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# Building the Dynamic Reservoir Model

## Integrated Reservoir Study

DYNAMIC MODEL
Well !acilities Model Near Well"ore #er\$ormance Models

## Dynamic Reservoir Model

A mathematical model that descri"es and simulates the time)de&endent \$lo* &rocesses active in a hydrocar"on reservoir +he dynamic model com"ines +he static model #ressure) and saturation)de&endent &ro&erties Near)*ell, *ell"ore, and \$acilities &ro&erties to calculate &roduction and &ressure vs time

Im&ortance
-tatic Model Model o\$ reservoir at initial conditions Insu\$\$icient to &redict &er\$ormance or o&timi(e develo&ment Dynamic Model Models entire li\$e o\$ reservoir Can &roduce reservoir several times under di\$\$erent o&erating conditions Can o&timi(e reservoir de&letion &lan

## -te&s in Model Construction

-election o\$ the model ty&e -election o\$ the \$luid model and num"er o\$ &hases -election o\$ the grid coordinate system and num"er o\$ dimensions -election o\$ o&timal grid "loc. si(es -&eci\$ication o\$ reservoir &ro&erties -im&li\$ication o\$ reservoir geometry -election o\$ the *ell model -&eci\$ication o\$ *ell control -&eci\$ication o\$ time ste& si(e control -election o\$ the numerical solution method

## !actors A\$\$ecting Model Design

O"'ectives o\$ the simulation study /uality o\$ the ans*er needed to satis\$y the &ro'ect o"'ectives Com&le0ity o\$ the reservoir &rocesses to "e modeled including secondary and or tertiary recovery &rocesses Budget constraints +ime availa"le to com&lete the study

## !actors A\$\$ecting Model Design

Availa"ility and 1uality o\$ reservoir data Availa"ility and &roduction data 1uality o\$ historical

Ca&a"ilities and ease o\$ use o\$ availa"le simulators Ca&a"ilities and availa"ility o\$ com&uter \$acilities

Data Categories
Reservoir and *ell data -imulation s&eci\$ic data -imulation grid -imulation time schedule -imulator control data

## Reservoir and Well Data

Reservoir \$luid &ro&erty data Reservoir roc. &ro&erty data -trata &ro&erties Well data Well"ore and \$acilities data

Cari""ean -ea
Barran1uilla
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COLOMBIA

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LA6E MARACAIBO

## Base !a\$ for t%e &'(&) Reservoir Si*ulation Study

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Introduction
2LE)345 \$ield discovered in 34@< #roduced over >99 million -+B Wells &roduced *ith sliding sleeves to control *ater &roduction A"out @9 *ells com&leted in the Misoa sandstones

O"'ectives
Characteri(e the reservoir \$or modeling Identi\$y "y&assed and unta&&ed com&artments Develo& a &lan to increase &roduction rates and reserves

## Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data

@ "asic reservoir \$luid ty&es Dry gas Wet gas Retrograde gas Dgas condensateE 2olatile oil Blac. oil

## +he !luid Model Must

Be consistent *ith the &ro'ect o"'ectives #ro&erly account \$or the num"er o\$ &hases e0isting at reservoir and sur\$ace conditions D+his re1uirement can "e rela0ed in cases *here immova"le \$luids e0ist *hich do not contain a&&recia"le amounts o\$ the mova"le \$luids or com&onents in solutionE Accurately &redict &hase changes *hich occur during the simulation

## +he !luid Model Must

Accurately &redict the volumetric &ro&erties, including com&ressi"ility and density, o\$ the reservoir and sur\$ace \$luids Accurately &redict the viscosity o\$ reservoir \$luids and any other critical &arameters such as s&eci\$ic heats in cases o\$ nonisothermal simulations When an e1uation o\$ state is used to &redict &hase "ehavior, the e1uation must "e FtunedF to match all availa"le s&ecial la"oratory data measured on valid reservoir \$luid sam&les

## Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data

!luid #2+ data Blac. oil Bo(p), Rso (p), o(p), o(p) Bg(p), g(p), g(p) 2olatile oil Bo(p), Rso (p), o(p), o(p) Bg(p), Rsg (p), g(p), g(p)

#2+ #ro&erties
%ndersaturated oil at initial conditions Com&ositional gradient &resent initially E0tra&olated #2+ data \$rom @ la"oratory analyses Resulting "lac.)oil #2+ &ro&erties used in model

## Reservoir !luid #ro&erty Data

E1uili"ration data Original &ressure at datum !luid contact elevations

## Reservoir Roc. #ro&erty Data

+his section contains roc. &ro&erties usually derived \$rom core analysis -mall num"er o\$ sam&les, so not enough data to generate ma&s, or distri"utions, o\$ these &ro&erties %sually assume these &ro&erties are constant throughout a &articular (one, or stratum

