Science 9: Biodiversity

Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab
In less than 30 minutes we are going to extract the DNA from these strawberries. We do not need any complicated or expensive laboratory e uipment. !et"s give it a try# $hrough this simple experiment we will extract DNA from a strawberry and ma%e it visible to the na%ed eye#

Materials
& 'trawberry & Isopropyl alcohol () m!* (+ubbing Alcohol* & Dish soap (,0 m!* & 'alt (,-. tsp* & /ipper&loc% bag & 0au1e or cheesecloth & Water (20 m!* & 3easuring utensils & 4ea%ers or similar containers & $wee1ers & 'poon

Procedure
,* 3easure 20 m! of water into a bea%er or similar container. 5* 6our ,0 m! of dish soap into the 20 m! of water. 3* Add ,-. tsp of salt to the li uid in the bea%er. .* 3ix it all up and now you7ve got a homemade extraction solution# )* 6lace one strawberry in a plastic 1ipper&loc% bag. 8* 6our your extraction solution into the bag with the strawberry. 9* +emove as much air from the bag as possible and seal it. :* ;se your hands to mash< smash< and mush the strawberry inside of the bag until there are no large pieces remaining. 2* 6our the resulting strawberry and extraction solution mixture through the gau1e or cheesecloth and into a bea%er or similar container. ,0* ;se a spoon to press the strained bits of strawberry against the cheesecloth or gau1e forcing even more of the solution into the bea%er. ,,* =rom the container it is currently in< transfer the solution into a smaller bea%er or similar container that holds around )0&,00 m! of fluid. ,5* Add ) m! of your chilled isopropyl alcohol to the solution and hold the mixture at eye level. ,3* >an you see how there is a separation of white ?stuff? atop the rest of the solution@ $hat7s the DNA of the strawberry. ,.* 0ently remove the DNA from the solution using twee1ers

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Science 9: Biodiversity

,* What did you observe@

5* >ould you use a different %ind of fruit for this extraction lab@ If so< why@

3* Why does the strawberry need DNA@

HOW DOES IT WOR !

Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity Did you %now you DNA is in the food you eat@ While other fruits are soft and Fust as easy to pulveri1e< strawberries are the perfect choice for a DNA extraction lab for two reasonsB they yield more DNA than any other fruits< and they are octoploid< meaning that they have eight copies of each type of DNA chromosome. $hese special circumstances ma%e strawberry DNA easy to extract and see. (Guman cells are generally diploid< with only two sets of chromosomes.* W"y did we use t"e extraction solution we did! $he dishwashing li uid bursts open the cells of the strawberries< releasing the DNA. $he soap helps dissolve the cell membranes. $he salt is added to hold nucleic acids together< releasing DNA strands. $he DNA is not soluble in alcohol< therefore it ma%es the DNA strands clump together and become visible to the na%ed eye. $o extract the DNA< each component of the extraction solution plays a part. $he soap helps to dissolve the cell membranes. $he salt is added to brea% up protein chains that hold nucleic acids together< releasing the DNA strands. =inally< DNA is not soluble in isopropyl alcohol< and even less so when the alcohol is ice cold.

W"at does DNA do! DNA is the genetic instruction manual for ma%ing an organism. All processes in the body are controlled by DNA. A gene is a se uence of DNA. #enes in $o%%on Eou don"t loo% much li%e a fly or a worm. 4ut< believe it or not< you share genes with both of them & and with every other living organism. 'cientists study the genes in bacteria< fish< chimpan1ees and other living things to learn more about humans. How %uc" DNA do you s"are wit" t"ese li&in' t"in's! =ruit fly & 38H >himpan1ee & 2:H /ebrafish & :)H 4acteria & 9H 3ustard 0rass & ,)H +ound Worm & 5,H

Rationale This lesson was mainly designed to address knowledge outcomes in the Science 9 curriculum Unit A Biological Diversity. The inquiry activity is intended to be used as an

Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity introductory activity when beginning to discuss D A! genes! chromosomes and their relationshi" to genetic diversity. This activity is to s"ark students interest and encourage them to ask questions. Students are given many o""ortunities to come u" with reasons why we are able to e#tract D A based on "revious knowledge about location. Students are also encouraged to brainstorm why this might be im"ortant in real li$e and where this e#traction might be a""licable. This activity "rovides some guiding questions to stimulate students to think in a certain way. Teaching students to become curious and develo" good scienti$ic questioning skills is an im"ortant skill students need to acquire in science. This skill is not directly assessed but an im"ortant "art o$ all science inquiry activities. This ty"e o$ guided activity that has students "er$orm using everyday materials can be used in many grades in science because teachers can ad%ust their teaching style or knowledge outcomes to $it with &'ns"iring (ducation) document "ut $orth by Alberta (ducation. Strong communication and questioning skills are im"ortant o$ *+st century learners and this activity addresses that. ,ands on activities that use everyday materials hel" make learning activities relevant to students. Student engagement is im"ortant $or student learning and this activity will ca"ture students- interest.

DNA Extraction Lab
'cience 2B ;nit AB 4iodiversity

3arch )< 50,. $imeB () %ins $iffany >allaghan

Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity Resources* 'teve 'pangler 'cience Materials: & 'trawberries httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com & Isopropyl alcohol () m!* (+ubbing Ilab-experiments-strawberry& Alcohol* dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf & Dish soap (,0 m!* Alberta Aducation 6rogram of 'tudies & 'alt (,-. tsp* 'cience =ocus 2 & /ipper&loc% bag 'cience =ocus 2 $eacher +esource & 0au1e or cheesecloth & Water (20 m!* & 3easuring utensils & 4ea%ers or similar containers & $wee1ers & 'poon & !ab< '3A+$board &!ab procedure handouts &'tudent 3., DNA fill in blan% notes &$eacher notes &White board mar%ers #LO* Describe< in general terms< the role of genetic materials in the continuity and variation of species characteristicsJ and investigate and interpret related technologies SLO* Describe< in general terms< the role and relationship of chromosomes< genes and DNA S+ills* >ommunication and $eamwor% Learnin' Ob,ecti&es* -. describe the relationship among chromosomes< genes and DNA /. describe the role of chromosomes< genes and DNA in storing genetic info 0. demonstrate collaboration and teamwor% while performing this extraction lab@@ Introduction* ,* Angage students with lab e uipment prepared. As% students if they %new that there was DNA in the food that they eat# 5* +eview lab safetyB 12 %inutes3 ,. >onduct yourself in a responsible manner at all times in the laboratory 5. =ollow all written and verbal instructions carefully. If you do not understand a direction or part of a procedure< A'K ED;+ $AA>GA+ 4A=D+A 6+D>AADIN0 WI$G $GA A>$ILI$E. 3. When first entering a science room< do not touch any e uipment< chemicals< or other materials in the laboratory area until you are instructed to do so.

Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity .. Do not eat food< drin% beverages< or chew gum in the laboratory. Do not use laboratory glassware as containers for food or beverages ). Never fool around in the laboratory. Gorseplay< practical Fo%es< and pran%s are dangerous and prohibited. 8. Dbserve good house%eeping practices. Wor% areas should be %ept clean and tidy at all times. 9. Dispose of all chemical waste properly. Never mix chemicals in sin% drains. 'in%s are to be used only for water. >hec% with your teacher for disposal of chemicals and solutions. :. Know what to do if there is a fire drill during a laboratory periodJ containers must be closed< and any electrical e uipment turned off 2. Dress properly during a laboratory activity. !ong hair< dangling Fewelry< and loose or baggy clothing are a ha1ard in the laboratory. !ong hair must be tied bac%< and dangling Fewelry and baggy clothing must be secured. 'hoes must completely cover the foot. No sandals allowed on lab days. ,0. +eport any accident (spill< brea%age< etc.* or inFury (cut< burn< etc.* to the teacher immediately< no matter how trivial it seems. Do not panic. 3* Axplain each material used for the lab and its purposeB +efer to !aboratory 6rocedure Gandout .* +ead through entire !ab 6rocedure GandoutB (2 %inutes3 ,* 3easure 20 m! of water into a bea%er or similar container. 5* 6our ,0 m! of dish soap into the 20 m! of water. 3* Add ,-. tsp of salt to the li uid in the bea%er. .* 3ix it all up and now you7ve got a homemade extraction solution# )* 6lace one strawberry in a plastic 1ipper&loc% bag. 8* 6our your extraction solution into the bag with the strawberry. 9* +emove as much air from the bag as possible and seal it. :* ;se your hands to mash< smash< and mush the strawberry inside of the bag until there are no large pieces remaining. 2* 6our the resulting strawberry and extraction solution mixture through the gau1e or cheesecloth and into a bea%er or similar container. ,0* ;se a spoon to press the strained bits of strawberry against the cheesecloth or gau1e forcing even more of the solution into the bea%er. ,,* =rom the container it is currently in< transfer the solution into a smaller bea%er or similar container that holds around )0&,00 m! of fluid. ,5* Add ) m! of your chilled isopropyl alcohol to the solution and hold the mixture at eye level.

Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity ,3* >an you see how there is a separation of white ?stuff? atop the rest of the solution@ $hat7s the DNA of the strawberry. ,.* 0ently remove the DNA from the solution using twee1ers MAre there any uestions at this time@N )* Dverview of the clean up procedure after students are finished their extractionB & 'trawberry contents and li uid is to be dumped in assigned container at front & plastic bags thrown in disposal bin & !ab wor% 1one area is to be cleaned and wiped with spray bottle & Dther materials are to be rinsed and returned to corresponding bin at front of room ($his clean up procedure will be on board for reference* 4OD5 8* Allow students time to perform lab. >arefully< move throughout the lab monitoring s%ill application and collaboration. 1/) %inutes3 6uestions to as+ students* Gow does this DNA extraction relate to you or us@ Why might scientists want to extract DNA from different cells@ What might happen if a strawberry did not have DNA@ Gow or when can scientists use this %nowledge or process@ AssessmentB Dbserve student collaboration on with activities< student discussions and responses to specific uestions above. Dbserve students performing s%ills& reading lab and conducting appropriately. (>hec%list* (DbFective 3* 9* 'tudents will be given time to begin answering the assigned uestions on the bac% of their lab procedure hand out 1-) %inutes3 & Assist student answers& clarify uestions& but this is a free exploration and visual demonstration to encourage engagement and intrigue students. :* After the laboratory is cleaned up and put away students will return their attention to the teacher for some guided uestions and then direct instruction beginning DNA lesson. ;se a timer on '3A+$board for clean up >ount down ,0< 2< :< 9O 4OD5 / 2* Direct Instruction (follow teacher notes& students have the =ill&in&the blan% notes that correspond* 1-2 %inutes3 & DNA structure< purpose and location & 0eneB definition< purpose and function & >hromosomeB definition< purpose and function & AlleleB definition< purpose and function & Discuss relationships among chromosomes< genes and the genetic code and their role in storing genetic information
Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity & address how experiment wor%ed and what was happening& refer to explanation on handout & address uestions from lab procedure handout& from popsicle Far call names for students to explain their initial thoughts to uestions& start with uestion C,O & use ANALO#5* T"e relations"i7 a%on' c"ro%oso%es8 'enes8 and t"e 'enetic code is li+e t"at between a boo+8 sentences8 and t"e al7"abet. ,0* At their table groups< students will be as%ed to construct a picture or chart that explains this relationship 1-2 %inutes3 & person with the longest hair is directed to collect a sheet of chart paper and mar%ers & Ancourage students to use their notes from today< class discussions< and their textboo% to help them $losure* ,,* Aach group will present their picture or chart explaining their reasoning behind it. 1-2 %inutes3 & confirm students understanding about relationships of chromosomes< genes and the genetic code & highlight commonalities between students" interpretations on posters 'ponge ActivityB & In remaining time students will be directed to uestions on the bac% of their 'tudent fill&in&the&blan% notes& they may be done with one other partner. Puestions are as followsB ANALO#5* T"e relations"i7 a%on' c"ro%oso%es8 'enes8 and t"e 'enetic code is li+e t"at between a boo+8 sentences8 and t"e al7"abet. -3 In 'rou7s* >reate a chart or picture that explains this relationship. 5* >omplete de9initions and 9unctions of the following in your foldableB . DNA . >hromosome . 0ene . Allele 3* What four chemicals ma%e up the genetic code@ Describe how these chemicals are arranged in a DNA molecule@ .* Axplain< why chromosomes are considered to be the Qsource of diversity"@ AssessmentB ;se a chec%list while students are presenting their chart-picture of relationship for those students who understand relationship clearly. Dbservation of student collaboration (DbFective ,R5* 'tudent responses- uestions during direct instruction

Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity Next lesson* & 4ellwor% uestionsB o ,ow is the relationship among chromosomes< genes< and the genetic code li%e that between a boo%< sentences< and the alphabet@ o Axplain why chromosomes are considered to be the Qsource of diversity"@ I am able to assess student understanding individually by doing this.

