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Building the Dynamic Reservoir Model

Integrated Reservoir Study


DYNAMIC MODEL
Well !acilities Model Near Well"ore #er$ormance Models

%&scaled Reservoir Model

#reliminary Dynamic Model

Cali"rated Dynamic Model O&timi(ed Reservoir Develo&ment #lan

#ro'ected Reservoir #er$ormance

!ield Economic Model

Dynamic Reservoir Model


A mathematical model that descri"es and simulates the time)de&endent $lo* &rocesses active in a hydrocar"on reservoir +he dynamic model com"ines +he static model #ressure) and saturation)de&endent &ro&erties Near)*ell, *ell"ore, and $acilities &ro&erties to calculate &roduction and &ressure vs time

Im&ortance
-tatic Model Model o$ reservoir at initial conditions Insu$$icient to &redict &er$ormance or o&timi(e develo&ment Dynamic Model Models entire li$e o$ reservoir Can &roduce reservoir several times under di$$erent o&erating conditions Can o&timi(e reservoir de&letion &lan

-te&s in Model Construction


-election o$ the model ty&e -election o$ the $luid model and num"er o$ &hases -election o$ the grid coordinate system and num"er o$ dimensions -election o$ o&timal grid "loc. si(es -&eci$ication o$ reservoir &ro&erties -im&li$ication o$ reservoir geometry -election o$ the *ell model -&eci$ication o$ *ell control -&eci$ication o$ time ste& si(e control -election o$ the numerical solution method

!actors A$$ecting Model Design


O"'ectives o$ the simulation study /uality o$ the ans*er needed to satis$y the &ro'ect o"'ectives Com&le0ity o$ the reservoir &rocesses to "e modeled including secondary and or tertiary recovery &rocesses Budget constraints +ime availa"le to com&lete the study

!actors A$$ecting Model Design


Availa"ility and 1uality o$ reservoir data Availa"ility and &roduction data 1uality o$ historical

Ca&a"ilities and ease o$ use o$ availa"le simulators Ca&a"ilities and availa"ility o$ com&uter $acilities

Data Categories
Reservoir and *ell data -imulation s&eci$ic data -imulation grid -imulation time schedule -imulator control data

Reservoir and Well Data


Reservoir $luid &ro&erty data Reservoir roc. &ro&erty data -trata &ro&erties Well data Well"ore and $acilities data

Location of VLE 196 Field in Block V Lake !aracai"o Vene#uela


Cari""ean -ea
Barran1uilla
La.e Maracai"o

Maracai"o

MARACAIBO

COLOMBIA

2ENE:%ELA

I II

I7 72

2II III

2I

2
7III

7I 2II

BLOC6 2
2LE ) 345 AREA

LA6E MARACAIBO

2LE 899 !ault

Base !a$ for t%e &'(&) Reservoir Si*ulation Study


39;<999= LR! 9994 LR! 999? LR! 995> LR! 99>< LR! 99?? LR! 99?4 LR! 9995 LR! 99;4 LR! 99;< LR! 9935 LR! 99>5 LR! 933? LR! 33; LR! 99?@ >38999= LR! 9338 >35999=

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>99= 9=> 9= 9= >99= 9=> 899= 9=8 599= 9=5 <99= 9=< 3999= meters

2LE ;?<

3= .ilometers

-=A= Aolditch B Associates, Inc= Maraven, 2LE)345 Reservoir


2LE 8;9

Bloc. 2 Lamar, La.e Maracai"o

!ault Areas Ma&


-cale 3C>9999=
39;>999=

Introduction
2LE)345 $ield discovered in 34@< #roduced over >99 million -+B Wells &roduced *ith sliding sleeves to control *ater &roduction A"out @9 *ells com&leted in the Misoa sandstones

O"'ectives
Characteri(e the reservoir $or modeling Identi$y "y&assed and unta&&ed com&artments Develo& a &lan to increase &roduction rates and reserves

Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data


@ "asic reservoir $luid ty&es Dry gas Wet gas Retrograde gas Dgas condensateE 2olatile oil Blac. oil