## Reservoir Roc. #ro&erty Data

Ca&illary &ressure Relative &ermea"ility Aysteresis in ca&illary &ressure and relative &ermea"ility #ressure)de&endent &orosity and &ermea"ility \$unctions Non)darcy \$lo* DgasE Dual)&orosity data

## Relative #ermea"ility and Ca&illary #ressure Data

Initially develo&ed 8 sets o\$ data, \$or 8 di\$\$erent &orosity ranges Initially, did not ade1uately model *ater &roduction in thin, high) &ermea"ility layers #seudo relative &ermea"ilities *ere develo&ed to match o"served *ater &roduction

.)+,+ .++,+

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-trata #ro&erties
+his section contains roc. &ro&erties usually derived \$rom *ell log data or seismic data Larger num"er o\$ sam&les, so o\$ten enough data to generate ma&s, or distri"utions, o\$ these &ro&erties O\$ten in&ut se&arate ma&s o\$ these &ro&erties \$or each (one, or stratum

-trata #ro&erties
-tructural &ro&erties Elevation Dstructure ma&E Kross interval thic.ness Reservoir limits Discontinuities D\$aultsE

-trata #ro&erties
!ormation &ro&erties Net)to)gross ratio Dor net sand thic.nessE
#orosity !ormation &ermea"ility #ore volume and transmissi"ility modi\$ications

## Reservoir Characteri(ation #reviously Documented

Martin, et al., 344; Keo&hysical, geological and &etro&hysical analyses Keological model consisting o\$ 34 layers Correlated seismic attri"utes to &etro&hysical &arameters to im&rove reservoir ma&&ing

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Well Data
Com&letion data #roduction and in'ection data #ressure data O&erational control and constraint in\$ormation

Well Data
Com&letion data Well "ottomhole location and orientation #er\$oration interval Well"ore radius #ermea"ility)thic.ness &roduct -.in \$actor Aydraulic \$racture length Aydraulic \$racture conductivity Well constant

Well Data
#roduction and in'ection data #roduction vs time \$or all &roduced \$luids M oil, gas, condensate, *ater In'ection vs time \$or all in'ected \$luids M gas, *ater

Well Data
#ressure data -tatic &ressure data !lo*ing &ressure data #ressure transient test data

Well Data
O&erational control and constraint in\$ormation Ao* are *ells &roducedN Natural \$lo* Rod &um& Kas li\$t -u"mersi"le &um&

Well Data
Are there any limits, or constraints, on &roductionN E1ui&ment &ressure limitations Ma0imum \$luid li\$ting ca&acity Ma0imum *ater handling ca&acity Economic limit &roduction rates Allo*a"le &roduction limited "y regulatory agencies

Well Data
Ao* are in'ection *ells o&eratedN Are there any limits, or constraints, on in'ectionN E1ui&ment &ressure limitations Ma0imum in'ection rate ca&acity

## Well"ore and !acilities Data

Well mechanical con\$iguration data Lengths and IDOs o\$ tu"ulars through *hich \$luids are &roduced and in'ected Con\$iguration o\$ sur\$ace gathering and in'ection system Note ty&es and locations Lengths and IDOs o\$ tu"ulars through *hich \$luids \$lo*

-imulation Krid
#rimary grid s&eci\$ication Local grid re\$inement s&eci\$ication

-imulation Krid
+he simulation grid is the de\$inition o\$ ho* *e divide, or discreti(e, s&ace in order to solve the di\$\$erential e1uations numerically Although *e use reservoir and *ell &ro&erties in designing the simulation grid, the simulation grid is inde&endent o\$ the reservoir and *ell &ro&erties=

## Common Krid Coordinate -ystems Include

Cartesian Cylindrical Curvilinear Dincluding stream)tu"eE Corner &oint

## -election o\$ O&timal Krid Bloc. -i(es

O&timal grid Results in the desired level o\$ accuracy #ro&erly re&resents the reservoir geology, and Aas the lo*est com&uter memory and time re1uirements to solve the &ro"lem=

## E\$\$ects o\$ Krid Bloc. -i(es on -imulation Results

!D solution a&&roaches #DE solution as 0 a&&roaches 9 %se small "loc.s *here convergent \$lo* %se small "loc.s along dis&lacement \$ronts