+eflection $his lesson went well and students were behaved in the laboratory while engaging in a DNA extraction. It was relatively easy for me to circulate through each group and pose uestions. $his was intended to be an in uiry activity to get students engaged and interested in our upcoming topics. $he lesson began with laboratory safety and an overview of the lab procedure. 'ince performing in the laboratory is an important s%ill I allowed students some freedom and independence to follow the procedure themselves and at their own pace. 'tudents used an extraction solution to dissolve cell membranes in the strawberry. 'tudents then used rubbing alcohol to separate the strands of DNA from the solution. $he conclusion of the lab procedure involved in uiry uestions for students to start thin%ing about. I as%ed many of these uestions as students were performing their
Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity DNA extraction. $he remainder of the lesson explored principles of DNA< genes< chromosomes and their relation to transmission of genetic material. 'tudents remained engaged while doing this and were intrigued by this demonstration lab. 'tudents were comfortable answering uestions when in small laboratory groups but no one spo%e up during class when I as%ed the same uestions. I am going to %eep trac% of those that are comfortable answering uestions in class but may not Mfeel li%e it.N I need to find a strategy to call on students so that it does not seem li%e I am pic%ing on them. As this was my first lesson and I have not mastered all their names yet I am going to use a random popsicle stic% name Far. I intend to implement this next class. At the beginning of the lesson I layed out and covered laboratory safety specific to this lab which was helpful and there were no problems. =or another lab I would have students clean their wor%spaces completely from their binders and boo%s. I have created a spot for them to stac% their binders when they come in to the lab and it will remain a routine. $hey will only need the items I give them in future labs. I taught two 'cience 2 classes and the dynamics were completely different. I %now for future lessons that 'cience 2A is very efficient and completes their wor% more uic%ly. =or future lesson planning I will always need to plan an extra extension activity or add a tiered component or step in my lesson for them. $his adFustment can always be available for 'cience 24 as well. 'cience 24 wor%ed well and performed well in class but the procedure and uestioning too% a little longer. Also 24 was alittle bit tric%y to pull answers out of. I was really tested on my uestioning techni ues and prompting. I need to create extra uestions that will help these students. >lean up was smooth and completed properly but I did notice that there were a few students who did all of the clean up and others who did none. Next time I would have each person in the group number off at the beginning and then when clean up came they would do all the duties associated with that number. Another change I will ma%e with 'cience 24 is random group ma%ing. I will not randomly on the spot ma%e groups for bigger activities. $his class needs structured and organi1ed groups pre&made. 'ome students do not wor% well together and if the concept is important I thin% I will MrandomlyN ma%e the groups before hand. 4ased on supplies< students wor%ed in groups of 3 which were too large of a group. $he lab was not demanding enough to have that large of groups. When re& conducting this lab I would suggest students wor% in pairs. I need to learn to spea% more slowly. I %new< too often< that I was speeding over topics or parts of the procedure. 0rade 2 is a vulnerable age< and I am a new teacher so they are not uite comfortable with me< yet. $herefore< I %now they are not comfortable as%ing me to repeat anything or slow down. $ime management of this lesson could be improved. I had enough activities arranged for 'cience 24 but 2A was a little more efficient and we were done a little early. 'tudent feedbac% indicated to me that students enFoyed this activity and thought that the idea of extracting DNA and being able to see it with their own eyes was engaging. $his is important for students and their learning. 4y using strawberries it made
Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

Science 9: Biodiversity this very real life for students because as one student said MI Fust ate strawberries for lunch.N I would use this DNA extraction lab again with another class.

Axperiment 3aterials and 6rocedure found atB httpB--www.stevespanglerscience.com-lab-experiments-strawberry&dnaCsthash.Db9bI8bE.dpuf

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