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The presentation is made by group

Goryacheva Rita
Medvedeva Asya
Olzoboeva Regina
Yarmolinskaya Sveta

PUBLIC RELATIONS is the dimension of
communication which is specifically concerned
with establishing and enhancing goodwill
between an organization and the various
publics with which it seeks to communicate.
It’s integrated with advertising, sales promotion
and so on.
The definition of The Institute of PR
«The deliberate, planned and sustained effort to
establish and maintain mutual understanding between an
organization and its publics.»

Specific functions relating to PR
(due to the PR Society of America)

1. Anticipating, analyzing and interpreting public

opinion, attitudes and issues which might impact,
for good or ill, on the operations and plans of the
2. Counseling management at all levels with
regard to policy decisions, courses of action and
3. Researching, conducting and evaluating, on a
continuing basis, programmes of action and
communication to achieve informed public
understanding necessary for the success of the
organization's aims.
4. Planning and implementing the organization's
efforts to influence or change public policy.
5. Managing the resources needed to perform the
functions of public relations.
The difference between PR and
publicity PUBLICITY may be any
form of information from an
outside source used by the
news media. It is largely
uncontrollable. Although
much of public relations
is concerned with the
gaining of publicity, not all
publicity derives from
public relations. The
responsibility of public
relations is to create and
influence publicity in such a
way as to have a positive
impact on the company for
which the activity is

The goals of advertising and PR are somewhat different. The
primary goal of advertising, as we have already seen, is to inform
and persuade consumers in relation to a specific product offering. The
primary goal of PR is to establish goodwill, and to develop
favourable attitudes and an understanding of the organization and its
products or services.
A major distinction between advertising and PR is the
credibility of the alternative routes to message delivery. Advertising
is inherently based upon the self-interest of the organization
placing it and paying for the exposure. The consequence is that it is
approached with a greater degree of scrutiny and is often discounted
by the reader or viewer. PR messages, appear as editorial content
within a newspaper, magazine or television segment and are often
seen as 'independent' of the company which originated them. The
consequence is that PR stories are less likely to be viewed cynically
and are likely to be more acceptable to the intended public.

 The nature of the media vehicle can actually
enhance the value of a PR message. If the vehicle
inherently has a high degree of credibility, then
the messages it conveys will tend to be viewed in
a similar light. If, for example, a charitable activity
is featured prominently within a national TV news
programme, that activity effectively receives the
'endorse­ment' of the television station.

 Advertising and PR have similar high costs but…

Advertising has costs of media space or airtime,
together with production costs, and they are high
while PR messages are not required direct media
cost to the company which originated them.

1. Uncontrollability:
Media determines whether the message will appear at all and, if
so, in what form. There is certainly no guarantee that the message
will appear in its original form. Often, the medium will modify the
story even to the point of changing the intention of the message,
and this is entirely outside the control of the company.

2. Too long way to achieve target audience:

Again, unlike advertising, which seeks to communicate directly
with the desired target audience, PR must appeal to at least two
audiences. In order for the story to receive any form of exposure, it
must first motivate the recipient within the media organization in
which it is hoped that the message will appear. Only if it achieves
this goal will a message in any form actually be seen.

 PR has a greater degree of credibility.
Whilst a consumer may choose to ignore a paid-for message initiated by a
company, he or she may actively seek infor-mation which derives from a
public relations source.
 Public relations can address issues outside conventional marketing.
For example, it might seek to communicate specific company values to
interest or activist groups in order to ensure their understanding of the
company role; it might seek to persuade potential investors or analysts of
the current and future prospects of the organiza-tion and so on.
 PR may be the only cost-effective means of reaching some
PR can be used to reach small, discrete audiences both effec-tively and
cost-efficiently. Small retail outlets can often gain coverage in local
newspapers for a new opening or some other activity which is likely to
arouse local interest.


PR can be used to publicize a company's name and reputation.
This is clearly seen at times of awards when companies can make themselves
known using national and local media.
 PR agencies produce printed materials to inform society about the
These will include such items as brochures and booklets, specific reports on
topics of wider interest, together with in-house periodicals focusing on issues of
relevance to the company and its, publics.
 PR involve the creation of special events
To provide a vehicle for direct communication to others, or through those third
parties to wider audiences.

 Increase awareness of the company;
 Increase awareness of the brands or services provided by the organization;
 Reinforce the business objectives of the organization;
 Identify and explain company policy;
 Provide a focus of attention on those issues which are important to the
 Encourage external debate on those issues;
 Help to change opinions to those which are favourable to the organization;
 Assist the process of changing attitudes towards the organization and its
 Create positive attitudes towards the company's products and services;
 Help in the building of the reputation of an organization;
 Motivate staff and enhance the recruitment process;
 Help restore the credibility of a company, particularly after some specific crisis;
 Reinforce the marketing and sales efforts;
 Build upon or change purchasing behaviour.