+he !luid Model Must


Be consistent *ith the &ro'ect o"'ectives #ro&erly account $or the num"er o$ &hases e0isting at reservoir and sur$ace conditions D+his re1uirement can "e rela0ed in cases *here immova"le $luids e0ist *hich do not contain a&&recia"le amounts o$ the mova"le $luids or com&onents in solutionE Accurately &redict &hase changes *hich occur during the simulation

+he !luid Model Must


Accurately &redict the volumetric &ro&erties, including com&ressi"ility and density, o$ the reservoir and sur$ace $luids Accurately &redict the viscosity o$ reservoir $luids and any other critical &arameters such as s&eci$ic heats in cases o$ nonisothermal simulations When an e1uation o$ state is used to &redict &hase "ehavior, the e1uation must "e FtunedF to match all availa"le s&ecial la"oratory data measured on valid reservoir $luid sam&les

Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data


!luid #2+ data Blac. oil Bo(p), Rso (p), o(p), o(p) Bg(p), g(p), g(p) 2olatile oil Bo(p), Rso (p), o(p), o(p) Bg(p), Rsg (p), g(p), g(p)

#2+ #ro&erties
%ndersaturated oil at initial conditions Com&ositional gradient &resent initially E0tra&olated #2+ data $rom @ la"oratory analyses Resulting "lac.)oil #2+ &ro&erties used in model

Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data


E1uili"ration data Original &ressure at datum !luid contact elevations

Reservoir Roc. #ro&erty Data


+his section contains roc. &ro&erties usually derived $rom core analysis -mall num"er o$ sam&les, so not enough data to generate ma&s, or distri"utions, o$ these &ro&erties %sually assume these &ro&erties are constant throughout a &articular (one, or stratum

Reservoir Roc. #ro&erty Data


Ca&illary &ressure Relative &ermea"ility Aysteresis in ca&illary &ressure and relative &ermea"ility #ressure)de&endent &orosity and &ermea"ility $unctions Non)darcy $lo* DgasE Dual)&orosity data

Relative #ermea"ility and Ca&illary #ressure Data


Initially develo&ed 8 sets o$ data, $or 8 di$$erent &orosity ranges Initially, did not ade1uately model *ater &roduction in thin, high) &ermea"ility layers #seudo relative &ermea"ilities *ere develo&ed to match o"served *ater &roduction

Ca&illary #ressure DG !unctionE as a !unction o$ Water -aturation


.)+,+ .++,+

-)+,+ GD-*EH#cID6 #hiEJ9=@

-++,+

1)+,+

1++,+

)+,+

+,+ + 1+ -+ .+ '+ )+ -* 6+ /+ 0+ 9+ 1++

-trata #ro&erties
+his section contains roc. &ro&erties usually derived $rom *ell log data or seismic data Larger num"er o$ sam&les, so o$ten enough data to generate ma&s, or distri"utions, o$ these &ro&erties O$ten in&ut se&arate ma&s o$ these &ro&erties $or each (one, or stratum

-trata #ro&erties
-tructural &ro&erties Elevation Dstructure ma&E Kross interval thic.ness Reservoir limits Discontinuities D$aultsE

-trata #ro&erties
!ormation &ro&erties Net)to)gross ratio Dor net sand thic.nessE
#orosity !ormation &ermea"ility #ore volume and transmissi"ility modi$ications

Reservoir Characteri(ation #reviously Documented


Martin, et al., 344; Keo&hysical, geological and &etro&hysical analyses Keological model consisting o$ 34 layers Correlated seismic attri"utes to &etro&hysical &arameters to im&rove reservoir ma&&ing

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2LE 899 !ault

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Misoa Formation, C-5 Sand, Layer 7, Average Porosity


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Well Data
Com&letion data #roduction and in'ection data #ressure data O&erational control and constraint in$ormation

Well Data
Com&letion data Well "ottomhole location and orientation #er$oration interval Well"ore radius #ermea"ility)thic.ness &roduct -.in $actor Aydraulic $racture length Aydraulic $racture conductivity Well constant

