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Chinese Philosophy

Bryan W. Van Norden

Introduction
Chinese philosophy is every bit as ancient, as diverse, and as profound as all of Western philosophy. Confucianism, Daoism (Taoism), and Buddhism are traditionally referred to as the Three Teachings of Chinese philosophy and religion, but this simple categorization ignores the variety found within and outside each movement. This bibliography covers only some of the most influential and philosophically interesting figures and texts, and is limited to translations and secondary works in English. Most romanizations of Chinese words are given in Pinyin, but names frequently encountered in the older Wade-Giles system are included in parentheses.

Pre-Qin Dynasty
The Eastern Zhou (Chou) dynasty (c. 1040221 BCE) was a period of increasing chaos, as the central power of the Zhou rulers decayed, leading to warfare among the states that were formerly loyal to the ruling house. The Warring States period (403221 BCE) was a time of particular philosophical vibrancy, as thinkers responded to the social crisis by seeking a dao (tao), or Way, to live and to organize society. Traditionally, there are said to be Six Schools of early thought: Confucianism, Daoism (Taoism), Mohism, School of Names, Legalism, and the Yin-Yang school. Two of the texts from this period best known in the West, the Analects of Kongzi (Confucius) and the Daodejing (Tao Te Ching), attributed to Laozi (Lao-tzu), are intriguing and historically important, but perhaps not the ones that Western philosophers will find most stimulating. This period came to an end when China was unified by the authoritarian Qin dynasty (221207 BCE).

GENERAL WORKS

Nivison 1999 is a brief overview of pre-Qin philosophy. Schwartz 1985 and Graham 1989 are reliable detailed philosophical histories. Ivanhoe and Van Norden 2005 is a selection of some of the major texts. Loewe 1993 is a detailed philological guide to the texts of this period. Van Norden 2011 is a general philosophical introduction intended for classroom use.

Graham, A. C. Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China . La Salle, IL: Open Court , 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A philosophical history, with especially good discussions of Mohism, Daoism, and the School of Names, but weaker on Confucianism. Find this resource: Ivanhoe, Philip J., and Bryan W. Van Norden, eds. Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. 2d ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Selected translations from the major pre-Qin philosophers, with brief introductory essays and bibliographies. Find this resource:

Loewe, Michael, ed. Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley, CA: Society for the Study of Early China, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Somewhat out of date, but still helpful for understanding the composition and different versions of various texts. Find this resource:

Nivison, David S. The Classical Philosophical Writings. In The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. Edited by Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, 745 812. New York : Cambridge University Press, 1999. DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521470308Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

A brief, insightful overview. The volume from which this essay comes is also very useful as a general historical introduction to the period. Find this resource:

Schwartz, Benjamin. The World of Thought in Ancient China. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1985. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A broadly humanistic approach to early Chinese philosophy; this is better on Confucianism thanGraham 1989. Find this resource:

Van Norden, Bryan W. Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2011. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This textbook situates the works in their historical contexts, but also attempts to relate them to contemporary Western philosophical issues. Find this resource:

CONFUCIANISM

Despite the stereotype that it is monolithic, Confucianism is actually as diverse as Aristotelianism or Christianity, including figures who were reformers, reactionaries, and revolutionaries. Common themes of Confucianism include the ethically transformative effects of education and ritual activities, interpreting the present through the wisdom of the past, and agent-relative obligations (especially to family members). There is great diversity, though, in the emphasis that Confucians give to these elements and how they explain their significance. The three major pre-Qin Confucians are Kongzi, Mengzi, and Xunzi.

Kongzi (Confucius)
Our primary source for information about Kongzi is the Analects, a collection of sayings and brief dialogues. Kongzi sought to revive the genuine Way of the ancient sages and ethically transform rulers and officials so that they would govern for the benefit of the common people. The Analects is more evocative than systematic, so much of later Confucianism is an extended debate over how to properly interpret it. Fingarette 1972 is controversial, but it set the framework for much recent philosophical discussion. Lau 1979 and Slingerland 2003 are two of the better translations, each with useful supporting material. Jones 2008 and Van Norden 2001 are anthologies representative of recent interpretive approaches. The postmodern interpretive style is illustrated in Hall and Ames 1987, but critiqued in Sim 2007. Sim 2007 and Yu 2007 are part of the trend of using virtue ethics to interpret Confucianism. Ivanhoe 2000 gives a sense of the diversity within Confucianism throughout its history.

Fingarette, Herbert. Confucius: The Secular as Sacred. New York: Harper & Row. 1972. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Controversial, but influential and sometimes insightful. A good critique of some of Fingarettes less plausible claims may be found in Schwartz 1985 (cited under Pre-Qin Dynasty: General Works). Find this resource:

Hall, David, and Roger T. Ames. Thinking Through Confucius. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An effort to interpret Kongzi through a postmodern framework. See Sim 2007 for a critique. Find this resource:

Ivanhoe, Philip J. Confucian Moral Self Cultivation. 2d ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Traces how the tension between thinking and learning in Kongzis thought plays out in a variety of Confucians over 2,500 years. Find this resource:

Jones, David, ed. Confucius Now: Contemporary Encounters with the Analects. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 2008.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Each section in this book represents a major contemporary style of interpreting Confucius. See particularly Philip J. Ivanhoes The Golden Rule in the Analects, Hui Chieh Loys Analects 13.3 and the Doctrine of Correcting Names, and Kwong-loi Shuns Zhu Xi and the Lun yu. Find this resource:

Lau, D. C., trans. Confucius: The Analects. New York: Penguin, 1979. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A good translation with an interpretive introduction and scholarly appendices. Find this resource:

Sim, May. Remastering Morals with Aristotle and Confucius. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511497841Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Elucidates Kongzi, using Aristotle as a foil. Several chapters argue against a postmodern interpretation of Confucius. Find this resource:

Slingerland, Edward M. Confucius: Analects; with Selections from Traditional Commentaries. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Complete translation with interlineal commentary. Also available in an abbreviated version from the same publisher, with commentary collected at the end. Find this resource:

Van Norden, Bryan W., ed. Confucius and the Analects: New Essays. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology of essays representing a variety of philosophical, historical and textual approaches. Includes a detailed bibliography. Find this resource:

Yu, Jiyuan. The Ethics of Confucius and Aristotle: Mirrors of Virtue. New York: Routledge, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This comparative study is also a very good introduction to a virtue ethics approach to Kongzi. Find this resource:

Mengzi (Mencius)
Mengzi is perhaps best known for his claim that human nature is good, which he defends with a famous thought experiment: he argues that any human would have a feeling of alarm and compassion when suddenly confronted with the sight of child about to fall into a well. The eponymous Mengzi is written in the form of dialogues and sayings, like the Analects. However, the sections are longer and more contextualized, and taken as a whole they present a systematic view of ethics, philosophical anthropology, and political philosophy. Much of the recent philosophical discussion of Mengzi grows out of the account of human nature in Graham 1990, and out of the interpretation of moral reasoning presented in Nivison 1996. Yearley 1990 is seminal for later virtue ethics interpretations of Confucianism in general and Mengzi in particular. Shun 1997 is a detailed monograph on Mengzis ethics and intellectual context. Chan 2002 and Liu and Ivanhoe 2002 are anthologies representative of current debates. Lau 1970 and Van Norden 2008 are complete translations with useful supporting material.

Chan, Alan K. L., ed. Mencius: Contexts and Interpretations. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology representing a wide variety of issues in and approaches to the Mengzi. Find this resource:

Graham, A. C. The Background of the Mencian Theory of Human Nature. In Studies in Chinese Philosophy and Philosophical Literature. By A. C. Graham, 766. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Classic study of the meaning of the key term nature in early Chinese thought.

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Lau, D. C. Mencius. New York: Penguin, 1970. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Very good translation with interpretive introduction and scholarly appendices on various topics. Find this resource:

Liu, Xiusheng, and Philip J. Ivanhoe, eds. Essays on the Moral Philosophy of Mengzi. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology with an emphasis on philosophical approaches to the text. Find this resource:

Nivison, David S. Motivation and Moral Action in Mencius. In The Ways of Confucianism: Investigations in Chinese Philosophy. By David S. Nivison, 91119. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This essay (previously published in an abbreviated version) has sparked extensive discussion of the relationship between cognition and emotion in Mengzis thought. Find this resource:

Shun, Kwong-loi. Mencius and Early Chinese Thought. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A careful, scholarly study of Mengzis ethics and their intellectual context. Find this resource:

Van Norden, Bryan W., trans. Mengzi: With Selections from Traditional Commentaries. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Complete translation with interlineal commentary that draws heavily on Chinese sources. Also available in an abbreviated version with commentaries collected in the back of the book. Find this resource:

Yearley, Lee H. Mencius and Aquinas: Theories of Virtue and Conceptions of Courage. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal work that stimulated the virtue ethics approach to interpreting Confucianism. Find this resource:

Xunzi (Hsn-Tzu)
Famed (and sometimes blamed) for his claim that human nature is bad, Xunzi is an intriguing philosopher who defends the need for self-transformation through study and ritual activity. A systematic thinker, Xunzis essays cover a wide range of topics, including political philosophy, psychology, a functionalist account of ritual, an interpretation of Heaven that has been seen as naturalistic, and the philosophy of language. Radcliffe-Brown 1952 is a seminal work for understanding the role of ritual in Confucianism in general and Xunzi in particular. Watson 1963 is readable selection of translations, while Knoblock 19881994 is a complete scholarly translation with extensive supporting material. Machle 1993 focuses on the supposed naturalism of Xunzi, while Goldin 1999 is a more wide-ranging but often controversial study. Stalnaker 2006 is a comparative work but also provides a good introduction to Xunzis thought. Kline and Ivanhoe 2000is an anthology representative of the contemporary debates.

Goldin, Paul R. Rituals of the Way: The Philosophy of Xunzi. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An intriguing interpretation of Xunzis philosophy as a systematic whole. Find this resource:

Kline, T. C., and Philip J. Ivanhoe, eds. Virtue, Nature, and Moral Agency in the Xunzi. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

An anthology with an emphasis on philosophical approaches to Xunzis ethics. Find this resource:

Knoblock, John, trans. Xunzi: A Translation and Study of the Complete Works. 3 vols. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 19881994. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A complete translation with extensive introductory material (which is better on textual and narrowly historical matters than philosophy). Translation is fairly good, correcting some mistakes made inWatson 1963, but making others all its own. Find this resource:

Machle, Edward J. Nature and Heaven in the Xunzi: A Study of the Tian Lun. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discussion of the role of Heaven in Xunzis thoughts and the limits of interpreting him as a philosophical naturalist. Find this resource:

Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. Religion and Society. In Structure and Function in Primitive Society. By A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, 153177. New York: Free Press, 1952. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Shows that Xunzi anticipated the functionalist account of ritual that developed in Western anthropology two millennia later. Find this resource:

Stalnaker, Aaron. Overcoming Our Evil: Human Nature and Spiritual Exercises in Xunzi and Augustine. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comparative study, but one that is very illuminating of Xunzi. Find this resource:

Watson, Burton, trans. Hsn-tzu: Basic Writings. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fairly good translation of selected passages. Better for classroom use than Knoblock 1994. Reprinted 1996. Find this resource:
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MOHISM

Mozi was the first systematic philosophical critic of Confucianism. He employed consequentialist arguments and thought experiments to defend his views. The writings attributed to him and his later followers are diverse in content and style; this section focuses on the synoptic chapters, which defend the key claims of early Mohism. See also School of Names and Chinese Philosophy of Language for discussions of later Mohism. Wong 1989 and Nivison 1996 are two seminal essays, focusing on the debate between Confucians and Mohists. Lowe 1992 presents a section-by-section summary of each of the synoptic chapters and the Mohist Analects. Duda 2001 is representative of the debate over whether Mozi held something like a divine command theory of ethics, while Wong and Loy 2004 illustrates the discussion over the role of the supernatural in Mozis thought. Watson 1963 is a readable selection of translations, while Johnston 2010 is a complete scholarly translation. Perkins 2008 is an anthology representative of some recent approaches.

Duda, Kristopher. Reconsidering Mo Tzu on the Foundations of Morality. Asian Philosophy11.1 (2001): 23 31. DOI: 10.1080/09552360120048825Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Presents a good overview of the debate on whether Mozi held a divine command theory or some more direct form of consequentialism. Find this resource:

Johnston, Ian, trans. The Mozi: A Complete Translation. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

The only complete English translation of the eponymous Mozi. Includes the Chinese text on facing pages, an interpretive introduction, textual notes, and an extensive bibliography. Find this resource:

Lowe, Scott. Mo Tzus Religious Blueprint for a Chinese Utopia: The Will and the Way. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon, 1992. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Interpretive survey of each of the Synoptic Chapters and the Mohist Analects. Find this resource:

Nivison, David S. Two Roots or One? In The Ways of Confucianism: Investigations in Chinese Philosophy . By David S. Nivison. Edited by Bryan W. Van Norden, 133148. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Influential essay on the debate between Mengzi, a leading Confucian, and a revisionist follower of Mozi. Find this resource:

Perkins, Franklin, ed. Special Issue: Reconsidering the Mozi . Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35.3 (September 2008). Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Essays on a variety of topics, some to be taken with a grain of salt. Find this resource:

Watson, Burton, trans. Mo Tzu: Basic Writings. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes the most important writings from the synoptic chapters. Better for classroom use than Johnston 2010. Reprinted in 2003. Find this resource:

Wong, Benjamin, and Hui-Chieh Loy. War and Ghosts in Mozis Political Philosophy. Philosophy East and West 54.3 (July 2004): 343363. DOI: 10.1353/pew.2004.0024Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Thoughtful discussion of the appeal to the supernatural in Mozis thought. Find this resource:

Wong, David. Universalism versus Love with Distinctions: An Ancient Debate Revived.Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16.34 (September 1989): 251272. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6253.1989.tb00437.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Stimulating discussion of Confucians and Mohists on whether we should care for all humans equally. Find this resource:

SCHOOL OF NAMES AND CHINESE PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE

The School of Names is a label for various thinkers (some serious philosophers, others sophistical in the contemporary sense) who defended paradoxical claims. Probably the most important were Hui Shi (known only by passing references in early texts) and Gongsun Longzi, whose On the White Horse dialogue argues that white horses are not horses. (See Van Norden 2005 for a translation.) The paradoxes of the School of Names prompted the later Mohists and Xunzi to explore the philosophy of language, but also helped inspire the mystical antirationalism of Daoism. Hu 2010 and Graham 2004 are reprints of two of the seminal studies of early Chinese philosophy of language and informal logic. Graham 1990 is perhaps the definitive secondary work on the White Horse dialogue. Hansen 1983 is a provocative but controversial alternative interpretation of these issues. Probably the best overviews of recent work are stillHarbsmeier 1989, on the role of truth in ancient Chinese philosophy, and Harbsmeier 1998, on ancient Chinese philosophy of language. Qiu 2000 is a scholarly explanation of Chinese written characters.

Graham, A. C. A First Reading of the White Horse. In Studies in Chinese Philosophy and Philosophical Literature. By A. C. Graham, 167192. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

An important study of Gongsun Longzis famous dialogue, arguing that it turns on an ambiguity in the construction A is not B between denial of identity and denial of inclusion. Find this resource:

Graham, A. C. Later Mohist Logic, Ethics and Science. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published 1978 (London: School of Oriental and African Studies). A reconstruction of the later Mohist philosophical writings. Find this resource:

Hansen, Chad. Language and Logic in Ancient China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A controversial work that has provoked extensive discussion. Find this resource:

Hu, Shih. The Development of the Logical Method in Ancient China. Charleston, SC: Forgotten Books, 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A dated but classic study. Interesting also for what it shows about 20th-century efforts by Western-influenced Chinese scholars to reinterpret their own tradition. Originally published 1917 (Shanghai: Oriental Book Company). Find this resource:

Harbsmeier, Christoph. Language and Logic in Traditional China. Vol. 7, Part I of Science and Civilisation in China. Edited by Joseph Needham. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A magisterial overview of ancient Chinese philosophy of language and the philosophical issues raised by the Chinese language. Find this resource:

Harbsmeier, Christoph. Marginalia Sino-logica. In Understanding the Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots. Edited by Robert Allinson, 5983. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discussion of truth and related concepts in early Chinese thought. Find this resource:

Qiu Xigui. Chinese Writing. Translated by Gilbert L. Mattos and Jerry Norman. Berkeley. CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Not a philosophical work, per se, but a very accessible introduction that helps dispel common misconceptions about written Chinese. Find this resource:

Van Norden, Bryan W., trans. On the White Horse. In Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. 2d ed. Edited by Philip J. Ivanhoe and Bryan W. Van Norden, 363368. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Translation with some interpretive notes. Find this resource:

DAOISM (TAOISM)

Daoism becomes an organized religion in the Han dynasty, but in the pre-Qin period it is merely a (sometimes) useful rubric for grouping thinkers who share certain themes. In particular, so-called Daoists critique the value of philosophical argumentation and linguistic knowledge, and they advocate a sort of intraworldly mysticism.

Laozi (Lao-Tzu)

The Daodejing (Tao Te Ching), attributed to the probably mythical Laozi (Lao-tzu), is an evocative text. Its themes include mystical understanding of the dao (tao), or Way, and primitivist utopianism. The text exists in both the received version (the Wang Bi text) and the recently rediscovered Mawangdui (Ma-wang-tui) and Guodian versions. Lau 1963 is one of the best translations of the traditional Wang Bi text. Henricks 2005 is a scholarly translation of the Guodian version of the text. Mair 1990 is a reader-friendly translation of the Mawangdui version. For a sense of how the text has traditionally been interpreted, the Chan 1991 monograph and the Lynn 2004translation are particularly useful. Among anthologies of secondary works, Kohn and LaFargue 1998 focuses on historical and textual issues, while Ivanhoe and Csikszentmihalyi 1999emphasizes philosophical and religious issues.

Chan, Alan K. L. Two Visions of the Way: A Study of the Wang Pi and the Ho-shang Kung Commentaries on the Lao-Tzu. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Good introduction to two of the major Chinese styles of interpreting the Daodejing. Find this resource:

Henricks, Robert G., trans. Lao Tzu s Tao Te Ching: A Translation of the Startling New Documents Found at Guodian. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes the Chinese text and extensive notes. Find this resource: Ivanhoe, Philip J., and Mark Csikszentmihalyi, eds. Religious and Philosophical Aspects of theLaozi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology with an emphasis on approaches to the work from philosophy, religious studies, and intellectual history. Find this resource:

Kohn, Livia, and Michael LaFargue, eds. Lao-tzu and the Tao-te-ching. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology that includes some interesting essays written from a philosophical perspective, but more of an emphasis on sociohistorical and textual issues than Ivanhoe and Csikszenthmihalyi 1999. Find this resource:

Lau, D. C., trans. Lao-tzu: Tao Te Ching. New York: Penguin, 1963. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very readable translation of the traditional version of the text, along with an interpretive introduction and historical appendices. Find this resource:

Lynn, Richard John, trans. The Classic of the Way and Virtue: A New Translation of the Tao-te Ching of Laozi as Interpreted by Wang Bi. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes Wang Bis commentary, which has been one of the most influential. Find this resource:

Mair, Victor, trans. Tao Te Ching: The Classic Book of Integrity and the Way. New York: Bantam, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A translation of the Mawangdui version of the text. Includes an interpretive introduction, notes, and selected bibliography. Find this resource:

Zhuangzi (Chuang-Tzu)
Although the eponymous Zhuangzi is not as well known in the West as the Daodejing, it is often regarded as more philosophically interesting. Zhuangzi is one of the great literary stylists of the Chinese traditions, and he wrote in a variety of genres, including dialogues, brief essays, stories, and poetry. His work alternately seems to defend a variety of positions, including skepticism, relativism, and mysticism. The Zhuangzi as a whole has a variety of

sources, but the first seven Inner Chapters are generally regarded as being from the same author. Mair 1983 is an anthology that includes several seminal essays. For anthologies representative of some of the current debates, see Kjellberg and Ivanhoe 1996 and Cook 2003. Ivanhoe 1993 has been influential for its discussion of how skillfulness relates to mysticism in Zhuangzis thought. Watson 1964 is a very readable translation of selected passages, while Mair 1994 is a fine complete translation.Ziporyn 2009 is helpful because of its selections from traditional commentaries. Graham 2001 is controversial because the translation reorganizes the received text, but the supporting material is very illuminating.

Cook, Scott B., ed. Hiding the World in the World: Uneven Discourses on the Zhuangzi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology of essays from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. Find this resource:

Graham, A. C., trans. Chuang Tzu: The Inner Chapters. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Grahams translation and his interpretive discussions are original and suggestive but sometimes controversial (especially his view that the text should be reordered). Find this resource:

Ivanhoe, Philip J. Zhuangzi on Skepticism, Skill, and the Ineffable Dao. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 61.4 (1993): 639654. DOI: 10.1093/jaarel/LXI.4.639Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Interprets Zhuangzis mysticism in terms of the distinction between knowing how and knowing that. Find this resource:

Kjellberg, Paul, and Philip J. Ivanhoe, eds. Essays on Skepticism, Relativism and Ethics in the Zhuangzi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology with an emphasis on philosophical approaches to the text. Find this resource:

Mair, Victor H., ed. Experimental Essays on Chuang-tzu. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology of essays from a wide variety of perspectives. The contributions by A. C. Graham, Chad Hansen, and Lee H. Yearley have received particular attention. Find this resource:

Mair, Victor H., trans. Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu. New York: Bantam, 1994. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very good, complete translation of the Zhuangzi. The introduction, which gives a brief survey of early Chinese philosophy, is not bad either. Find this resource:

Watson, Burton, trans. Chuang Tzu: Basic Writings. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Very readable translation of the most important parts of the text, including all of the Inner Chapters. Find this resource:

Ziporyn, Brook, trans. Zhuangzi: The Essential Writings with Selections from Traditional Commentaries . Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Very useful for its selections from classic commentaries. Find this resource:
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LEGALISM

Han Feizi (Han Fei Tzu) is the major philosopher classified as Legalist. He presents a brilliant discussion of the importance and techniques of acquiring and maintaining political power.Watson 1964 is a readable selection of translations, while Liao 1939 is a complete translation.Moody 1979 and Harris 2001 are two approaches to the issue of whether Han Fei was an amoralist. Hutton 2008 gives an overview of Han Feizis criticisms of Confucianism. Lundahl 1992situates Han Feizi historically, while Wang and Chang 1986 emphasizes his political philosophy.

Harris, Eirik L. Is the Law in the Way? On the Source of Han Feis Laws. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38.1 (March 2001): 8195. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues against the view that Han Feizi saw law as the arbitrary will of the ruler. Find this resource:

Hutton, Eric L. Han Feizis Criticism of Confucianism and Its Implications for Virtue Ethics. Journal of Moral Philosophy 5 (2008): 423453. DOI: 10.1163/174552408X369745Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An insightful analysis of Han Feizis argument that the Confucian reliance on virtuous rulers in impracti cal. Find this resource:

Liao, W. K., trans. The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzu: A Classic of Chinese Political Science. 2 vols. London: Arthur Probsthain, 1939. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is the only complete translation in English, but it is of uneven accuracy and readability. Find this resource:

Lundahl, Bertil. Han Fei Zi: The Man and the Work. Stockholm: Institute of Oriental Languages, Stockholm University, 1992. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Situates Han Feizi and his writings in their historical context. Find this resource:

Moody, Peter R., Jr. The Legalism of Han Fei-tzu and Its Affinities with Modern Political Thought. International Philosophical Quarterly 19.3 (1979): 317330. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Interprets Han Feizi as an amoralist. Find this resource:

Wang, Hsiao-Po, and Leo S. Chang. The Philosophical Foundations of Han Feis Political Theory . Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The only English-language monograph on Han Feizi, cowritten by a leading Chinese scholar. Find this resource:

Watson, Burton, trans. Han Fei Tzu: Selected Writings. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A useful selective translation. Find this resource:

OTHER TRENDS

Several other intellectual trends have been fairly influential, but they have yet to be studied extensively as philosophy. Later Chinese historians categorized the Yin-Yang school as one of the Six Schools of early Chinese thought (on a par with Confucianism, Daoism, and other movements). Yang Zhu was an individual philosopher who seems to have been especially influential in 4th-century BCE Chinese thought. Finally, militarism, although not treated as a philosophy in its own right, was certainly a significant Way for approaching social problems.

Militarism
Militarism is a technical discipline, but it can also be seen as a sort of philosophical approach. In early Chinese thought, a military solution to Chinas social disorder was a serious alternative to philosophies like Confucianism and Mohism, which deemphasized aggressive warfare. In addition, the key concepts of militarist texts (such as adapting to ones opponents strategy) have wide applicabil ity. The most influential militarist text in China and the one bestknown in the West is The Art of War. Cleary 2003 is a particularly readable translation of this work, while Sawyer 1994includes an extensive scholarly introduction and bibliography. Rand 19791980 is an effort to contextualize militarism philosophically.

Cleary, Thomas, trans. The Art of War: Complete Texts and Commentaries. Boston: Shambhala, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Translation of The Art of War by Sunzi (Sun Tzu) and three other military texts, along with selections from traditional commentaries. Cleary has also produced a brief translation of just The Art of War, also available from Shambhala. Find this resource:

Rand, Christopher C. Chinese Military Thought and Philosophical Taoism. Monumenta Serica34 (1979 1980): 171218. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A discussion of the relationship between the two. Find this resource:

Sawyer, Ralph D., trans. Sun Tzu: Art of War. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1994. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Translation of the most famous military text of China, along with a very scholarly introduction. Find this resource:

Yang Zhu
The Confucian philosopher Mengzi represents Yang Zhu as a major philosophical figure in his era, famous for defending egoism. A. C. Graham has argued (in Graham 1989 and Graham 1990) that Yang Zhu raised the notion of human nature to prominence in philosophical debates.Kushner 1980 defends an interpretation of Yang Zhu as an individualist, while Emerson 1996argues against this. There is much debate over what Yang Zhus teachings were, particularly because no writings reliably attributed to him survive. But see Kjellberg 2005 for a translation of the Robber Zhi, a dialogue possibly Yangist in doctrine.

Emerson, John J. Yang Chus Discovery of the Body. Philosophy East and West 46.4 (1996): 533566. DOI: 10.2307/1399495Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues against the common interpretations of Yang Zhu as an egoist or individualist. Find this resource:

Graham, A. C. Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China . La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The section Retreat to Private Life: The Yangists (pp. 5364) is a good overview. Find this resource:

Graham, A. C. The Background of the Mencian Theory of Human Nature. In Studies in Chinese Philosophy and Philosophical Literature. By A. C. Graham, 766. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes a discussion of Yang Zhu and his influence. Find this resource:

Kjellberg, Paul, trans. Robber Zhi. In Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. 2d ed. Edited by Philip J. Ivanhoe and Bryan W. Van Norden, 369375. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Translation of a brief dialogue that may be representative of ideas derived from Yang Zhu. Find this resource:

Kushner, Thomasine. Yang Chu: Ethical Egoist in Ancient China. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 7.5 (1980): 319325. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6253.1980.tb00164.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Interprets Yang Zhu as similar to Western individualists. Find this resource:

Yin-Yang School, the Five Phases, and the Classic of Changes


Later Chinese historians classified the Yin-Yang school as a major philosophical trend , on a par with Confucianism, Mohism, and Daoism (Taoism). However, as Harper 1999 explains, it was actually peripheral to philosophy during the pre-Qin period. It was only during the Han and later dynasties that the concepts of yin and yang, the Five Phases (wood, earth, metal, fire, water) and the text known as the Classic of Changes (Yi Jing, I Ching) became central to Chinese cosmology. As explained in Graham 1986, yin-yang and the Five Phases (sometimes mistakenly translated as Five Elements) are schemes for correlating a wide range of phenomena and explaining their transformations. In addition, parts of the Changes (especially the Great Appendix) sketch an interrelated ethics and cosmology. For a translation of the Changes along with one of the seminal traditional commentaries on it, see Lynn 2004. Smith 2008 is a good overview of the changing role the Changes have played over time, while Smith, et al. 1990 focuses on the significance of theChanges during the philosophically vibrant Song dynasty.

Graham, A. C. Yin-Yang and the Nature of Correlative Thinking. Singapore: Institute of East Asian Philosophies, 1986. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A good introduction with some intriguing discussion of correlative thought as a philosophical approach. Find this resource:

Harper, Donald. Warring States Natural Philosophy and Occult Thought. In The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. Edited by Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, 813884. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521470308Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A helpful overview of many issues related to Chinese cosmology in the pre-Qin period. See particularly the section Yin-Yang and Five Phases. Find this resource:

Lynn, Richard John, trans. The Classic of Changes: A New Translation of the I Ching as Interpreted by Wang Bi. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Gives a good sense of how the text was read according to one of its major commentators. First published in 1994. Find this resource:

Smith, Kidder, Jr., Peter K. Bol, Joseph A. Adler, and Don J. Wyatt. Sung Dynasty Uses of the I Ching. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Uses of the text by later Neo-Confucian thinkers. Find this resource:

Smith, Richard J. Fathoming the Cosmos and Ordering the World: The Yijing (I Ching, or Classic of Changes) and Its Evolution in China. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A general overview of the use of the text. Find this resource:
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Han Dynasty

Confucianism was the nominal orthodoxy in the Han, particularly the version of it developed by Dong Zhongshu. His major work is translated in Queen 1996. However, even among Confucians there was dissent over the orthodoxy, as evident in the thought of Wang Chong, whose major work is translated in Forke 1962. In general, the period is noteworthy for eclectic approaches to philosophy that synthesized various earlier schools of thought, as is evident in the ancient Chinese anthologies translated in Knoblock and Riegel 2001 and Major, et al. 2010.Csikszentmihalyi 2006 is a helpful selection of translations from a variety of sources with extensive supporting material.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mark, trans. Readings in Han Chinese Thought. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Selections from a variety of Han dynasty texts grouped into the topics of Ethics and Statecraft, Knowledge, and The Natural World. Includes helpful explanatory material, a glossary, and extensive suggestions for further reading. Read this first. Find this resource:

Forke, Alfred, trans. Lun-Heng. 2 vols. New York: Paragon, 1962. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is the only English translation of the Balanced Essays by Wang Chong (Wang Chung). Originally published in 1907. Find this resource:

Knoblock, John, and Jeffrey Riegel, trans. The Annals of L Buwei: A Complete Translation and Study. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Translation of a Chinese collection of early texts representing a variety of philosophical perspectives. Find this resource:

Major, John S., Sarah A. Queen, Andrew Meyer, and Harold D. Roth, eds. and trans. The Huainanzi: A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Government in Early Han China. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Translation of an influential, eclectic work of cosmology, ethics, and political philosophy, by Liu An, King of Huainan. Find this resource:

Queen, Sarah A. From Chronicle to Canon: The Hermeneutics of the Spring and Autumn, According to Tung Chung-shu. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511572661Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Study of one of the thinkers responsible for the creation of orthodox Confucianism during the Han. Find this resource:

Tang, Song, Yuan, and Ming Dynasties


Although Buddhism arrived in China during the Han dynasty, it grew most quickly during the chaotic period after the fall of the Han dynasty and came to philosophical maturity during the splendor of the Tang (618 906 CE). Buddhism is challenged by Neo-Confucianism toward the end of the Tang and in the Song (9601279). The Neo-Confucianism of Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi) becomes the orthodox interpretation for the civil service examinations in the Yuan dynasty (1279 1368) but is challenged by Wang Yangming and his followers in the Ming dynasty (1368 1644).

BUDDHISM

Buddhism traces human suffering and wrongdoing to the mistaken belief in persistent, independent entities; it therefore identifies selfishness as the cardinal vice. Siderits 2007 is an excellent philosophical introduction to Buddhism in general. Mahayana Buddhism (the form that entered China) emphasizes universal salvation for all sentient creatures (see Yoshito 2006) and skillful means, which refers to adapting Buddhist doctrine to meet the needs of the particular audience (see Watson 1993). Yogcra (as it was known in India) defends Buddhist ethics via an idealist metaphysics (see Lusthaus 2003). In addition to versions of the major Mahayana schools known in India, China developed Chan Buddhism (better known in the West by its Japanese name, Zen). Chan may be interpreted as a synthesis of Buddhism and the practice-oriented mysticism of Daoism. Yampolsky 1978 is a translation of the foundational document of Chan.Cook 1977 is a classic study of Huayan Buddhism, whose metaphysics deeply

influences Chan.Dumoulin 1994 is useful historical overview. Nhat Hanh 2009 is a popular introduction to Chan ethics and metaphysics. The translations in Chan 1963 are of uneven quality, but this is still the best anthology for many thinkers.