## Common Rules \$or Constructing a Krid

Logarithmic s&acing in cylindrical grids= Ad'acent "loc.s increase in length "y no more than \$actor o\$ ?= No more than 39 to >9P o\$ the total &ressure dro& should "e "et*een any t*o ad'acent grid "loc.s= Large changes in elevation or thic.ness should "e distri"uted over multi&le grid "loc.s=

## Common Rules \$or Constructing a Krid

Reservoir \$lo* units should, in general, "e se&arated "y grid "loc. "oundaries= 2ertical discreti(ation should "e \$ine enough \$or accurate accounting o\$ gas &ercolation and migration and or gravity over)ride or under)ride= I\$ in dou"t, halve the grid "loc.s Ddou"le the num"er o\$ "loc.sE in one or more dimensions=

E\$\$ect o\$ Krid Bloc. -i(es on a Linear Buc.ley) Leverett Dis&lacement -imulation With a -har& Dis&lacement !ront and Mo"ility Ratio o\$ @9=
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## -tructure Ma& and Reservoir -imulation Krid

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e0isting &roduction *ells true \$ault traces 8< \$ault traces in simulation model

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## -imulation Model Aori(ontal #ermea"ility Distri"ution \$or -imulation Layer 3

%ist..k ( 2(3er* ea"ility 4* d 5 /++

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6/) 6 ) 1 11+1 6 0''9 1 6 6 1 .9' 6 6 1

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## -im&li\$ication o\$ Reservoir Keometry

E0am&le situations %sing symmetry to sim&li\$y the grid %sing &seudo\$unctions Chec.ing validity o\$ assum&tions

## %sing -ymmetry to -im&li\$y the Krid

3 8th o\$ the drainage area containing a *ell *ith a hydraulic \$racture can "e simulated Re&eated @)s&ot *ater \$lood &attern can "e modeled using 3 <th o\$ the &attern

Any time a *ell is centered in a homogeneous drainage area and \$orces on either side o\$ the lines o\$ symmetry are identical=

## %sing #seudo\$unction to Model ?D -ystems With >D Model

#seudo)relative)&ermea"ility and &seudo) ca&illary)&ressure \$unctions can "e used to sim&li\$y simulations o\$ dis&lacement &rocess in layered reservoirs *ith no cross\$lo* Dynamic &seudo)\$unctions can "e generated \$rom cross)sectional simulations=

## Chec.ing 2alidity o\$ Assum&tions Made in -im&li\$ications

Any time a sim&li\$ication is made, it should "e validated "y runDsE *ithout sim&li\$ication=

## Re&resenting Wells in -imulation

Well re&resentation should Account \$or near *ell conditions Allo* the necessary degree o\$ *ell control

#*ell #cell

" .r 1 = WC

## Well Constant E1uations

+he general \$ormula &resented "y #eaceman \$or the *ell constant o\$ a *ell located in the center o\$ a rectangular grid "loc. is given "y

## Well Constant E1uations

+he a&&arent *ell"ore radius, r*a , includes the e\$\$ect o\$ the s.in \$actor due to damage, stimulation, &artial &enetration, and *ell"ore inclination= +he e1uation \$or r*a is r*a H r* e)s

## -&acing o\$ Wells in the -imulation Krid

-&acing de&endent on o"'ectives, accuracy and \$lo* mechanism Rule o\$ thum" is ? to @ "loc.s "et*een *ells In simulation o\$ *ater\$lood, may need 39 or more Inter\$erence tests need \$iner grid s&acings

## -&acing o\$ Wells in the -imulation Krid

In early stages o\$ study, &er\$orm a grid sensitivity study and select the most coarse grid As study &rogresses, a&&ro&riately re\$ine grid

## Well Rate and #ressure -&eci\$ications and Constraints

+he *ell constraints used in simulations should re&resent actual \$ield o&erating conditions as closely as &ossi"le= Most simulators *ill allo* s&eci\$ication o\$ &roduction targets and constraints ena"ling the rate and minimum \$lo*ing &ressure to "e s&eci\$ied= +he simulator *ill automatically s*itch \$rom rate)controlled &roduction to &ressure) controlled &roduction=

+imeste& -chedule
+he timeste& schedule is the de\$inition o\$ ho* *e divide, or discreti(e, time in order to solve the di\$\$erential e1uations numerically Although *e use reservoir and *ell &ro&erties in designing the timeste& schedule, the timeste& schedule is inde&endent o\$ the reservoir and *ell &ro&erties=

## -cheduling Changes in #roduction Rates and Other Dynamic Data

-chedule o\$ times to honor changes in &roduction and in'ection rates

Rate

7i*e

Rate

7i*e

## E\$\$ects o\$ +ime -te& -i(e on -imulation Results

-everal \$actors must "e considered *hen selecting time ste& si(es \$or a simulation= +hese \$actors includeC Data re1uirements, Numerical sta"ility and +ime)truncation errors=