Well Data
#roduction and in'ection data #roduction vs time $or all &roduced $luids M oil, gas, condensate, *ater In'ection vs time $or all in'ected $luids M gas, *ater

Well Data
#ressure data -tatic &ressure data !lo*ing &ressure data #ressure transient test data

Well Data
O&erational control and constraint in$ormation Ao* are *ells &roducedN Natural $lo* Rod &um& Kas li$t -u"mersi"le &um&

Well Data
Are there any limits, or constraints, on &roductionN E1ui&ment &ressure limitations Ma0imum $luid li$ting ca&acity Ma0imum *ater handling ca&acity Economic limit &roduction rates Allo*a"le &roduction limited "y regulatory agencies

Well Data
Ao* are in'ection *ells o&eratedN Are there any limits, or constraints, on in'ectionN E1ui&ment &ressure limitations Ma0imum in'ection rate ca&acity

Well"ore and !acilities Data


Well mechanical con$iguration data Lengths and IDOs o$ tu"ulars through *hich $luids are &roduced and in'ected Con$iguration o$ sur$ace gathering and in'ection system Note ty&es and locations Lengths and IDOs o$ tu"ulars through *hich $luids $lo*

-imulation Krid
#rimary grid s&eci$ication Local grid re$inement s&eci$ication

-imulation Krid
+he simulation grid is the de$inition o$ ho* *e divide, or discreti(e, s&ace in order to solve the di$$erential e1uations numerically Although *e use reservoir and *ell &ro&erties in designing the simulation grid, the simulation grid is inde&endent o$ the reservoir and *ell &ro&erties=

#rimary Krid and Local Krid Re$inement

Common Krid Coordinate -ystems Include


Cartesian Cylindrical Curvilinear Dincluding stream)tu"eE Corner &oint

-election o$ O&timal Krid Bloc. -i(es


O&timal grid Results in the desired level o$ accuracy #ro&erly re&resents the reservoir geology, and Aas the lo*est com&uter memory and time re1uirements to solve the &ro"lem=

E$$ects o$ Krid Bloc. -i(es on -imulation Results


!D solution a&&roaches #DE solution as 0 a&&roaches 9 %se small "loc.s *here convergent $lo* %se small "loc.s along dis&lacement $ronts

Common Rules $or Constructing a Krid


Logarithmic s&acing in cylindrical grids= Ad'acent "loc.s increase in length "y no more than $actor o$ ?= No more than 39 to >9P o$ the total &ressure dro& should "e "et*een any t*o ad'acent grid "loc.s= Large changes in elevation or thic.ness should "e distri"uted over multi&le grid "loc.s=

Common Rules $or Constructing a Krid


Reservoir $lo* units should, in general, "e se&arated "y grid "loc. "oundaries= 2ertical discreti(ation should "e $ine enough $or accurate accounting o$ gas &ercolation and migration and or gravity over)ride or under)ride= I$ in dou"t, halve the grid "loc.s Ddou"le the num"er o$ "loc.sE in one or more dimensions=

E$$ect o$ Krid Bloc. -i(es on a Linear Buc.ley) Leverett Dis&lacement -imulation With a -har& Dis&lacement !ront and Mo"ility Ratio o$ @9=
3999

399

D7H>>=@ D7H3<9

Water Oil Ratio

39

9=3

9=93

9=993 9=; 9=< 9=4 3 3=3 3=> 3=? 3=8

#ore 2olumes o$ Water In'ected

-tructure Ma& and Reservoir -imulation Krid


7 3>?8@5; <4 39 33 3> 3? 38 335 @ 3;3<34 >9>3 >> >? >8 Y 3 > ? 8 @ 5 ; < 4 39 33 3> 3? 38 3@ 35 3; 3< 34 >9 >3 >> >? >8 >@ >5 >; >< >4 ?9 ?3 ?> ?? ?8 ?@ ?5 ?; ?< ?4 89 83 8> 8? 88 8@ 85 8; 8< >@
3> >9 9

>5

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8@ 85

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OW C

Legend
?

