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Chris Beck Biology 1115 Lab # Journal Article: STUDI S !" T# C!"T$!L !

% &#I$LI"' DIS AS by '(L( #o))*an Sr( an+ '(L( #o))*an Jr( )ro* Journal o) &il+li)e Diseases ,ol( - January. 1/01( &hirling +isease is cause+ by the 2roto3oan Myxosoma cerbralis a))licts young +e4elo2ing sal*onio+ )ish 5trout. sal*on. etc(6 causing bone +e)or*ations an+ se4ere neurological +a*age( %ish a))licte+ 7ith this *ala+ity s7i* in an a7k7ar+ )or7ar+ *otion instea+ o) s7i**ing nor*ally. )in+ )ee+ing +i))icult. an+ are *uch *ore 4ulnerable to 2re+ation( The *ortality rate is es2ecially high )or )ingerlings an+ those that sur4i4e are +e)or*e+ by the 2arasites resi+ing in their skeletal structure( The sur4i4ors also act as a bree+ing groun+ )or the 2arasite. 7hich is release+ into 7ater )ollo7ing the )ish8s +eath( This 97hirling9 con+ition 7as )irst +ocu*ente+ in 'er*any aroun+ 1/:: an+ has s2rea+ too *any +i))erent areas aroun+ the 7orl+( ;etho+s use+ to )ight an+ era+icate the s2rea+ o) this +isease 2rior to the scienti)ic 2roce+ure re4ie7e+ in this 2a2er inclu+e+ the )ollo7ing: cleaning an+

+isin)ecting 2on+s 7ith <uickli*e 5Ca!6. the use o) calciu* cyana*i+e 5CaC" 16. access to a nonconta*inate+ 7ater su22ly. an+. i) 2ossible. the use o) concrete 7ater race7ays( Although these 2roce+ures 7ere 7i+ely use+ in uro2e. neither calciu* cyna*i+e nor <uickli*e ha+ e4er been sub=ecte+ to scienti)ic scrutiny until this stu+y( &ith this e>2eri*ent a s2ore concentration nee+e+ to be ac<uire+( This 7as acco*2lishe+ by cutting o)) the hea+s o) - to 1:?*onth?ol+ in)ecte+ )ish an+ taking in)ecte+ skeletal co*2onents an+ *acerating the* in a *ortar an+ 2estle. an+ then straining an+ se2arating the* until the s2ore 2re2arations 7ere co*2lete( The sa*2les

use+ in this e>2eri*ent ha+ a range bet7een 1: ? 1-@ s2ore o) M.cerbralis 7ith an a4erage o) A/ s2ores( They 7here ne4er )ully able to co*2letely strain out the re*ains o) the )ish( In a++ition. +i))erent che*icals that ha+ been use+ in the 2ast to co*bat bacteria. cocci+ia. ne*ato+es. or )ish 2arasites 7ere teste+ in 4itro on the s2ores in a laboratory setting to )in+ the *ost e))ecti4e agents )or killing the M. cerbralis s2ores( !) the teste+ che*ical agents. calciu* o>i+e an+ 2otassiu* hy+ro>i+e. each at 1B. (5B. an+ (15B concentrations. 2ro+uce+ co*2lete *ortality o) the s2ores( "e>t. the scientist teste+ the use an+ e))ecti4eness o) <uickli*e instea+ o) calciu* cyana*i+e( %our @C: liter )iberglass tanks 7here use+ )or this 2hase o) the e>2eri*ent( To these tanks. 1: liters o) *u+ 5about @ c* thick6 7as a++e+( This *u+ ha+ 2re4iously been conta*inate+ 7ith ;( cerbralis s2ores an+ ha+ been thoroughly *i>e+( &hile the *u+ 7as still 7et. three o) the )our 7here treate+ 7ith <uickli*e( Calciu* o>i+e 7as a++e+ to one tank. 7hile the concentration o) <uickli*e 7as altere+ in the other t7o tanks. one at @:: gra*s o) <uickli*e an+ the other at @.C:: gra*s( The )ourth tank ser4e+ as a control( A)ter three 7eeks each tank 7ere )ille+ 7ith nonconta*inate+ s2ring 7ater an+ 1:: t7o 7eek ol+ rainbo7 trout 7here a++e+( The )ish 7ere )e+ a co**ercial )ish )oo+ an+ allo7e+ to gro7 )or si> *onths( A)ter that. 15 ? 1A )ish sa*2les 7ere nette+ an+ e>a*ine+ )or the +isor+er( The results clearly sho7e+ that <uickli*e 7as an e))ecti4e +isin)ectant as none o) the test tanks ha+ any )ish e>hibiting the sy*2to*s o) the +isease 7hile the control tank ha+ a A: B in)ection rate an+ +eci+e+ly s*aller )ish( The author o) the article 2oints out that the *u+ 7as not stirre+ a)ter the intro+uction o) the )ish an+ that s2ores *ight ha4e been able to sur4i4e +ee2er in the *u+(

A++en+u*: Si> *onths later the *u+ 7as stirre+ u2 an+ the e>2eri*ent in the tanks 7as re2eate+. as )urther 2roo) to the 4ali+ity o) this e>2eri*ent( The sa*e results 7ere attaine+ as the only in)ections o) 7hirling +isease occurre+ in the control tank(

Bibliogra2hy: STUDI S !" T# C!"T$!L !% &#I$LI"' DIS AS by '(L( #o))*an Sr( an+ '(L( #o))*an Jr( )ro* Journal o) &il+li)e Diseases ,ol( - January. 1/01(

Submission title: whirling disease

Submission ID: 412683517

Author: Chris Beck