Chan, Wing-tsit, comp. and trans. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is still the only convenient source for translations of many Buddhist and Neo-Confucian texts. However, Chans translations and interpretive commentary are of uneven quality. Find this resource:

Cook, Francis H. Hua-yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net of Indra. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The Huayan (Hua-yen) metaphysical view is close to that of Nagarjunas Madyamika; it influences Chan (Zen) Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism. Find this resource:

Dumoulin, Heinrich. Zen Buddhism: A History. Vol. 1, India and China. Translated by James W. Heisig and Paul Knitter. New York: Macmillan, 1994. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A little out of date and not always philosophically acute, but still helpful as a general introduction. Find this resource:

Lusthaus, Dan. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogcra Buddhism and the Cheng Wei-shih Lun. Curzon Critical Studies in Buddhism 13. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The Consciousness-Only school (as it is sometimes called) is a Buddhist form of metaphysical idealism. Find this resource:

Nhat Hanh, Thich. The Heart of Understanding: Commentaries on the Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra . Rev. ed. Berkeley, CA: Parallax, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Not a scholarly work, but does an excellent job of introducing the basic concepts of Hua-yen and Chan metaphysics and ethics. Find this resource:

Siderits, Mark. Buddhism as Philosophy: An Introduction. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Although it focuses on Indian Buddhism, this book introduces the key concepts and forms of Buddhist philosophy. Find this resource:

Watson, Burton, trans. The Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a key text for the various forms of Chinese Buddhism, in particular Tiantai Buddhism. A key aspect of the text is its emphasis on skillful means, the use of edifying techniques that may not convey truth in an ultimate sense. The translators interpretive introduction is very helpful. Find this resource:

Yampolsky, Philip, trans. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Complete translation of the central doctrinal work of Chan Buddhism. Find this resource:

Yoshito, Hakeda S., trans. The Awakening of Faith. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Yoshitos translation of this classic statement of Mahayana Buddhist teachings includes extensive interpretive notes and selections from classic commentaries.

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NEO-CONFUCIANISM

Neo-Confucianism (literally Learning of the Way in Chinese) was a Confucian reaction against Buddhism. However, the Neo-Confucians reinterpreted their own tradition in terms of the ethical and metaphysical concepts that they had inherited from Buddhism. In ethics, Neo-Confucians emphasize overcoming selfishness; metaphysically, they stress how everything is interrelated by the shared li (Pattern or Principle). Chan 1964 is a classic study of the evolution of this concept.Graham 1992 is a seminal study of Cheng Yi and Cheng Hao, the two brothers who formulated mature Neo-Confucian metaphysics. The Cheng brothers had a deep influence on what are perhaps the two most important Neo-Confucian philosophers: Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi) and Wang Yangming. Zhu Xi emphasized selfcultivation via textual study. Gardner 1990 is an excellent anthology of his writings with helpful supporting material. Zhu Xis interpretation became the orthodox one, and Gardner 2007 gives a sense for what this orthodoxy meant for generations of Chinese scholars. Chan 1967 is a translation of an influential, orthodox Neo-Confucian anthology. Wang Yangming was a later critic of the orthodox approach who emphasized relying on the innate ethical sense that one shares with the sages. Ivanhoe 2009 is a fine translation of selected passages from his work. Makeham 2010 is a good anthology of secondary essays. Angle 2009argues for the contemporary philosophical relevance of NeoConfucian philosophy.

Angle, Stephen C. Sagehood: The Contemporary Significance of Neo-Confucian Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An historical overview of some key Neo-Confucian concepts, along with an effort to engage this position with contemporary philosophy. See Gardner 1990 and Gardner 2007 for an alternative interpretation of the key notion of li (Principle or Pattern). Find this resource:

Chan, Wing-tsit. The Evolution of the Neo-Confucian Concept of Li as Principle. Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies 4.2 (1964): 123147. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Dated but still useful. Find this resource:

Chan, Wing-tsit, trans. Reflections on Things at Hand: The Neo-Confucian Anthology. Compiled by Chu Hsi and L Tsu-chien. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Translation of a seminal anthology of Neo-Confucian writings, co-edited by Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi). Find this resource:

Gardner, Daniel K., trans. Learning to Be a Sage: Selections from the Conversations of Master Chu, Arranged Topically. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Selections from Zhu Xis voluminous discussions with his students. Includes a long historical introduction that contextualizes Zhu Xi and his approach. Find this resource:

Gardner, Daniel K., trans. The Four Books: The Basic Teachings of the Later Confucian Tradition. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Zhu Xi identified the Four Books (the Greater Learning, the Analects of Confucius, the Mengzi, andThe Mean) as central to Confucian ethical education, and he wrote interpretive commentaries on them. In addition to selected translations of the works and commentaries, this work includes insightful explanatory and contextualizing material. Find this resource:

Graham, Angus C. Two Chinese Philosophers: The Metaphysics of the Brothers Chng. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1992. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Survey of the thought of Cheng Yi and Cheng Hao, the brothers who laid the groundwork for the mature NeoConfucian metaphysics and ethics of both Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming. First published in 1958. Find this resource:

Ivanhoe, Philip J., trans. Readings from the Lu-Wang School of Neo-Confucianism. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Selections from Lu Xiangshan (Lu Hsiang-shan) and Wang Yangming, two Neo-Confucian critics of Zhu Xi. Also includes selections from The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, a major philosophical work of Chan (Zen) Buddhism. Find this resource:

Makeham, John, ed. The Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy. New York: Springer, 2010. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-2930-0Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology of secondary essays on a variety of topics by leading Western and Chinese scholars. Find this resource:

Qing Dynasty to the Present


The Qing (Ching) dynasty (16441911) included one of the greatest periods of peace, power, and prosperity in Chinese history. However, during the 19th century, China was wracked by internal problems and the aggressive intrusion of the technologically superior Western powers and Japan. The tumultuous 20th century saw the fall of the Qing dynasty, civil war, the invasion by Japan during World War II, the victory of Chinese Communism on the mainland, and intense debate over philosophy and Chinese identity.

GENERAL WORKS

Chinese thinkers explored a variety of approaches, many influenced by the West, as they grappled with the crisis facing their society beginning in the late Qing. Two translation anthologies are particularly useful. De Bary and Lufrano 2000 is an excellent general collection of translations.Angle and Svensson 2001 offers a selection of translations focusing on the issue of human rights.

Angle, Stephen, and Marina Svensson, eds. The Chinese Human Rights Reader: Documents and Commentary, 19002000. Armonk, NY: East Gate, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Focuses on the issue of rights in the 20th century, but also useful for a general sense of the debates. Find this resource:

de Bary, William Theodore, and Richard Lufrano, eds. Sources of Chinese Tradition. Vol. 2,From 1600 through the Twentieth Century. 2d ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes brief selections from a wide variety of genres and sources. Find this resource:

QING AND THE RISE OF NATIONALISM

Perhaps the two greatest philosophers of the Qing are Zhang Xuecheng (see Ivanhoe 2009 for a translation) and Dai Zhen (see Ewell 1990 for a translation). Nivison 1996 is a brief overview of their debate over the role of human motivations and the classics in the foundation of Confucian ethics. Tiwald 2010 is a careful philosophical examination of the role of sympathetic understanding in the thought of Dai Zhen. In the period immediately following the collapse of the Qing dynasty, Hu 1931 is representative of the New Culture movement, which sought to modernize and Westernize. Sun 1927 is a seminal statement of Chinese nationalism that continues to be influential.

Ewell, John. Re-inventing the Way: Dai Zhens Evidential Commentary on the Meaning of Terms in Mencius (1777). PhD diss., University of California at Berkeley, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The best translation of this work. In addition to presenting a philological and historical critique of Neo-Confucianism, Dai offers his own intriguing naturalistic interpretation of Confucianism. Find this resource:

Ivanhoe, Philip J., trans. On Ethics and History: Essays and Letters of Zhang Xuecheng. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Zhang has often been compared to Hegel because of his theory that Confucianism evolved historically by meeting concrete human needs. Find this resource:

Nivison, David S. Two Kinds of Naturalism: Dai Zhen and Zhang Xuecheng. In The Ways of Confucianism: Investigations in Chinese Philosophy. By David S. Nivison, 261282. Edited by Bryan W. Van Norden. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A good overview of the two thinkers. Find this resource:

Tiwald, Justin. Is Sympathy Nave? Dai Zhen on the Use of Shu to Track Well-Being. In Taking Confucian Ethics Seriously: Contemporary Theories and Applications. Edited by Kam-por Yu, Julia Tao, and Philip J. Ivanhoe, 145162. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A careful philosophical examination of the role that sympathy plays in the thought of Dai Zhen. Find this resource:

Hu, Shih. My Credo and Its Evolution. In Living Philosophies. By Albert Einstein, et al., 235263. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1931. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The fall of the last Chinese dynasty in 1911 led to a reevaluation of traditional culture. The New Culture movement, which called for rapid modernization and Westernization, was largely anti-Confucian and anti-traditionalist. Find this resource:

Sun Yat-sen. San Min Chu I: The Three Principles of the People. Frank W. Price, trans. Shanghai: Institute of Pacific Relations, 1927. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal work of Chinese nationalism. Find this resource:

NEW CONFUCIANISM

New Confucianism, which defends the continuing value and relevance of Confucianism, argues that it can and should be modified to accept Western science, technology, and democracy. The seminal statement of New Confucianism is translated in Chang, et al. 1988. New Confucians tend to interpret their tradition along the lines of the earlier Neo Confucianism. This is evident in Liu 1998, which presents a New Confucian understanding of the Confucian tradition. Metzger 1977offers an excellent presentation of the New Confucian perspective and what motivates it. Bresciani 2001 gives thumbnail sketches of the major thinkers in this movement. Sadly, few works by the seminal early New Confucian philosophers have been translated into English, but see Chan 1963and Tang 1988 for selections. Makeham 2003 is an illuminating anthology of secondary essays.

Bresciani, Umberto. Reinventing Confucianism: The New Confucian Movement. Taipei: Ricci Institute for Chinese Studies, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent overview of the movement from its inception through the 20th century, with chapters on major figures. Find this resource:

Chan, Wing-tsit, trans. The New Idealistic Confucianism: Hsiung Shih-li. In A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Compiled and translated by Wing-tsit Chan, 763772. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Translation of selections from a seminal early New Confucian thinker. Find this resource:

Chang, Carsun, Hsieh Yu-wei, Hsu Foo-kwan, Mou Chung-san, and Tang Chun-i. A Manifesto on the Reappraisal of Chinese Culture. In Essays on Chinese Philosophy and Culture. By Tang Chun-i, 492562. Taipei: Student Book Company, 1988. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Sometimes awkward English translation of the work commonly referred to as The New Confucian Manifesto. Find this resource:

Liu, Shu-hsien. Understanding Confucian Philosophy: Classical and Sung-Ming. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A good example of a New Confucian interpretation of the history of Confucianism. Find this resource:

Makeham, John, ed. New Confucianism: A Critical Examination. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Makehams own introduction and two essays are especially helpful for understanding the development and contemporary significance of this movement. Find this resource:

Metzger, Thomas. Escape from Predicament: Neo-Confucianism and Chinas Evolving Political Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This work presents the New Confucian perspective sympathetically, explaining what social and historical factors have shaped its development. Find this resource:

Tang Chun-i. Essays on Chinese Philosophy and Culture. Taipei: Student Book Company, 1988. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Essays in English by one of the seminal New Confucian philosophers, Tang Chun -i (Tang Junyi). Find this resource:

CHINESE COMMUNISM

Marxism-Leninism offered many intellectuals a framework for explaining Chinas economic exploitation by the West and Japan, along with a program for transforming Chinas government, economy, and society. There has been considerable discussion of how to adapt Marxism to Chinas specific history and situation. See Knight 2010 on the development of Chinese communist doctrine. Once Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) solidified his control over the party, his interpretation became dominant as Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. (See Mao 1967 for representative writings.) The relationship between Chinese communism and traditional thought is complex. Nivison 1956 is a brief but helpful overview. Louie 1986 traces the vicissitudes in more detail. Liu 1939 was an effort by a leading early Chinese communist to synthesize Marxism with Confucian theories of self-cultivation.

Knight, Nick. Marxist Philosophy in China: From Qu Qiubai to Mao Zedong, 1923 1945. New York: Springer: 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very useful overview. Find this resource:

Liu Shaoqi. How to Be a Good Communist. In Selected Works of Liu Shaoqi. Vol. 1. By Liu Shaoqi. Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1939.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Liu Shaoqi (Liu Shao-chi) presents classical Chinese theories of self-cultivation as techniques for helping party members to overcome capitalist and feudal tendencies. Available online. Find this resource:

Louie, Kam. Inheriting Tradition: Interpretations of the Classical Philosophers in Communist China, 1949 1966. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Historical overview of how specific traditional thinkers (Confucians and others) were evaluated in Chinese Communism up through the start of the Cultural Revolution. Find this resource:

Mao Zedong. Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung. Vol. 1, The Second Revolutionary War Period. Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1967. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes Maos most important philosophical essays: On Practice and On Contradiction. Available online. Find this resource:

Nivison, David S. Communist Ethics and Chinese Tradition. Journal of Asian Studies 16.1 (November 1956): 5174. DOI: 10.2307/2941546Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discussion of how the thought of Liu Shaoqi, Mao Zedong, and others relate to earlier Chinese philosophy. Find this resource:

RECENT TRENDS

After the death of Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) in 1976, there has generally been more open debate over philosophy and general intellectual issues. A wide spectrum of positions is evident. Part 1 of Lin, et al. 1995 is an excellent brief overview through the mid-1990s. Wang 1996 gives a sense of the general intellectual atmosphere post-Mao. Li Zehou is a major figure in recent debates, and Li 19992000 is a representative essay. The journal Contemporary Chinese Thought is a good source of translations of recent Chinese scholarship.

Contemporary Chinese Thought. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A journal of translations of contemporary Chinese philosophical essays. Find this resource:

Li Zehou. The Western Is the Substance, and the Chinese Is for Application. Contemporary Chinese Thought 31.2 (Winter 19992000): 3239. DOI: 10.2753/CSP1097-1467310232Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article is from an issue of the journal devoted to translations of essays by this major contemporary philosopher. Find this resource:

Lin Tongqi, Henry Rosemont Jr., and Roger T. Ames. Chinese Philosophy: A Philosophical Essay on the State-of-the-Art. Journal of Asian Studies 54:3 (August 1995): 727758. DOI: 10.2307/2059449Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Part 1, The New Intellectual Discourse in China, is a very good overview. Part 2, Chinese Philosophy in the Western Academy, is very narrow. Find this resource:

Wang, Jing. High Culture Fever: Politics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Dengs China . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview of the passionate intellectual discussions following the death of Mao Zedong and the demise of the Gang of Four. Find this resource:
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Thematic Studies
This section includes works that trace key themes through different figures, texts, and historical periods. Munro 1969 is a comparative study of ancient Chinese and Western views of humanity.Schwitgebel 2007 is a comparative study that focuses on the views of ethical cultivation among four seminal Western and Chinese thinkers. Kupperman 1999 uses Chinese and Indian philosophers as a starting point for independent philosophizing on a variety of topics, including spontaneity and self-deception. Traditional Chinese views on gender are illustrated in Wang 2003, a translation anthology. Li 2000 is an anthology of secondary essays that explores related issues as well as the topic of whether premodern Chinese philosophy is consistent with feminism.

Kupperman, Joel. Learning from Asian Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An insightful comparative study on themes including the transformation of the self and the bounds of ethics. Find this resource:

Li, Chenyang, ed. The Sage and the Second Sex: Confucianism, Ethics, and Gender. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Focuses primarily on pre-Qin thought. Find this resource:

Munro, Donald J. The Concept of Man in Early China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1969. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes extensive discussions of how early Chinese views differ from some important Western philosophical positions, particularly that of Plato. Reprinted in 2001 (Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan). Find this resource:

Schwitzgebel, Eric. Human Nature and Moral Development in Mencius, Xunzi, Hobbes, and Rousseau. History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (2007): 147168. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a thoughtful exploration of the similarities and differences between two pairs of seminal Chinese and Western philosophers. At issue is the extent to which ethical education should engage our innate motivations, as opposed to reshaping them. Find this resource:

Wang, Robin R., ed. Images of Women in Chinese Thought and Culture: Writings from the Pre-Qin Period through the Song Dynasty. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology of translations. Find this resource:

Chinese Society
Xianbi Huang

Introduction
Chinese society, with the largest population and one of the oldest civilizations in the world, is experiencing continuous transformation and upheaval on an unprecedented scale. These unique characteristics of China combined with the countrys rising economic and political power have attracted wide interest from Western scholars and students from multidisciplinary backgrounds. At many Western universities and institutions, the study of Chinese society has become a fascinating and popular subject. In existing literature and publications, a full range of scholarship has covered the topic. From a sociological perspective, then, this article provides a selective guide to the most useful sources related to Chinese society in sociology as well as incorporating relevant readings from other disciplines. The focus is placed on Chinese society since the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949. Two main considerations guide the selection of the sources: empirically, a selected work is expected to be

accurate and solid, and leaves the readers well informed of the facts and reality what has happened and what is going on in China; and theoretically, the work is expected to be conducive to inspiring thoughts of implications of the study for Chinese and Western social sciences.

General Overviews
Chinese society is an all-encompassing term, of course, and presents a very broad picture. Whatever aspects are highlighted, they may run the risk, as the Chinese saying guan zhong kui bao implies, of looking at a leopard through a tube and ending up with a limited view. Over the decades, however, a number of works have been produced that offer a sound, general overview of Chinese society, through which readers can acquire a sense of the most important issues and domains that are involved in understanding China. In this regard, both Chinese and Western scholars have made significant contributions. Fei 1992 is one of the best-known sociological books on Chinese society. Stockman 2000 and Zang 2011 provide general surveys of the sociology of Chinese society, capturing major dimensions in Chinas social changes and transformation, while Perry and Selden 2010 examines the complexity of life in contemporary China from the angles of social change, conflict, and resistance. Kipnis, et al. 2009 adopts a dual approach of empirical description and theoretical analysis to investigate Mao-era andcontemporary Chinese society and politics. Tang and Parish 2000 presents an overview of varying patterns in Chinese urban life in the post-reform era. Chan, et al. 2009 portrays a picture and analysis of Chinese rural society from the revolution to the globalization period. Li, et al. 2008 is a representative work of Chinese sociologists on sociology and Chinese society in recent years. Chan, Anita, Richard Madsen, and Jonathan Unger. 2009. Chen Village: Revolution to globalization. 3d ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors chose Chen Village as a microcosm to reveal a broad theme of rapid changes and transformations in rural China. It explores village life and local politics in both the Maoist revolution period and Deng Xiaopings reforming period, and discusses the impact of globalization on peasants. Find this resource:

Fei, Xiaotong. 1992. From the soil, the foundations of Chinese society: A translation of Fei Xiaotongs Xiangtu Zhongguo, with an introduction and epilogue. Translated by Gary G. Hamilton and Wang Zheng. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This classic text by Fei, the best-known sociologist in China, is widely regarded as one of the most influential works to promote understanding of Chinese society. In a succinct and straightforward style, this book describes the fundamental differences between Chinese and Western societies and reveals the distinctive characteristics of Chinese society. First published in 1947. Find this resource:

Kipnis, Andrew, Luigi Tomba, and Jonathan Unger, eds. 2009. Contemporary Chinese society and politics. 4 vols. London: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This work offers an empirical examination of Chinese governance and social dynamics and discusses the theoretical implications of the studies for Western social science. It is made up of four volumes: The Maoist Era, Politics and Social Institutions, Urban China, and Rural China in the Reform Era. Find this resource:

Li Peilin, Li Qiang, and Ma Rong, eds. 2008. She hui xue yu Zhongguo she hui. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book covers the birth and development of sociology in China as well as a wide range of social issues, such as social stratification, community and civil society, organization and institutional arrangements, family and marriage, migration and social mobility, urbanization, social changes, and so on. In Chinese. Find this resource: Perry, Elizabeth, and Mark Selden, eds. 2010. Chinese society: Change, conflict and resistance. 3d ed. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book follows the theme of change, conflict, and resistance to examine the complexity of life in contemporary China. Authors from multidisciplinary backgrounds investigate a broad range of issues such as labor and

environmental disputes, rural and ethnic conflict, migration, legal challenges, intellectual and religious dissidence, opposition to family planning, gender, and thehukou system. Find this resource:

Stockman, Norman. 2000. Understanding Chinese society. Cambridge, UK: Polity. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book provides an introduction to the main features of Chinese society and examines China from prerevolutionary times to todays rapidly modernizing society. It covers various topics such as rural and urban society, family, political and economic power, cultural hegemony, education and the media, patterns of social inequality, and the differentiation of Chinese society. Find this resource:

Tang, Wenfang, and William L. Parish. 2000. Chinese urban life under reform: The changing social contract. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book examines how the Chinese urban population is experiencing the rapid socioeconomic reform by using survey data, covering various fields such as life chances, education and jobs, economic inequality, labormanagement relations, civil servants and bureaucratic behavior, political participation, and gender inequality, and discusses how the shifting social contract influences ordinary peoples lives and Chinas future direction. Find this resource:

Zang, Xiaowei, ed. 2011. Understanding Chinese society. London and New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This collection of essays provides an introduction to the structures and dynamics of Chinese society, including a wide range of topics such as identity, family and marriage, gender and sexuality, community and neighborhood, education, ethnic minorities, religious influence, work, mass media, and state-society relations. Find this resource:
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Data Sources
Research in Chinese society utilizes both qualitative and quantitative research methods. For those interested in doing quantitative studies, some data sources are available. For general analyses of Chinese society, the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) is a valuable source that provides rich information on a respondents demographics, household registration and membership, family, social networks, education attainment, career history, job search process, identity, behavior, and attitudes, and includes data collected from urban and rural China. The International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) counts China as a member and contains Chinese data in its archive. The World Values Survey (WVS) is a coordinated public opinion survey that has carried out representative national surveys in ninety-seven societies comprising almost 90 percent of the worlds population. China is included in previous waves of data collection. The East Asian Social Survey (EASS) is a cross-national network of GSS-type surveys and is unique for its East Asian focus, which includes China datasets. The Asian Barometer Survey represents a large, comparative survey in Asia, covering China and other countries in East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia. As a country-wide face-to-face survey, it uses standardized instruments designed around a common research framework. The Universities Service Centre for China Studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong is a famous institution for China studies and prides itself on one of the most extensive and accessible collections of research materials on contemporary China. It has a databank for China studies in addition to other excellent library resources. Within the United States, the China Data Center at the University of Michigan is an international institution and research organization that provides leadership and training in data access and includes Chinese datasets in its archive. The National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBS) is the government source of comprehensive statistics and datasets.

Asian Barometer Survey. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This survey focuses on the daily lives of ordinary people and their relationships to family, neighborhood, workplace, social and political institutions, and the marketplace. Some key topics include governance, democracy, social virtues, happiness, quality of life, international alignments, new middle class, religiosity, mass media, identity, and globalization. Find this resource:

China Data Center. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The University of Michigans China Data Center serves as an international cent er for advancing the study and understanding of China. A primary goal of the center is the integration of historical, social, and natural science data in a geographic information system. Find this resource:

Chinese General Social Survey. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The CGSS project was initiated by Yanjie Bian at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and Lulu Li at Renmin University, Beijing, in 2003. It is an annual or biannual questionnaire survey of Chinas urban and rural households designed to gather longitudinal data on social trends and the changing relationship between social structure and quality of life in China. Find this resource:

East Asian Social Survey. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Launched in 2003, the EASS is a biennial social survey project that purports to produce and disseminate GSS-type survey datasets in East Asia. It aims to promote comparative studies on diverse aspects of social lives in East Asia. Launched in 2003, the EASS is one of the few international social survey data-collection efforts unique for its East Asian focus, including China. Find this resource:

International Social Survey Programme. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The ISSP is a continuing annual program of cross-national collaboration on surveys covering topics important for social science research. Some key topics include social inequality, family and changing gender roles, citizenship, work orientations, national identity, role of government, environment, leisure time, and sports. Since 1984, the ISSP has grown to forty-eight member nations, including China. Find this resource:

National Bureau of Statistics of China. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The NBS provides an online resource and publications containing comprehensive statistics, various survey data and census data, and survey indicators related to Chinese society at national and local levels. Its Yearbook series is a good source for looking into Chinese society in a quantitative way. Find this resource:

Universities Service Centre for China Studies. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This center, at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, has a databank for China studies that contributes to promoting quantitative research on contemporary China. Its key topics are agriculture and farmers, womens studies, population, household surveys, enterprise and reform, and social and economic statistics. Find this resource:

World Values Survey. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The WVS is a worldwide network of social scientists studying changing values and their impact on social and political life. Five waves have been conducted from 1981 to 2005. Main topics include peopl es attitudes toward family, marriage, religion, education, employment, science and technology, environment, trust, and social changes. China is among the nations studied. Find this resource:

Research Institutes and Professional Associations


In China and internationally, there are a number of professional associations that contribute to studying Chinese society from multidisciplinary perspectives. For example, on the Chinese mainland, the Institute of Sociology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) is the leading research institution of sociology. The Research Center

for Contemporary China (RCCC) at Peking University and the Institute for Empirical Social Science Research (IESSR) at Xian Jiaotong University are two representative institutes based at universities that promote empirical studies of Chinese society and offer training programs in social science methodology. Relational sociology is the core research area of IESSR; it has distinguished itself as an important place for research into guanxi or social relationships that are core characteristics of Chinese society and culture. To name a few representative centers and associations of China study overseas, theContemporary China Centre at the Australian National University conducts scholarly social science analysis of post-1949 China and publishes a journal and book series, while some other associations, including the American Association for Chinese Studies (AACS) (based in the United States), the British Association for Chinese Studies (BACS) (based in the United Kingdom), the Chinese Studies Association of Australia (CSAA) (based in Australia), and the European Association for Chinese Studies (EACS) (based in Europe), organize regular conferences and meetings and/or publish journals. These organizations in different countries provide excellent academic platforms for scholars and students to share their ideas and research output concerning China study; moreover, they reflect both the diversity and strength of studies of Chinese society throughout the world.

American Association for Chinese Studies. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The AACS, founded in 1959, is an academic society in America devoted exclusively to the general area of Chinese studies. It organizes annual meetings that cover topics including sociopolitical, economic, educational, linguistic, cultural, and other China-related comparative studies. TheAmerican Journal of Chinese Studies (AJCS) is the official journal of the association. Find this resource:

British Association for Chinese Studies. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The BACS, as a nonpolitical organization, has members from the academic community, industry, media, and government whose interests relate to greater China. It holds an annual conference each year and launched a peerreviewed e-journal, the Journal of the British Association for Chinese Studies, in 2011. Find this resource:

Chinese Studies Association of Australia. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The CSAA is the professional association for China specialists and postgraduate students in Australia. Its members are from various disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, economics, history, geography, law, political science, language, literature, and other aspects of Chinese society and culture. It convenes a major biennial conference that draws participants from Australia and abroad. Find this resource:

Contemporary China Centre. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The center was established in 1970 at the Australian National University, where it runs as a research facility concerned with the scholarly social science analysis of post-1949 China. It houses the Transformation of Communist Systems Project and publishes the China Journal (seeJournals) and Contemporary China Books series. Find this resource:

European Association for Chinese Studies. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The EACS, founded in 1975, is an international organization representing China scholars from all over Europe. It organizes biannual conferences in different European countries, thus offering a forum for presentations that cover all fields from traditional Sinology to studies of modern China. The association issues a newsletter twice a year. Find this resource:

Institute for Empirical Social Science Research. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The IESSR was founded at Xian Jiaotong University in 2009. It has rapidly developed to be an important research platform for Chinese relational sociology and guanxi study. The center has run the China Survey on Socioeconomic Change (CSSC) since 2010 and provides a survey facility for research projects. It also offers intensive courses, guest lectures, and summer schools with or by leading national and international scholars. Find this resource:

Institute of Sociology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The CASS, established in 1980, is the leading research institute of sociology in China. It is divided into nine research departments: social theory, social survey and sociological method, family and gender studies, organization and community studies, rural and industrial sociology, social policy, social psychology, social anthropology, social problems, and youth studies. It also publishes the journal Sociological Research (see Journals). Find this resource:

Research Center for Contemporary China. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The RCCC was established at Peking University in 1988 and is committed to promoting interdisciplinary and empirical social science research. It places emphasis on survey research and quantitative data analysis and runs methodology training programs. The center has implemented a series of survey projects, including the World Values Survey (see Data Sources), and provides institutional assistance for international scholars to conduct research in China. Find this resource:

Journals
With the rise of a more open China, international scholars have greater access to Chinese information and data, and together with the corresponding deeper integration of Chinese scholars within the international academic community, a great number of articles on China are starting to appear in international journals. Both factors boost the publication of articles related to Chinese society. These can be found in many general sociology journals or featured in specific journals on China. International journals that are specifically dedicated to the study of China include the China Quarterly (currently edited in the United Kingdom), China Journal (currently edited in Australia),Modern China and Journal of Contemporary China (currently edited in the United States), andChinese Sociological Review and China Review (currently edited in Hong Kong), among others. In terms of Chinese sociological journals, Sociological Research and Society: Chinese Journal of Sociology are published in China and both are very well regarded.

China Journal. 1979. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The China Journal is a leading international journal on contemporary China; it focuses on topics relating to China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan since 1949 and major issues that contribute to an understanding of Communist Party history and contemporary events. It is published twice yearly. Find this resource:

China Quarterly. 1960. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The China Quarterly is a leading scholarly journal in its field. Its interdisciplinary approach covers a wide range of subjects, including anthropology, sociology, literature, arts, economics, geography, history, international affairs, law, and politics, providing its readers with a deep understanding of contemporary China and Chinese culture. Find this resource:

China Review. 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The China Review is an international peer-reviewed journal focusing on the study of modern and contemporary China. It is published by the Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, in two issues per year. Find this resource:

Chinese Sociological Review. 1968. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Chinese Sociological Review publishes original works from sociologists and other social scientists on the Chinese mainland, in Hong Kong, in Taiwan, and from abroad. Published quarterly, it aims to advance the understanding of contemporary Chinese society and contribute to general knowledge in sociology. Find this resource:

Journal of Contemporary China. 1992. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

This journal provides information about contemporary Chinese affairs and covers different fields of interest, including sociology, culture, economics, political science, law, literature, history, international relations, and other social sciences and humanities. It is the only English-language journal on China edited in North America and is published in six issues per year. Find this resource:

Modern China. 1975. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Modern China is a source of scholarship in history and the social sciences on late-imperial, 20th-century, and present-day China. Published bimonthly, it has presented scholarship spanning the full sweep of Chinese studies. Find this resource:

Society: Chinese Journal of Sociology. 1981. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the top sociology journals in China, Society or Shehui focuses on social issues and problems emerging in Chinas social transition period and aims to publish the most updated and high -quality research findings of national and international sociologists. The bimonthly journal is published by Shanghai University. In Chinese. Find this resource:

Sociological Research. 1986. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation First published in 1986, Sociological Research or Shehuixue yanjiu is a national core academic journal in China. Its mission is to promote the standardization of sociological studies in China and lead the dialogue between Chinese scholars and the international academic community. The bimonthly journal is published by the Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. In Chinese. Find this resource:
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Social Stratification
Social stratification is an important and controversial issue in China. Over the last few decades, Chinese class stratification has changed rapidly. Under Mao, a rigid status hierarchy was implemented in the state socialist economy, but since 1978, a series of reform policies have decollectivized and commodified both rural and urban economies and the institutional bases of the pre-reform status hierarchy have been shaken or eroded. Under such circumstances, an open and evolving class system has been in the making. In the literature, these dramatic changes and evolving patterns are well documented. Cheng and Selden 1994 and L and Perry 1997 examine household registration (hukou) and work units (danwei), respectively. These were two of the most important state policies and mechanisms in socialist China, through which society was controlled and stratified. According to Communist propaganda, the working class is the master ( zhuren weng) of the state. Whyte 1999 investigates the changing roles of workers in the reform era, whileWalder 1986 is a key work that explores the relationship of work and authority in Chinese industry.Nee 1989 ignited the influential market transition debate in the study of Chinese stratification and beyond, positing a theory that highlights the increasing role of human capital and the decreasing role of political capital. Bian and Logan 1996 echoes Nees theory by proposing a thesis of power persistence in the changing stratification system in urban China. Zhou 2004 offers a comprehensive study of redistribution and social stratification in China since 1949, examining how peoples life chances have been affected by state policies. Lu 2002 presents the views of social science researchers in China, discussing the differentiation of social classes and social inequalities.