## Common Rules \$or +ime -te& -i(e Control

Recommended &rocedureC -tart *ith small time ste& si(es a\$ter signi\$icant rate changes %se large time ste& si(e multi&liers to "uild time ste& si(es 1uic.ly %se &, - and t limits to restrict time ste& si(es to reasona"le levels

## -imulator Control Data

Numerical solution &arameters Out&ut control data Run control

## Out&ut Control Data

Moderate to large simulations re1uire 'udicious s&eci\$ication o\$ desired out&ut= Out&ut \$iles si(es can 1uic.ly "ecome unmanagea"le= +y&e o\$ out&ut desired !re1uency o\$ node out&ut !re1uency o\$ ma& out&ut

Run Control

C Rate

B +ime

Model Initiali(ation
#g H \$D gE #cgo H #g ) #o

-u"sea Elevation

KOC Datum

## #cgo H 9 #o H \$D oE #co* H #o ) #* #co* H 9

OWC

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Model Initiali(ation
3 -g 9

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Com&lete ?D 2ie* o\$ the -imulation Model DMid)#oint Elevations o\$ -imulation Krid"loc., \$t -u")-eaE
%ist..k ( !id\$t Elevations 4ft ss5 (11)++ (116++
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## -imulation Model Initial Water -aturation Distri"ution \$or Layer 3

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## Revie*ing -imulation Out&ut to Ensure 2alid Results

We recommend using the \$ollo*ing &rocedure to systematically revie* simulation out&ut to ensure that results are valid= +he \$ull revie* *ill normally "e re1uired \$ollo*ing ma'or changes in the model= -ome items should routinely "e revie*ed=

## Revie* Warning Messages

Revie* out&ut \$or *arning or error messages &rinted out "y the simulator !luid &ro&erty, relative &ermea"ility, and ca&illary &ressure ta"le trend chec.ing Krid "loc.s *ith (ero &ermea"ility or &orosity Wells located in inactive grid "loc.s Other simulator s&eci\$ic *arning error messages

## Revie* In&ut Data #rintout

Revie* out&ut to ensure that the simulator is correctly reading the in&ut data= Roc. &ro&erties !luid &ro&erties Multi&hase &ro&erties

Revie* Initiali(ation
Revie* reservoir initiali(ation e1uili"ration as calculated "y the model Com&are original \$luids in &lace in the model to values estimated using volumetrics #ressure -aturation #osition o\$ gas)oil, oil)*ater, gas)*ater contacts

## Revie* Numerical #er\$ormance -tatistics

Material "alance error Outer iterations Inner iterations Cut"ac.s Ma0imum &ressure and saturation changes Is the model oscillatingN

## Revie* #roduction -tatistics

Ensure that *ells are "eing o&erated in the desired manner Chec. +hat each *ell is in the desired location +hat correct alge"raic sign is used \$or &roduction and in'ection !or *ells changing \$rom constant rate to constant &ressure

## Revie* #roduction -tatistics

Chec. !or *ells *hich have "een shut in due to e0cessive gas or *ater &roduction, KOR or WOR +otal &roduction \$rom multi&ly com&leted *ells !or *ells drilled or com&leted "y an automatic *ell management scheme

## Integrated Reservoir Study

DYNAMIC MODEL
Well !acilities Model Near Well"ore #er\$ormance Models

## !ield Economic Model

Re\$erences
3= Matta0, C= C=, and Dalton, R= L=C Reservoir Simulation, -#E Monogra&h -eries No= 3?, 3449= >= A(i(, 6=, and -ettari, A=C Petroleum Reservoir Simulation, A&&lied -cience, 34;4= ?= Odeh, A= -=C FReservoir -imulation===What is itNF JPT DNov= 3454E 3?<?)3?<<= 8= Coats, 6= A=C F%se and Misuse o\$ Reservoir -imulation Models,F JPT DNov= 3454E 3?43) 3?4<=

Re\$erences
@= Coats, 6= A=C FReservoir -imulationC -tate o\$ the Art,F JPT, DAug= 34<>E 35??)358>= 5= -atter, A=, !ri((ell, D= !=, and 2arnon, G= E=C F+he Role o\$ Mini)-imulation in Reservoir Management,F &a&er &resented at the Indonesian #etroleum Association Nineteenth Annual Convention, Oct= 3443 ;= 6yte, G= R=, and Berry, D= W=C FNe* #seudo !unctions to Control Numerical Dis&ersion,F SPEJ DAug= 34;@E >54);5=