8;

e0isting &roduction *ells true $ault traces 8< $ault traces in simulation model

>@

>5

>;

-imulation Model Aori(ontal #ermea"ility Distri"ution $or -imulation Layer 3


%ist..k ( 2(3er* ea"ility 4* d 5 /++

6++
6/) 6 ) 1 11+1 6 0''9 1 6 6 1 .9' 6 6 1

'6) 6 ' 1

6/1 6 - 1

'). 6 . 1

1+6. 6 11 1 6/' 6 . 1 )1+ 6 ' 1 6// 6 6 1 )+6 1--6 0 6 1 1 1 1++6 6 . 1 11'+ 6 1 1 11)) 6 - 1 )16 6 ) 1 9/. 6 ' 1 '-- 6 / 1 196 6 1 1 1++' 6 6 1 619 6 ' 1 )/1 6 ) 1 6.1 6 '1-)' 1 6 1 1 90/ 6 1 1 -9/ 6 . 1

)++

'++

.++

-++

1++

+ 1-1+1119)/ ++6++6++ +,++++ days

-im&li$ication o$ Reservoir Keometry


E0am&le situations %sing symmetry to sim&li$y the grid %sing &seudo$unctions Chec.ing validity o$ assum&tions

%sing -ymmetry to -im&li$y the Krid


3 8th o$ the drainage area containing a *ell *ith a hydraulic $racture can "e simulated Re&eated @)s&ot *ater $lood &attern can "e modeled using 3 <th o$ the &attern

Any time a *ell is centered in a homogeneous drainage area and $orces on either side o$ the lines o$ symmetry are identical=

%sing #seudo$unction to Model ?D -ystems With >D Model


#seudo)relative)&ermea"ility and &seudo) ca&illary)&ressure $unctions can "e used to sim&li$y simulations o$ dis&lacement &rocess in layered reservoirs *ith no cross$lo* Dynamic &seudo)$unctions can "e generated $rom cross)sectional simulations=

Chec.ing 2alidity o$ Assum&tions Made in -im&li$ications


Any time a sim&li$ication is made, it should "e validated "y runDsE *ithout sim&li$ication=

Re&resenting Wells in -imulation


Well re&resentation should Account $or near *ell conditions Allo* the necessary degree o$ *ell control

Well Constant E1uations


#*ell #cell

" .r 1 = WC

( & *ell &cell )

Well Constant E1uations


+he general $ormula &resented "y #eaceman $or the *ell constant o$ a *ell located in the center o$ a rectangular grid "loc. is given "y

9=99;9<.h WC = ln( ro r*a )

Well Constant E1uations


+he a&&arent *ell"ore radius, r*a , includes the e$$ect o$ the s.in $actor due to damage, stimulation, &artial &enetration, and *ell"ore inclination= +he e1uation $or r*a is r*a H r* e)s

-&acing o$ Wells in the -imulation Krid


-&acing de&endent on o"'ectives, accuracy and $lo* mechanism Rule o$ thum" is ? to @ "loc.s "et*een *ells In simulation o$ *ater$lood, may need 39 or more Inter$erence tests need $iner grid s&acings

-&acing o$ Wells in the -imulation Krid


In early stages o$ study, &er$orm a grid sensitivity study and select the most coarse grid As study &rogresses, a&&ro&riately re$ine grid

Well Rate and #ressure -&eci$ications and Constraints


+he *ell constraints used in simulations should re&resent actual $ield o&erating conditions as closely as &ossi"le= Most simulators *ill allo* s&eci$ication o$ &roduction targets and constraints ena"ling the rate and minimum $lo*ing &ressure to "e s&eci$ied= +he simulator *ill automatically s*itch $rom rate)controlled &roduction to &ressure) controlled &roduction=

+imeste& -chedule
+he timeste& schedule is the de$inition o$ ho* *e divide, or discreti(e, time in order to solve the di$$erential e1uations numerically Although *e use reservoir and *ell &ro&erties in designing the timeste& schedule, the timeste& schedule is inde&endent o$ the reservoir and *ell &ro&erties=