(due to Peter Gummer)
1. Topicality - linking the product with news
events as they occur. For example, a
survivor on a recent attempt to climb Mount
Everest stated that he owed his survival to a
Mars Bar. A PR campaign ensured that this
fact received widespread publicity in many
of the most important media outlets.
2. Credibility - PR offers the implied
endorsement of a third party commentator.
3. Involvement - creating interactive

The functions of public
Opinion forming Development of opinions concerning governmental policies, the activities of com-
panies and organizations, and other aspects beyond the nature of the products and ser-vices which
those companies produce.
Counselling senior management All aspects of internal and external actions of companies are
likely to have an impact on the public perceptions of their organizations.
Liaison with public officials Maintaining close and realistic relationships with local and central
government officials and other regulatory bodies is a key dimension of positive public relations.
Communications policies Public relations is a key management function which, potentially, can
influence all aspects of the organization's internal and external communications.
Community relations Company can be: an employer, and the source of local income and wealth,
the source of a variety of community benefits, the user of a variety of resources, which may affect
community life.
In-house activities The role of public relations will be to explain and secure support for the variety
of management decisions which will be taken
Product or service publicity The external perception of public relations is its involvement with the
creation of publicity for the products and services which the company provides.
Financial activity Public relations can ensure that the financial sector is provided with relevant and
appropriate information upon which to base their judgments.
Media relations The appearance of positive publicity for a company or organization is a result of
carefully nurtured relationships between the various media and the company over a long period of
Event management Events are used to create positive relationships between the company and one
or more of its target audiences.
Business sponsorship Creating business sponsorships which serve to associate the company with
some specific activity, designed to enhance the image associations of the organization.

The 'publics' of public
 Employees and potential employees
 Shareholders and investors
 Suppliers to the company
 Distributors of the company's products and
 Buyers and consumers
 The local community
 The national community
 Opinion formers
 The media - local, national and international

Programme planning

 Situational analysis
 Determination of objectives
 Identification of target publics
 Choice of PR strategy
 Budget definition
 Development of programme components
 Programme implementation
 Evaluation and feedback

Evaluating of public
It is important to recognize the fact that PR rarely exists in isolation of other
marketing communications activities.
Possible areas for measurement are as follows:
• Shifts in awareness;

• Shifts in attitudes towards the company or organization;

• Growth in enquiries;

• Reduction in level of complaints;

• Improvement in share price;

• Volume of coverage in target media.

James Swinehart (1979) suggests that in order to evaluate the achievements of a

PR programme, five areas of questioning should be applied to the objectives:
• What is the content of the objective?

• What is the target population?

• When should the intended change occur?

• Are the intended changes unitary or multiple?

• How much effect is desired?

The tools of public relations
Public relations achieves its goals through the use of a variety of different tools and
• The press release;
• The exclusive story;
• Interviews;
• Press conferences;
• By-lined article;
• Speeches;
• Writing new releases, reports, booklets, speeches, trade and general magazine articles,
film sequences, radio and television copy, production information and technical material;
• Editing employee publications, newsletters, annual reports and other management
communications for internal and external audiences;
• Placing client or employer news and features with media editors;
• Promoting through special events, such as press parties, open houses, anniversaries,
award programmes and institutional films;
• Speaking and preparing speeches for others;
• Producing brochures, booklets, special reports and house periodicals;
• Developing overall PR programmes;
• Publicizing a company's name and reputation.

* Advertorials
'Advertorials - The Reader's Perspective'
An advertorial is a combination of advertisement and editorial,
paid for by the advertiser and appearing to look like editorial
from the newspaper. Such activities must be flagged with the
word 'advertisement'.
Their success depends on:
• the relevance of the product to the reader;

• the fit with the motivations for magazine purchase;

• the product category relevance;

• the fit with the editorial style, content and image of the

• the balance between information and selling;

• the visual appeal.

* Infomercials
Infomercials = information + commercial

These extend the premise of the advertorial into

the television medium.
By apparently presenting a television pro-gramme,
the consumer may be deluded into thinking that
the message is independent of the manufacturer
who funds it.

Corporate PR Objectives
 Establishing dialogue with target audiences
 Ensuring consistency between company activities and
external attitudes
(a need to change, or at least to update, public perceptions of an
organization )
Adding to brand values(consumers also want to hear about how
companies operate and what values guide their business
decisions )
Responding to crisis situations(the relationship between an
organiza-tion and its publics at times of crisis )
Promoting goods and services (to highlight public awareness of
specific products and services or to extend their usage by

Charity PR
 Charitable organizations and other non-profit
organizations are prime users of public relations
 Public relations (together with direct marketing
activities) represents a more cost-effective route
to their communications needs.
 In all cases, the use of public relations must
relate to the strategic aims of the
organization(with the help of voluntary
supporters and means of direct marketing)

Integration of PR activities

Maximum Benefit
fields of public

sales promotion

International aspects of PR
PR- global marketing communications mix
 making product's launch into a foreign

 adapting a global message

 assisting the process of ensuring the

acceptance of a global brand

 achieving local impact

PR Summary
 Is an important part of the overall marketing
communications mix
 Is low-cost means of communication

 Has a great degree of credibility

 Target issues outside conventional marketing

 Is a set of tools for global marketing-mix