Bian, Yanjie, and John R. Logan. 1996. Market transition and the persistence of power: The changing stratification system in urban China. American Sociological Review 61.5: 739758. DOI: 10.2307/2096451Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors examine income inequality and the changing stratification system in urban China during market reforms. The results show that institutions and individuals with power, connections, and resources have advantages in earning income. It addresses the question of who gains and who loses in transitional China. One of the main challenges to Nees market transition theory (Nee 1989). Find this resource:

Cheng, Tiejun, and Mark Selden. 1994. The origins and social consequences of Chinas hukousystem. China Quarterly 139:644668.

DOI: 10.1017/S0305741000043083Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article documents the origins and development of the hukou system of population registration and control. It analyzes the consequences of hukou in restricting population movement, shaping state development priority, and creating spatial hierarchy and a rural-urban divide. Find this resource:

L, Xiaobo, and Elizabeth J. Perry, eds. 1997. Danwei: The changing Chinese workplace in historical and comparative perspective. New York: M. E. Sharpe. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book traces the origins and development of the institution of danwei, the basic collective unit in China. The authors discuss the dual roles of danwei, as a powerful tool of the state in controlling society and as a work unit providing comprehensive welfare and social functions for its members. Find this resource:

Lu Xueyi, ed. 2002. Dangdai zhongguo jieceng yanjiu baogao. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book classifies contemporary Chinese society into ten classes by referring to organizational resources, economic resources, and cultural resources that people occupy and, in each class, five status levels are differentiated. It reflects the views of Chinese social scientists on social classes and social inequalities. In Chinese. Find this resource:

Nee, Victor. 1989. A theory of market transition: From redistribution to markets in state socialism. American Sociological Review 54:663681. DOI: 10.2307/2117747Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author proposes a theory of market transition, which includes a market power thesis, market incentive thesis, and market opportunity thesis, arguing that the advantages of political power and connections have declined in transitional China. The hypotheses were tested by using survey data from rural China. This influential article opened up the market transition debate. Find this resource:

Walder, Andrew G. 1986. Communist neo-traditionalism: Work and authority in Chinese industry. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Drawing on official Chinese sources and interviews, the author analyzes the neo-traditionalism in Chinese factories, a Communist regime under which political loyalty is rewarded systematically. The neo-traditionalism is characterized by organized dependence (i.e., economic dependence on enterprises, political dependence on party and management, and personal dependence on supervisors) and the institutional culture of party clientelism. Find this resource:

Whyte, Martin K. 1999. The changing role of workers. In The paradox of Chinas post-Mao reforms. Edited by Merle Goldman and Roderick MacFarquhar, 173196. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the nature of the Chinese working class in the Mao era and examines the changing role of workers, new industrial employment, and rising industrial conflicts in the reform era. Find this resource:

Zhou, Xueguang. 2004. The state and life chances in urban China: Redistribution and stratification, 1949 1994. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511499401Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a comprehensive study of social stratification in China. Using the life history information of a national sample of urban residents, the author examines how shifting state policies and political processes affect individuals life chances, covering major fields such as education attainment, job-shift patterns, career development, and economic benefits. Find this resource:

Social Inequalities
From a planned economy and egalitarian society, China has become a market-oriented and unequal society. Different dimensions of social inequalities in Chinese society have been documented in existing studies. Bian

1994 reveals the importance of work units in urban Chinas socialist reward system and analyzes how the system sustained segmentation and fosters inequalities in different dimensions, that is, economically, politically, and socially. Whyte 2010a is a timely collection of original essays about the rural-urban divide and related social tensions. Xie and Hannum 1996 finds that regional variation in earnings inequality is only slightly correlated with economic growth but the significance of political power remains. Logan, et al. 1999 looks at housing, an important dimension of inequality under socialism, and addresses how housing inequality has been organized in urban China. Zang and Li 2001 examines ethnicity and income inequality in urban China and proposes possible scenarios on ethnic stratification. Stockman 1994 applies a framework derived from Western capitalist societies to examine gender inequality in Chinas Communist regime. Wu 2010 recognizes the importance of asking the question who gets educated in inequality research and discusses why educational inequality persists in China regardless of economic transition and school expansion. Given this, how do Chinese citizens perceive and confront rising inequalities in different aspects of social and economic life? Whyte 2010b reports on responses from citizens on matters of inequality, and provides survey data that show little evidence of popular anger and widespread discontent about inequality issues.

Bian, Yanjie. 1994. Work and inequality in urban China. Albany: State University of New York Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using rich empirical data, the author provides a systematic analysis of the impact of work units ( danwei) on social inequalities in urban China. It covers labor market segmentation, status inheritance, party membership attainment, guanxi, and social resources in job search, wage differentials, and inequality in collective consumption. Find this resource:

Logan, John R., Yanjie Bian, and Fuqing Bian. 1999. Housing inequality in urban China in the 1990s: Market and nonmarket mechanisms. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 23:725. DOI: 10.1111/1468-2427.00176Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article examines housing inequality in urban China in the 1990s. Results of survey data analyses show that political capital and organizational authority still play an important role in accessing work-unit housing, implying that power and markets together mold social inequality. Find this resource:

Stockman, Norman. 1994. Gender inequality and social structure in urban China. Sociology28.3: 779797. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the social conditions affecting gender inequality in urban China in different historical periods. It argues that the Chinese work-unit (danwei) system provides a structural basis in which the social functions of production and reproduction are not clearly separated and thus reduces gender inequality. Find this resource:

Whyte, Martin K., ed. 2010a. One country, two societies: Rural-urban inequality in contemporary China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book argues that Chinese society is divided into rural and urban castes with different rights and opportunities in life that cause growing social tensions. Different aspects of the rural-urban divide are examined, such as income gap, access to education and medical care, housing inequality, the digital divide, and experiences of discrimination of urban migrants. Find this resource:

Whyte, Martin K. 2010b. Myth of the social volcano: Popular responses to rising inequality in China. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The book addresses a key question of whether rising inequality is propelling China toward a social volcano, with social and political stability at risk. Drawing on data from a national survey of Chinese ci tizens attitudes on inequality and distributive justice, the author finds that there is little evidence of popular anger and widespread discontent about inequality issues. Find this resource:

Wu, Xiaogang. 2010. Economic transition, school expansion and educational inequality in China, 1990 2000. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28:91108. DOI: 10.1016/j.rssm.2009.12.003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Drawing on the data of population censuses, this article examines educational inequality during Chinas economic reforms in the 1990s. Findings show that family background still played an important role in determining school enrollment status and school transitions and children of rural-hukou status were disadvantaged. Find this resource:

Xie, Yu, and Emily Hannum. 1996. Regional variation in earnings inequality in reform-era urban China. American Journal of Sociology 101.4: 950992. DOI: 10.1086/230785Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article investigates the regional variation in earning inequality in China. It finds that for total earnings the returns to education and work experience are negatively associated with economic growth, and the effects of party membership and gender are regionally invariant. The authors contend that this result is due to the lack of a true labor market in urban China. Find this resource:

Zang, Xiaowei, and Lulu Li. 2001. Ethnicity and earnings determination in urban China. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 3.1: 3448. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article examines earnings-determination mechanisms for Han Chinese and members of ethnic minorities, respectively, and attempts to analyze the factors of income inequality by ethnicity in urban China during the 1990s. Find this resource:

Social Mobility and Labor Market


Under the planned economy and the state job-allocation system, the Chinese people had very little freedom and no right to seek or change a job, and no labor market existed. Since 1978, however, socioeconomic reform has advanced the emergence of labor markets and freed up social space and resources for individuals to pursue social mobility in areas such as job changes and migration from rural areas to cities. Zhou, et al. 1997 examines the jobshift patterns in urban China during the first fifteen years of reform. Walder 1995 explores the dual career paths that lead to a division of the urban elite and contributes to an understanding of how political reward mechanisms operate in China. Wu and Treiman 2007 looks at how the hukou system imposed barriers to intergenerational occupational mobility and posed a challenge regarding the role of the socialist state in generating social inequality and equality. Bian 1997 proposes a hypothesis of the strength of strong ties based on Chinas employment processes, which challenges the hypothesis of the strength of weak ties derived from the Western labor markets. Xiang 2005draws on the authors fieldwork in a migrant village in Beijing, describing how migrant workers and traders transcended a range of socioeconomic boundaries to live and develop business in the city. Knight and Song 2005 examines the causes, obstacles, and consequences of the move of the Chinese economy toward a labor market. Research Group for Social Structure in Contemporary China 2005 was the first nationwide study on social mobility in urban China, which reflects the views of leading Chinese sociologists and scholars of the top think tank for the central government of China.

Bian, Yanjie. 1997. Bringing strong ties back in: Indirect connection, bridges, and job search in China. American Sociological Review 62:266285. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An influential article about the role of social networks in employment processes. Using survey data from the city of Tianjin, the author finds that personal networks of strong ties, characterized by trust and obligation, play a significant role in accessing influence from authorities who, in turn, assign jobs as favors to their contacts. Find this resource:

Knight, John, and Lina Song. 2005. Towards a labour market in China. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1093/0199245274.001.0001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using a systemic approach and survey data, this book investigates a series of issues related to the development of labor policy and progress in China, such as rising wage inequality, rural-urban migration, unemployment, segmentation of labor, and urban and rural labor markets. The authors claim that China does not yet have a functioning labor market. Find this resource:

Research Group for Social Structure in Contemporary China. 2005. Social mobility in contemporary China. Translated by Xiaowen Bao. Montreal: America Quantum Media.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Sponsored by the Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, this is the first nationwide study on social mobility in modern China. Using data from two large-scale questionnaire surveys, it examines the developing process, characteristics, mechanisms, barriers, and opportunities of social mobility of different social strata in China. Find this resource:

Walder, Andrew. 1995. Career mobility and the communist political order. American Sociological Review 60.3: 309328. DOI: 10.2307/2096416Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using survey data from urban China, the author demonstrates the existence of two distinct career paths into the urban Chinese elite. Findings indicate that one path leading to administrative posts requires both educational and political credentials and another path leading to professional positions requires only educational credentials. Find this resource:

Wu, Xiaogang, and Donald J. Treiman. 2007. Inequality and equality under Chinese socialism: The hukou system and intergenerational occupational mobility. American Journal of Sociology113.2: 415 445. DOI: 10.1086/518905Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using survey data of Chinese men, the authors analyze intergenerational occupational mobility in contemporary China, with particular attention to the rural-urban institutional divide. Findings suggest that the state plays a strong role in social mobility through implementing household registration ( hukou) and its selective process. Find this resource:

Xiang, Biao. 2005. Transcending boundaries. Zhejiangcun: The story of a migrant village in Beijing . Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Based on a case study of a migrant village in Beijing, this book probes into the relations between the migrants, local authorities, and permanent residents and documents the way the migrants developed their trade and dealt with conflicts in business and communities. Find this resource:

Zhou, Xueguang, Nancy Tuma, and Phyllis Moen. 1997. Institutional change and job-shift patterns in urban China, 1949 to 1994. American Sociological Review 62:339365. DOI: 10.2307/2657310Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using life-history data and focusing on individuals access to workplaces, the authors argue that redistributive institutions continue to shape job-shift patterns in urban China. According to their results, only limited changes have occurred in job-shift patterns despite growing opportunities in workplaces of the non-state sector. Find this resource:
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Guanxi and Social Networks


Guanxi, a specifically Chinese idiom of social networks, is regarded as a core building block of Chinese sociality. As a key concept for understanding Chinese social behavior and social interactions, guanxi has much richer meanings than the apparent English equivalents relation or connection may denote. This complexity causes difficulties in defining the concept precisely and understanding the prevalence of guanxi in Chinese society. Over the last few decades, some contending theoretical approaches to the study of guanxi, such as the cultural perspective and the structural/institutional perspective, have emerged. Gold, et al. 2002 offers an overview of these conflicting perspectives and presents a collection of recent articles that made both conceptual and methodological contributions to guanxi study. From a cultural perspective, Fei 1992 emphasizes the characteristics and importance of guanxi in Chinese relation-based social structure. King 1994 discusses the role of guanxi as a cultural strategy in building social networks and mobilizing social resources. Beyond the cultural perspective, Lin 2001 offers a comprehensive analysis of the concept of guanxi in the Chinese context and the contemporary world. Bian 2001 introduces three models of guanxi capital in Chinese social structure and conducts an empirical study to test some of their implications. Tsui and Farh 1997 compares the Western idea of relational demography to the Chinese concept of guanxi and discusses where guanxi may matter most for Chinese society and, in particular, for work outcomes in Chinese organizations. Applying an explicit institutional approach, Guthrie 1998 argues that the significance of guanxi has been declining in Chinas economic transition. However, in a rebuttal to Guthrie 1998, Yang 2002stresses the resilience of guanxi and its new deployments from a historical and cultural perspective.

Bian, Yanjie. 2001. Guanxi capital and social eating in Chinese cities: Theoretical models and empirical analyses. In Social capital: Theory and research. Edited by Nan Lin, Karen Cook, and Ronald S. Burt, 275 296. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511815447Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Bian reviews three models of guanxi capital that regard guanxi as the web of extended familial obligations, as exchange networks of particular instrumental ties, and as social-exchange networks of asymmetric transactions, respectively. He analyzes some implications of these models for social eating by using data from urban China. Find this resource:

Fei, Xiaotong.1992. Chaxu geju: The differential mode of association. In From the soil: The foundation of Chinese society. By Xiaotong Fei, 6070. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fei uses a metaphor to characterize Chinese relation-based social structure as a differential mode of association. He holds that Chinese society is composed of overlapping networks of people linked through diverse relationships and each individual is at the center of an egocentric network, being involved in guanxi of varying strength. Find this resource:

Gold, Thomas, Doug Guthrie, and David Wank, eds. 2002. Social connections in China: Institutions, culture, and the changing nature of guanxi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511499579Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book sketches the main contrasting views in guanxi study and contributes conceptual and methodological considerations to this field. The authors provide substantive studies of guanxi by using new data, specifying under what circumstance or in what case guanxi matters in Chinese transforming society, such as in business, the labor market, and the legal system. Find this resource:

Guthrie, Douglas. 1998. The declining significance of guanxi in Chinas economic transition.China Quarterly 154:254282. DOI: 10.1017/S0305741000002034Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Guthrie views guanxi as an institutional defined system rather than a cultural fact. Evidenced by the data collected through interviews with Chinese officials and industrial managers, he argues that the significance of guanxi has been declining in Chinas economic transition with the construction of rational -legal systems and the progress of marketization. Find this resource:

King, Ambrose Y. C. 1994. Kuan-hsi and network building: A sociological interpretation. In The living tree: The changing meaning of being Chinese today. Edited by Tu Wei-ming, 109126. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation King argues that kuan-hsi (guanxi) building, embedded in Confucian social theory, is the Chinese version of network building and used as a cultural strategy in mobilizing social resources for goal attainment. He contends that the practice of kuan-hsi is not necessarily incompatible with modernization. Find this resource:

Lin, Nan. 2001. Guanxi: A conceptual analysis. In The Chinese triangle of mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: Comparative institutional analysis. Edited by Alvin So, Nan Lin, and Dudley Poston, 153166. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Lin analyzes the nature of guanxi in the Chinese context and describes guanxi as a dominant form of social exchange rather than economic exchange, which is driven by relational rationality rather than transactional rationality. He argues that the practice of guanxi will continue to thrive and absorb elements of economic exchanges. Find this resource:

Tsui, Anne S., and Jiing-Lih Larry Farh. 1997. Where guanxi matters: Relational demography and guanxi in the Chinese context. Work and Occupations 24:5679. DOI: 10.1177/0730888497024001005Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation From a management perspective, the authors compare the Western idea of relational demography to the Chinese concept of guanxi and offer hypotheses on factors that may affect the relative importance of guanxi in influencing work outcomes in a Chinese context. Find this resource:

Yang, Mayfair Mei-hui. 2002. The resilience of guanxi and its new deployments: A critique of some new guanxi scholarship. China Quarterly 170:459476. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article rebuts the argument that the significance of guanxi is declining and explains the resilience of guanxi and its new sites of operation. Yang contends that guanxi can be an adaptive mechanism for flexible capitalism and proposes new ideas toward another conceptualization ofguanxi. Find this resource:

New Trends in Social Life


As a fast-changing society in the globalization era, China presents numerous fascinating and kaleidoscopic scenes within its social life; these have captured researchers attention and imagination. Davis 2005 discusses the consumer revolution experienced by urban residents in Shanghai, arguing that consumer culture provides rich meanings for urbanites far beyond the linear view that consumer goods are nothing more than a ruse or manipulation. Wang, et al. 2006employs the interview data of peoples reading habits in urban China and finds that cultural taste and cultural consumption vary across occupational groups and social classes, indicating that Chinese society is differentiated along both economic and cultural lines. Jing 2000 focuses on childrens food in Chinese families and discusses how Chinas market transition and one-child policy affected the relationship of childhood, parenthood, and family life in the context of globalization. Hansen and Svarverud 2010 draws attention to the growing individualization of China, which refers to changing perceptions of the individual and rising expectations for individual freedom, choice, and individuality. The authors argue that the individual has become a basic social category in China that is different from the collective structure shaped by Confucian ethics and Communist policies. Internet use in China is booming, with about a quarter of the urban population having Internet access. Yang 2009 develops a lens through which to view Chinese cyberspace and discovers it to be an arena for creativity and community, as well as conflict and control. It mirrors deep issues related to Chinese activism online and civil society in the information era. Xin and Smyth 2010 is an empirical study of the relationship between the degree of economic openness and subjective well-being in urban China; it finds that economic openness is not positively associated with subjective well-being. Yoshino 2006 explores the changing characteristics and stability of traditional social values of Chinese people in the context of globalization. Ru, et al. 2006 presents the findings of annual reports concerning social developments and predicts future social changes in Chinese society.

Davis, Deborah. 2005. Urban consumer culture. China Quarterly 183:677694. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Based on fieldwork in Shanghai, this article argues that urban residents have experienced a consumer revolution at multiple levels. Differently from the view that emphasizes the negative exclusionary and exploitative parameters of the new consumer culture, the author describes the complexity of consumer culture at the level of individual practice, including the feeling of expanded autonomy and freedom. Find this resource:

Hansen, Mette Halskov, and Rune Svarverud, eds. 2010. iChina: The rise of the individual in modern Chinese society. Copenhagen: NIAS Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book addresses a range of issues concerning the rise of individualism in contemporary China, where there is a lack of institutional supports, such as democracy and a welfare system. It compares the transforming Chinese individual with the institutionalized individual in the West, including a global perspective and China-specific views. Find this resource:

Jing, Jun, ed. 2000. Feeding Chinas little emperors: Food, children, and social change . Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using childrens food as a focus, this book discusses its health consequences and cultural, political, and socioeconomic implications in Chinas economic transition. The study contributes to understanding the only child in Chinas one-child families (little emperors) and the impact of state policy on childhood and family relations. Find this resource:

Ru Xin, Xueyi Lu, and Peilin Li, eds. 2006. The China society yearbook. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

These yearbooks are the English-language versions of the Blue Book of Chinas Society, a series of annual reports edited by sociologists from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. They contain important statistics and incisive analyses of various topics, discussing social developments of the previous year and predicting social changes for the approaching year. Find this resource:

Wang, Shaoguang, Deborah Davis, and Yanjie Bian. 2006. The uneven distribution of cultural capital: Book reading in urban China. Modern China 32.3: 315345. DOI: 10.1177/0097700406288178Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Drawing on interview data from four cities in China, this exploratory study reveals that education powerfully drives cultural taste and cultural consumption and cultural capital varies across social classes independent of education. It shows that a cultural divide between elite classes and working classes is clearly visible. Find this resource:

Xin, Wen, and Russell Smyth. 2010. Economic openness and subjective well-being in China.China & World Economy 18.2: 2240. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-124X.2010.01187.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article examines the relationship between the degree of economic openness and subjective well-being in urban China by using the survey data of thirty cities in 2003. It reveals that respondents who live in cities with high levels of economic openness tend to report significantly lower levels of subjective well-being. Find this resource:

Yang, Guobin. 2009. The power of the Internet in China: Citizen activism online. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book offers a detailed study of Chinese Internet culture, documenting new developments of online communities and peoples power in the Internet age. By mapping a range of practices of online activism, it reflects informational politics and immense social change in China. Find this resource:

Yoshino, Ryozo. 2006. A social value survey of China: On the change and stability in the Chinese globalization. Behaviormetrika 33.2: 111130. DOI: 10.2333/bhmk.33.111Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reports on a social values survey of urban China conducted in Beijing and Shanghai during 2001 2002. The results attest to the change but stability of traditional social values of the Chinese in a new social system under construction.

Climate Change and Human Health


Sotiris Vardoulakis

Introduction
There is increasing scientific evidence of the direct and indirect effects of climate change onhuman health. Direct impacts may be linked to changing weather patterns causing droughts, heat waves, floods, and windstorms, while indirect effects are those associated with the redistribution of diseases (e.g., malaria), pollutants (e.g., ozone), resources (e.g., food and water), and populations. Although in certain cases the effects on health are positive (e.g., reduced cold-related mortality in northern Europe), it is recognized that the adverse effects of climate change on human health are likely to outweigh any benefits in most parts of the world, with low-income countries being worst affected. This entry identifies resources that explore the effects of climate change on population health in both developed and developing countries. It also covers subtopics related to vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and related health risk assessment methods.

Introductory Works and Reviews

The references in this section include two introductory books, six reviews on climate change and health published in influential scientific journals, and two papers on the broad topic of climate change and food security. Maslin 2008 provides a short introduction to global warming, whileHoughton 2009 gives a more comprehensive account of the science and policy of climate change.Costello, et al. 2009 focuses on managing the health impacts of climate change; Epstein 2005gives a brief perspective on the health effects of climate change, mainly directed to health professionals; McMichael, et al. 2006 discusses the present and future risks of climate change for human health in a more technical review; Patz, et al. 2005 focuses on vulnerable regions; and St. Louis and Hess 2008 discusses the implications of climate change for global health. Brown and Funk 2008 focuses on the food security consequences of climate change in a paper that can be read in conjunction with LoBell, et al. 2008, which focuses on related needs for adaptation to climate change. Brown, M. E., and C. C. Funk. 2008. Climate: Food security under climate change. Science319:580581. DOI: 10.1126/science.1154102Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper, published in one of the most influential scientific journals, focuses on the food security consequences of climate change, which are intrinsically related with public health, especially in developing countries. Find this resource:

Costello, Anthony, Mustafa Abbas, Adriana Allen, Sarah Ball, Sarah Bell, Richard Bellamy, Sharon Friel, Nora Groce, Anne Johnson, Maria Kett, Maria Lee, Caren Levy, Mark Maslin, David McCoy, Bill McGuire, Hugh Montgomery, David Napier, Christina Pagel, Jinesh Patel, Jose Antonio Puppim de Oliveira, Nanneke Redclift, Hannah Rees, Daniel Rogger, Joanne Scott, Judith Stephenson, John Twigg, Jonathan Wolff, and Craig Patterson. 2009. Managing the health effects of climate change: Lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission. Lancet 373:16931733. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60935-1Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An extensive, multi-authored review (led by Professor A. Costello, Institute for Global Health, University College London) on the health effects of climate change, written for students and researchers. It makes a very good introductory text and provides a wealth of information and scientific references for more specialized reading. Find this resource:

Epstein, Paul R. 2005. Climate change and human health. New England Journal of Medicine353.14: 1433 1436. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp058079Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A brief and eloquent perspective on the health effects of climate change, written by the associate director of the Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, and published in probably the most influential journal of clinical medicine. Epstein is one of the leading voices on this topic. Find this resource:

Houghton, John T. 2009. Global warming: The complete briefing. 4th ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Comprehensive, nontechnical account of the science and policy of climate change, including discussions of its causes and effects, impacts on health, and adaptation and mitigation options. It is written as a textbook, with summaries and questions at the end of each chapter, but can be used by the general reader. Find this resource:

Lobell, David B., Marshall B. Burke, Claudia Tebaldi, Michael D. Mastrandrea, Walter P. Falcon, Rosamond L. Naylor. 2008. Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319:607610. DOI: 10.1126/science.1152339Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Presents an analysis based on statistical crop models and climate projections which attempts to identify priorities in adaptation to climate change in different food-insecure regions such as South Asia and southern Africa. Find this resource:

Maslin, Mark. 2008. Global warming: A very short introduction. 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Informative discussion about the impacts of global warming. It draws on material from the fourth assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Parry, et al. 2007, cited underGeneral Reference) and presents the findings for a general readership. The book also discusses the politics of global warming, including adaptation to climate change and mitigation options. Find this resource:

McMichael, Anthony J., Rosalie E. Woodruff, and Simon Hales. 2006. Climate change and human health: Present and future risks. Lancet 367:859869. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68079-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise scientific review of the topic, focusing on certain technical aspects (e.g., whether health effects of climate change are detectable). McMichael is one of the leading authors on this topic. It provides a comprehensive list of scientific references. Find this resource:

Patz, Jonathan A., Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Tracey Holloway, and Jonathan A. Foley. 2005. Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature 438:310317. DOI: 10.1038/nature04188Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A relatively brief review of the health impacts of climate change, focusing mainly on vulnerable regions. Interesting discussion of the health implications of climate variability, future predictions, and uncertainties. It is a technical reading by some of the leading authors in this research field. Find this resource:

St. Louis, Michael E., and J. J. Hess. 2008. Climate change: Impacts on and implications for global health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35.5: 527538. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.023Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise review of the health impacts of climate change at the global scale (mainly focusing on low-income countries) and implications for the practice of global health. Interesting discussion of promoting mutual awareness between the scientific communities studying global health and climate change. Find this resource:
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General Reference
Sources in this section include four reference books, the relevant publication of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and two journal papers. Schellnhuber, et al. 2006 gives a very comprehensive account of the topic, while a more specialized volume on climate change and human health, McMichael, et al. 2003, covers the relevant research outcomes presented in the IPCC Third Assessment Report. Ravindranath and Sathaye 2002 examines climate change from the point of view of a developing country. Ebi, et al. 2005 focuses on the integration of public health with climate change adaptation through a mumber of case studies. The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (Parry, et al. 2007) on climate changes impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability is also included. Hess, et al. 2008 discusses the importance of place in climate change adaptation, with examples from the United States; Bloomberg and Aggarwala 2008examines the public health co-benefits of climate change mitigation actions. Finally, McMichael, et al. 2008 discusses the health impacts and inequalities of global environmental change.

Bloomberg, Michael R., and Rohit T. Aggarwala. 2008. Think locally, act globally: How curbing global warming emissions can improve local public health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35.5: 414423. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.029Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very interesting article about the co-benefits (and potential conflicts) of different strategies for climate change mitigation and public health. It focuses on two areas: air quality, greenhouse gases and public health; and urban sprawl, obesity, and road accidents. Fascinating statistics on greenhouse gases, economic growth, and public health relationships. Find this resource:

Ebi, Kristie L., Joel B. Smith, and Ian Burton, eds. 2005. Integration of public health with adaptation to climate change: Lessons learned and new directions. New York: Taylor and Francis. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book examines a diverse selection of public health case studies to draw lessons for adapting to climate change. It highlights the need to strengthen public health infrastructure along with the need to place human health within a broader ecological context. It emphasizes the role of poverty in creating vulnerability to climate change impacts. Find this resource:

Hess, Jeremy J., Josephine N. Malilay, and Alan J. Parkinson. 2008. Climate change: The importance of place. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35.5: 468478.

DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.024Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper provides an overview of climate-related risks to human health associated with different places and regions in the United States (cities, coastal areas, deserts, islands, and border and arctic regions). It highlights the importance of place in community resilience, adaptation, and risk management in the public health sector. Find this resource:

McMichael, Anthony J., Diarmid H. Campbell-Lendrum, C. F. Corvaln, Kristie L. Ebi, A. Githeko, J. D. Scheraga, and Alistair Woodward, eds. 2003. Climate change and human health: Risks and responses. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Specialized edited book examining in detail a wide range of health impacts of climate change (extreme weather, infectious diseases, ultraviolet radiation, etc.). It includes technical information on monitoring health effects, adaptation and adaptive capacity, and developing policy responses to climate change. It includes findings from the IPCC Third Assessment report. Find this resource:

McMichael, Anthony J., A. Nyong, and C. Corvalan. 2008. Global environmental change and health: Impacts, inequalities, and the health sector. British Medical Journal 336:191194. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39392.473727.ADSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This brief paper, published in a prestigious medical journal, discusses the unequal effects of climate change on health and sets out strategies to help prevent and lessen the harm. It makes the compelling argument that health professionals are well placed to contribute to preventive and adaptive strategies, and provides practical suggestions for achieving this. Find this resource:

Parry, Martin L., O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. 2007. Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A huge collaborative study with global scope, drawing together current thinking on the subject from experts in a range of disciplines. Probably the most comprehensive and up-to-date report as of 2010, written by the worlds leading experts on climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability of natural and human environments, with a specialized chapter on human health. Report available online from the IPCC. Find this resource:

Ravindranath, Nijavalli H., and Jayant A. Sathaye. 2002. Climate change and developing countries. Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A reference book on climate change from a developing countrys point of view, covering a wide range of related aspects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, vulnerability, impacts and adaptation, mitigation policies and measures, development, equity, and sustainability. It briefly covers impacts on human health and includes results from the IPCC Second Assessment report. Find this resource:

Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim, Wolfgang Cramer, N. Nakicenovic, T. Wigley, and G. Yohe, eds. 2006. Avoiding dangerous climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Comprehensive edited book, prefaced by former UK prime minister Tony Blair, providing a detailed critique of the topic for a higher-education audience. It summarizes the available scientific information on key vulnerabilities, critical threshold, and impacts as of 2006 in a more condensed form than the official IPCC reports, but does not include the findings of the IPCC Fourth Assessment (Parry, et al. 2007). Find this resource:

Textbooks
This section comprises four easily accessible textbooks with a broad scope that includes climate change and health. Aron and Patz 2001 provides a global overview of environmental change and public health issues for masters-level students; Bryant 1997 focuses on climatic processes, causes of climate change, and impacts on health

and ecosystems in his textbook primarily addressed to undergraduate students; and Frumkin 2010 has a very broad environmental health scope that puts climate change into a wider context, mainly for undergraduate reading. Finally,Griffiths, et al. 2009 is probably the first textbook to set out what health practitioners and students can do to mitigate the impacts of climate change by making health services more sustainable.