-cheduling Changes in #roduction Rates and Other Dynamic Data


-chedule o$ times to honor changes in &roduction and in'ection rates

Rate

7i*e

-cheduling o$ Individual +imeste&s

Rate

7i*e

E$$ects o$ +ime -te& -i(e on -imulation Results


-everal $actors must "e considered *hen selecting time ste& si(es $or a simulation= +hese $actors includeC Data re1uirements, Numerical sta"ility and +ime)truncation errors=

Common Rules $or +ime -te& -i(e Control


Recommended &rocedureC -tart *ith small time ste& si(es a$ter signi$icant rate changes %se large time ste& si(e multi&liers to "uild time ste& si(es 1uic.ly %se &, - and t limits to restrict time ste& si(es to reasona"le levels

-imulator Control Data


Numerical solution &arameters Out&ut control data Run control

Out&ut Control Data


Moderate to large simulations re1uire 'udicious s&eci$ication o$ desired out&ut= Out&ut $iles si(es can 1uic.ly "ecome unmanagea"le= +y&e o$ out&ut desired !re1uency o$ node out&ut !re1uency o$ ma& out&ut

Run Control

C Rate

B +ime

Model Initiali(ation
#g H $D gE #cgo H #g ) #o

-u"sea Elevation

KOC Datum

#cgo H 9 #o H $D oE #co* H #o ) #* #co* H 9

OWC

#* H $D *E #i

#ressure

Model Initiali(ation
3 -g 9

#cgo

#cgo 9 3

-u"sea elevation

-g

KOC

KOC

#c e o *

OWC

#co*

OWC

#c

-*

3 9 -* 3

Com&lete ?D 2ie* o$ the -imulation Model DMid)#oint Elevations o$ -imulation Krid"loc., $t -u")-eaE
%ist..k ( !id$t Elevations 4ft ss5 (11)++ (116++
'6) '6) 6 6 ' . 1 . 6/1 6 - 1 '). '). 6 6 . - 1 . 619 6 ' 1 619 619 6 6 . - . ) 6// 6 6 1 11'+ 6 1 1 11.+ 6 . . 11+1 6 0 1 )+6s 66 ' . ''9 6 6 1 )+6 0 1 1 1--6 1 6 . 1 1+6. 6 11 1 )+6 6 ' 6/' . 196 6 1 1 6// 6 / 9 ''9 11)) 611+1 - 16 1 9 6 - ) 196 6 . ) 1+6. 6 9 ) )+6s 6 1 9 )1+ 6 ' 1 96s 6 1. 1 )+6 1. 6 1 9 6// 6 9 6/' 6 ' 9 91+6. 6 1 9 6/'s 6 1 )+6 6 / 11 6// 6 0 )/1 6 ) 1 1) )1+ 6 1 6) . 1 196 6 0 11 6 . 9 1++6 )+6 6 11)) 6 1. )16 6 ) 1 )/1 6 . ) 6 ' 1 )+6 6 ) 1) )16s 6 - 9/. ) )16 6 . ) )1+ 6 ) 9 )1+ 6 9 11 1++' 6 6 1 1+6. 6 ' 1/ )/1 6 1 9 9/. )1+6 6- 0)1. 6/)s 6 - 1) 1++' )16 6 6 '1 )9 )1+ 6 / 1) .9' 6 6 1 6/)s 6 1 1/ .9' 6 ) . 6 1 '-- 6 11-/ /1-1) 1 6 ' 99 6.1 6 ' 1 -9/ 6 . 1 99) 6 1 1/ 6.1 6 - ) .9' 6 - 9 1-)' 6 1 1 '-- 6 1 9 11+6 )) 11+6 1 90/ 6 1 1

