 97. 98. 99. Strongly Agree 5

I worry whether Im able to cope with all my work. Because Im bored I get tired sitting at my desk. I feel confident when studying. I feel ashamed that I cant absorb the simplest of details.

100. I get so angry I feel like throwing the textbook out of the window. 101. My hopelessness undermines all my energy. 102. While studying I feel like distracting myself in order to reduce my anxiety.. 103. The material bores me so much that I feel depleted. 104. The thought of achieving my learning objectives inspires me. 105. I feel ashamed because I am not as adept as others in studying. 106. When I sit at my desk for a long time, my irritation makes me restless. 107. Im proud of my capacity. 108. I feel so helpless that I cant give my studies my full efforts. 109. I find my mind wandering while I study. 110. I study more than required because I enjoy it so much. 111. As time runs out my heart begins to race. 112. The material bores me to death. 113. My sense of confidence motivates me. 114. When somebody notices how little I understand I avoid eye contact. 115. Studying makes me irritated. 116. I wish I could quit because I cant cope with it. 117. When my studies are going well, it gives me a rush. 118. I get tense and nervous while studying. 119. While studying this boring material, I spend my time thinking of how time stands still.

AEQ

41

Strongly Disagree 1

Strongly Agree 5

120. I turn red when I dont know the answer to a question relating to the course material. 121. I get angry while studying. 122. When I solve a difficult problem in my studying, my heart beats with pride. 123. Im resigned to the fact that I dont have the capacity to master this material. 124. I enjoy the challenge of learning the material. 125. The subject scares me since I dont fully understand it. 126. While studying I seem to drift off because its so boring. 127. I feel ashamed. 128. I get annoyed about having to study. 129. Because I want to be proud of my accomplishments, I am very motivated. 130. I feel helpless. 131. I enjoy dealing with the course material. 132. Worry about not completing the material makes me sweat. 133. Studying for my courses bores me. 134. I feel embarrassed about not being able to fully explain the material to others. 135. When I excel at my work, I swell with pride. 136. I get physically excited when my studies are going well. 137. Studying is dull and monotonous. 138. I feel ashamed when I realize that I lack ability. 139. I enjoy acquiring new knowledge. 140. The material is so boring that I find myself daydreaming.

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AFTER STUDYING The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER having studied. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after having studied. Strongly Disagree 1 Strongly Agree 5

141. I worry whether I have properly understood the material. 142. Because I have had so much troubles with the course material, I avoid discussing it. 143. After extended studying, Im so angry that I get tense. 144. Im proud of myself. 145. After studying Im resigned to the fact that I havent got the ability. 146. I am so happy about the progress I made that I am motivated to continue studying. 147. When I cant keep up with my studies it makes me fearful. 148. My memory gaps embarrass me. 149. Im discouraged about the fact that Ill never learn the material. 150. Reflecting on my progress in coursework makes me happy. 151. I dont want anybody to know when I havent been able to understand something. 152. I think I can be proud of my accomplishments at studying. 153. I feel resigned. 154. Certain subjects are so enjoyable that I am motivated to do extra readings about them. 155. I worry because my abilities are not sufficient for my program of studies.

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PART III - Test Emotions


Tests and exams can induce different feelings. This part of the questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when taking tests or exams at university. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of test-taking or exams which you have experienced during the course of your studies. Read each item carefully and RESPOND USING THE SCALE PROVIDED. Record your answers on the BUBBLE SHEET, using the appropriate number, 156 THROUGH 232. BEFORE TAKING THE TEST / EXAM The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE taking a test or an exam. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before taking a test or an exam. Strongly Disagree 1 Strongly Agree 5

156. I look forward to the exam. 157. I worry whether I have studied enough. 158. I start studying for the exam with great hope and anticipation. 159. I get angry over time pressures which dont leave enough time to prepare. 160. Im so proud of my preparation that I want to start the exam now. 161. My hopelessness robs me of all my energy. 162. I cant even think about how embarrassing it would be to fail the exam. 163. Because I enjoy preparing for the test, Im motivated to do more than is necessary. 164. I have lost all hope that I have the ability to do well on the exam. 165. I feel sick to my stomach. 166. I am optimistic that everything will work out fine. 167. I get angry about the amount of material I need to know. 168. I feel so resigned about the exam that I cant start doing anything. 169. Before taking the exam, I sense a feeling of eagerness. 170. Before the exam I feel nervous and uneasy. 171. I have great hope that my abilities will be sufficient.