Aron, Joan L., and Jonathan Patz, eds. 2001. Ecosystem change and public health: A global perspective. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Textbook focusing on changes in human health related to global ecosystem change, including the interactions of major environmental forces and public health on a global scale. It includes skill-oriented chapters on epidemiological study designs and geographic information systems. The primary target audience is masters-level students in public health with an interest in environmental health and seeking to integrate both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Find this resource:

Bryant, Edward. 1997. Climate process and change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An easy-to-understand book about climate change with a balanced treatment of the subject. It is targeted at both the general reader and students studying climatology, geography, and environmental science. It includes a chapter on the health impacts of climate change and could be recommended as a first text on climate processes and change. Find this resource:

Frumkin, Howard, ed. 2010. Environmental health: From global to local. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very comprehensive introductory textbook, offering an overview of the methodology and paradigms of environmental health, ranging from ecology to epidemiology, from toxicology to environmental health policy, and from risk assessment to communication. It also covers interlinked local and global issues, such as climate change, urbanization, and air pollution. Find this resource:

Griffiths, Jenny, M. Rao, F. Adshead, and A. Thorpe, ed. 2009. The health practitioners guide to climate change. London: Earthscan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation There are substantial health benefits from mitigating climate change. This book provides an introduction, for health practitioners and students across all sectors of public health and medicine, to climate change and its current and future impacts on health. It describes the relationship between health and the environment, as well as the benefits for public health from tackling climate change. Find this resource:

Journals
This section includes a mixture of natural science, public and environmental health, and climate research journals that have published influential articles on climate change and health. Nature is a leading interdisciplinary science journal with a very wide natural science audience. The Lancetis a leading medical journal that has published many influential articles on climate change and health. Two well-established environmental health journals are included: Environmental Health Perspectives, probably the most influential scientific journal in this field, which has published extensively on the topic of climate change and health; and Environmental Health, an online open-access journal that has also published relevant research. Finally, four journals on climate-related research are included: Climate Research, covering all aspects of the interactions of climate with humans and ecosystems; Climatic Change, focusing on causes and implications of climatic change; Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions, an interdisciplinary journal spanning the social and natural sciences related to global environmental change; and theInternational Journal of Climatology, a journal spanning all aspects of climate science.

Climatic Change. 1977. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An interdisciplinary, international journal devoted to the description, causes, and implications of climatic variability and change. Although human health is not the main focus of the journal, it has occasionally published interdisciplinary papers discussing the implications of climate change for public health. Find this resource:

Climate Research. 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Inter-Research Science Center. It covers all aspects of the interactions of climate with organisms, ecosystems, and human societies. It publishes research papers on human reactions to climate change, including morbidity and mortality impacts. Find this resource:

Environmental Health. 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An open access, peer-reviewed, online journal that publishes original research and review papers on all aspects of environmental and occupational medicine, and related studies in toxicology and epidemiology. It has published research papers related to climate change and public health. Widely and easily accessible to readers worldwide. Find this resource:

Environmental Health Perspectives. 1972. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Scientific journal of peer-reviewed research and news published by the US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. It is the top monthly journal in public, environmental, and occupational health, often publishing original research and review papers related to climate change and human health. Find this resource:

Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions. 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is an international, interdisciplinary journal spanning the social and natural sciences related to global environmental change. It publishes original, theoretical, and applied research, and review papers on various aspects of climate change, including public policy, equity, risk and resilience, and health and well-being. Find this resource:

International Journal of Climatology. 1981. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Spans the well-established but rapidly growing field of climatology, publishing research papers, reviews, and reports in the area of climate science. The main focus of the journal is on the atmospheric, biophysical, engineering, and social aspects of climatology, including climatic variability, climate change, and human bioclimatology. Find this resource:

The Lancet. 1823. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A leading independent journal in global medicine, publishing original research and reviews on all aspects of medical practice, including clinical trials, epidemiology, and health impact assessment studies. It has published extensively in the area of climate change and health, including a recent series on the public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Find this resource:

Nature. 1869. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The most frequently cited interdisciplinary science journal, Nature publishes outstanding research papers of the widest scientific interest, occasionally including papers on climate change and health. Papers tend to be brief and addressed to an interdisciplinary scientific audience. Find this resource:
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Bibliographies
Many academic, government, and nongovernmental websites provide information and references on climate change and health. The three websites included in this section have been selected because of their influence and completeness. The World Health Organization, the European Commission, and the US Environmental Protection Agency websites can be useful to the nontechnical reader looking for general information on climate change and human health, as well as to experts reviewing research evidence and policy developments.

European Commission. Climate Change. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The main website of the European Commission on climate change and health. A useful resource providing access to influential papers and reports, such as the Commissions 2009 working paper on the impact of climate change on human, animal and plant health, and the white paperAdapting to Climate Change. Find this resource:

US Environmental Protection Agency. Climate ChangeHealth and Environmental Effects. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Concise and easily accessible information mainly addressed to a nonspecialist audience on the health effects of climate change (primarily focusing on the US population). It includes many useful links to relevant projects and reports from within and outside the US Environmental Protection Agency. Find this resource:

World Health Organization. Climate change and human health. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This WHO website provides a plethora of relevant information, technical and policy reports, fact sheets, relevant web links, a list of recent and upcoming events, a multimedia center (with posters, photos and videos to download), and further references on climate change and human health. Find this resource:

Health Impacts
This section comprises journal papers on specific direct and indirect health impacts of climate change, including groups of diseases, such as infectious and vector-borne diseases, single diseases such as malaria, and extreme weather events such as floods. Some of the entries focus on certain regions or continents (e.g., Tanser, et al. 2003, a paper on malaria in Africa), while other entries have a global scope (e.g., Lloyd, et al. 2007, a paper on global diarrhea morbidity). Hajat, et al. 2003 reviews the health effects of flooding in Europe, while Kovats and Hajat 2008 reviews heat-stress-related effects on public health. McMichael, et al. 2007 explores the relations among food, energy, and health in the context of a changing climate; Kinney 2008 reviews the impacts of climate change on air quality and, consequently, human health; Zell 2004 examines the influence of global climate change on the (re)emergence of infectious diseases; and finally, Lake, et al. 2009 evaluates the impact of temperature and climate change on foodborne illness.

Hajat, Shakoor, Kristie L. Ebi, R. S. Kovats, B. Menne, S. Edwards, and A. Haines. 2003. The human health consequences of flooding in Europe and the implications for public health: A review of the evidence. Applied Environmental Science and Public Health 1.1: 1321. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation River and coastal floods are likely to increase in frequency in many parts of the world as a result of rising sea level and heavy rainfall associated with climate change. This is an authoritative review of the human health consequences of floods, including drowning, physical injuries, and mental disorders, in Europe. Find this resource:

Kinney, Patrick L. 2008. Climate change, air quality, and human health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35.5: 459467. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.025Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Authoritative review on the current and future impacts of climate change on air quality (including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens) and human health, mainly focusing on studies carried out in United States. It also discusses adaptation strategies and research needs in this area of work. Find this resource:

Kovats, R. Sari, and Shakoor Hajat. 2008. Heat stress and public health: A critical review. Annual Review of Public Health 29: 4155. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation It is likely that the frequency of extremely high temperatures will increase substantially in temperate climates as a result of climate change. This paper critically reviews the impact of heat stress on public health, including discussion of assessment methods and key determinants of heat-related mortality and morbidity. Good reading for nontechnical audiences.

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Lloyd, Simon, R. Sari Kovats, and Ben Armstrong. 2007. Global diarrhoea morbidity, weather and climate. Climate Research 34.2: 119127. DOI: 10.3354/cr034119Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Diarrhea rates can be affected by temperature and rainfall extremes associated with climate change. This paper presents the findings of a global cross-sectional study of diarrhea incidence in young children, drawing on published evidence in the preceding fifty years. It lends support to actions to mitigate climate change and programs for hygiene, water, and sanitation interventions in developing countries. Find this resource:

Lake, I. R., I. A. Gillespie, G. Bentham, G. L. Nichols, C. Lane, G. K. Adak, and E. J. Threlfall. 2009. A reevaluation of the impact of temperature and climate change on foodborne illness. Epidemiology and Infection 137.11: 15381547. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268809002477Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Higher temperatures resulting from climate change may cause an increased number of cases of foodborne illness. This paper explores the impact of temperature on foodborne illness (e.g., food poisoning, salmonellosis) in England and Wales, and whether this impact has changed over time. Adaptation to higher temperature, including improved food hygiene, is also discussed. Find this resource:

McMichael, Anthony J., John W. Powles, Colin D. Butler, and Ricardo Uauy. 2007. Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health. Lancet 370:12531263. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61256-2Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fascinating paper exploring the relations among food, energy, and health in the context of a changing climate. It places emphasis on the health risks posed by the worldwide growth in meat consumption, which can both exacerbate climate change and contribute directly to certain illnesses. Published in the Lancet series on energy and health. Find this resource:

Tanser, Frank C., Brian Sharp, and David le Sueur. 2003. Potential effect of climate change on malaria transmission in Africa. Lancet 362:17921798. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14898-2Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An influential research paper on the effects of climate change on malaria, published in a high-impact medical journal. The authors used mathematical modeling and different climate scenarios to show that a prolonged transmission season is as important as geographical expansion for malaria transmission in Africa. Find this resource:

Zell, Roland. 2004. Global climate change and the emergence/re-emergence of infectious diseases. International Journal of Medical Microbiology Supplements 293.37: 1626. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation It is assumed that global warming might lead to an increase of infectious disease outbreaks. While a number of studies link disease outbreaks to single weather events, no report unequivocally associates vector-borne diseases with increased temperatures and associated environmental changes. This paper discusses the complexities of pathogen transmission dynamics with different variables and challenges in assessing health risks. Find this resource:

Vulnerability, Adaptation, and Health Protection


This section includes papers and books discussing the role of public health in reducing human vulnerability to climate change. This can be generally achieved by reducing the susceptibility and increasing the resilience of individuals, communities, health systems, and infrastructure to climate-related impacts by using a range of adaptation measures. Haines, et al. 2006 discusses impacts of climate change and vulnerabilities in the public health sector. Ebi, et al. 2006 presents an approach for assessing human health vulnerability and adaptation interventions. Keim 2008discusses resilience-building strategies for extreme weather events that can be attributed to climate change. Fritze, et al. 2008 debates the emerging evidence about the relationship between climate change and mental health. Frumkin, et al. 2008 proposes a public health response to climate change based on existing public health services. Huq, et al. 2007 discusses how to reduce risks to cities from climate-related environmental disasters. Two books, Menne and Ebi 2006 on adaptation strategies and Adger, et al. 2006 on fairness in adaptation, are also included.

Adger, W. Neil, Jouni Paavola, Saleemul Huq, and M. J. Mace, eds. 2006. Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This edited book presents an assessment of the social-justice issues in adaptation to climate change. It describes the philosophical underpinnings of different types of justice in relation to climate change, present inequities, and future burdens, using real-world examples of climate change adaptation in several countries (Bangladesh, Tanzania, Hungary, and others) Find this resource:

Ebi, Kristie L., R. Sari Kovats, and Bettina Menne. 2006. An approach for assessing human health vulnerability and public health interventions to adapt to climate change. Environmental Health Perspectives 114.12: 19301934. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This research paper, published as a mini-monograph in an influential environmental health journal, proposes a stepwise approach to country-level assessments of human health vulnerability to climate change. Interesting discussion on the application of risk-management principles to reduce current and future human health vulnerability to climate change. Find this resource:

Fritze, Jessica G., Grant A. Blashki, Susie Burke, and John Wiseman. 2008. Hope, despair and transformation: Climate change and the promotion of mental health and well-being.International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2.1: 13. DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-2-13Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This open-access paper provides an introduction to the emerging evidence and debate about the relationship between climate change and mental health. This includes the short- and long-term implications of climate change for mental health and its social and economic determinants. Find this resource:

Frumkin, Howard, Jeremy Hess, George Luber, Josephine Malilay, and Michael McGeehin. 2008. Climate change: The public health response. American Journal of Public Health 98.3: 435445. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.119362Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A well-researched paper proposing a public health response to climate change, based on existing public health services (both clinical and population health). Mainly focusing on the United States, it emphasizes the importance of coordination among government agencies, academic institutions, private companies, and nongovernmental organizations. Find this resource:

Haines, Andy, R. Sari Kovats, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, and C. Corvalan. 2006. Climate change and human health: Impacts, vulnerability and public health. Public Health 120.7: 585596. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2006.01.002Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Edited version of the influential 102nd Harben Lecture, presented at the Royal Institute of Public Health by Haines, director of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and a leading author in the area of climate change and global health. It provides a good overview of impacts and vulnerabilities in the public health sector. Find this resource:

Huq, Saleemul, Sari Kovats, Hannah Reid, and David Satterthwaite. 2007. Editorial: Reducing risks to cities from disasters and climate change. Environment and Urbanization 19.1: 315. DOI: 10.1177/0956247807078058Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A well-written editorial on the climate-change-related risks for cities, published in a specialized environmental journal. It addresses pertinent questions such as Who is at risk? and Why do cities develop on risky sites? and emphasizes the unfairness with regard to who causes the problems versus who is most affected. Find this resource:

Keim, Mark E. 2008. Building human resilience: The role of public health preparedness and response as an adaptation to climate change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35.5: 508516. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.022Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This very informative article discusses the role of public health in reducing human vulnerability to climate change within the context of selected examples of emergency preparedness and response from the United States. It proposes a number of resilience-building strategies for extreme weather events related to climate change (droughts, wildfires, floods, etc.)

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Menne, Bettina, and Kristie L. Ebi, eds. 2006. Climate change and adaptation strategies for human health . Darmstadt: Steinkopff. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This edited book presents the findings of a European research project with the same title (conventionally abbreviated cCASHh) led by the World Health Organization. It focuses on four areas of concern to public health: thermal stress, extreme weather events, vector- and rodent-borne diseases, and food- and waterborne diseases. Find this resource:
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Health Benefits of Mitigation Strategies


It has been increasingly recognized that mitigation strategies primarily aiming at reducing greenhouse gas emissions can provide a range of public health co-benefits in developed and developing countries. A group of papers on this topic was recently published in the Lancet series on health and climate change, and is included in this section: Wilkinson, et al. 2009 focuses on interventions in the household energy sector; Woodcock, et al. 2009 on urban land transport;Markandya, et al. 2009 on low-carbon electricity generation; Friel, et al. 2009 on food and agriculture; and Smith, et al. 2009 on short-lived greenhouse pollutants. Haines, et al. 2009 gives an overview of the interventions explored in this series and discusses implications for policymakers. Two relevant review papers published in different journals are also included: Bell, et al. 2008 on human health co-benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation, and Younger, et al. 2008 on opportunities for health co-benefits in the built environment sector.

Bell, Michelle, Devra L. Davis, Luis A. Cifuentes, Alan J. Krupnick, Richard D. Morgenstern, and George D. Thurston. 2008. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation. Environmental Health 7.1: 41. DOI: 10.1186/1476-069X-7-41Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Climate change mitigation policies can provide additional benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health effects. This comprehensive paper reviews studies that have analyzed the benefits of greenhouse-gas emission reduction for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. Find this resource:

Friel, Sharon, Alan D. Dangour, Tara Garnett, Karen Lock, Zaid Chalabi, Ian Roberts, Ainslie Butler, Colin D. Butler, Jeff Waage, Anthony J. McMichael, and Andy Haines. 2009. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Food and agriculture. Lancet374:20162025. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61753-0Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper from the Lancet series on health and climate change focuses on the health benefits (avoided ischemic heart disease cases) associated with strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from the agricultural sector, including agricultural technological improvements and reductions in livestock production, in the UK and Brazil. Find this resource:

Haines, Andy, Anthony J. McMichael, Kirk R. Smith, Ian Roberts, James Woodcock, Anil Markandya, Ben G. Armstrong, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Alan D. Dangour, Michael Davies, Nigel Bruce, Cathryn Tonne, Mark Barrett, and Paul Wilkinson. 2009. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Overview and implications for policymakers.Lancet 374:21042114. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61759-1Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper summarizes the findings presented in the Lancet series on health and climate change, focusing on the implications for policymakers in four domains: household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation. It argues very convincingly that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often entail net benefits for public health. Find this resource:

Markandya, Anil, Ben G. Armstrong, Simon Hales, Aline Chiabai, Patrick Criqui, Silvana Mima, Cathryn Tonne, and Paul Wilkinson. 2009. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Low-carbon electricity generation. Lancet 374:20062015. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61715-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Another paper from the Lancet series on health and climate change that uses mathematical models and comparative risk assessment methods to assess the changes in air pollution and consequent effects on health that are likely to result from greenhouse-gas mitigation measures in the electricity generation sector in the European Union, China, and India. Find this resource:

Smith, Kirk R., Michael Jerrett, H. Ross Anderson, Richard T. Burnett, Vicki Stone, Richard Derwent, Richard W. Atkinson, Aaron Cohen, Seth B. Shonkoff, Daniel Krewski, C. Arden Pope, Michael J. Thun, and George Thurston. 2009. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants. Lancet374:20912103. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61716-5Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Part of the Lancet series on health and climate change, this rather technical paper reviews the health effects of three greenhouse pollutants: black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. It includes a meta-analysis of existing epidemiological time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort study from the United States. Find this resource:

Wilkinson, Paul, Kirk R. Smith, Michael Davies, Heather Adair, Ben G. Armstrong, Mark Barrett, Nigel Bruce, Andy Haines, Ian Hamilton, Tadj Oreszczyn, Ian Ridley, Cathryn Tonne, and Zaid Chalabi. 2009. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Household energy. Lancet 374:19171929. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61713-XSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Part of the Lancet series on health and climate change, this study uses comparative risk assessment to quantify the public health benefits of climate change mitigation measures in the built environment (based on specific household energy-efficiency interventions) in case studies from the UK and India. A methodologically challenging and wellpresented project. Find this resource:

Woodcock, James, Phil Edwards, Cathryn Tonne, Ben G. Armstrong, Olu Ashiru, David Banister, Sean Beevers, Zaid Chalabi, Zohir Chowdhury, Aaron Cohen, Oscar H. Franco, Andy Haines, Robin Hickman, Graeme Lindsay, Ishaan Mittal, Dinesh Mohan, Geetam Tiwari, Alistair Woodward, and Ian Roberts. 2009. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Urban land transport. Lancet 374:19301943. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61714-1Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Another multi-authored paper from the Lancet series on health and climate change. It uses comparative risk assessment to estimate the health effects of alternative urban land transport scenarios (including lower-carbonemission motor vehicles, increased active travel, and a combination of the two) in London and Delhi. Find this resource:

Younger, Margalit, Heather R. Morrow-Almeida, Stephen M. Vindigni, and Andrew L. Dannenberg. 2008. The built environment, climate change, and health: Opportunities for co-benefits. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35.5: 517526. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.017Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper reviews opportunities for health co-benefits from greenhouse-gas emission reductions in the built environment, comprising transportation systems and infrastructure, building construction and use, and land use (including forestry and agriculture). It has a broader scope than the more specific and technical papers published in the Lancet series on health and climate change. Find this resource:

Health Risk Assessment Methods


The entries in this section focus on risk assessment methods that can be used to quantify the impacts of climate change on public health. These methods, often referred to as burden-of-disease calculations, can be applied at local, regional, continental, or global scale. Campbell-Lendrum and Woodruff 2006 discusses comparative risk assessment methods developed by the World Health Organization that can be used to estimate disease burdens attributable to climate change; Kovats, et al. 2005 provides an additional in-depth discussion of these methods; whileMcMichael, et al. 2004, a comprehensive book chapter, mainly focuses on practical applications.Patz, et al. 2008 discusses methods for assessing the health impacts of global climate change in the wider context of policymaking. Kalkstein 1991 proposes a statistical approach for evaluating the impact of climate on human mortality, while Knowlton, et al. 2007 uses climate modeling to estimate future heat-related mortality. Finally, Markandya and Chiabai 2009 focuses on the estimation of monetary costs of climate-change adaptation measures in the health sector.

Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid, and Rosalie Woodruff. 2006. Comparative risk assessment of the burden of disease from climate change. Environmental Health Perspectives 114.12: 19351941. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article is part of the mini-monograph Climate Change and Human Health: National Assessments of Impacts and Adaptation. It discusses the comparative risk assessment methods developed by the World Health Organization for estimating disease burdens attributable to different risk factors and their application to climate change-related diseases. An assessment of the Oceania region is used to provide more location-specific information. Find this resource:

Kalkstein, Laurence S. 1991. A new approach to evaluate the impact of climate on human mortality. Environmental Health Perspectives 96:145150. DOI: 10.2307/3431223Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A pioneering paper assessing the impact of climate on mortality, based on a synoptic climatological classification. It presents a summary of the methodology and its application to a specific region in the United States. The use of this climatic classification method is compared with the use of common air pollution variables as predictors of daily mortality. This is technical reading for a specialized audience. Find this resource:

Knowlton, Kim, Barry Lynn, Richard A. Goldberg, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Christian Hogrefe, Joyce Klein Rosenthal, and Patrick L. Kinney. 2007. Projecting heat-related mortality impacts under a changing climate in the New York City region. American Journal of Public Health 97:20282034. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.102947Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This research paper is a good example of heat-related mortality risk assessment under climate change in a specific region. The methodology is based on a global-to-regional climate modeling system, a range of scenarios and assumptions about future trends in greenhouse gas emissions and human adaptation, and epidemiological evidence on heat-related mortality. Find this resource:

Kovats, R. Sari, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, and Franziska Matthies. 2005. Climate change and human health: Estimating avoidable deaths and disease. Risk Analysis 25.6: 14091418. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2005.00688.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation It provides an in-depth discussion of comparative risk assessment methods used to quantify the impacts of climate change, including an interesting discussion about critical and tolerable thresholds for public health. It includes a useful appendix on the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), using the comparative risk assessment methodology. Find this resource:

Markandya, Anil, and Aline Chiabai. 2009. Valuing climate change impacts on human health: Empirical evidence from the literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6.2: 759786. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6020759Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This review paper focuses on the estimation of monetary costs of climate change adaptation measures in the health sector. It critically discusses assessment methodologies (such as cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis) used in this context, and identifies research weaknesses and gaps. It includes a useful summary of the impacts of climate change in different world regions. Find this resource:

McMichael, Anthony J., Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Sari Kovats, Sally Edwards, Paul Wilkinson, Theresa Wilson, Robert Nicholls, Simon Hales, Frank Tanser, David Le Sueur, Michael Schlesinger, and Natasha Andronova. 2004. Global climate change. In Comparative quantification of health risks: Global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors. Edited by Majid Ezzati, Alan D. Lopez, Anthony Rodgers, and Christopher J. L. Murray, 15431649. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very comprehensive book chapter describing how the effects of climate change on health can be estimated in practice. It includes sections on risk-factor definition and measurement, and on risk factordisease relationships. Useful appendices on uncertainty around climate predictions, and models that directly relate climate change to selected health effects. Find this resource:

Patz, Jonathan, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Holly Gibbs, and Rosalie Woodruff. 2008. Health impact assessment of global climate change: Expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policymaking. Annual Review of Public Health 29:2739.

DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090750Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This review paper discusses methods for assessing the health impacts of global climate change in the wider context of policymaking. This includes the assessment of co-benefits from climate change mitigation strategies, environmental justice issues, and health equity aspects of the problem. Find this resource:

Public Health, Health Policy, and Social Research


The entries in this section look at the topic of climate change and health from a health policy and/or social research angle. Friel, et al. 2008 focuses on global health equity; Barnett and Adger 2007 concentrates on human security and violent conflict associated with climate change; andFew 2007 frames social research on vulnerability and adaptation. Kessel 2006 has a wider scope, examining contemporary environmental health issues, including climate change, from conceptual, scientific, philosophical, and ethical points of view.

Barnett, Jon, and W. Neil Adger. 2007. Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography 26.6: 639655. DOI: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.03.003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper focuses on an aspect of climate change with important implications for human health: human security and violent conflict. It integrates three bodies of research on the vulnerability of local places and social groups to climate change, on livelihoods and violent conflict, and the role of the state to offer new insights into the relationships between climate change, human security, and violent conflict. Find this resource:

Few, Roger. 2007. Health and climatic hazards: Framing social research on vulnerability, response and adaptation. Global Environmental Change 17.2: 281295. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.11.001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper uses social-science research to examine how key themes relate to health concerns, and to explore connections with existing health literatures. In this context, it develops a theoretical framework to aid analysis of how vulnerability to health impacts varies within society, and how actors make decisions and take action in relation to climatic hazards and health. Find this resource:

Friel, Sharon, Michael Marmot, Anthony J. McMichael, Tord Kjellstrom, and Denny Vger. 2008. Global health equity and climate stabilisation: A common agenda. Lancet 372:16771683. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61692-XSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This influential health-policy paper argues that the underlying determinants of health inequity and climate change overlap substantially, and it makes a compelling case for coherent global health equity and environmental health policies at global, national, and local levels. The discussion mainly focuses on three vital areas of work: urbanization, renewable energy, and sustainable food systems. Find this resource:

Kessel, Anthony S. 2006. Air, the environment and public health. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book, addressed to students and professionals in public health and related disciplines, explores the changing perceptions of air, the environment, and health alongside historical developments in public health. It provides an interesting blend of public health science, history, ethics, and philosophy, with a focus on air pollution in Britain and climate change. Find this resource:

Clinical Neuropsychology
Bruce Caplan

Introduction

Clinical neuropsychology is the psychological specialty that seeks to elucidate brain-behavior relations through the study of the neurobehavioral consequences of various forms of brain damage or dysfunction in humans. Historically, clinical neuropsychologists were concerned primarily with assessment and diagnosis of brain dysfunction (especially localization of lesions), but recent conceptualizations emphasize evaluation of individuals neuropsychological topography (i.e., establishing their cognitive strengths and weaknesses) and also encompass rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits. The assessment aim of clinical neuropsychology is achieved through administration of tests of such cognitive functions as attention, language, perception, memory, and executive abilities, as well as measures of personality and emotional state. These strategies are increasingly applied to medical conditions (e.g., heart failure, diabetes, liver disease) primarily affecting body systems not commonly thought of as neurological but which may have consequences for the functional integrity of the brain. Clinical neuropsychological assessment has also come to play an important role in forensic proceedings, especially in personal injury cases where there may be traumatic brain injury related cognitive decline or those where various forms of competence are at issue. Other contemporary developments involve the use of neuropsychological tests to predict daily life activities (e.g., money management, driving, return to work) and to help shape multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs. This article begins with a brief review of the history of clinical neuropsychology. A section on relevant neuroanatomy addresses the various brain bases of the behavioral phenomena of interest. The growing roster of medical and psychiatric conditions studied with clinical neuropsychological methods is noted and the methods themselves are reviewed, as are the several factorsother than brain functioningthat can influence performance on neuropsychological tests. Recent developments in forensic contributions of neuropsychology and the remediation of cognitive deficits are discussed. The work also provides lists of the major texts and professional journals as well as information about pertinent professional organizations and issues in education and training.

Definition
Clinical neuropsychology is the branch of psychology concerned with assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with known or suspected brain damage or dysfunction (Vandenbos 2007,Stringer 2011). Clinical neuropsychology should be distinguished from experimentalneuropsychology, which endeavors to enhance our understanding of brain-behavior relations through controlled experiments involving (1) studies of animals with induced brain lesions and (2) investigations of normal brain function using methods such as dichotic listening and tachistoscopic presentation. Clinical neuropsychology shares some principles and practices with other psychology specialties such as rehabilitation psychology (e.g., both are concerned with assessment and remediation/management of cognitive deficits) and health psychology (both address psychological effects of certain chronic illnesses and their impact on caregivers). Stringer, Anthony Y. 2011. Clinical neuropsychology. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 591 594. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise overview of the nature and history of the field. Find this resource:

Vandenbos, Gary R., ed. 2007. APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Exhaustive (some twenty-five thousand entries covering ninety subareas of the field) alphabetical catalogue of the language of psychology. Find this resource:
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Textbooks and Handbooks


The impressive growth of the specialty has been accompanied by a small explosion in textbooks and handbooks of significance. Some, such as Lezak, et al. 2004, emphasize assessment methods, while others, including Armstrong and Morrow 2010, Heilman and Valenstein 2003, andMorgan and Ricker 2008, are organized primarily by diagnostic category (e.g., stroke, traumatic brain injury, dementia) or clinical manifestation (e.g., aphasia, unilateral neglect). Still others, such as Grant and Adams 2009, Reynolds and Fletcher-Janzen 2009, and Schoenberg and Scott 2011, are blends of the two approaches. Kreutzer, et al. 2011 takes an encyclopedic approach. Contributors to the novel

volume by Marcotte and Grant 2010 document the expansion of neuropsychology into studies of its association withand predictive value fordaily life activities. Armstrong, Carol L., and Lisa Morrow, eds. 2010. Handbook of medical neuropsychology: Applications of cognitive neuroscience. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1364-7Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Scholarly coverage of neuropsychological findings in historically common targets of assessment (e.g., brain injury, dementia, epilepsy, tumors) but also expands the scope of the field by addressing many diseases that have more recently come under scrutiny with neuropsychological methods (e.g., diabetes, liver disease, Guillain-Barre Syndrome). Find this resource:

Grant, Igor, and Kenneth M. Adams. 2009. Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric and neuromedical disorders. 3d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A hybrid compilation by noted experts, some chapters dealing with specific assessment techniques, while the majority offer reviews of conditions commonly encountered in neuropsychological practice such as brain injury, stroke, dementia, and multiple sclerosis. Find this resource:

Heilman, Kenneth M., and Edward Valenstein, eds. 2003. Clinical neuropsychology. 4th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fourth edition of a classic text edited by two behavioral neurologists that primarily takes a symptom-based approach; the great majority of chapters are concerned with notable clinical phenomena such as aphasia, agraphia, agnosia, amnesia, and neglect. Other chapters address recovery of function and drug treatment of cognitive deficits. Find this resource:

Kreutzer, Jeffrey, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, eds. 2011. Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. 4 vols. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Tertiary resource consisting of over two thousand entries concerning neuroanatomy, clinical neuropsychological assessment and research, neuropsychological findings in various disease entities, rehabilitation strategies, test descriptions, research design and statistical concepts, and biographies of major neuropsychologists. Find this resource:

Lezak, Muriel D., Diane B. Howieson and David W. Loring, eds. 2004. Neuropsychological assessment. 4th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fourth edition of the first major neuropsychology text, now over one thousand pages long. Two-thirds consists of summaries of empirical work on the use of tests of various functions (e.g., memory, language, concept formation) in evaluating neuropsychological disorders. The remainder deals with fundamental concepts such as neuroanatomy and neuropathology, general administration procedures, interpretation of data, and relevant individual difference factors. Find this resource:

Marcotte, Thomas D., and Igor Grant, eds. 2010. Neuropsychology of everyday functioning. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Unique volume addressing the predictive value of neuropsychological assessment for practical daily life skills such as money management, driving, and adherence to medication regimens, coupled with chapters dealing with effects of various neuropsychological disorders on everyday functioning. Find this resource:

Morgan, Joel E., and Joseph H. Ricker, eds. 2008. Textbook of clinical neuropsychology. New York: Taylor & Francis. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Wide-ranging scholarly summary of the field. Roughly 40 percent of the text deals with adult-onset conditions, about one-quarter concern disorders appearing in childhood or adolescence, and the remainder address topics such as history, training models, central nervous system development and anatomy, relevance of imaging techniques, forensic applications, ethics, and rehabilitation. Find this resource:

Reynolds, Cecil R., and Elaine Fletcher-Janzen. 2009. Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology. 3d ed. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-78867-8Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The most comprehensive pediatric neuropsychology text, covering developmental foundations; methods of assessment, diagnosis, and intervention; and consequences of various pathologies such as traumatic brain injury, neurodevelopmental malformations, HIV, and autism spectrum disorders. Find this resource:

Schoenberg, Mike R., and James G. Scott, eds. 2011. The little black book of neuropsychology: A syndromebased approach. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-76978-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A practice-oriented handbook organized by both a problem orientation (i.e., chapters on difficulties in domains such as attention, language, spatial skills, etc.) and diagnosis scheme (i.e., problems associated with tumors, stroke, brain trauma, etc.). Find this resource:

Journals
While two of the three major organizations (International Neuropsychological Society, National Academy of Neuropsychology) publish their own official journals (Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology), and the third organization (Division 40 of the American Psychological Association) has been closely allied with another (The Clinical Neuropsychologist), articles relevant to clinical neuropsychology are to be found in at least a dozen other publications directed primarily at audiences composed of neurologists, psychiatrists, physiatrists, speech pathologists, health psychologists, and rehabilitation psychologists. Some (not discussed here), such as Brain Injury, Stroke, and Multiple Sclerosis, deal exclusively with a single diagnostic entity, while others, such as Neurology, Archives of Neurology, American Journal of Psychiatry, and various speech/language therapy journals are targeted at particular professional specialties. Still others, such as Neuropsychological Rehabilitation or Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation (the latter two of which are not discussed here), address issues of concern to multidisciplinary treatment teams. All journals noted herein are peer reviewed. Some (Applied Neuropsychology, Child Neuropsychology, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation) tend to have a practical clinical emphasis, while others (Neuropsychology, Cortex) contain substantial experimental work, while still others (Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society) offer a blend. Neuropsychology Review has evolved toward single-subject compilations.