(11/++ (110++ (119++ (1-+++ (1-1++ (1--++ (1-.++ (1-'++ (1-)++

1-1+1119)/ ++6++6++

+,++++ days

-imulation Model Initial Water -aturation Distri"ution $or Layer 3


%ist..k ( 8 ater Saturation 1,+ +,9
6/) 6 ) 1 11+1 6 0''9 1 6 6 1

.9' 6 6 1

'6) 6 ' 1

6/1 6 - 1

'). 6 . 1

1+6. 6 11 1 6/' 6 . 1 )1+ 6 ' 1 6// 6 6 1 )+6 1--6 0 6 1 1 1++6 6 . 1 11'+ 6 1 1 11)) 6 - 1 )16 6 ) 1 9/. 6 ' 1 '-- 6 / 1 196 6 1 1 1++' 6 6 1 619 6 ' 1 )/1 6 ) 1 6.1 6 '1-)' 1 6 1 1 90/ 6 1 1 -9/ 6 . 1

+,0

+,/

+,6

+,)

+,'

+,.

+,1-1+1119)/ ++6++6++ +,++++ days

Revie*ing -imulation Out&ut to Ensure 2alid Results


We recommend using the $ollo*ing &rocedure to systematically revie* simulation out&ut to ensure that results are valid= +he $ull revie* *ill normally "e re1uired $ollo*ing ma'or changes in the model= -ome items should routinely "e revie*ed=

Revie* Warning Messages


Revie* out&ut $or *arning or error messages &rinted out "y the simulator !luid &ro&erty, relative &ermea"ility, and ca&illary &ressure ta"le trend chec.ing Krid "loc.s *ith (ero &ermea"ility or &orosity Wells located in inactive grid "loc.s Other simulator s&eci$ic *arning error messages

Revie* In&ut Data #rintout


Revie* out&ut to ensure that the simulator is correctly reading the in&ut data= Roc. &ro&erties !luid &ro&erties Multi&hase &ro&erties

Revie* Initiali(ation
Revie* reservoir initiali(ation e1uili"ration as calculated "y the model Com&are original $luids in &lace in the model to values estimated using volumetrics #ressure -aturation #osition o$ gas)oil, oil)*ater, gas)*ater contacts

Revie* Numerical #er$ormance -tatistics


Material "alance error Outer iterations Inner iterations Cut"ac.s Ma0imum &ressure and saturation changes Is the model oscillatingN

Revie* #roduction -tatistics


Ensure that *ells are "eing o&erated in the desired manner Chec. +hat each *ell is in the desired location +hat correct alge"raic sign is used $or &roduction and in'ection !or *ells changing $rom constant rate to constant &ressure

Revie* #roduction -tatistics


Chec. !or *ells *hich have "een shut in due to e0cessive gas or *ater &roduction, KOR or WOR +otal &roduction $rom multi&ly com&leted *ells !or *ells drilled or com&leted "y an automatic *ell management scheme

Integrated Reservoir Study


DYNAMIC MODEL
Well !acilities Model Near Well"ore #er$ormance Models

%&scaled Reservoir Model

#reliminary Dynamic Model

Cali"rated Dynamic Model O&timi(ed Reservoir Develo&ment #lan

#ro'ected Reservoir #er$ormance

!ield Economic Model

Re$erences
3= Matta0, C= C=, and Dalton, R= L=C Reservoir Simulation, -#E Monogra&h -eries No= 3?, 3449= >= A(i(, 6=, and -ettari, A=C Petroleum Reservoir Simulation, A&&lied -cience, 34;4= ?= Odeh, A= -=C FReservoir -imulation===What is itNF JPT DNov= 3454E 3?<?)3?<<= 8= Coats, 6= A=C F%se and Misuse o$ Reservoir -imulation Models,F JPT DNov= 3454E 3?43) 3?4<=

Re$erences
@= Coats, 6= A=C FReservoir -imulationC -tate o$ the Art,F JPT, DAug= 34<>E 35??)358>= 5= -atter, A=, !ri((ell, D= !=, and 2arnon, G= E=C F+he Role o$ Mini)-imulation in Reservoir Management,F &a&er &resented at the Indonesian #etroleum Association Nineteenth Annual Convention, Oct= 3443 ;= 6yte, G= R=, and Berry, D= W=C FNe* #seudo !unctions to Control Numerical Dis&ersion,F SPEJ DAug= 34;@E >54);5=