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Strongly Disagree 1

Strongly Agree 5

172. Id rather not write the test because I have lost all hope. 173. I look forward to demonstrating my knowledge. 174. I get so nervous I wish I could just skip the exam. 175. Im quite confident that my preparation is sufficient. 176. I think about my exam optimistically. 177. Because I look forward to being successful, I study hard. 178. I get depressed because I feel I dont have much hope for the exam. 179. I worry whether the test will be too difficult. 180. My confidence motivates me to prepare well.

DURING TAKING THE TEST / EXAM The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING taking a test or an exam. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during taking a test or an exam. 181. I enjoy taking the exam. 182. I worry whether I will pass the exam. 183. Hoping for success, Im motivated to invest a lot of effort. 184. At the beginning of the test, my heart starts pounding. 185. I start to think that no matter how hard I try I wont succeed on the test. 186. I get angry. 187. I think that I can be proud of my knowledge. 188. I am very nervous. 189. I feel like giving up. 190. My hands get shaky. 191. I am ashamed of my poor preparation. 192. I get so nervous I cant wait for the exam to be over. 193. I am very confident. 194. I think the questions are unfair.

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Strongly Disagree 1

Strongly Agree 5

195. I start to realize that the questions are much too difficult for me. 196. Pride in my knowledge fuels my efforts in doing the test. 197. I feel panicky when writing the exam. 198. I feel so resigned that I have no energy. 199. I feel humiliated. 200. I am happy that I can cope with the test. 201. I am so anxious that Id rather be anywhere else. 202. I have given up believing that I can answer the questions correctly. 203. I get so embarrassed I want to run and hide. 204. For me the test is a challenge that is enjoyable. 205. I feel hopeless. 206. Because I am ashamed my pulse races. 207. I get embarrassed because I cant answer the questions correctly.

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AFTER TAKING THE TEST / EXAM The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER taking a test or an exam. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after taking a test or an exam. Strongly Disagree 1 Strongly Agree 5

208. I get angry about the teachers grading standards. 209. When I get the test results back, my heart beats with pride. 210. The tension in my stomach is dissipated. 211. I feel ashamed. 212. Im proud of how well I mastered the exam. 213. My heart beats faster with joy. 214. I am fairly annoyed. 215. To think about my success makes me feel proud. 216. I finally can breathe easy again. 217. My marks embarrass me. 218. I feel very relieved. 219. I wish I could tell the teacher off. 220. After the exam I feel ten feet taller because Im so proud. 221. I feel relief. 222. When I get a bad mark I would prefer not to face my teacher again. 223. My anger makes the blood rush to my head. 224. I am very satisfied with myself. 225. I can finally laugh again. 226. I wish I could freely express my anger. 227. I walk out of the exam with the look of a winner on my face. 228. I feel freed. 229. When others find out about my poor marks I start to blush. 230. I glow all over. 231. I get so angry, I start feeling hot and flushed. 232. I am proud of myself.

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Thank you for participating in our research on achievement emotions!

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4.

Alternative Instructions for Assessing Course-Specific and State Emotions


Assessment of Course-Specific Achievement Emotions

4.1

The original version of the AEQ is used to assess students habitual, typical achievement emotions experienced at college and university (trait achievement emotions). Using a slightly altered format for the instructions preceding each section in the questionnaire, the AEQ can be used to assess students emotions typically experienced in a specific, single course. Since the items themselves do not contain any more specific temporal or situational references, there is no need to change any of the items. The following instructions can be used to assess students course-specific emotions.
Part I Class-Related Emotions

Attending classes at university can induce different feelings. This part of the questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when attending class in this course. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of being in class which you have experienced in this course.
Before Class

The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE being in class in this course. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before you go to class.
During Class

The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING class in this course. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during class.
After Class

The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER having been in class in this course. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after class.
Part II Learning-Related Emotions

"Studying for your courses at university can induce different feelings. This questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when studying for this course. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of studying which you have experienced during this course."
Before Studying

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE studying for this course. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before you begin to study for this course."

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During Studying

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING studying for this course. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during studying for this course."
After Studying

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER having studied for this course. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after having studied for this course."
Part III Test Emotions

"Test and exams can induce different feelings. This part of the questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience when taking tests or exams in this course. Before answering the questions on the following pages, please recall some typical situations of test-taking or exams which you have experienced during this course."
Before Taking the Test/Exam

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience BEFORE taking a test or an exam in this coursse. Please indicate how you feel, typically, before taking a test or an exam in this course."
During Taking the Test/Exam

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience DURING taking a test or an exam in this course. Please indicate how you feel, typically, during taking a test or an exam in this course."
After Taking the Test/Exam

"The following questions pertain to feelings you may experience AFTER taking a test or an exam in this course. Please indicate how you feel, typically, after taking a test or an exam in this course."