Applied Neuropsychology. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Quarterly journal first appearing in 1994. Articles have a practical clinical focus, many dealing with performance profiles of diagnostic groups, effects of demographic variables on test performance, and comparisons of usefulness of tests for diagnostic purposes. Occasional special issues deal with topics such as neuropsychological effects of Lyme disease or pediatric traumatic brain injury. Find this resource:

Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation First published in 1980. Now appearing eight times per year and produced by Oxford University Press, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology is the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN), publishing abstracts of NAN meetings and position papers on various topics. The journal publishes empirical articles on clinically focused topics including diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological disorders as well as papers concerning ethical matters, professional issues, book reviews, and brief reports. Find this resource:

Child Neuropsychology. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation First published by Swets and Zeitlinger in 1995, the journal offers empirical and theoretical articles about congenital and acquired conditions affecting children. Occasional special issues appear, including ones covering autism spectrum disorders and sickle cell disease. Taylor and Francis, the current publisher, acquired the journal in 2004. Find this resource:

The Clinical Neuropsychologist. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Probably the most clinically focused neuropsychology journal, The Clinical Neuropsychologist(TCN) first appeared in 1987. Articles address topics of concern to practicing clinicians including evaluations of tests and other instruments, education and training issues, empirical studies of the neuropsychological status of various diagnostic groups, rehabilitation strategies, forensic applications, ethical issues, technological advances, book reviews, and position papers of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, for which TCN serves as the official journal. Find this resource:

Cortex. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This international journal primarily publishes empirical articles, most focusing on the relation between cognition and the nervous system as revealed through studies of persons with brain injury, experimental techniques applied to neurologically intact individuals, and studies using modern imaging technologies. Occasional special issues have included coverage of such topics as developmental language disorders, aging, and cerebellar contributions to cognitive functioning. Find this resource:

Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation First published in 1984 as the Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology by Swets and Zeitlinger, the name was expanded in 1985, when it became the official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (INS), an association that lasted for a decade until the INS started its own publication. The Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology publishes both clinically oriented and experimental papers on behavioral consequences of brain dysfunction, theoretical works, psychometric validation studies, review articles, and book reviews. Now published ten times per year by Psychology Press. Find this resource:

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Published from its inception in 1995 by Cambridge University Press, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society casts a wide net, welcoming papers on normal and abnormal development, effects of brain damage, psychosocial consequences of neuropsychological disorders, treatment strategies, and the relation of neuropsychology to related fields such as neuropsychiatry, behavioral neurology, and speech pathology. Also includes brief reports, book reviews, symposia summaries, and case studies. Find this resource:

Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Volume 1 appeared in 1991, published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Now produced by Psychology Press. Six issues per year consist of a mix of detailed descriptions of single-case interventions, group studies, investigations of psychosocial consequences of brain pathologies, evaluations of measurement instruments, and book reviews. Periodic special issues have addressed such topics as diminished awareness, encephalitis, and identity after brain injury. Find this resource:

Neuropsychology. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation First a newsletter for the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society, in 1987 it moved to journal format. The following year, publication was assumed by Taylor and Francis, and in 1993 the American Psychological Association took ownership. Appears bimonthly, publishing primarily experimental papers including basic research and clinical investigations as well as treatment methods and brief reports. Special sections appear periodically dealing with such topics as mild cognitive impairment. Find this resource:

Neuropsychology Review. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation First published in 1990 by Plenum Press, the journal had a rocky road during its first several years, and publication was sporadic. Now published quarterly by Springer Publishers, the journal offers integrative reviews of various

neuropsychological topics, largelybut not exclusivelyclinical in focus. Special sections and entire issues have addressed such topics as HIV-AIDS, sleep, schizophrenia, brain development, and aging. Find this resource:

History
The occasional and nonscientific observations and speculations about brain-behavior relations that were made from ancient times through the early 19th century were few and often erroneous. For example, Descartes located the soul in the pineal gland and touted it as the place where all thoughts were formed. The pseudoscience of phrenology (i.e., the belief that aspects of personality, cognition, and behavior are manifested through bumps and depressions on the surface of the skull) that surfaced in the early 1800s is perhaps the best-known example. Subsequently, various experiments of naturesuch as the explosion that propelled an iron bar through the frontal lobe of Phineas Gage (causing this previously sedate and responsible man to become rambunctious, profane, obstinate, and disinhibited) or the stroke survivor in whom Karl Wernicke observed the form of aphasia that bears his name crudely redirected scientists toward the cortex. Different perspectives on mechanisms of brain function arose and were tested, and specific brain loci were identified as playing major roles in certain neuropsychological skills and functions. The two world wars provided a regrettably immense number of brain-injured soldiers for study and treatment (a group that is again a major focus of study and intervention), and laboratories were developed in the United States and elsewhere to investigate both normal and abnormal brain functions.

EARLY INVESTIGATIONS

Archeological evidence suggests that the ancient Egyptians and Greeks had some awareness of brain functions, but with a few exceptions (e.g., Thomas Willis), the interests of early medical specialists lay elsewhere, as discussed by Finger 2000 and Mendoza and Foundas 2008. It was not until the mid-19th century that scientists such as Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke began to document specific behavioral consequences of particular brain lesions such as impaired speech and reading difficulty. Benton 2000 contains a half-dozen articles concerning the early descriptions of language disorders. The localizationist perspecti ve took hold (indeed, Benton refers to the period from 1870 to 1890 as the golden age of localization) and, with the exception of Karl Lashleys advocacy for the notion of equipotentiality in the brain, has essentially persisted to this day.

Benton, Arthur. 2000. Exploring the history of neuropsychology: Selected papers. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A series of reprinted articles and chapters by one of the most respected and productive American neuropsychologists. Many concern particular historical figures and their landmark discoveries, while others address clinical phenomena such as aphasia and dyslexia from a historical perspective, and still others consider methodological topics. Find this resource:

Finger, Stanley. 2000. Minds behind the brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries . New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An eminently readable account of significant events and discoveries in neuropsychological history and the people responsible for them, starting with the ancient Egyptians, proceeding through the uncovering of electrical properties of the brain, identification of specific critical regions, and ending with the split-brain work of Roger Sperry. Find this resource:

Mendoza, John E., and Anne L. Foundas. 2008. A brief history of localization of function in the brain. In Clinical neuroanatomy: A neurobehavioral approach. By John E. Mendoza and Anne L. Foundas, 271280. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-36601-2_9Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Short summary of speculations and observations during ancient times and the Middle Ages through the 19th centurys widespread acceptance of the principle of localization of function. Find this resource:

EARLY-20TH-CENTURY ADVANCES

As discussed by Stringer 2011, in the early 1900s, Shepherd Ivory Franz developed measures of abilities that contemporary neuropsychologists would recognize as core components of neuropsychological evaluation (e.g., attention, language, form perception, memory). Franz established psychological laboratories, first in the Boston area at McLean Hospital, and then in Washington, DC, at what later became known as St. Elizabeths Hospital. At the latter location, he organized a course in neuropsychiatry, during the teaching of which he produced a volume on rehabilitation after brain damage, a subject that would assume increasing importance in light of the proliferating needs of survivors of World War I. If there has been a positive outcome from the major wars of the last century, it is that these events produced major strides in care of the wounded. As a consequence, an increasing number of individuals survived battlefield injuries rather than succumbing to them, resulting in large numbers of (mostly) men with brain injuries who, in the course of receiving care for their injuries, could be studied for insights into brain function as well as potentially effective treatments. In Europe, during the postwar period, Kurt Goldstein studied numerous traumatic brain-injured soldiers, gleaning insights into the consequences of these injuries for cognition and emotions. As described by Ryan and King 2011Goldstein was among the first to attempt interventions to ameliorate the deficits he identified. Subsequent wars have continued to provide rich clinical material such as that discussed by Newcombe 1969 and found in French 2009, a special issue of the Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation.

French, Louis M., ed. 2009. Special issue: TBI in the military. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 24.1. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Compilation of studies of veterans with traumatic brain injury from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Focus is on the Veterans Affairs system of care, with some emphasis on evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury, the signature injury of these conflicts. Studies of this group are especially important, given the recognition of the distance effects on cognition of blast injuries. Find this resource:

Newcombe, Freda. 1969. Missile wounds of the brain: A study of psychological deficits . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Classic book-length treatment of data from studies of World War II survivors, the majority from the D-Day invasion of Normandy. Particularly interesting for the detailed medical and neurosurgical records, meticulous and extensive testing (almost two dozen measures), and length of follow-upsome two decades. Find this resource:

Ryan, Joseph J., and Tricia Z. King. 2011. Kurt Goldstein. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 2. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 1166 1169. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Brief biography of an early-20th-century European pioneer in neuropsychological assessment and intervention. Find this resource:

Stringer, Anthony. 2011. Clinical neuropsychology. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 591594. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In addition to the text of the entry itself, which offers a concise historical summary, readers should consult this listing for many cross-references to biographies of historically important contributors to the field. Find this resource:

HALSTEAD AND ONWARD

In 1935 Ward Halstead opened the first US laboratory for the systematic study of neurology and neurosurgery patients. Stringer 2011 discusses how Halstead adapted certain tests from animal studies and developed still others, a process that was furthered by his student Ralph Reitan in his own laboratory, established in 1950 at the University of Indiana Medical Center (Juni 2011). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery set the standard for the fixed battery approach to neuropsychology. A contrasting qualitative approach to assessment, discussed byKolakowsky-Hayner and Caplan 2011, began to develop during the 1970s, which encouraged a more flexible perspective on neuropsychological testing, fostering analysis of process variablesthat is, taking into account not only the examinees scores and profile but the strategies employed to arrive at solutions. The work of the main proponents of this approach is discussed inKaplan 1988 and Lezak, et al. 2004 (cited under Textbooks and

Handbooks). During that same period, some neuropsychologists along with colleagues from other disciplines such as behavioral neurology, speech pathology, and occupational therapy began to break new ground for the field, developing intervention strategies under the rubric of cognitive rehabilitation or neuropsychological rehabilitation. Contemporary neuropsychologists are taking increasing advantage of technology to develop effective interventions to at least ameliorate, if not eliminate, functional impairments of people with impaired brains. Kirsch and Scherer 2010 offers a valuable summary of this exciting development. From a theoretical perspective, the landmark papers inGeschwind 1965 are an essential source. They lead the reader through the authors analysis of numerous neurobehavioral phenomena from a connectionist point of view. The careful observation and inventive assessment of individuals following surgical disconnection of the hemispheres (callosotomy) for the purpose of controlling intractable epilepsy merits mention. Initiated by the investigators led by Roger Sperry, as described in Zaidel, et al. 2003, the several series of split brain studies contributed unique insights about brai n function. Although admittedly obtained from persons with atypical brains, findings from these studies largely confirmed inferences about brain function obtained through other methods.

Geschwind, Norman. 1965. Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man. Brain 88:237294. DOI: 10.1093/brain/88.2.237Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The article continues in Part 2 on pp. 585644 of this issue. Classic connectionist papers from the preeminent American behavioral neurologist. These articles offer interpretations of clinical symptoms and syndromes in terms of connections (and disconnections) between brain regions responsible for discrete functions and serve a heuristic function, positing symptoms not then identified that ought to follow certain disconnections. Find this resource:

Juni, Aaron. 2011. Ralph Reitan. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 4. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 21402143. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Brief biographical entry of the major figure in the development of quantitative methods in clinical neuropsychology. Find this resource:

Kaplan, Edith. 1988. A process approach to neuropsychological assessment. In Clinical neuropsychology and brain function: Research, measurement, and practice. Edited by Thomas Boll and Brenda K. Bryant, 125 167. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/10063-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A clinically rich deconstruction, using Kaplans method of process analysis, of several neuropsychological tests, strategies patients use to solve them, and the interpretive significance of certain types of problem-solving approaches and errors. Find this resource:

Kirsch, N. L., and M. J. Scherer. 2010. Assistive technology for cognition and behavior. In Handbook of rehabilitation psychology. 2d ed. Edited by Robert G. Frank, Mitchell Rosenthal, and Bruce Caplan, 275284. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Review of the types of functional problems that assistive technologies can ameliorate, how best to match person and technological approach, principles of design, and reasons why individuals may abandon their use of these tools. Find this resource:

Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie, and Bruce Caplan. 2011. Qualitative neuropsychological assessment. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 4. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 20982099. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Concise description of the nature of qualitative assessment and review of several subtypes and applications to neuropsychology. Find this resource:

Stringer, Anthony. 2011. Ward Halstead. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 2. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 11991200. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Brief biographical entry of the man who orchestrated the first American neuropsychology laboratory and conducted the first systematic group studies of individuals with neurological disorders. Find this resource:

Stringer, Anthony Y., Eileen L. Cooley, and Anne-Lise Christensen, eds. 2002. Pathways to prominence in neuropsychology: Reflections of twentieth-century pioneers. New York: Psychology Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A highly accessible compilation of biographies and autobiographies (four and eleven, respectively) of major neuropsychological clinicians and researchers of the past century. Find this resource:

Zaidel, Eran, Marco Iacoboni, Dahlia W. Zaidel, and Joseph E. Bogen. 2003. The callosal syndromes. In Clinical neuropsychology. 4th ed. Edited by Kenneth M. Heilman and Edward Valenstein, 347403. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Superb, detailed treatment of historical background; growth of understanding of left -right distinctions; creative testing methods for restricting assessment to one or the other hemisphere; empirical findings related to different sensory modalities; studies of interhemispheric transfer and cueing methods; effects of partial disconnection; and implications of findings for notions of human consciousness. Find this resource:

INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES

The development of clinical neuropsychology was fostered in important respects by scientists and clinicians in many countries outside of North America. A glance at virtually any issue of a neuropsychological journal will reveal contributions by authors from around the globe. Space permits mention of only a few representative major figures. In addition to Goldsteins work with injured soldiers described in Early-20th-Century Advances, the studies by Alexander Luria in Russia (Luria 1966) and Oliver Zangwill in England (Zangwill 1947) of war-wounded individuals in their own countries were notable for their recognition that the determination of neuropsychological deficits should lead to efforts to ameliorate their effects. Meier, et al. 1987 (cited inNeuropsychological Rehabilitation) contains seven chapters describing rehabilitation programsin various European countries and Japan. In England, Wilson 1999 (cited in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation) carried on the tradition of Zangwill, making considerable use of the case-study approach. With Lurias input, the Danish neuropsychologist Anne -Lise Christensen attempted to systematize the Lurian approach to evaluation (which tended to be flexible and innovative), maintaining its qualitative character (Christensen 1975). Numerous Italian investigators have contributed to neuropsychological science and practice; among the most notable was Ennio De Renzi, who studied virtually every known neuropsychological phenomenon (see De Renzi 1982). Of the many French neuroscientists, Henri Hcaen is probably the most historically important, being the founding editor of the journal Neuropsychologia and coauthor of Human Neuropsychology (Hcaen and Albert 1978). Among neuropsychologists in Australia (where brain injury rehabilitation in particular has flourished), the standard was set by Walsh whose 1978 text is now in its fifth edition (Darby and Walsh 2005, cited under Hemispheric Specialization and Lobar/Regional Affiliation). Christensen, Anne-Lise. 1975. Lurias neuropsychological investigation. New York: Spectrum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Laudable effort to make evaluation based on Lurian principles available to a broader audience. Later used as the basis for the development of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, which Christensen resisted, viewing its quantitative approach as antithetical to Lurias methods. Find this resource:

De Renzi, E. 1982. Disorders of space exploration and cognition. Chichester, UK: John Wiley. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Scholarly summary of De Renzis and others investigations of various perceptual disorders including neglect and disorders of localization, orientation, depth perception, and problem solving. Find this resource:

Hcaen, Henri, and Martin L. Albert. 1978. Human neuropsychology. New York: John Wiley. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An early landmark text covering most known neuropsychological phenomena, emphasizing (but not exclusively) Hcaens work and that of his collaborators. Find this resource:

Luria, A. R. 1966. Higher cortical functions in man. Translated by Basil Haigh. New York: Basic Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Detailed treatment of Lurias conceptualization of the functional systems of the brain, the tests he developed to assess various cognitive functions, and his analysis of neuropsychological deficits. Dense reading, a better introduction being Lurias more straightforward case studies (Luria 1968,Luria 1972). Find this resource:

Luria, A. R. 1968. The mind of a mnemonist: A little book about a vast memory . Translated by Lynn Solotaroff. New York: Basic Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Engaging account of a man with remarkable memory ability and unique memory strategies. Find this resource:

Luria, A. R. 1972. The man with a shattered world: The history of a brain wound. Translated by Lynn Solotaroff. New York: Basic Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Describes Lurias work to understand, evaluate, and rehabilitate the multiple cognitive deficits of a survivor of a bomb blastinduced brain injury. Find this resource:

Zangwill, O. L. 1947. Psychological aspects of rehabilitation in cases of brain injury. British Journal of Psychology 37:6069. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Early overview of the problems confronted by, and several roles of, the psychologist in brain injury rehabilitation. Based on Zangwills five years personal experience in the Brain Injuries Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland. Constituted an attempt to sketch the first outlines of a systematic approach to the psychological problems of rehabilitation. Find this resource:
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Hemispheric Specialization and Lobar/Regional Affiliation


That the two hemispheres of the brain and their mirror-image lobes play somewhat unique roles in cognition is widely accepted (although, regrettably, the overgeneralization of scientific findings has produced a sort of dichotomania, especially in the fields of education and the arts, with supremely unsupportable postulations about right brain and left brain styles of thinking, learning, etc.). Most language -based functions reside in the left hemisphere, while the right hemisphere subserves perceptual and constructional functions. The preceding virtually always applies when one is considering strongly right-handed people; those with other forms of hand preference are less likely to have such well-lateralized functions. It is also critical to keep in mind that most neuropsychological domains are multifactorial; therefore, tests of certain functions can be failed because of deficits in any of several subfunctions. Thus, some elasticity inheres in the drawing of connections between brain sites and discrete behaviors. Blumenfeld 2010 consists of multiple illustrations of the process of lesion localization based on clinical presentation. Mendoza and Foundas 2008 offers a meticulous and highly detailed presentation of neuroanatomy as it relates to function. Readers seeking a more concise summary of the topic will likely be satisfied with Filley 2008. Hannay, et al. 2004 covers much of the same territory but also addresses pathological substrates and demographics. Considerable effort has been devoted to linking discrete functions to specific brain loci, and some success has been achieved (e.g., occipital lobe with visual processing; anterior portion of the left hemisphere with production of language; right parietal lobe with certain spatial operations); interested readers will profit from reviewing the relevant chapters in Darby and Walsh 2005. However, the intact brain typically functions as a unit, and it is generally following isolated damage (or lateralized stimulation in neurologically normal examinees using such techniques as tachistoscopic presentation) that clinicians have been able to forge these clinical-anatomical linkages. While the great majority of work has focused on the cerebral cortex, the contributions to cognition of both subcortical structures and the cerebellum have come to light in recent years, as discussed by Palmese 2011 and Schmahmann 2004, respectively.

Blumenfeld, Hal. 2010. Neuroanatomy through clinical cases. 2d ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The second edition of a widely used classic. Over one hundred cases are presented with detailed information about medical factors, behavioral manifestations, and neuroradiological findings. An accessible way for the clinician to acquire expertise in clinico-anatomical correlation. Find this resource:

Darby, David, and Kevin Walsh. 2005. Walshs neuropsychology: A clinical approach. 5th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Updated version of a classic text that concisely covers the history of the field, neuroanatomy, and assessment methods. Of particular relevance are the individual chapters devoted to discussion of the four lobes of the brain, the subcortical region, and hemispheric asymmetry. Find this resource:

Filley, C. M. 2008. Neuroanatomy for the neuropsychologist. In Textbook of clinical neuropsychology. Edited by Joel E. Morgan and Joseph H. Ricker, 6182. New York: Taylor & Francis. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A synopsis of functional neuroanatomy, coupled with discussion of organizational principles of brain function. Find this resource:

Hannay, H. Julia, Diane B. Howieson, David W. Loring, Jill S. Fischer, and Muriel D. Lezak. 2004. Neuropathology for neuropsychologists. In Neuropsychological assessment. 4th ed. Edited by Muriel D. Lezak, Diane B. Howieson, and David W. Loring, 157285. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Detailed discussion of the neuroanatomy and neuropathology underlying the most common clinical conditions encountered by neuropsychologists such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, dementia, and brain tumors. Attention is given to relevant demographics, etiology, risk factors, neurobehavioral manifestations, course, and outcome. Find this resource:

Mendoza, John E., and Anne L. Foundas, eds. 2008. Clinical neuroanatomy: A neurobehavioral approach. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A richly comprehensive, albeit dense, treatment of the structure and function of the nervous system, roughly one-third of which deals with the cerebral cortex. Particularly valuable are the many drawings, reproductions of various scans, and detailed tables of contents for each chapter. Find this resource:

Palmese, C. 2011. Subcortical dementia. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 4. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 24252427. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Brief review of several forms of dementia affecting subcortical regions. Contains a useful table contrasting features of cortical and subcortical dementias. Also discusses several types of interventions. Find this resource:

Schmahmann, Jeremy D. 2004. Disorders of the cerebellum: Ataxia, dysmetria of thought, and the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences 16:367378. DOI: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16.3.367Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Review of major consequences of cerebellar dysfunction by the leading researcher in this area. Of particular interest is the portion dealing with the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Find this resource:

Typical Populations
While the groups most commonly of interest to clinical neuropsychologists are those whose conditions have obvious direct effects on the brain (e.g., stroke, traumatic brain injury, anoxia, brain tumors, various forms of dementia), an increasing number of other conditions with indirect consequences for brain function have come to fall within the neuropsychologists purview. The edited volume Armstrong and Morrow 2010 (cited under Textbooks and Handbooks) encompasses both categories, containing chapters on neuropsychological effects of respiratory dysfunction, autism, endocrine disorders, and metabolic conditions. Hartman 1995 provides a detailed analysis of neurobehavioral consequences of exposure to such toxins as pesticides and solvents. Chapters such as Caplan 2010, Knopman and Selnes 2003, and Ricker 2010summarize relevant neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neurobehavioral consequences of stroke, dementia, and traumatic brain injury, respectively. The controversial area of mild traumatic brain injury is thoroughly evaluated in McCrea 2008. The edited volume Bush and Martin 2005 is a rich resource of information on the phenomenology of aging and its accompanying deteriorations, as well as the

neuropsychological assessment and treatment of same. The sizeable section 3 inMorgan and Ricker 2008 (cited under Textbooks and Handbooks) provides sophisticated consideration of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Encompassing both ends of the age spectrum is the Donders and Hunter 2010. As many disorders that were once thought to be functional (i.e., psychiatric) in nature have been shown to have organic (i.e., neuoranatomic and/or neurophysiologic) features, so, too, have neuropsychological assessments revealed cognitive deficits in conditions such as depression as detailed in Langenecker, et al. 2009. Valuable information relevant to many other populations that have been studied by clinical neuropsychologists may be found in section 4 of Morgan and Ricker 2008, section 2 of Grant and Adams 2009, and throughout Armstrong and Morrow 2010 (all of which are cited in Textbooks and Handbooks).

Bush, Shane S., and Thomas A. Martin, eds. 2005. Geriatric neuropsychology: Practice essentials . New York: Taylor & Francis. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Scholarly consideration of evaluation methods (interview, screening, and extended testing) including ways to modify tests when circumstances dictate; age-related neurobehavioral conditions such as stroke and Parkinsons Disease; sleep problems, substance abuse, and pain in the elderly; and recent work on decision-making capacity and ethical dilemmas with geriatric individuals. Find this resource:

Caplan, Bruce. 2010. Rehabilitation psychology and neuropsychology with stroke survivors. In Handbook of rehabilitation psychology. 2d ed. Edited by Robert G. Frank, Mitchell Rosenthal, and Bruce Caplan, 63 94. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Review chapter covering relevant epidemiology, risk factors, types of stroke, and neuropsychological consequences. Also discusses the multiple contributions made by rehabilitation psychologists to assessment, treatment, family support and education, and consultation. Find this resource:

Donders, Jacobus, and Scott J. Hunter. 2010. Principles and practice of lifespan developmental neuropsychology. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511674815Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Unique collection of chapters addressing disorders from a lifespan perspective. While some authors limit their discussion to a particular age range, others write from a lifespan point of view. For some conditions, there is a cluster of chapters, each focused on a different age range. For example, for brain injury, there are separate chapters on effects in childhood, adulthood, and older adulthood, as well as a chapter on adult outcome in pediatric brain injury and another more integrative contribution. Find this resource:

Hartman, David E., ed. 1995. Neuropsychological toxicology: Identification and assessment of human neurotoxic syndromes. 2d ed. New York: Plenum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Although important work has appeared in the last fifteen years, this book remains of great importance for its meticulous reviews of neurotoxicity effects of substances such as pesticides, solvents, prescription and nonprescription drugs, and other potentially harmful substances. Also reviews a number of test batteries developed for assessment of toxic exposure and addresses relevant legal issues. Find this resource:

Knopman, David, and Ola Selnes. 2003. Neuropsychology of dementia. In Clinical neuropsychology. 4th ed. Edited by Kenneth M. Heilman and Edward Valenstein, 574 616. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Addresses various forms of dementia and differential diagnosis, epidemiology, risk factors, and neuropsychological manifestations and assessment. While it emphasizes Alzheimers disease, there are also concise treatments of other forms of dementia such as vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and the HIV-related form. Find this resource:

Langenecker, Scott A., H. Jin Lee, and Linas A. Bieliauskas. 2009. Neuropsychology of depression and related mood disorders. In Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric and neuromedical disorders . 3d ed. Edited by Igor Grant and Kenneth M. Adams, 523559. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Useful summary of common findings of cognitive deficits (e.g., attention, memory, executive functioning, psychomotor speed) in depression as well as mediating factors and various subtypes. Consideration is given to insights from structural and functional imaging studies. The question of reversibility of cognitive decline is addressed. Find this resource:

McCrea, Michael A. 2008. Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: The New Evidence Base for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Detailed and balanced treatment of a controversial diagnosis offering current information on mechanics of brain injury, imaging studies, early neuropsychological consequences and their evolution, the range of factors affecting outcome, explanations for persistent symptomatology, and clinical management of those who manifest enduring problems. Each of the four major sections concludes with a top ten list of take -home messages. Find this resource:

Ricker, Joseph H. 2010. Traumatic brain injury. In Handbook of rehabilitation psychology. 2d ed. Edited by Robert G. Frank, Mitchell Rosenthal, and Bruce Caplan, 4362. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A succinct overview of epidemiology, causes, economic costs, neuropathology, assessment methods, natural history, and subsequent outcome measurement of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Roles of the psychologist during the acute, subacute, rehabilitation, and long-term phases are outlined with particular emphasis on intervention. Also covered are current standards of care for persons with TBI. Find this resource:

Morgan, Joel E. and Joseph H. Ricker. 2008. Disorders of childhood and adolescence. In Textbook of clinical neuropsychology. Edited by Joel E. Morgan and Joseph H. Ricker, 89359. New York: Taylor & Francis. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Eleven chapters by well-regarded experts covering the historical development of pediatric neuropsychology but focusing on discrete disorders such as brain tumors, pediatric epilepsy, hydrocephalus, autism, nonverbal learning disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Find this resource:

Methods
The earliest clinical neuropsychological studies were single-case descriptions such as those of Broca and Wernicke, a tradition carried on today in the journal Cognitive Neuropsychology. The books Kapur 1997 and Ogden 2005 consist of detailed N=1 reports, those in the former written by survivors themselves and those in the latter by the investigating neuropsychologist. Studies of soldiers injured in World War I by Franz and by Goldstein (see discussion in Early 20th-Century Advances) contributed greatly to the early growth of neuropsychological knowledge, and such studies have again assumed great importance in recent years. Systematic, large-scale studies of patients with brain lesions using the fixed battery approach (i.e., the same set of tests administered to all examinees, regardless of diagnosis, referral questions, or other factors) became prominent with the work of Halstead and his student Reitan (see Halstead and Onward), the current status of which is described by Reitan and Wolfson 2009. The contrasting flexible assessment strategy (in which test selection is dictated, in large part, by patient - and situationspecific factors) also evolved, spurred by the work of Kaplan, as described in Milberg, et al. 2009, and the work of Benton, discussed in Tranel 2009. In addition to testing of the individual patient, clinical neuropsychologists typically review background records pertaining to medical history, as described by Lerner and Schoenberg 2011, as well as educational and occupational experiences. This information allows one to gain some understanding of the individuals likely premorbid functioning, against which to compare current results to determine whether loss has occurred or deficits exist. An initial interview as discussed by Donders 2005 is generally mandatory, and when significant others are available to be questioned, they can be useful sources of information, both historical and current.

Donders, Jacobus. 2005. The clinical interview. In Geriatric neuropsychology: Practice essentials . Edited by Shane S. Bush and Thomas A. Martin, 1120. New York: Taylor & Francis. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reviews the essential elements, content, and conduct of the preliminary interview, as well as the importance of clarifying in advance the nature of the referral question and reviewing background records. Addresses the desirability of getting perspectives of significant others in the patients life and how to deal with conflicting reports between and among parties.

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Kapur, Narinder, ed. 1997. Injured brains of medical minds: Views from within. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A unique collection of over fifty first-person accounts by physicians and neuroscientists of the consequences of various forms of brain injury or dysfunction (e.g., traumatic brain injury, stroke, tumor) spanning over a century. Each insider report is accompanied by commentary from the editor discussing the case in light of contemporary science and practice. Find this resource:

Lerner, Alan J., and Mike R. Schoenberg. 2011. Deconstructing the medical chart. In The little black book of neuropsychology: A syndrome-based approach. Edited by Mike R. Schoenberg and James G. Scott, 3958. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-76978-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A user-friendly guide to reviewing and interpreting medical records. Explains abbreviations and laboratory tests as well as providing examples of common descriptions of the state of various body parts and organ systems. Find this resource:

Milberg, William P., Nancy Hebben, and Edith Kaplan. 2009. The Boston process approach to neuropsychological assessment. In Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric and neuromedical disorders. 3d ed. Edited by Igor Grant and Kenneth M. Adams, 4265. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In-depth explication of the development of Kaplans philosophy and methods, emphasizing the strateg ic path taken by examinees in solving problems as much as the answers they eventually reach. Interesting discussion of test modifications made in the service of testing the limits and extracting as much information as possible from common measures. Find this resource:

Ogden, Jenni A., ed. 2005. Fractured minds: A case study approach to clinical neuropsychology . 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A collection of detailed cases from the authors experience, each telling the patients story at a level that will appeal to the nonspecialist reader but also offering detailed discussion of neuropsychological assessment results, psychosocial consequences of the condition, results of interventions, and outcomes. Find this resource:

Reitan, Ralph M., and Deborah Wolfson. 2009. The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery for adults: Theoretical, methodological, and validational bases. In Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric and neuromedical disorders. 3d ed. Edited by Igor Grant and Kenneth M. Adams, 324. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Broad overview of the history, content, validity, interpretation methods, and applications of the battery, together with some emphasis on its role in forensic cases, especially where incomplete effort is a consideration. Find this resource:

Tranel, Daniel. 2009. The Iowa-Benton school of neuropsychological assessment. InNeuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric and neuromedical disorders . 3d ed. Edited by Igor Grant and Kenneth M. Adams, 6683. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Articulates the evolution of Arthur Bentons views and underlying philosophy of assessment. Discusses the core battery plus additional tests approach of this school of thought and also describes the training model. Considers the indications for neuropsychological testing and also touches on issues of report writing, use of technicians, and the development of a cognitive rehabilitation service. Find this resource:
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Tests/Measures

While individual differences certainly exist among neuropsychologists in preference for and use of particular measures, there is considerable consensus about the domains that must be assessed in a comprehensive evaluation. These would almost invariably include the major ones covered inLezak, et al. 2004: general intelligence, attention/concentration, verbal abilities, visual-spatial skills, constructional functions, basic sensation and motor functions, memory (multiple forms), executive functions, concept formation, personality/emotional status, and testtaking effort. It is acknowledged that most tests are multifactorial and that any such classification is slightly arbitrary, with categorization made according to the presumed primary skill tapped by the test.Rabin, et al. 2005 reports the results of a survey of the assessment practices and preferences of North American neuropsychologists, compiling a list of the most favored tests and also addressing the prevalences of different conceptual orientations to assessment.

Lezak, Muriel D., Diane B. Howieson and David W. Loring, eds. 2004. Neuropsychological assessment. 4th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The bible of clinical neuropsychological assessment, now in its fourth iteration. In addition to thorough coverage of relevant neuroanatomy, principles, and practices, this book provides detailed information on most tests in the neuropsychologists tool kit (grouped by purported primar y function), along with discussions of clinical findings. Find this resource:

Rabin, Laura A., William B. Barr, and Leslie A. Burton. 2005. Assessment practices of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada: A survey of INS, NAN, and APA Division 40 members. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 20:3365. DOI: 10.1016/j.acn.2004.02.005Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Survey results showing that just over two-thirds of respondents favored the flexible battery ap proach (i.e., using variable measures depending on referral questions, diagnosis, and other factors, but gravitating to consistent clusters of tests for particular populations), with only 11 percent favoring the fixed battery orientation and the remainde r using an individualized flexible approach. The most commonly used tests were the Wechsler scales of intelligence and memory, followed by the Trail Making Test, California Verbal Learning Test, Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Rey Complex Figure Test. No other measure of the forty tests listed was endorsed by more than 6 percent of respondents. Find this resource:

Factors Relevant to Test Interpretation


Neuropsychological test scores are a complex final common product of several factors, only one of which is the state of the brain. A major challenge in interpreting neuropsychological data, therefore, involves identifying the contributions to the obtained scores of other factors that can affect performance. Howieson, et al. 2004 offers detailed discussion of those influences that could be considered noise in the endeavor of assessing brain function. An obvious one is fatigue, the impact of which on several neurological conditions is covered in DeLuca 2005. Other moderating factors include age, education, race, gender, and occupational history; Tombaugh 2004 nicely illustrates how such factors must be taken into account, as expectations for normal performance can differ according to a given individuals educational opportunities, for example. The compilation of test norms in Heaton, et al. 2004 offers normative databases with adjustments for age, educational level, and gender. Mitrushina, et al. 2005 collects normative test data from various sources and provides relevant demographic information, thus allowing the clinician to select the database that most nearly matches the case at hand. Strauss, et al. 2006 discuss an impressive number of measures, offering descriptions of content, applicable age ranges, psychometric data, correlations with other tests, summaries of clinical studies, and extensive references, as well as some data tables and, in some instances, reproductions of the instruments themselves. Other factors that may be pertinent include ethnicity, as considered by Romero, et al. 2009; whether the examinee has been previously tested, the challenges of which are addressed by Heilbronner, et al. 2010; and whether the evaluation is part of the process of litigation, in which case, measures of effort/motivation are certainly necessary, as argued by Heilbronner, et al. 2009.

DeLuca, John, ed. 2005. Fatigue as a window to the brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Unique summary of work on nature, measurement, neurobehavioral effects, and management of fatigue in various medical and psychiatric conditions such as brain injury, stroke, and HIV. Find this resource:

Heaton, Robert K., S. Walden Miller, Michael J. Taylor, and Igor Grant, eds. 2004. Revised comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan battery: Demographically adjusted neuropsychological norms for African American and Caucasian adults. 4th ed. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Massive collection of tables with normative data for several dozen commonly used measures stratified by age, education, gender, and race. Find this resource:

Heilbronner, Robert L., Jerry J. Sweet, Deborah K. Attix, Kevin R. Krull, George K. Henry, and Robert P. Hart. 2010. Official position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology on serial neuropsychological assessments: The utility and challenges of repeat test administrations in clinical and forensic contexts. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 24:12671278. DOI: 10.1080/13854046.2010.526785Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Academy position paper summarizing the uses, advantages, and potential pitfalls of serial testing in neuropsychology. Repeat evaluations are necessary for assessment of effects of treatments and to evaluate decline in progressive conditions, but second and subsequent evaluation results may be subject to practice effects which complicate interpretation. Other relevant factors such as forensic context, test-retest interval, and intertest variability in susceptibility to practice effects are discussed. Find this resource:

Heilbronner, Robert L., Jerry J. Sweet, Joel E. Morgan, Glenn J. Larrabee, and Scott R. Millis. 2009. American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology consensus conference statement on neuropsychological assessment of effort, response bias, and malingering. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 23:10931129. DOI: 10.1080/13854040903155063Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Summarizes considerations and recommendations pertaining to importance and assessment of effort testing in various contexts as a means of establishing validity of test data. Guidelines apply to evaluation of patient-reported somatic symptoms, psychological problems, and cognitive deficits. Find this resource:

Howieson, Diane B., David W. Loring, and H. Julia Hannay. 2004. Neurobehavioral variables and diagnostic issues. In Neuropsychological assessment. 4th ed. Edited by Muriel D. Lezak, Diane B. Howieson, and David W. Loring, 286336. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Extensive treatment of several types of variables that can mediate performance on neuropsychological tests including characteristics of both the responsible lesion (size, location, rate of growth) and examinee (gender, handedness, race, age, education, medications, emotional state). Find this resource:

Mitrushina, Maura, Kyle B. Boone, Jill Razani, and Louis F. DElia, eds. 2005. Handbook of normative data for neuropsychological assessment. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Compilation of normative data on a more limited number of tests than other such collections but offering valuable reviews of the historical development of the measures, relations to demographic factors, guidelines for assessing the summarized empirical reports, and data tables with demographic information that allows clinicians to select the most useful database for their purposes. Also contains valuable concise discussions of methodological factors and interpretation of test data. Find this resource:

Romero, Heather R., Sarah K. Lageman, Vidya (Vidyulata) Kamath, Farzin Irani, Anita Sim, Paola Suarez, Jennifer J. Manly, and Deborah K. Attix. 2009. Challenges in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic minorities: Summit proceedings. The Clinical Neuropsychologist23:761779. DOI: 10.1080/13854040902881958Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Summarizes discussion groups at a 2008 topical conference emphasizing need for normative data from various ethnic groups, inclusion of ethnic awareness in education and training, and increasing recruitment of ethnic minorities into the field of neuropsychology. Find this resource:

Strauss, Esther, Elisabeth M. S. Sherman, and Otfried Spreen, eds. 2006. A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. 3d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Invaluable compilation primarily devoted to reviews of several dozen measures and presentation of normative databases, organized by domain. Each such section contains a summary table giving salient features of the measures dealt with therein, including age range, skills evaluated by the test, administration time, psychometric properties, etc. Also provides introductory chapters on psychometric concepts, history taking, test selection, examination process, and report writing. Find this resource:

Tombaugh, Tom N. 2004. Trail Making Test A and B: Normative data stratified by age and education. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 19:203214. DOI: 10.1016/S0887-6177(03)00039-8Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Representative paper demonstrating the need to consider demographic factors in interpreting neuropsychological data. Find this resource:

Forensic Applications
In the last two decades, the role of clinical neuropsychology in forensic settings has mushroomed, especially as applied to personal injury cases. The edited volume Larrabee 2005 provides a valuable overview of the topic. Virtually every issue of a clinical neuropsychology journal contains one or more articles dealing with a forensic topic. One journalThe Clinical Neuropsychologist(cited in Journals)established a regular section devoted to forensic topics, and for several years there was an entire journal called the Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology. The latters demise may well have resulted from established journals capturing so much of the relevant material. The great bulk of work in this area has dealt with assessment of effort or motivation and the relevance of these findings for possible diagnoses of malingering. Larrabee 2007 and by Boone 2007 offer thorough coverage of methods for detection of poor effort. Heilbronner, et al. 2009 (cited under Factors Relevant to Test Interpretation) provides a large number of case reports illustrating challenges and strategies for identifying impaired motivation in criminal, civil, and disability cases, as well as some treatment of ethical dilemmas. Clinical neuropsychologists also contribute their expertise to, among others, cases involving diminished capacity in criminal cases, as covered inDenney and Tyner 2010, proceedings where financial capacity is at issue, as discussed byWidera, et al. 2011, and to instances of onthe-job injury such as the case described by Axelrod 2005. However, it is likely that the great majority of cases where clinical neuropsychologists enter the legal realm involve accident-related traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the often perplexing picture that may follow mild TBI. Axelrod, Bradley N. 2005. Workers compensation and traumatic brain injury. In Forensic neuropsychology casebook. Edited by Robert L. Heilbronner, 1940. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Clearly written and detailed account of the authors involvement in the case of a client injured in a motor vehicle accident. The report follows the chronology from referral through assessment, report writing, pretrial preparation, testimony, and after-trial developments. Find this resource:

Boone, Kyle Brauer, ed. 2007. Assessment of feigned cognitive impairment: A neuropsychological perspective. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Roughly half of this edited volume discusses techniques for detection of exaggerated deficit using common neuropsychological tests or profile analysis, while the remainder considers effort testing in individuals with various conditions such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and toxic mold syndrome. Find this resource:

Denney, Robert L., and Elizabeth A. Tyner. 2010. Criminal law, competency, insanity, and dangerousness: Competency to proceed. In The handbook of forensic neuropsychology. 2d ed. Edited by Arthur MacNeill Horton Jr. and Lawrence C. Hartlage, 211234. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Addresses matters of competency and its evaluation in both the preconviction and postconviction phases as well as the process of attempting to restore competency. Also considers matters such as criminal responsibility and prediction of dangerousness Find this resource:

Larrabee, Glenn J., ed. 2005. Forensic neuropsychology: A scientific approach. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Excellent introduction and overview to the topic with coverage of the scientific basis of the field, techniques of assessment, and consideration of the often contentious relations and/or conflicting demands between law and neuropsychology. Individual chapters deal with different severities of brain injury, neurotoxic conditions, competence, criminal situations, and medically unexplained symptoms. Find this resource:

Larrabee, Glenn J., ed. 2007. Assessment of malingered neuropsychological deficits. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Chapters offer empirical evidence supporting techniques to identify motivational impairment using various neuropsychological and personality measures, including tests of sensory and motor function, executive skills, attention, and memory, as well as pattern analysis. Also addresses the effects of coaching of manifestations of malingering. Find this resource:

Widera, Eric, Veronika Steenpass, Daniel Marson, and Rebecca Sudore. 2011. Finances in the older patient with cognitive impairment: He didnt want me to take over. JAMA 305:698706. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.164Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reviews signs of impaired financial capacity in older adults as well as how best to assess and intervene in such cases. Importance of patient/family education is stressed, as is establishing the contributions of treating clinicians. Find this resource:
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Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
The advent of increasingly sophisticated and sensitive neuroradiological methods such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission scanning, and other related techniques had the inevitable effect of marginalizing the historically fundamental role of clinical neuropsychology i.e., to identify and localize brain damage or dysfunction. Coincidentally or not, there has been contemporaneous growth of interest and activity on the part of clinical neuropsychologists in the practice of what is variously called cognitive rehabilitation, neuro psychological rehabilitation, or cognitive remediation. Although some pioneers such as Goldstein, Luria, and Zangwill wrote of their intervention methods (see chapter 1 in Prigatano 1999), widespread efforts in this area did not flower until the 1970s. While not the exclusive province of neuropsychologists (as certain practices are shared with occupational therapists, speech therapists, and designated cognitive rehabilitation specialists), neuropsychologists have made numerous and unique contributions to the development of intervention techniques and assessment of their efficacy. The groundbreaking work of investigators at the Rusk Institute in New York was described in Diller and Gordon 1981. Other relatively early efforts in this area are described in Seron and Deloche 1989 and Meier, et al. 1987, which reveal the international scope of work in neuropsychological rehabilitation. The British neuropsychologist Barbara Wilson has been exceptionally productive, writing and editing books on the topic (e.g., Wilson 1999) and serving as founding and sole editor of the journal Neuropsychological Rehabilitation (cited inJournals), now a bimonthly journal, which first appeared in 1991. Prigatano 1999 offers an engrossing account of the development of the authors views and treatment programs. Stuss, et al. 2008 brings together many of the leading scientist-clinicians to discuss their more recent work using a variety of avenues of interventions targeted at cognitive deficits. Readers should also refer to Kirsch and Scherer 2011 (cited in Halstead and Onward) for discussion of some of the latest methods employing sophisticated technology. Rizzo, et al. 2004 discusses the many advantages of virtual reality technology in cognitive remediation and gives illustrative examples. The literature review Cicerone, et al. 2011 is the third in a series, each providing additional support for the efficacy of certain forms neuropsychological rehabilitation.

Cicerone, Keith D., Donna M. Langenbahn, Cynthia Braden, James F. Malec, Kathleen Kalmar, Michael Fraas, Thomas Felicetti, Linda Laatsch, J. Preston Harley, Thomas Bergquist, Joanne Azulay, Joshua Cantor, and Teresa Ashman. 2011. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 92:519530. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.11.015Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Systematic review of literature on neuropsychological rehabilitation targeted at impairments in domains such as memory, attention, and executive function, finding substantial support for such techniques. Offers empirically based practice standards, practice guidelines, and practice options, and also discusses relevant individual difference factors (e.g., etiology, level of severity) that should be considered in choosing intervention methods.

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Diller, Leonard, and Wayne A. Gordon. 1981. Rehabilitation and clinical neuropsychology. In Handbook of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Susan B. Filskov and Thomas J. Boll, 702733. New York: John Wiley. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The first synthesis of the pioneering work in neuropsychological rehabilitation conducted at the Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation beginning in the 1970s. Outlines the rehabilitation process, discusses conceptual foundations and models of intervention, and provides summaries of interventions to remediate unilateral neglect and constructional disability. Also offers a thoughtful consideration of emotional barriers to effective rehabilitation. Find this resource:

Meier, Manfred J., Arthur L. Benton, and Leonard Diller, eds. 1987. Neuropsychological rehabilitation. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Ambitious early effort to bring together developments to that time. Several chapters on assessment and methodological factors are followed by ten chapters presenting research typical of the time on interventions in cases of deficits in memory, perception, problem solving, and personality disorders. Nine chapters describe neuropsychological rehabilitation programs in Europe, Japan, and the United States. Find this resource:

Prigatano, George P. 1999. Principles of neuropsychological rehabilitation. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A valuable overview, emphasizing the authors extensive and groundbreaking experience, of the problems encountered in, techniques applied to, and process and outcome of neuropsychological rehabilitation. Prigatano uses his three principles as a scaffold on which to build his case conceptualizations and programmatic interventions. He gives due consideration to the patients point of view and to the interplay of cognitive problem and behavioral disorders in the genesis of presenting problems. Find this resource:

Rizzo, Albert A., Maria Schultheis, Kimberly A. Kerns, and Catherine Mateer. 2004. Analysis of assets for virtual reality applications in neuropsychology. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation14:207239. DOI: 10.1080/09602010343000183Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Outlines the advantages of using virtual reality (VR) technology in remediating cognitive and functional impairments accompanying brain dysfunction. VR permits precise control of stimuli and recording of responses, and allows safe rehearsal of daily activities. Find this resource:

Seron, Xavier, and Grard Deloche. 1989. Cognitive approaches in neuropsychological rehabilitation . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Focusing almost exclusively on European work, a few theoretical and conceptual chapters are followed by a handful of detailed case studies of interventions to ameliorate such deficits as anomia, neglect, and dyslexia. The use of computers is covered in a single chapter. Find this resource:

Stuss, Donald T., Gordon Winocur, and Ian H. Robertson. 2008. Cognitive neurorehabilitation: Evidence and application. 2d ed. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Recent updating and thorough revision of a comprehensive text including discussions of principles underlying research and clinical care such as plasticity and compensation; role of imaging techniques in assessment and evaluating outcome; behavioral, neuropsychological, and pharmacologic approaches to treatment; and factors that affect outcome. The text provides a comprehensive overview of the field. Find this resource:

Wilson, Barbara A. 1999. Case studies in neuropsychological rehabilitation. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Written by one of the fields most productive and c reative clinicians, this is a lively collection of case studies of individuals with a variety of neuropsychological disabilities including memory deficits, reading impairment, and perceptual difficulties.

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Training Programs
Issues of education and training were central concerns of the major figures in the professionalization of the field, with guidelines first laid out by Meier 1981 and subsequent writings such as Bieliauskas 2008 and others. A significant landmark was the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology, whose proceedings are summarized in Hannay 1998, where participants developed recommendations for training of those who wished to specialize in clinical neuropsychology. Donders 2011 recounts the work of the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology to implement training procedures leading to competence in the specialty.

Bieliauskas, L. A. 2008. The preparation of the clinical neuropsychologist: Contemporary training models and specialization. In Textbook of clinical neuropsychology. Edited by Joel E. Morgan, and Joseph H. Ricker, 18 24. New York: Taylor & Francis. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise overview of developments since Meier 1981, including discussion of the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its associated academy, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology, the formation of the Clinical Neuropsychology Synarchy, and the Houston conference on specialization. Find this resource:

Donders, Jacobus. 2011. Association of postdoctoral programs in clinical neuropsychology. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 269 270. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Describes the mission and activities of this group of some fifty programs committed to maintenance of high standards in postdoctoral education and training of clinical neuropsychologists. Find this resource:

Hannay, H. Julia, ed. 1998. Special issue: Proceedings of the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology13.2. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Detailed record of the conference including list of participants, summaries of discussions from small groups and plenary sessions, and policy statements. Find this resource:

Meier, Manfred J. 1981. Education for competency assurance in human neuropsychology: Antecedents, models, and directions. In Handbook of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Susan B. Filskov and Thomas J. Boll, 754781. New York: John Wiley. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The first significant attempt to establish the professional context of clinical neuropsychology and to outline models and content of education and training for the field. Find this resource:

Organizations
There are three major neuropsychology organizations: The International Neuropsychological Society (INS), the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN), and Division 40 of the American Psychological Association. There is considerable overlap of membership between and among these groups, but as noted by McCartney 2011a, the INS makes special efforts to engage members outside of the United States, such as holding one of the two annual meetings outside of North America, serving as a conduit for professional texts to be sent to developing countries, and having an International Liaison Committee. Since its formation in 1967, the INS has grown from roughly twenty original members to over 4,500 members around the world. The society publishes a peer-reviewed journal six times per year (Journal of the International Neuropsychological Societycited in Journals) offering a blend of empirical research, literature reviews, book reviews, and grand rounds and occasional symposia or special sections dealing with a single topic. As described by Barr 2011, Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) came into being in 1980 to

provide a home for members of APA interested in brain-behavior relations. Puente and Marcotte 2000discusses Division 40s role as mediator between subgroups with differing orientations to aspects of practice. In its first three decades, membership grew from 433 to over 5,300, in so doing making it the second largest of the APA divisions. According to McCartney 2011b, the National Academy of Neuropsychology originated in 1975 and by 2010 had grown to over 3,300 members from some two dozen countries. The website contains over a dozen position papers on such topics as use of technicians, evaluation of sports concussion, testing of effort and motivation, and preserving test security. NANs official journal, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (cited inJournals), published eight times per year, contains empirical research articles, case studies, literature reviews, meeting abstracts, and book reviews. Other organizations (e.g., the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology (ABCN), the American Board of Professional Neuropsychology) offer credentialing procedures leading to board certification. According to Yeates and Bieliauskas 2004, the ABCN incorporated in 1981 and formally affiliated with the American Board of Professional Psychology two years later with a fundamental purpose of granting board certification in clinical neuropsychology. Westerveld and Yeates 2011 notes that, as of 2005, applicants training should be consistent with the guidelines developed at the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. As of 2010, nearly 750 individuals had passed the credentials review, submission of work samples, and written and oral examinations required to become board certified. Meyers 2011 describes the evolution of the American Board of Professional Neuropsychologys examination process, objectives, affiliation with the journal Applied Neuropsychology (cited in Journals), and association with the American College of Professional Neuropsychology.

Barr, William. 2011. American Psychological Association (APA), Division 40. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 135138. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Summary of the divisions history, mission, major contributions, and annual activities. Find this resource:

McCartney, Rebecca E. 2011a. International Neuropsychological Society. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 2. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 13451346. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Overview of the societys origin and growth, membership, mission, and major activities. Find this resource:

McCartney, Rebecca E. 2011b. National Academy of Neuropsychology. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 3. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 17031705. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Overview of the academys origin and growth, membership, mission, and major activities. Find this resource:

Meyers, John E. 2011. American Board of Professional Neuropsychology. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 125126. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Summarizes the formation, growth, mission, and major activities of the board. Find this resource:

Puente, Antonio E., and Ann C. Marcotte. 2000. A history of Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology). In Unification through division: Histories of the divisions of the American Psychological Association. Vol. 5. Edited by Donald A. Dewsbury, 137150. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/10356-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A more comprehensive history of Division 40. Summarizes the development of the division, its administrative structure, officers, committees, awards, and task forces. Briefly notes the role the division played as a neutral meeting ground during a period of marked disagreements between the other two major neuropsychology organizations, the International Neuropsychology Society and National Academy of Neuropsychology. Find this resource:

Westerveld, Michael, and Keith O. Yeates. 2011. American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology. In Encyclopedia of clinical neuropsychology. Vol. 1. Edited by Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, and Bruce Caplan, 117120. New York: Springer.

DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Overview of the history, mission, membership, and major activities of the ABCN. Find this resource:

Yeates, Keith Owen, and Linas A. Bieliauskas. 2004. The American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology: Milestones past and present. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 18:489493. DOI: 10.1080/1385404049089933Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Summarizes significant events in the life of ABCN and discusses the creation of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, whose primary purpose is to orchestrate continuing education and advocacy for the field.

Cognitive Anthropology
Giovanni Bennardo

Introduction
Cognitive anthropology is the study of human cognition in cultural and cross-cultural contexts. Cognition is investigated both as content, or knowledge, and as process(es), such as reasoning. The cultural context typically includes an ontology, a geographical location, language(s), social relationships, values, and beliefs. Cognition is conceived as playing a mediating role between perceiving and codifying/classifying the world, such as the formation of and relationships among concepts, and also guiding and generating behavior in that same world. This anthropological focus on cognition, while present since the inception of the discipline, became more prominent in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The focus on kinship, color, and ethnobotany gave way in the 1970s and 1980s to the investigation of a number of knowledge domains whose results were conducive to universalistic claims out of crosscultural variability. Rich in theoretical approachesabout the mind, such as generativism, linguistic relativity, distributed cognition, cognition in practice, and cultural models, cognitive anthropologists have shown a keen attention to the acquisition of empirical data and the use of innovative methodology, including componential analysis, experimental tasks, consensus analysis, discourse analysis, and social network analysis. After looking at the contemporary research conducted in cognitive anthropology, the article ends with a view of trends for future development.

General Overviews
As outlined in Blount 2011, the focus on the mind as the locus of culture was characteristic of anthropology since its inception, as far back as in Tylor 1871, which offers the classic definition of the concept of culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (p. 1). In the first half of the 20th century, the same focus is clearly present in the work of some founding fathers of anthropology, such as Boas 1911a, Boas 1911b, Sapir 1921, Whorf 1956, Lvy-Bruhl 1925, and Lvi-Strauss 1962 (all cited under Roots). In Goodenough 1957, culture is defined as whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its member . . . It is the form of things that people have in mind, their models for perceiving, relating, and otherwise interpreting them (p. 167). This definition clearly affirmed that culture is essentially a mental phenomenon. This manifesto generated a great amount of research, which was first labeled the New Ethnography and was later assigned the name of cognitive anthropology. Key examples of this research include Casson 1981, Dougherty 1985, Spradley 1972, and Tyler 1969(see also DAndrade 1995, cited under the New Ethnography). Listed in chronological order, three major lines of research can be found within cognitive anthropology: research on a number of knowledge domains, such as Kinship, Color, and Ethnobotany; research on Cultural Models; and research on linguistic relativity (see the New Linguistic Relativity). These lines of research are discussed in Levinson 1995 and Brown 2006. Blount, B. G. 2011. A history of cognitive anthropology. In A companion to cognitive anthropology. Edited by D. B. Kronenfeld, G. Bennardo, V. C. de Munck, and M. D. Fischer, 1129. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/9781444394931Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The most recent piece in which a brief history of cognitive anthropology is delineated. Especially insightful is the treatment of the roots of the discipline since Tylors definiti on of culture (see Tylor 1871). Latest and future research trends close the piece. Find this resource:

Brown, P. 2006. Cognitive anthropology. In Language, culture, and society: Key topics in linguistic anthropology. Edited by C. Jourdan and K. Tuite, 96114. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511616792Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An outline of the history of cognitive anthropology is followed by a focus on the work on cultural models and on linguistic relativity in the domain of space in the 1990s. Find this resource:

Casson, R. W. 1981. General introduction. In Language, culture, and cognition: Anthropological perspectives . By R. W. Casson, 110. New York: Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A brief introduction to cognitive anthropology in which special emphasis is devoted to language. Contributions of culture and personality, structural anthropology, and symbolic anthropology are also acknowle dged. Find this resource:

Dougherty, J. W. D. 1985. Introduction. In Directions in cognitive anthropology. By J. W. D. Dougherty, 314. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The Chomskian-derived cultural grammar concept is considerate inadequate in light of several years of research in cognitive anthropology. Culture learned and constructed by the individual is now proposed as embedded in context. Find this resource:

Goodenough, W. H. 1957. Cultural anthropology and linguistics. In Report of the Seventh Annual Round Table Meeting on Linguistics and Language Study. Edited by Paul L. Garvin, 167173. Monograph Series on Languages and Linguistics 9. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this work one finds a clear statement about the study of culture being similar to the study of language. The widely cited definition of culture as a mental phenomenon is also contained in this seminal short article. Find this resource:

Levinson, S. C. 1995. Cognitive anthropology. In Handbook of pragmatics. Edited by J. Verschueren, J. stman, and J. Blommaert, 100105. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Starting from an acknowledgment of the decline of cognitive anthropology in the late 1980s, Levinson outlines the path within which it can reacquire the prominence it deserves. Find this resource:

Spradley, J. P. 1972. Foundations of cultural knowledge. In Culture and cognition: Rules, maps, and plans. Edited by J. P. Spradley, 338. London: Chandler. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Clearly in line with linguistic theorizing of the time (see Chomskys generative -transformational grammar), this piece provides an assessment of the working of the individual mind and the collective/cultural mind. The whole itinerary from perception to action through cognition is presented. Find this resource:

Tyler, S. A. 1969. Introduction. In Cognitive anthropology. Edited by S. A. Tyler, 123. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The first and most explicit manifesto of what cognitive anthropology is supposed to be. Special emphasis is devoted to methodology and especially to obtaining linguistic data and how to analyze them. Find this resource:

Tylor, E. B. 1871. Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art, and custom. London: Murray. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this work Tylor laid out his theory of cultural evolutionism, wherein humans are supposed to have evolved through different stages represented by the various cultures in the world (the European one being at the pinnacle of this process). It is here that one finds his famous definition of culture. Find this resource:
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Roots
After Tylor 1871 (cited under General Overviews) attempted to define culture as an all-inclusive system in which mental, emotional, and behavioral phenomena participate, it was Boas 1911aand Boas 1911b that drew attention to the similarity between language and culture. Basically, Boas pointed to the mental nature of both, with language as part of culture, and consequently justifying his focus on the former as the unavoidable first step in the understanding of any culture. In line with Boas, Sapir 1921 and Whorf 1956 also paid attention to language, concluding that any way of thinking by speakers of a specific language was influenced by the form (semantic and syntactic) of that same language. The suggestions of Sapir and Whorf are summarized under the label linguistic relativity and represent one of the major lines of research within the rubric of cognitive anthropology. On the other side of the Atlantic, the pioneering work of Lvy-Bruhl 1925(see Morton 1986) made the investigation of the native mind a legitimate research project. Three decades later, Levi-Strauss 1962 consolidated the approach by making the cross-cultural investigation of the human mind the appropriate endeavor in search of universal mental characteristics. In addition, Bateson 1936, while discussing the Naven ceremony of the Iatmul people of Papu a New Guinea, found compelling cognitive arguments necessary to arrive at any kind of explanation. The roots for a systematic attention to be devoted to culture as residing in the mind of the individual were clearly planted and ready to sprout.

Bateson, G. 1936. Naven: A survey of the problems suggested by a composite picture of the culture of a New Guinea tribe drawn from three points of view. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A detailed analysis of a Papua New Guinean ceremony, that is, Naven, allows Bateson to introduce the fundamental distinction between ethos, the emotional side, and eidos, the rational/cognitive side, of individuals and communities, as both participate in the construction of the event and of its numerous meanings. Find this resource:

Boas, F. 1911a. Introduction. In Handbook of American Indian languages. By F. Boas, 183. Bulletin 40, Part I, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A succinct and clear description of cultural and linguistic characteristics and how they relate to thought. A manifesto of Boass vast and successful project to record and preserve Native American cultures by ess entially writing down their languages. Find this resource:

Boas, F. 1911b. The mind of primitive man. New York: Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Arguing against an evolutionary approach to the study of culture, Boas presents universal characteristics of language, mind, and culture, utilizing data from populations in almost any corner of the world. Find this resource:

Lvi-Strauss, C. 1962. The savage mind. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A sophisticated walk through many cultures of the world in search of mental universals, either structural (concepts/categories) or operational (processes like transformations). Find this resource:

Lvy-Bruhl, L. 1925. How natives think. New York: A. A. Knopf. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In a survey of numerous cultures throughout the world, Lvy-Bruhl points out that the nature of their collective representations is mystical and that they operate according to a prelogical mentality regulated by the law of participation. While clearly lacking scientific rigor, his suggestions still hold some validity, and, above all, they made the study of other peoples cognition a possible, legitimate, and necessary realm of investigation. Find this resource:

Morton, J. 1986. Being in two minds: Critical remarks on Primitive Mythology and the rehabilitation of LvyBruhl. Canberra Anthropology 9.1: 2359. DOI: 10.1080/03149098609508542Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article contains a critical evaluation of the work of Lvy-Bruhl in the light of contemporary anthropological theory. The importance of Lvy-Bruhls work for anthropology is highlighted vis --vis its shortcomings. Find this resource:

Sapir, E. 1921. Language: An introduction to the study of speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A fundamental work in which Sapir introduces the reader to a rich description and understanding of the linguistic system. His seminal ideas about how language influences the content of thought are to be found here. Find this resource:

Whorf, B. L. 1956. Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf . Edited by J. B. Carroll. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent collection of Whorfs major writings spanning almost two decades of his p roduction. His influential ideas about the relationship between language, thought, and culture are clearly presented. Original works written 1927 1941. Find this resource:

The New Ethnography


In the late 1950s and early 1960s, influenced by structuralist methodology and generativist theory, both in linguistics and standing tall on the shoulders of their predecessors, a number of anthropologists published research results that aimed at systematizing a few human knowledge domains in a way that allowed or suggested universalistic claims about human cognition out of cross-cultural variability; see, for example, Burling 1969 and Frake 1962. The three most common topics were that of kinship terminology (Lounsbury 1956 and Lounsbury 1964), color terminology (Conklin 1955), and ethnobotany (Casson 1981). The reason to focus on these three domains is dictated by anthropological tradition (e.g., kinship), but also and importantly by the fact that they represent domains whose borders are clearly delineated by a closed set of lexical items. In addition, a number of members of these sets, even if minimal (two in the case of color), are universally found throughout the languages of the world. The adoption of componential analysis, as outlined in Goodenough 1956, proved to be a powerful tool in the cross-cultural investigation of semantic domains as fundamental aspects of the human mind. It allowed the discovery of out-ofawareness structures and organizations behind the lexemes that characterize any specific domain of knowledge. The first enthusiastic adoption of such a methodology was followed by the realization that asserting the psychological reality of the discovered structures required more empirical evidence and support (DAndrade 1995).