3.2

Assessment of State Achievement Emotions

The AEQ scales can also be used to assess students emotions experienced in single achievement situations at specific points of time. Generally, using self-report measures, state emotions can be assessed during the situation in which the emotion is experienced (concurrent assessment), or afterwards (retrospective assessment). When doing the assessment within the situation, the section of the questionniare that addresses the situation can be used by changing the instruction into a state format, using the same items as in the original version. When assessing state emotions after the situation, the instruction has to use a retrospective state format. In addition, in this case item wordings have to be changed from the present or future to the past. In the following, two examples for concurrent and retrospective assessment of state emotions are given.

AEQ

50

(a)

Concurrent assessment of state emotions sample instruction (for class-related emotions)

Attending classes at university can induce different feelings. This questionnaire refers to emotions you may experience in this class today. Please indicate how you currently feel in this class. Strongly Disagree 1 Strongly Agree 5

24. I enjoy being in class. . 66. I think about what else I might be doing rather than sitting in this boring class.

(b)

Retrospective assessment of state emotions sample instruction (for class-related emotions)

Attending classes at university can induce different feelings. This questionnaire refers to emotions you may have experienced when being in this class today. Please indicate how you felt when being in this class.

Strongly Disagree 1

Strongly Agree 5

24. I enjoyed being in class. . 66. I thought about what else I might be doing rather than sitting in this boring class.

AEQ

51

5.

References

Endler, N., & Okada, M. (1975). A multidimensional measure of trait anxiety: The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 319-329. Goetz, T. (2004). Emotionales Erleben und selbstreguliertes Lernen bei Schlern im Fach Mathematik [Students emotions and self-regulated learning in mathematics]. Munich, Germany: Utz. Goetz, T., Pekrun, R., Hall, N., & Haag, L. (in press). Academic emotions from a socio-cognitive perspective: Antecedents and domain specificity of students affect in the context of Latin instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology. Hodapp, V., & Benson, J. (1997). The multidimensionality of test anxiety: A test of different models. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 10, 219-244. Kleine, M., Goetz, T., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. (2005). The structure of students' emotions experienced during a mathematical achievement test. International Reviews on Mathematical Education, 37, 221-225. Molfenter, S. (1999). Prfungsemotionen bei Studierenden [Test emotions in university students]. Unpublished dissertation, Institute of Psychology, University of Regensburg, Germany. Pekrun, R. (1992). Kognition und Emotion in studienbezogenen Lern- und Leistungssituationen: Explorative Analysen [Cognition and emotion in academic situations of learning and achievement: An exploratory analysis]. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 20, 308-324. Pekrun, R. (2000). A social cognitive, control-value theory of achievement emotions. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational psychology of human development (pp. 143-163). Oxford, UK: Elsevier. Pekrun, R. & Goetz, T. (2005, August). Classroom environment, academic achievement, and students emotions: Multi-level implications of control-value theory. Paper presented at the 11th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Nicosia, Cyprus. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Jullien, S., Frenzel, A. C., vom Hofe, R., & Blum, W. (2003). Skalenhandbuch PALMA (Projekt zur Analyse der Leistungsentwicklung in Mathematik) [Codebook for the PALMA study (Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics)]. Department of Psychology, University of Munich, Germany. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Perry, R.P., Kramer, K., & Hochstadt, M. (2004). Beyond test anxiety: Development and validation of the Test Emotions Questionnaire (TEQ). Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 17, 287-316. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R.P. (2002a). Academic emotions in students selfregulated learning and achievement: A program of quantitative and qualitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91-106. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W & Perry, R.P. (2002b). Positive emotions in education. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions, and challenges (pp. 149-174). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

AEQ

52

Perry, R.P., Hladkyi, S., Pekrun, R., & Pelletier, S. (2001). Academic control and action control in college students: A longitudinal study of self-regulation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 776-789. Perry, RP., Hladkyj, S., Pekrun, R.H., Clifton, R.A., & Chipperfield, J.G. (2005). Perceived academic control and failure in college students: A three-year study of scholastic attainment. Research in Higher Education, 46, 535-569. Ruthig, J.C., Perry, R.P., Hladkyj, S., Hall, N.C., Pekrun, R., & Chipperfield, J.G. (2005). A longidutinal analysis of perceived control and emotions in an achievement setting. Manuscript submitted for publication. Sarason, I.G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: Reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 929-938. Scherer, K.R. (2000). Emotions as episodes of subsystems synchronization driven by nonlinear appraisal processes. In I. Granic & M.D. Lewis (Eds.), Emotion, development, and selforganization: Dynamic systems approaches to emotional development (pp. 70-99). New York: Cambridge University Press. Spangler, G., Pekrun, R., Kramer, K., & Hofmann, H. (2002). Students emotions, physiological reactions, and coping in academic exams. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 15, 383-400. Spielberger, C.D., Anton, W.D., & Bedell, J. (1976). The nature and treatment of test anxiety. In M. Zuckerman & C.D. Spielberger (Eds.), Emotions and anxiety: New concepts, methods, and applications (pp. 317-344). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Tellegen, A., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). On the dimensional and hierarchical structure of affect. Psychological Science, 10, 297-309. Titz, W. (2001). Emotionen von Studierenden in Lernsituationen [Students emotions in situations of learning]. Muenster, Germany: Waxmann. Watson, D., & Clark, L.A. (1992). Affects separable and inseparable: On the hierarchical arrangement of the negative affects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 489-505. Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: the state of the art. New York: Plenum.

APPENDIX: SCALE CORRELATIONS


cjo cjo cho cpr cag cax csh chl cbo ljo lho lpr lag lax lsh lhl lbo tjo tho tpr tre tag tax tsh thl -.71 .62 -.41 -.25 -.27 -.34 -.58 .61 .41 .46 -.38 -.17 -.18 -.34 -.48 .47 .42 .37 .07 -.25 -.16 -.13 -.26 -.68 -.36 -.36 -.34 -.45 -.42 .52 .52 .50 -.31 -.21 -.26 -.42 -.35 .47 .58 .50 .10 -.25 -.23 -.26 -.38 --.22 -.16 -.20 -.26 -.28 .50 .40 .59 -.21 -.09 -.15 -.29 -.27 .45 .47 .61 .22 -.12 -.08 -.12 -.23 -.65 .58 .76 .62 -.29 -.35 -.30 .61 .44 .46 .63 .51 -.20 -.29 -.17 -.01 .74 .37 .51 .65 -.80 .70 .47 -.08 -.34 -.17 .55 .66 .70 .70 .39 -.18 -.35 -.22 .15 .65 .63 .70 .70 -.63 .41 -.08 -.31 -.20 .45 .57 .71 .67 .34 -.15 -.34 -.25 .12 .54 .55 .72 .67 -.51 -.25 -.42 -.34 .55 .47 .56 .74 .44 -.22 -.35 -.28 -.07 .65 .42 .63 .78 --.42 -.35 -.28 .61 .39 .38 .49 .73 -.33 -.29 -.19 .13 .50 .37 .35 .47 -.64 .72 -.44 -.12 -.16 -.33 -.51 .58 .53 .48 .12 -.26 -.12 -.10 -.28 -.64 -.52 -.42 -.43 -.59 -.48 .54 .63 .50 .04 -.40 -.37 -.38 -.53 --.34 -.15 -.23 -.43 -.39 .48 .53 .60 .19 -.25 -.12 -.20 -.35 -.61 .57 .67 .76 -.38 -.41 -.23 .16 .69 .55 .47 .63 -.69 .68 .50 -.26 -.40 -.26 .33 .55 .75 .61 .62 -.75 .50 -.28 -.42 -.29 .17 .59 .63 .78 .72 -.58 -.30 -.48 -.38 .05 .66 .59 .69 .82 --.40 -.39 -.26 .14 .52 .42 .38 .53 -.70 .71 .06 -.25 -.39 -.30 -.39 -.68 -.05 -.36 -.48 -.43 -.53 -.23 -.20 -.29 -.37 -.40 -.08 .37 .06 .00 -.57 .64 .73 -.66 .67 -.79 -cho cpr cag cax csh chl cbo ljo lho lpr lag lax lsh lhl lbo tjo tho tpr tre tag tax tsh thl

Note. Variable names: c = class-related emotion, l = learning-related emotion, t = test emotion. jo = enjoyment, ho = hope, pr = pride, re = relief, ag = anger, ax = anxiety, sh = shame, hl = hopelessness, bo = boredom. N = 389. p < .01 for | r | > .13.