Burling, R. 1969. Linguistic and ethnography description. American Anthropologist 71.5: 817827. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1969.71.5.02a00030Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A clear suggestion that linguistic methodology and findings, that is, rules, are of the same nature as the methodology to be used and the possible findings to be obtained in describing cultural systems. Find this resource:

Casson, R. W. 1981. Folk classification: Relativity and universality. In Language, culture, and cognition: Anthropological perspectives. By R. W. Casson, 7591. New York: Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A good introduction to the theory and methods of the new ethnography research projects in anthropology. One also finds a presentation of the basic tenets of the research in ethnobotany, color, and kinship. Find this resource:

Conklin, H. C. 1955. Hanuno color categories. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 11.4: 339344. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An early and limited application of componential analysis to the domain of color. Find this resource:

DAndrade, R. 1995. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139166645Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A fascinating insider history of forty years of cognitive anthropology. The connection between the simultaneous development of ideas in anthropology, linguistics, and psychology is captured in its entirety. Find this resource:

Frake, C. 1962. The ethnographic study of cognitive systems. In Anthropology and human behavior. Edited by Thomas Gladwin and William C. Sturtevant, 7285. Washington, DC: Anthropological Society of Washington.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Seminal piece on the methodology for discovering emic/cognitive organization of knowledge in several domains. Find this resource:

Goodenough, W. H. 1956. Componential analysis and the study of meaning. Language 32.1: 195216. DOI: 10.2307/410665Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Seminal work wherein componential analysis from linguistics is applied to the study of kinship terminology, specifically the Trukese kinship terminology. This article was very influential in generating a number of research projects later labeled New Ethnography. Find this resource:

Lounsbury, F. G. 1956. A semantic analysis of the Pawnee kinship usage. Language 1.32: 158194. DOI: 10.2307/410664Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Like Goodenough 1956, this article is a seminal work on componential analysis as applied to kinship terminology. The Pawnee kinship terminology is used to illustrate the methodology. Find this resource:

Lounsbury, F. G. 1964. The structural analysis of kinship semantics. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguists, Cambridge, MA, August 2731, 1962. Edited by Horace Gray Lunt, 10731093. The Hague: Mouton. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A componential analysis of a kinship terminology (Seneca, an Iroquois tribe) conceived as a paradigm. The illustration of the methodology is the principal objective of the article. Find this resource:

KINSHIP

From the mid-1950s through the mid-1960s, two scholars, Ward H. Goodenough and Floyd Glen Lounsbury, revolutionized the study of kinship systems (see Lounsbury 1956, Lounsbury 1964, and Goodenough 1956, all cited under the New Ethnography, and Lounsbury 1964 andGoodenough 1965 in this section). They adopted a subset of discovery procedures from structuralist linguistics, now called componential analysis, and arrived at a few generative rulessimilarly and contemporaneously introduced in linguistics by Chomsky 1957to provide a revolutionary number of analyses of kinship terminologies, including the English kinship terminology exemplified by Wallace and Atkins 1960 and Romney and DAndrade 1964. A decade later, when many aspects of generative linguistics were dominating the research conducted in psychology and other disciplines, Lehman and Witz 1974 and Lehman and Witz 1979 comprised a fully formal analysis of what the authors called Primary Genealogical Space (PGS). The relationships between PGS and kinship terminology became a compelling issue to which cognitive anthropologists would return to some years later (see Contemporary Research).

Chomsky, N. 1957. Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is possibly one of the most influential books in the history of linguistics. Its publication opened the way to the generative-transformational approach in linguistics. Find this resource:

Goodenough, W. 1965. Yankee kinship terminology: A problem in componential analysis.American Anthropologist 67.5: 259287. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1965.67.5.02a00820Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An original application of componential analysis to the English kinship terminology. The statement that it is possible to obtain multiple structures that generate the same terminology opens the article. Find this resource:

Lehman, F. K., and K. Witz. 1974. Prolegomena to a formal theory of kinship. In Genealogical mathematics: Proceedings of the MSSB Conference on Genealogical Mathematics, February 28 March 3, 1974, at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Center for Demographic and Population Genetics. Edited by P. Ballonoff, 111134. The Hague: Mouton. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

This article represents a mathematical approach to the domain of kinship whose generative nature is demonstrated. A Primary Genealogical Space (PGS) is proposed as underlying the terminological labeling of kinship relationships. Find this resource:

Lehman, F. K., and K. Witz. 1979. A formal theory of kinship: The transformational component. Committee on Culture and Cognition Report 11. Urbana: Committee on Culture and Cognition, Univ. of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Clearly in line with the Chomskian generative-transformational approach to language, Primary Genealogical Space (PGS) is conceived as having a transformational component as well. Find this resource:

Lounsbury, F. G. 1964. A formal account of the Omaha- and Crow-type kinship terminologies. InExplorations in cultural anthropology. Edited by W. H. Goodenough, 351393. New York: McGraw-Hill. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The methodology, componential analysis, applied by both Goodenough 1956 and Lounsbury 1956 (both cited under the New Ethnography) to specific kinship terminology, is now applied to classical types of terminology; that is, Omaha and Crow types. These latter comprise a number of terminologies to be found in many parts of the world. Find this resource:

Romney, A. K., and R. G. DAndrade. 1964. Cognitive aspects of English kin terms. American Anthropologist 66.3: 146170. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1964.66.3.02a00870Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Anticipating the opening statement in Goodenough 1965, the authors show that the analysis inWallace and Atkins 1960 on the English kinship terminology obtained a paradigm different from the one they suggest. The results of a triadic similarity judgment task provide support toward greater psychological reality for Romney and DAndrades proposal. Find this resource:

Wallace, A. F. C., and J. Atkins. 1960. The meaning of kinship terms. American Anthropologist62.1: 5880. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1960.62.1.02a00040Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation After defining two methods of semantic analysis, a traditional kin-type designation method and a componential analysis method, Wallace and Atkins use the latter to conduct an analysis of the English kinship terminology. They also raise some doubts about the possibility of componential analysis to yield an accurate description of the speakers mental models. Find this resource:

COLOR

In the tradition of Boas, Sapir, and Whorf, the research on color terminology provided further support to the idea that language influences thought/cognition; that is, linguistic relativity (seeGeddes 1946, Ray 1952, and Lenneberg and Roberts 1956). Berlin and Kay 1969 changed the nature of that research. The linguistic evolution of color terminologies was now conceived as depending on the neurophysiology of vision. The link Berlin and Kay drew between perception and language, though, traverses a huge part of human cognition. Thus it was unavoidable that the ever-increasing data becoming available through the use of the Mansell chips, initiated by Berlin and Kay, would fuel controversy over the original conclusions they had presented. In addition, the newly suggested theories about human categorization, from prototype to fuzzy sets to family resemblance (Rosch 1973 and Rosch 1978), also contributed to the changing significance and interpretations of those data (Kay 1975 and Kay and McDaniel 1978).

Berlin, B., and P. Kay. 1969. Basic color terms: Their universality and evolution. Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation After collecting data from ninety-eight languages across almost all major linguistic families, the authors arrive at the revolutionary conclusion that whatever number of color terms a language has (that is, from two to eleven), they would cover the whole color spectrum. Besides, all languages develop their color vocabulary in seven stages representing an implicational order. The key concept of basic color term is introduced. Find this resource:

Geddes, W. R. 1946. The color sense of Fijian natives. British Journal of Psychology: General Section 37.1: 3036. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1946.tb01274.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A relativistic argument is presented in which Fijians are reported as emphasizing more intensity than hue in their color terminology. Find this resource:

Kay, P. 1975. Synchronic variability and diachronic change in basic color terms. Language in Society 4.3: 257270. DOI: 10.1017/S0047404500006667Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The original content of the seven stages of the developmental sequence for the evolution of color terminology is here revised. Newly reported data make stage three slightly more complex than previously thought specifically, the green-yellow area. Inter-speaker variation and synchronic variability due to the nature of the socio-cultural-linguistic context of use are discussed. Find this resource:

Kay, P., and C. K. McDaniel. 1978. The linguistic significance of the meanings of basic color terms. Language 54.3: 610646. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Influenced by fuzzy set theory, the authors suggest six neural response categories representing six focal colors that intergrade with the neighboring ones. Neuronal responses remain prior to linguistic categorization/encoding. Find this resource:

Lenneberg, E. H., and J. Roberts. 1956. The language of experience: A study in methodology. Supplement to International Journal of American Linguistics. Indiana University Publications in Anthropology and Linguistics 13. Baltimore: Waverly. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors show that having specific color terms in ones language helps English speakers to memorize certain color discriminations, such as yellow versus orange, compared to Zuni speakers, who have no such lexical discrimination. Find this resource:

Ray, V. F. 1952. Techniques and problems in the study of human color perception.Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 8.3: 251259. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation After some experimental tasks administered to speakers of ten different languages, a deterministic stand is introduced in which perception is thought of as unstructured and the categorization of the visual flow is imposed by people through their linguistic categories. Find this resource:

Rosch, E. H. 1973. On the internal structure of perceptual and semantic categories. InCognitive development and the acquisition of language. Edited by T. M. Moore, 111114. New York: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Categories, either perceptual (e.g., color) or semantic (e.g., bird), are not set -theoretic (based on necessary and sufficient features), but are structured around a core of exemplary/prototypical members. This came to be known as prototype theory. Find this resource:

Rosch, E. H. 1978. Principles of categorization. In Cognition and categorization. Edited by E. H. Rosch and B. B. Lloyd, 2848. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Prototype theory is here presented as an aspect of the human categorization process that may very well include other aspects, such as classic set-theoretic ones. Find this resource:

ETHNOBOTANY

All languages have a closed set of words that refer to the botanical world their speakers inhabit. These lexical sets are proposed to be the results of a universal mental organization, or taxonomy, of the botanical world, as discussed in Berlin, et al. 1966; Berlin, et al. 1973; and Conklin 1972. In a similar fashion, cross-linguistics and cross-cultural research findings allow works such asBerlin 1972 to suggest that the growth of this mental taxonomy takes place in a specific order no matter which community of people is undertaking it. A debate followed, exemplified by Dougherty 1978, about the level at which the taxonomy started developmentally, and cultural saliency proved to be a major contributing factor. Similarly, perceptual saliency was suggested, particularly inHunn 1977, to be a fundamental aspect behind the construction of the botanical world classification. An extension of the characteristics of botanical classification onto human anatomy, which is to say partonomy, was also significantly proposed, as in Brown 1976.

Berlin, B. 1972. Speculation on the growth of ethnobotanical nomenclature. Language in Society 1.1: 5186. DOI: 10.1017/S0047404500006540Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The set of names for plants grows with cultural development. This growth follows a universal path in languages and cultures throughout the world. Find this resource:

Berlin, B., D. E. Breedlove, and P. H. Raven. 1966. Folk taxonomies and biological classification.Science 154.3746: 273275. DOI: 10.1126/science.154.3746.273Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In Chiapas, Mexico, Tzeltal-speaking people classify their botanical world in a manner that differs from a biological classification. Typology of differences and their underlying cultural reasons are presented and discussed. Find this resource:

Berlin, B., D. E. Breedlove, and P. H. Raven. 1973. General principles of classification and nomenclature in folk biology. American Anthropologist 75.1: 214242. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1973.75.1.02a00140Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation After a review of several classification systems in many cultures around the world, a number of universal principles are suggested. The nature of the classification is taxonomic; it is based on no more than six levels, and the generic level is the most salient. Find this resource:

Brown, C. H. 1976. General principles of human anatomical nomenclature partonomy and speculations on the growth of partonomic nomenclature. American Ethnologist 3.3: 400424. DOI: 10.1525/ae.1976.3.3.02a00020Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Expanding the ethnobotanical project, Brown examines forty-one languages around the world to conclude that a taxonomic classification of the human body, or partonomy, represents an equally valid universal aspect of human cognition. Find this resource:

Conklin, H. C. 1972. Folk classification: A topically arranged bibliography of contemporary and background references through 1971. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A rich bibliographic work on worldwide folk classifications that represents a point of reference for anybody interested in the topic. Find this resource:

Dougherty, J. W. D. 1978. Salience and relativity in classification. American Ethnologist 5.1: 6680. DOI: 10.1525/ae.1978.5.1.02a00060Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In a comparative (Berkeley and Tzeltal children) and longitudinal work on the acquisition of names for plants, Dougherty reaches the conclusion that cultural salience determines the entry point, either generic or life form, for the mental construction of a botanical taxonomy. Find this resource:

Hunn, E. S. 1977. Tzeltal folk zoology: The classification of discontinuities in nature . New York: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A student of Berlin, Hunn complements the extensive work conducted on Tzeltal folkbiology by his teacher. He renews the stress on the strict connection between perceived differences in nature and mental/linguistic classificatory effort. Find this resource:

Growth of Cognitive Anthropology (1970s1980s)


From the early 1970s through the middle 1980s, several books were published in which cognitive anthropology was consistently used as the label for a growing amount of research in anthropology, such as Tyler 1969, Spradley 1972, Casson 1981, and Dougherty 1985. In spite of the fact that the three domains of kinship, color, and ethnobotany were still dominating the scene, new foci emerged. Classification of ceramics (Kempton 1981), beer categories in Munich, urban nomads, navigation systems (Hutchins 1983), salmon fishing, arithmetic, and reasoning (Hutchins 1980) represent a few examples.

Casson, R. W., ed. 1981. Language, culture, and cognition: Anthropological perspectives . New York: Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent collection of articles that clearly illustrate the fields history over the previous twenty -five years, as well as the contemporary vitality of cognitive anthropology. The role that language data and linguistic analyses play in the investigation of cross-cultural cognition is well articulated. Find this resource:

Dougherty, J. W. D., ed. 1985. Directions in cognitive anthropology. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Another exciting collection of articles in which inspiring research in cognitive anthropology is presented. This volume marks the end of the third decade of research in cognitive anthropology. Find this resource:

Hutchins, E. 1980. Culture and inference: A Trobriand case study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The desire to study cognitive processes in natural settings brought Hutchins to the Trobriand Islands of Papua New Guinea. His in-depth study of land litigations and resolutions provides some fascinating insight into human reasoning. Find this resource:

Hutchins, E. 1983. Understanding Micronesian navigation. In Mental models. Edited by D. Gentner and A. L. Stevens, 191224. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Micronesian navigation relies on the concept of etak, representing a segment of the voyage to be undertaken. Hutchins demonstrates how these segments need to be considered as temporal and not only spatial, as previously reported. Find this resource:

Kempton, W. 1981. The folk classification of ceramics: A study of cognitive prototypes . New York: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A work in empirical semantics that expands the domains of knowledge typically investigated in cognitive anthropology. Prototype theory finds supporting evidence. Find this resource:

Spradley, J. P., ed. 1972. Culture and cognition: Rules, maps, and plans. London: Chandler. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Closely following the publication of Tyler 1969, this volume contains a number of the research projects that are now enriching the cognitive anthropology landscape. Find this resource:

Tyler, S. A., ed. 1969. Cognitive anthropology. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The first collection of articles that explicitly refers to cognitive anthropology as a legitimate subfield of cultural anthropology. Since many of the seminal articles that gave rise to the discipline are to be found in it, it can be stated that the publication of this volume considerably contributed to its birth. Find this resource:
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New Research Foci


In the 1990s, while the focus on color (in such works as Kay, et al. 1991; Hardin and Maffi 1997; and MacLaury 1997) and ethnobotany/folkbiology (in such works as Atran 1990 and Medin and Atran 1999) continued, new research projects emerged as well, as illustrated by DAndrade 1995(cited under the New Ethnography). See also Levinson 1995 and Blount 2011 (both cited underGeneral Overviews). Examples of further new research are the study of blacksmithing in Keller and Keller 1996, the research on religious cognition in Boyer 1993, and the focus on ecology in Hunn 1989.

Atran, S. 1990. Cognitive foundations of natural history: Towards an anthropology of science . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A cogent argument for the common cognitive basis between common sense and science, specifically regarding the living world. Find this resource:

Boyer, P., ed. 1993. Cognitive aspects of religious symbolism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511896866Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This collection of articles represents an original cognitive approach to the study of religious ideas. The intention is to revolutionize the anthropological approach to religion by pointing out the vast cognitive similarities at the foundation of the diversity of religious ideas worldwide. Find this resource:

Hardin, C. L., and L. Maffi, eds. 1997. Color categories in thought and language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511519819Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Anthropologists, psychologists, and visual scientists discuss the validity of the claims in Berlin and Kay 1969 (cited under Color) about the role of the visual system in the cross-cultural regularities of color terms. Find this resource:

Hunn, E. 1989. Ethnoecology: The relevance of cognitive anthropology for human ecology. In The relevance of culture. Edited by M. Freilich, 143160. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Hunn argues for ethnoecology, an approach that unites cognitive anthropology and cultural and evolutionary ecology. The former discipline provides a fundamental framework and methods to understand the role of culture in evolution. Find this resource:

Kay, P., B. Berlin, and W. Merrifield. 1991. Biocultural implications of systems of color naming. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1.1: 1225. DOI: 10.1525/jlin.1991.1.1.12Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Data about other languages are added to those published in Berlin and Kay 1969 (cited underColor). A slight revision of the color sequence is presented wherein yellow-green and yellow-green-blue categories are introduced. The neurophysiology of vision is still considered the driving force behind the linguistic classification of the color spectrum. Find this resource:

Keller, C. M., and J. D. Keller. 1996. Cognition and tool use: The blacksmith at work. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book allows one to enter human cognition through the ethnography of action; that is, through blacksmithing. This unusual perspective provides considerable insights and complex new vistas. Find this resource:

MacLaury, R. E. 1997. Color and cognition in Mesoamerican languages: Constructing categories as vantages. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent introduction to the research on color, with a detailed history. MacLaury introduces his novel approach under the label of vantage theory. Find this resource:

Medin, D. L., and S. Atran, eds. 1999. Folkbiology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An exciting collection of articles in which the worldwide research on folkbiology is surveyed. The editors argue for, introduce, and illustrate the necessity of interdisciplinary research for anthropology and cognitive psychology. Find this resource:

CONSENSUS, DISTRIBUTED COGNITION, AND COGNITION IN PRACTICE

Analyses of agreement and disagreement among informants, as discussed in Boster 1985, led to the proposal of consensus analysis, as in Romney, et al. 1986 and Romney 1999, as a new approach to the cultural understanding of cognition. Hutchins 1995 posits that cognition itself is to be conceived as to go beyond the confines of an individual mind and to be distributed over a community. These new proposals combined with a revival of a traditional theme of cognitive anthropology, research about linguistic relativity, such as in Bloom 1981. This rich and sophisticated research is further explored in the New Linguistic Relativity. In addition, other anthropologists focused on cognitive processes as a consequence of literacy (Scribner and Cole 1981) and in daily activities involving mathematics (Lave 1988). To witness the popularity and maturity that the research on cognitive anthropology reached in the 1980s and 1990s, one must also mention a sister area of investigation that goes under the name of cognitive archeology, which is discussed in Renfrew and Zubrow 1994.

Bloom, A. H. 1981. The linguistic shaping of thought: A study in the impact of language on thinking in China and the West. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A linguistic and empirical/experimental research project in which Bloom demonstrates how linguistic aspects of Chinese contribute to corresponding cognitive propensities. Find this resource:

Boster, J. S. 1985. Requiem for the omniscient informant: Theres life in the old girl yet. In Directions in cognitive anthropology. Edited by J. W. D. Dougherty, 177197. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The widely acknowledged problem of informant disagreement is tackled and resolved by finding a cultural system in the face of great variability among informants. Find this resource:

Hutchins, E. 1995. Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Human computation, or cognition, has been made easier and faster by the creation of tools to help the process, such as calculators. This externalization process of cognition is characteristic of complex tasks like ship navigation. Hutchins proposes that human cognition should transcend the individual skull and be conceived as distributed over a community. Find this resource:

Lave, J. 1988. Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511609268Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this work, the author investigates arithmetic problem-solving in the domain of everyday life. She shows how mathematics in daily activities, such as grocery shopping or dieting, is influenced by the coming together of a cultural mind and its context. Find this resource:

Renfrew, C., and E. B. W. Zubrow, eds. 1994. The ancient mind: Elements of cognitive archeology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511598388Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A collection of articles that attempts to answer the challenge of finding out how prehistoric people thought by adopting the scientific and empirical methodology of cognitive anthropology. Find this resource:

Romney, A. K. 1999. Cultural consensus as a statistical model. Current Anthropology 40: 103115. DOI: 10.1086/200063Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Romney defends cultural consensus analysis against a number of attacks within sociocultural anthropology. He traces its history and illustrates its effectiveness and validity in making one arrive at a deep understanding of cultural systems as variedly distributed in communities. Find this resource:

Romney, K., S. C. Weller, and W. H. Batchelder. 1986. Culture as consensus: A theory of culture and informant accuracy. American Anthropologist 88.2: 313338. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1986.88.2.02a00020Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is the article that contains the formal mathematical model (and its illustration) by which from a limited number of informants one can arrive at some shared consensus considered as systematic cultural knowledge in the community under investigation. Find this resource:

Scribner, S., and M. Cole. 1981. The psychology of literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book focuses on research about the effect of literacy and schooling on cultural thought patterns. The research was conducted with the Vai people of Liberia, who have a writing system of their own invention. They teach their script at home rather than in school. Find this resource:

FRAMES, SCHEMAS, AND SCRIPTS

Bateson 1972 introduced the concept of frame as a fundamental aspect of cognition, or better, of how knowledge (at least some) is organized in the mind. Even if at times under a di fferent label, from schema to script to model, the concept was adopted in computer science (Minsky 1975and Schank and Abelson 1977), semantics (Fillmore 1982 and Lakoff 1987), and cognitive science (Johnson-Laird 1980, Rumelhart 1980, and Brewer and Nakamura 1984). Cultural model became the favored term in anthropology.

Bateson, G. 1972. A theory of play and fantasy. In Steps to an ecology of mind. By G. Bateson, 177193. New York: Ballantine. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal work wherein Bateson delineates and clearly justifies the plausibility for intermediate mental structures he labels frames. Find this resource:

Brewer, W., and G. V. Nakamura. 1984. The nature and functions of schemas. In Handbook of social cognition, Vol. 1. Edited by Robert S. Wyer and Thomas K. Srull, 119160. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An exhaustive treatment of the genesis, typology, and application of the concept of schema in cognitive psychology. Find this resource:

Fillmore, C. 1982. Frame semantics. In Linguistics in the morning calm: Selected papers from SICOL-1981. Edited by the Linguistics Society of Korea (LSOK), 111137. Seoul: Hanshin. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Paper presented at the Seoul International Conference on Linguistics. Fillmore captures the necessity of intermediate semantic organizations that he labels frames. His analyses are strictly linguistic; nonetheless, they proved to be suitable in other disciplines such as psychology and anthropology. Find this resource:

Johnson-Laird, P. N. 1980. Mental models in cognitive science. Cognitive Science 4: 71115. DOI: 10.1207/s15516709cog0401_4Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Fundamental and minimal organizations (typically spatial) of knowledge are proposed as an alternative to more commonly proposed organizations based only on logic. Find this resource:

Lakoff, G. 1987. Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press. DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Ones body perception participates in the construction of mental organizations, including intermediate ones between thought, language, and action called image-schemas. These image-schemas are fundamental to human thinking, as exemplified in the generation of metaphors. Find this resource:

Minsky, M. 1975. A framework for representing knowledge. In The psychology of computer vision. Edited by P. H. Winston, 311377. New York: McGraw-Hill. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Knowledge representation is based on frames, data-structures representing stereotyped situations. Frames can combine and participate in the description of cause-effect relations, as well as in memory and reasoning. Find this resource:

Rumelhart, D. E. 1980. Schemata: The building block of cognition. In Theoretical issues in reading comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and education . Edited by Rand J. Spiro, Bertram C. Bruce, and William F. Brewer, 33 58. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author builds on Minskys frame theory (Minsky 1975) to propose how schemata (this is what he calls what essentially are Minskys frames) contribute to the working of human cognition, especially the storing and retrieval of knowledge. Find this resource:

Schank, R. and R. Abelson. 1977. Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding: An inquiry into human knowledge structures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An influential work in artificial intelligence wherein the authors attempt to systematize molar mental knowledge. The detailed and illustrative analysis of the restaurant event is considered a classic. Find this resource:

CULTURAL MODELS

A mental model is a characteristic of an individual mind (see Johnson-Laird 1980, cited underFrames, Schemas, and Scripts), while a cultural model is shared among the members of a community ( Holland and Quinn 1987). While Holland 1992 found some unresolved problems in the adoption of cultural model theory for the study of cultural cognition, others embraced the concept enthusiastically (Kempton, et al. 1995; Shore 1996; Strauss and Quinn 1997), and some even expanded the applicability of the theory to include cultural models as motivating human actions (DAndrade and Strauss 1992).

DAndrade, R., and C. Strauss, eds. 1992. Human motives and cultural models. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139166515Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The discovery of cultural models leads unavoidably to the assumption that they motivate action in their holders. The authors in this edited volume all demonstrate how strictly linked cultural models and actions are. Find this resource:

Holland, D. 1992. The woman who climbed up the house: Some limitations of schema theory. In New directions in psychological anthropology. Edited by T. Schwartz, G. M. White, and C. A. Lutz, 6879. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The successful application of cultural model theory to ethnographic research causes Holland to reflect on the limit that it may have if applied without considering individual human variation and adaptability. Find this resource:

Holland, D., and N. Quinn, eds. 1987. Cultural models in language and thought. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511607660Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An exquisite collection of articles in which the authors pursue the discovery of tacit knowledge organizations they label cultural models, which they fundamentally define as mental models shared within a community. Find this resource:

Kempton, W., J. S. Boster, and J. A. Hartley. 1995. Environmental values in American culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While focusing on environmental values, the authors discover an American cultural model of nature that turns out to be essential in the construction of their attitudes toward environmental policies. Find this resource:

Shore, B. 1996. Culture in mind: Cognition, culture, and the problem of meaning . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal work in which an anthropologist demonstrates how culture must be considered when studying the human mind. The typology of cultural models introduced here is a point of reference for any scholar interested in this type of research. Find this resource:

Strauss, C., and N. Quinn. 1997. A cognitive theory of cultural meaning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In order to understand culture, one needs to understand, or at least have a theory of, the working of the mind. After the authors adopt connectionism as a theory of the basic functioning of the mind, they explore the implications of this theory for a view of cultural models as responsive to social change. Extensive examples of American cultural models are presented. Find this resource:

The New Linguistic Relativity


In the 1990s, one of the three original lines of research in cognitive anthropology, linguistic relativity, received a renewed interest. It was mainly Lucy 1992 and Levinson 2003 that rekindled this branch of research. Linguistic relativity appeared to have died out, especially after the universalistic findings in the domains of color and ethnobotany of the previous two decades. Similarly, cognitive science, with its focus on universal characteristics of the human mind, had too hastily abandoned the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural findings that were being accumulated by anthropologists. The two major foci were two ontological primers, quantity (Lucy 1992) and space (Levinson 2003). However, other domains of knowledge were also investigated (Gumperz and Levinson 1996), including kinship (Danziger 2001). The greatly improved empirical sophistication of the research conducted, as well as the stunning novelty of the results they provided, attracted the attention of many cognitive scientists (Gentner and Goldin-Meadow 2003). The role of language as a mediator of conceptual development was now being seriously considered (Bowerman and Levinson 2001). In addition, a number of discordant voices entered the debate (Gumperz and Levinson 1996). While a conclusive answer to the specific contribution of language to cognition has not been delineated yet, it has become clear that language does contribute in an important way to the shaping of what may be defined as adult cognition. What is even clearer is that universalistic claims cannot be made without enough data obtained in a number of cross-linguistic and cross-cultural contexts, as well as that relativistic findings do not hold without a sharper theorizing about the nature of language and the architecture of cognition (Bennardo 2003).

Bennardo, G. 2003. Language, mind, and culture: From linguistic relativity to representational modularity. In Mind, brain, and language: Multidisciplinary perspectives . Edited by M. T. Banich and M. A. Mack, 2360. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author analyzes the recent revival of linguistic relativity and argues for a different approach to the relationship between language, mind, and culture. Find this resource:

Bowerman, M., and S. C. Levinson. 2001. Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511620669Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Two research avenues, language acquisition and conceptual development, that have developed in different directionsrelativism for the former, and universalism for the latter are brought together in a volume that is witness to the necessity of the two fields to share findings. Find this resource:

Danziger, E. 2001. Relatively speaking: Language, thought, and kinship among the Mopan Maya . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Since the early 1950s, research on kinship has been used to support universal aspects of the mind. In this volume, the author uses sophisticated kinship analyses to advance the position that it is the structural organization of a language that helps form the kinship categories of thought later found natural by the speakers. Find this resource:

Gentner, D., and S. Goldin-Meadow, eds. 2003. Language in mind: Advances in the study of language and thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An examination of the linguistic relativity hypothesis as seen from cognitive science. Both detractors and enthusiastic supporters are brought into the discussion. Find this resource:

Gumperz, J. J., and S. C. Levinson. 1996. Rethinking linguistic relativity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation After many years of dismissal, the issue of linguistic relativity is seriously considered by a number of scholars whose positions includes both sides of the debate. The volume also includes research discussing relativity as possibly emerging from the contextualization of linguistic practices. Find this resource:

Levinson, S. C. 2003. Space in language and cognition: Explorations in cognitive diversity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511613609Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A remarkable research volume in which a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural investigation of the linguistic and mental representation of spatial relationships is undertaken. The book contains both the theoretical underpinnings and the empirical findings that lead the author to propose a newly redefined version of linguistic relativity, with consequences for anthropology and cognitive science at large. Find this resource:

Lucy, J. A. 1992. Language diversity and thought: A reformulation of the linguistic relativity hypothesis . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511620843Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation From an attentive reading of Sapir and Whorfs original writings, Lucy provides a new detailed version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis that requires close attention to the language(s) under investigation and the use of appropriate experimental tasks. Find this resource:

Contemporary Research
The contemporary research in cognitive anthropology focuses on classical domains such as kinship (Read 2007), color (Levinson 2000), and religion (Atran 2002), and sees the continuation of the research on cultural models, such as those expressed in de Munck 2000 and Kronenfeld 2008. Notably, research in cognitive archaeology continues (Abramiuk 2012).

Abramiuk, A. M. 2012. The foundations of cognitive archaeology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The major goal of this work is to present the foundations for studying the mind in the past. The author reviews two traditional positions in cognitive archaeology (cognitive-processual and post-processual) and proposes to combine them. Find this resource:

Atran, S. 2002. In gods we trust: The evolutionary landscape of religion. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book seeks to explain the origins of religion using current knowledge of the evolution of cognition. The author argues that religion is a by-product of human cognitive evolution.

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de Munck, V. C. 2000. Culture, self, and meaning. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation When venturing into the human mind, the issue of the nature of the self crosses ones research agenda. Semantic and cultural implications are brought to bear in this brief but insightful journey in search of the human self. Find this resource:

Kronenfeld, D. B. 2008. Culture, society, and cognition: Collective goals, values, action, and knowledge . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI: 10.1515/9783110211481Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Culture is here intended as a system of parallel distributed cognition exemplified in cultural models that form the basic units of cultural action. Find this resource:

Levinson, S. C. 2000. Yeli Dnye and the theory of basic color terms. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 10.1: 355. DOI: 10.1525/jlin.2000.10.1.3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article attempts to undermine one of the central claims of the theory of basic color terms; namely, that all languages treat color as a unitary domain, and that they all have words that exhaustively cover it. Find this resource:

Read, D. W. 2007. Kinship theory: A paradigm shift. Ethnology 46.4: 329365. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Read suggests a new paradigm in kinship research. He argues for two conceptual systems at the root of any kinship system: the logic of genealogical tracing, and the logic of kin-term products. Find this resource:

CONTEMPORARY FOCUS ON METHODS

The renewed interest in cultural models is characterized by a greater focus on methodology, as inQuinn 2005 and Ross 2004. Some researchers, such as Naomi Quinn, privilege the use of discourse analysis in order to discover cultural models. Others privilege the use of experimental tasks such as free listing, similarity judgments, and especially the use of consensus analysis (see, for example, Atran and Medin 2008, Gatewood and Lowe 2008, Gatewood and Cameron 2009, and Medin, et al. 2006). In addition, consensus analysis and cultural model theorizing are used in medical anthropology, as described in Schrauf and Iris 2011 and Weller 2007. Atran, S., and D. Medin. 2008. The native mind and the cultural construction of nature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Biology is presented as a distinctive module of the mind. Its content is being depleted by contemporary urbanization and technology. Written by an anthropologist and a cognitive scientist (cognitive psychologists), this book represents a model for what future research in cognitive anthropology could be. Find this resource:

Gatewood, J. B., and C. M. Cameron. 2009. Belonger perceptions of tourism and its impact in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Grand Turk: Ministry of Tourism, Turks and Caicos Islands. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The impact on tourism is perceived differently by various communities on a group of Caribbean islands. This is beautifully captured by an exemplary application of consensus analysis to a vast quantity of ethnographic data. Find this resource:

Gatewood, J. B., and J. W. Lowe. 2008. Employee perceptions of credit unions: Implications for member profitability. Madison, WI: Filene Research Institute. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent application of consensus analysis to the study of the culture of a contemporary banking institution. Find this resource:

Medin, D., N. Ross, and D. Cox. 2006. Culture and resource conflict: Why meanings matter. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A different way of conceptualizing nature leads to the potential for conflict between white Americans and Native Americans who share the same environment. An exemplary research collaboration between anthropologists and cognitive scientists. Find this resource:

Quinn, N., ed. 2005. Finding culture in talk: A collection of methods. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discourse analysis is a fundamental step toward the discovery of cultural models. All the authors in this volume present their own particular experiences with a variety of successful procedures they implemented during their research. Find this resource:

Ross, N. 2004. Culture and cognition: Implication for theory and method. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author argues for an ethnographic approach to the mind wherein psychology and anthropology can cooperate. A lucid presentation of the methodology needed for such an approach is presented. Find this resource:

Schrauf, R. W., and M. Iris. 2011. Using consensus analysis to investigate cultural models of Alzheimers disease. In A companion to cognitive anthropology. Edited by D. B. Kronenfeld, G. Bennardo, V. C. de Munck, and M. D. Fischer, 548568. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/9781444394931Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An effective application of consensus analysis to discover salient differences between cultural models of Alzheimers disease within patients belonging to three populations: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees/immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Find this resource:

Weller, S. C. 2007. Cultural consensus theory: Applications and frequently asked questions. Field Methods 19.4: 339368. DOI: 10.1177/1525822X07303502Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Capitalizing on the successful application of consensus analysis in several domains of knowledge over two decades, this article describes the assumptions, appropriate interview materials, and analytic procedures for carrying out one such analysis. Find this resource:
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Future Trends
Some contemporary scholars open new lines of research, such as counting systems (Bender and Beller 2007), while others succeed in blending existing ones, such as that of space and cultural models (Bennardo 2009), space and time (Bender, et al. 2010), and space and kinship terminology (Bennardo and Read 2007). This latter research is now enriched by the use of experimental tasks that allow one to find salient cognitive differences between cultures with different kinship structures (Bennardo and Read 2011). Levinson and Jaisson 2006 represents one of the new avenues for cognitive anthropology, the investigation of the role played by culture in human evolution. Another new avenue is neuroanthropology, where the brain and the nervous system are seen as cultural organs ( Lende and Downey 2012). Finally, Kronenfeld, et al. 2011summarizes contemporary cognitive anthropology research in twentynine originally written articles that speak to the unabashed vitality of this discipline while also pointing to future directions.

Bender, A., and S. Beller. 2007. Counting in Tongan: The traditional number system and their cognitive implications. Journal of Cognition and Culture 7.34: 213239. DOI: 10.1163/156853707X208495Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

In Tonga, mental arithmetic is facilitated by a number system (based on 20) that was derived from a decimal one. This traditional system is used in specific cultural contexts. Find this resource:

Bender, A., S. Beller, and G. Bennardo. 2010. Temporal frames of reference: Conceptual analysis and empirical evidence from English, German, Mandarin Chinese, and Tongan. Journal of Cognition and Culture 10.34: 283307. DOI: 10.1163/156853710X531195Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Preferences found in the mental representation of spatial relationships are replicated in the temporal representations of members of four populations. The close relationship between the domains of space and time is empirically validated. Find this resource:

Bennardo, G. 2009. Language, space, and social relationships: A foundational cultural model in Polynesia . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511581458Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A preference for representing spatial relationships, both linguistically and mentally, is replicated in a number of other domains of knowledge, including religion, possession, kinship, and social relationships. Thus, that specific spatial configuration is assigned the label of foundational cultural model. Find this resource:

Bennardo, G., and D. W. Read. 2007. Cognition, algebra, and culture in the Tongan kinship terminology. Journal of Cognition and Culture 7.2: 4988. DOI: 10.1163/156853707X171810Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An algebraic analysis of the Tongan kinship terminology reveals the central role of sibling. Thus further support is found for the fundamental role of radiality (focus on other-than-ego) in Tongan cognition. Find this resource:

Bennardo, G., and D. W. Read. 2011. Salience of verticality and horizontality in American and Tongan kinship terminology. In Kinship, language, and prehistory: Per Hage and the renaissance in kinship studies. Edited by D. Jones and B. Milicic, 173191. Salt Lake City: Univ. of Utah Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The preference for radiality found in the Tongan kinship terminology by Bennardo and Read 2007is empirically validated when the results of experimental data conducted on Tongans and Americans are presented. Find this resource:

Kronenfeld, D. B., G. Bennardo, V. C. de Munck, and M. D. Fischer, eds. 2011. A companion to cognitive anthropology. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/9781444394931Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The latest volume about cognitive anthropology whose lucid and scholarly content witnesses to the vitality of the field , while laying the foundation for a number of future research projects. Find this resource:

Lende, D. H., and G. Downey. 2012. The encultured brain: An introduction to neuroanthropology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book introduces the basics of doing neuroanthropology and illustrates the biological and evolutionary basis that explains how brain and culture meet. Find this resource:

Levinson, S. C., and P. Jaisson, eds. 2006. Evolution and culture. Fyssen Foundation Symposium. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The articles in this volume advocate an evolutionary perspective on human culture. A number of factors behind human psychological functioning are identified, includi ng mind reading, planning, technology, and language. Find this resource:

Cognitive Behavior Therapies with Diverse and Stressed Populations

Paula S. Nurius, Sara Green

Introduction
When psychotherapy was in the early stages of development , the terms cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy signaled meaningful distinctions. However, those boundaries have blurred, and currently the terms tend to be used interchangeably. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the more common framing and is emphasized in this bibliography. CBT may be best understood as a general term for a classification of therapies with similarities. Overall, the CBT framework of human functioning is based on the premises that thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are inextricably linked and that each of these continuously interacts with, and influences, the others. Although the ways in which these cognitive-affective-behavioral processes operate are believed to be fairly universal, their content can vary greatly. CBT tends to take an educational and collaborative approach to client engagement. The therapists role tends to emphasize listening, teaching, demonstration, and encouragement. Treatment tends to be relatively brief and problem or solution focused. As the references included in this bibliography illustrate, the specific therapeutic strategies that a practitioner may use can span a considerable range across different clients, settings, and problem foci. Social workers and practitioners from allied disciplines use CBTs to address a wide range of psychosocial problems. CBTs have a strong record of empirical testing and support and have been found to be applicable in a variety of settings, from private practice offices to residential or long-term care facilities to community-based social services. However, CBTs have been, and continue to be, challenged and critiqued. As many life problems derive from social conditions, including inequalities and injustices, legitimate questions are raised about the use of clinical tools such as CBT that are directed more toward coping with, rather than changing, conditions. Critiques have spawned several lines of adaptation, extension, and differentiation, several of which are included in the selected entries in this bibliography. This bibliography is complementary to the Oxford Bibliographies article on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Resources on the theoretical and historical foundations of CBT are included, as well as core therapeutic principles and implementation guides. This article is oriented to include emerging emphases such as schema theory, emotion-focused cognitive therapies, and the growing role of mindfulness-based cognitive treatments. Current life stress, histories of adversity, and trauma exposure often characterize client profiles, thus stress-therapeutic and problem-solving cognitive resources are included. Finally, resources for cognitive therapies with varying age groups (including the rapidly evolving treatment with older adults) are provided as well as important considerations in application with broadly diverse groups. Attention is also paid to resources that are useful for the social work direct service practitioner and practice student, as well as broadly applicable to practitioners in related helping professions.

General Overviews
The sources in this overview section provide a range of perspectives on the development and application of cognitive therapies. Selections were made to reflect core components as well as the constantly evolving developments of this very dynamic field . Aaron Becks enormous imprint on cognitive therapy (CT) is evident in many of the selected works. Beck 2005a provides a brief, but rich, portrayal of a forty-year evolution. Judith Beck (Aaron Becks daughter) continues the legacy of contributions in Beck 2005b, which builds on her acclaimed Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond (New York: Guilford, 1995), going beyond basics to provide more advanced psychotherapeutic guidance. Cormier, et al. 2009 offers a training-oriented design, attentive to topics such as ethics, critical thinking, client resistance, and the helping relationship in addition to up-to-date developments in CBT. The remaining sources are all edited books, each providing distinctive elements that make for a complementary set. Dobson 2010 is scholarly yet accessible, explaining core CBT principles as well as specific change strategies used to clinical problems, and what the research reveals about the therapys effectiveness. ODonohue and Fisher 2009 is close to encyclopedic, with broad coverage that includes guidance on implementation of many specific intervention strategies. Sperry 2006 focuses specifically on applications with personality disorders, including a review of recent developments in the evolution of CBT. Ronen and Freeman 2007 is written explicitly for clinical social work practice by some of the leaders in clinical and academic social work. Simos 2009 builds on an earlier volume, blending theories, focused techniques, and clinical flexibility from an international set of clinicians and researchers.

Beck, Aaron T. 2005a. The current state of cognitive therapy: A 40-year retrospective. Archives of General Psychiatry 62.9: 953959. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.9.953Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Beck is considered by many to be one of the preeminent pioneers of CT. This article provides an overview of the evolution of cognitive theory and therapy since its earliest inception to its current status. The use of CT to treat depression and anxiety is highlighted. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Beck, Judith S. 2005b. Cognitive therapy for challenging problems: What to do when the basics dont work . New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book builds on prior overviews, addressing challenges with nonprogressing clients while using CBT. Emphasizing practical guidance and problem solving, a range of clinical issues is addressed, with particular attention to longstanding challenges such as those found in patients with personality disorders. Includes assessment tools. Find this resource:

Cormier, L. Sherilyn, Paula Nurius, and Cynthia J. Osborn. 2009. Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions . 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This classic text combines evidence-based interviewing skills and cognitive-behavioral-intervention change strategies applicable to a wide range of client ages, cultural backgrounds, and presenting problems. Strengths of the book include an emphasis on practical skills and real-life factors in contemporary settings with diverse clientele, with case models, learning activities, and guided feedback. Find this resource:

Dobson, Keith S., ed. 2010. Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. 3d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This well-known edited handbook provides a comprehensive overview of CBT. Part of what is distinctive is its inclusion of historical and philosophical bases of cognitive therapies; assessment and case formulation; and application with youth, couples, and diverse populations. Find this resource:

ODonohue, William T., and Jane E. Fisher, eds. 2009. General principles and empirically supported techniques of cognitive behavior therapy. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Designed more for breadth of coverage than for intensive detail. Includes nearly eighty chapters on individual therapies or therapeutic components of CBT. Written for graduate psychology students, it has broad relevance and accessibility to students and practitioners alike, attentive to a wide range of psychotherapeutic arenas. Find this resource:

Ronen, Tammie, and Arthur Freeman, eds. 2007. Cognitive behavior therapy in clinical social work practice . New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A teaching text written by social workers for social workers, with ample relevance for other helping professions. In addition to basic foundations of CBT, the twenty-six chapters include attention to developmental factors, cultural diversity, and comorbidity in addition to specific frequently encountered disorders in children, adults, couples, and families. Find this resource:

Simos, Gregoris, ed. 2009. Cognitive behavior therapy: A guide for the practicing clinician . Vol. 2. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Somewhat unique in its inclusion of contributors from Canada and Europe. This is a very clinically oriented and techniques-focused CBT manual, dealing with specific clinical conditions (e.g., social anxiety, psychoses, depressive relapses, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], body dysmorphia, and gambling addictions). Find this resource:

Sperry, Len. 2006. Cognitive behavior therapy of DSM-IV-TR personality disorders: Highly effective interventions for the most common personality disorders. 2d ed. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides an overview of the field, including recent advances such as dialectical behavior therapy, schema therapy, cognitive coping therapy, structured intervention strategies, cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and developmental psychopathology. Also reviews treatment for specific personality disorders and follows the

treatment process in its various stages: engagement, pattern analysis, pattern change and termination, and pattern maintenance, including follow-up and relapse prevention. Find this resource:
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Assessment
Many cognitive therapy resources focus on specifics of the change strategies. Focusing on assessment, Antony and Barlow 2010 provides extensive coverage of the role of screenings and assessment, including broadly applicable overviews as well as many disorder-specific chapters. Written by two social workers, Fischer and Corcoran 2007 explains the principles of measurement and how to apply them in practice, describing the different types of assessment techniques available, including behavioral observations, rating scales, and client logs. Kazantzis, et al. 2005notes that homework is a fundamental part of CBT, yet often not well incorporated, and provides in-depth guidance to incorporate individualized homework assignments into practice to maximize outcome benefits. Lambert 2010 focuses on the critical, yet often overlooked, risk of treatment failure, arguing that monitoring client satisfaction and treatment response is a key practice skill.

Antony, Martin M., and David H. Barlow, eds. 2010. Handbook of assessment and treatment planning for psychological disorders. 2d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides state-of-the-science tools for conducting assessments and using the results to plan and monitor evidencebased interventions. Offers practical guidance and case examples for selecting the best measures for different populations and assessment purposes; includes comparisons and contrasts of varied measurement approaches. Very amenable to cognitive therapies, includes an explanation of methods for evaluating the psychometric properties of measures. Find this resource:

Fischer, Joel, and Kevin Corcoran. 2007. Measures for clinical practice and research: A sourcebook. 4th ed. 2 vols. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This two volume set (Vol. 1, Couples, Children, and Families; Vol. 2, Adults) provides an extensive collection of more than four hundred rapid assessment instruments (including unobtrusive and electromechanical as well as standardized measures), germane to many problems commonly encountered in clinical practice. Updates include assessment in culturally diverse populations and in managed-care systems with reproducible measures. Guidance is provided in selecting and administering measures. Find this resource:

Kazantzis, Nikolaos, Frank P. Deane, Kevin R. Ronan, and Luciano LAbate, eds. 2005. Using homework assignments in cognitive behavior therapy. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This eighteen-chapter text provides a comprehensive guide for developing meaningful treatment homework assignments, including theoretical and empirical foundations and a model for practice. Demonstrates methods of integrating homework and managing commonly encountered difficulties. Includes examples across a range of specific populations and problem targets, with case studies and recommendations for adaptation. Find this resource:

Lambert, Michael J. 2010. Prevention of treatment failure: The use of measuring, monitoring, and feedback in clinical practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/12141-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Presents procedures and techniques for reducing treatment failure by providing therapists with the skills and knowledge needed to anticipate and resolve potential treatment challenges before they occur. Provides guidance for identifying individuals at risk for treatment failure and sensitively monitoring treatment response, including alertsignals and problem-solving tools for practitioners as well as improvements in systems of care. Find this resource:

Case Formulation

Focusing on case formulation, Kuyken, et al. 2009 provides an innovative framework for clearly conceptualizing the structure of interventions and tailoring CBT to each clients needs, including a prac tical and case-illustrated approach. In a useful handbook for primary care settings, Nezu and Nezu 2010 brings strong backgrounds in problem-solving cognitive therapies, focusing on the decisions and adjustments often needed to implement effectively treatment designs that are responsive to complex client needs. Persons 2008 is written in an accessible manner with examples and hands-on tools to make this text practice relevant. Included is thinking about shifting theoretical gears to interweave elements of multiple evidence-supported treatment components. Leahy 2008 notes that CBT can run the risk of focusing more on the cognitive processes in treatment and the treatment agenda at the expense of building and nurturing the clienttherapist relationship. Theoretical framing is also included, as well as practical recommendations for overcoming impasses and enhancing appropriate relationship ties.

Kuyken, Willem, Christine A. Padesky, and Robert Dudley. 2009. Collaborative case conceptualization: Working effectively with clients in cognitive- behavioral therapy . New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Complements many of the CBT how-to texts listed in this bibliography. Presents a framework for customizing CBT interventions for individual clients based on core functions of case conceptualization. With a focus on strengths-based and collaborative practice, aligns well with the values of social work practice and includes self-assessment checklists and learning exercises. Find this resource: Leahy, Robert L. 2008. The therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavioral therapy. In Special issue: Developments in the theory in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Edited by J. L. Taylor and C. Steel. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 36.6: 769777. DOI: 10.1017/S1352465808004852Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Presents a targeted look at the therapeutic relationship in CBT and the strategies that may assist in keeping the relationship central and dynamic, as well as a resource to the healing process. Provides guidance to related works and theories related to schemas and emotional processing germane to therapeutic relationships. A nice complement to Kuyken, et al. 2009. Find this resource:

Nezu, Arthur M., and Christine M. Nezu. 2010. Cognitive-behavioral case formulation and treatment design. In Handbook of cognitive-behavioral approaches in primary care. Edited by Robert A. DiTomasso, Barbara A. Golden, and Harry J. Morris, 201222. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This chapter provides a thorough technical description of case formulation and treatment design using a CBT approach and demonstrates how to assess a range of challenges often present in multiple areas of clients lives. The edited text is written for practitioners in primary-care medical settings, with strong applicability for students and practitioners in both health care and other human service settings. Find this resource:

Persons, Jacqueline B. 2008. The case formulation approach to cognitive-behavior therapy. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author walks readers through CBT case formulation from start to finish, addressing the uniqueness of each client as well as multiple problems often presented. Explains how theories of cognition, learning, and emotion guide systematic CBT case formulation and integration of empirically supported interventions. Assists students and practitioners in maintaining flexibility throughout the treatment process in order to adapt to the clients changing needs. Find this resource:

Schema Theory and Therapy


Schema therapy extends CBT, borrowing from a range of theoretical concepts and methods, such as attachment and object relations, Gestalt, and experiential therapies. It was largely developed for use in treatment of personality disorders and longstanding, deeply rooted maladaptation. Because the development of schema therapy is largely credited to Dr. Jeffrey Young, the focus here is on representative resources that reflect the premises and applications. Written for use by practitioners, Rafaeli, et al. 2011 locates schema therapy broadly within CBT foundations and presents its distinctive features, including theoretical and practical applications. Martin and Young 2010 contributes an overview of schema therapy and describes schematic domains operating across five broad

categories. Young, et al. 2008 represents a collaboration between two leading CBT theorists, Aaron Beck and Jeffrey Young, and offers a highly illustrative account of using components of schema therapy with traditional CBT practices to treat clients with depression.Leahy, et al. 2011 provides an entire text dedicated to the growing awareness of the role of emotions and emotional regulation within cognitive therapies. This practitioners guide includes CBT strategies as well as schema modification and third-wave CBT techniques. Linking to Leahy, et al. 2011, Safran, et al. 2010 focuses on emotional functioning and interpersonal processing within therapeutic treatment. Problems in the therapeutic relationship are addressed in depth.Nurius and Macy 2008 provides a description of the theoretical base of traditional CBT that includes the concept of schemas but is not linked to the premises of schema therapy. Although a rapidly growing evolution of cognitive therapy, questions on the demonstrated effectiveness of schema theory and therapy are part of the discourse, as reflected in James 2001.

James, Ian A. 2001. Schema therapy: The next generation, but should it carry a health warning? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 29.4: 401407. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Raises questions about schema therapy use. Describes difficulties in its application, stressing the importance of strong training, supervision, and attention to the evidence base regarding effectiveness. Acknowledges its importance as a CBT offshoot, but raises concerns as to the prematurity of widespread use. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Leahy, Robert L., Dennis D. Tirch, and Lisa A. Napolitano. 2011. Emotion regulation in psychotherapy: A practitioners guide. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reflects the increasing attention to the role of emotions and emotion regulation in cognitively oriented therapies. Includes traditional cognitive behavioral components such as cognitive restructuring, but also integrates schema modification, stress management, acceptance, mindfulness, self-compassion, and other techniques. Provides guidance on questions to pose, intervention selection, homework assignments, troubleshooting tips, and reproducible handouts and forms. Find this resource:

Martin, Rachel, and Jeffrey Young. 2010. Schema therapy. In Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. 3d ed. Edited by Keith S. Dobson, 317346. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Summarizes the origins and premises of schema therapy. Includes details regarding theorized schema domains across five broad categories of unmet emotional needs (e.g., disconnection and rejection), examples of maladaptive behaviors associated with schemas and coping styles, therapeutic goals for addressing specific schemas, and assessment tools. Find this resource:

Nurius, Paula S., and Rebecca J. Macy. 2008. Cognitive behavioral theory. In Comprehensive handbook of social work and social welfare. Vol. 2, Human behavior in the social environment. Edited by Bruce A. Thyer, Karen M. Sowers, and Catherine N. Dulmus, 101134. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discusses the theoretical foundations of CBTs and how these translate into presumed mechanisms of change and treatment strategies. Attention to undergirding social cognition theory, information processing, and the ways in which the structure and function of memory shape cognition. Provides information on social psychological theory regarding how schemas embody cognitive as well as affective and sensory information in adaptive or maladaptive forms. Find this resource:

Rafaeli, Eshkol, David P. Bernstein, and Jeffrey E. Young. 2011. Schema therapy: Distinctive features. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A practitioner-oriented book that anchors schema therapy as having cognitive-behavioral foundations but describes how it differs from traditional CBT relative to the integration of other treatment components. Describes the thirty distinctive features of schema therapy and how the method fits into the broader CBT spectrum. Includes theoretical distinctions as well as practical points regarding application. Find this resource:

Safran, Jeremy D., Catherine Eubanks-Carter, and J. Christopher Muran. 2010. Emotionfocused/interpersonal cognitive therapy. In Cognitive and behavioral theories in clinical practice . Edited by Nikolaos Kazantzis, Mark A. Reinecke, and Arthur Freeman, 332 362. New York: Guilford.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Overview of a body of work that uses schema theory to integrate emotional functioning and attention to interpersonal processes into cognitive therapy. Provides in-depth attention to problems in therapeutic relationships (e.g., strains and ruptures). This book also provides a general overview, with evolving developments, on approaches such as mindfulness, acceptance and commitment, emotion-focus, positive psychology, and cognitive analytic perspectives, in addition to traditional applications. Find this resource:

Young, Jeffrey E., Jayne L. Rygh, Arthur D. Weinberger, and Aaron T. Beck. 2008. Cognitive therapy for depression. In Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual. 4th ed. Edited by David H. Barlow, 250305. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A collaboration between originating CBT theorists, such as Beck, and schema therapy pioneers, such as Young, which illustrates the integration of schema therapy components into traditional CBT. Provides extensive literature review, detailed procedural descriptions, case illustrations, assessment tools, and emphasis on the collaborative relationship between client and practitioner. Find this resource:
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Cognitive Treatment with Children and Adolescents


Children and adolescents represent a client population with unique needs particular to CBT interventions, strategies, and therapeutic frameworks. Childrens cognitive capabilities and resources are dependent on their developmental levels, and their treatment must go beyond a one-size-fits-all approach. The references in this section represent helpful and practical guides and overviews for conducting cognitive treatment with children and adolescents. Christner, et al. 2007 focuses on CBT group work, an important resource for children and adolescents given the frequent use of group modalities with younger populations. LeCroy 2008 provides valuable step-by-step procedural descriptions of manuals that offer preventive and treatment interventions spanning a range of problems faced by youth and their families. Manassis 2009 speaks from a community-practitioner perspective, such as the pressure that practitioners often face to do CBT for youth who meet the criteria for disorders such as depression and anxiety. Ronen and Freeman 2007 brings a specific social work lens, interweaving research evidence with realworld practice details and developmental awareness. Sonderegger and Barrett 2004 is part of a collection focused on interventions that work, in which the authors give specific attention to cultural factors, including f actors associated with acculturation, identity, and coping. In addition to providing concise summaries of treatments for children and adolescents, contributors in Weisz and Kazdin 2010 discuss recommended manuals and other clinical and training resources and provide details on how to obtain them. Friedberg, et al. 2009 is a very clinically oriented text designed to help practitioners use cognitive-behavioral theory to conceptualize the needs of child and adolescent clients, including a range of very practical tools and strategies. Brom, et al. 2009specifically focuses on trauma-exposed children, providing an up-to-date characterization of a rapidly developing area of practice and treatment research.

Brom, Danny, Ruth Pat-Horenczyk, and Julian D. Ford, eds. 2009. Treating traumatized children: Risk, resilience, and recovery. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reflects many of the advances in empirically supported trauma interventions for children. Clusters chapters according to risk and protective factors for the development of posttraumatic disorders, methods for conceptualizing and fostering resilience in the wake of traumatic exposure, and evidence-based treatment models for traumatized children. Addresses complexities in assessment and diagnosis as well as contextual and developmental factors. Find this resource:

Christner, Ray W., Jessica L. Stewart, and Arthur Freeman, eds. 2007. Handbook of cognitive-behavior group therapy with children and adolescents: Specific settings and presenting problems . New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Focuses on group psychotherapy using CBT with youth in a variety of settings and includes theoretical foundations, descriptions of evidence-based interventions, and practical guidelines. Addresses a wide range of issues, integrating group work essentials with developmental considerations and setting and problem/disorder specifics. Find this resource:

Friedberg, Robert D., Jessica M. McClure, and Jolene Hillwig Garcia. 2009. Cognitive therapy techniques for children and adolescents: Tools for enhancing practice. New York: Guilford.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Uses what the authors describe as a modular approach to help readers select the intervention that is best suited for their clients. Addresses factors such as engaging hard-to-reach clients, addressing challenging problems, and targeting particular cognitive and behavioral skills. Details games, crafts, and activities used within treatment as well as more than thirty reproducible forms and handouts, which can also be downloaded and printed. Find this resource:

LeCroy, Craig W., ed. 2008. Handbook of evidence-based treatment manuals for children and adolescents. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An innovative approach focused on fifteen treatment manuals of evidence-supported interventions for children and adolescents, edited by a social work scholar. Provides accessible summaries of the supporting theory and research, but the emphasis is on implementation specifics. Includes attention to major clinical disorders, social problems confronting children and teens, and preventive interventions. Appropriate for students and practitioners alike. Also a useful resource for those interested in developing treatment manuals. Find this resource:

Manassis, Katharina. 2009. Cognitive behavioral therapy with children: A guide for the community practitioner. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Expectations for applying CBT interventions as gold standard priorities for a variety of childrens mental h ealth conditions can create challenges. This book aims to bridge gaps between CBT for children as practiced in academic centers and its use in community settings, providing step-by-step, practical approaches to describe child assessment and treatment considerations often not detailed in treatment manuals but that are highly relevant to practitioners. Find this resource: Ronen, Tammie, and Arthur Freeman, eds. 2007. Cognitive behavior therapy in clinical social work practice . New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Edited by a social work scholar and a senior CBT clinician, this handbook provides chapters focused on CBT with children and adolescents, including problem solving and social skills training, practice in schools, work with abused youth, preventive interventions, and a summary of major CBT applications with youth. Included is guidance on integrating developmental components in CBT application, the role of the family, and skills-directed and coping interventions. Find this resource:

Sonderegger, Robi, and Paula M. Barrett. 2004. Assessment and treatment of ethnically diverse children and adolescents. In Handbook of interventions that work with children and adolescents: Prevention and treatment. Edited by Paula M. Barrett and Thomas H. Ollendick, 89111. Chichester, UK: Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9780470753385Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Included in a handbook with multiple chapters that are germane to cognitive therapy with children and adolescents. This chapter focuses on diverse youth and provides an overview of cultural stress, construct variation, and crosscultural psychopathology. Treatment issues include a selection of resource manuals for work with culturally diverse populations as well as cultural amendments to an extant intervention as an illustration. Find this resource:

Weisz, John R., and Alan E. Kazdin, eds. 2010. Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. 2d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Summaries of treatments for a broad range of social, emotional, and behavioral problems in children and youth. Also includes attention to factors such as ethical issues in treatment research, developmental considerations, effectiveness questions and adaptation of CBT for diverse youth, use of evidence-based treatments in childrens mental health systems, and challenges of dissemination. Find this resource:

Cognitive Treatment with Aging Populations


The growing ranks of adults now moving into their elder years have spawned advances in the development and testing of CBT attentive to the conditions and circumstances of older adults. Because this population often does not

respond adequately to pharmacological treatments (such as antidepressant medication), cognitive behaviorally oriented interventions appear to be appropriate, bringing relief to many patients who would otherwise remain depressed and continue to suffer. Laidlaw, et al. 2003 describes the use of CBT approaches with older adult clients and presents the needs, challenges, and issues unique to this population, as well as case studies and practical solutions. Lau and Kinoshita 2006 discusses the complexities of working with culturally diverse older adults and the strengths and limitations of CBT strategies for these populations. Zahn and Zahn 2007 focuses on working with elders with depression who may be receiving therapeutic services in a variety of settings, including health clinics and at home. The following sources describe different CBT-oriented interventions for older adults with a variety of presenting problems and for multiple delivery settings. Chan, et al. 2011 presents findings from a collaborative care intervention model for older adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ciechanowski, et al. 2004 describes a home-based intervention for medically ill older adult clients with minor depression. Gellis, et al. 2007 tests a model of home care intervention for older adults with severe depression. Kiosses, et al. 2010 describes a home-based intervention for elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability.

Chan, Domin, Ming-Yu Fan, and Jurgen Untzer. 2011. Long-term effectiveness of collaborative depression care in older primary care patients with and without PTSD symptoms. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 26.7: 758764. DOI: 10.1002/gps.2606Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The Improving Mood Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment (IMPACT) collaborative care intervention is one example of an evidence-based intervention designed specifically for older adults. Includes cognitive-behavioral components such as psychoeducational engagement, problem-solving therapy, behavioral activation, pleasantevents scheduling, and relapse-prevention planning. This article provides an overview as well as findings regarding the long-term impact. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Ciechanowski, Paul, Edward Wagner, Karen Schmaling, et al. 2004. Community-integrated home-based depression treatment in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291.13: 15691577. DOI: 10.1001/jama.291.13.1569Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives for Seniors (PEARLS) intervention is another well-supported intervention for older adults, consisting of problem-solving treatment and social and physical activation. This study describes a home-based application and findings of effectiveness in significantly reducing depressive symptoms and improved health status in chronically medically ill older adults with minor depression and dysthymia. Find this resource:

Gellis, Zvi D., Jean McGinty, Amy Horowitz, Martha L. Bruce, and Elizabeth Misener. 2007. Problem-solving therapy for late-life depression in home care: A randomized field trial.American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 15.11: 968978. DOI: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3180cc2bd7Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Testing the outcomes of Brief Problem-Solving Therapy in Home Care (PST-HC) that targets the needs of older adults identified with severe depressive symptoms in a home care setting. Results suggest that PST-HC is well tolerated and holds promise for reducing persistent depressive symptoms. The authors discuss limitations in terms of the real-world applicability of this psychosocial treatment f or late-life depression. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Kiosses, Dimitris N., Patricia A. Arean, Linda Teri, and George S. Alexopoulos. 2010. Home-delivered problem adaptation therapy (PATH) for depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled elders: A preliminary study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 18.11: 988998. DOI: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181d6947dSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Test of a twelve-week, home-delivered problem adaptation therapy (PATH) in reducing depression and disability in depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled older adults. Findings suggest PATH is well accepted and efficacious in depressed elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Laidlaw, Ken, Larry W. Thompson, Leah Dick-Siskin, and Dolores Gallagher-Thompson. 2003.Cognitive behaviour therapy with older people. Chichester, UK: Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9780470713402Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In addition to illustrating CBT methods, addresses topics germane to older adults such as dealing with stereotypical thinking about aging, setting realistic expectations in the face of deteriorating medical conditions, and dealing with

loss and disability, as well as the therapists own fears about aging. Includes case studies, practical solutions, and a troubleshooting section. Find this resource:

Lau, Angela W., and Lisa M. Kinoshita. 2006. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with culturally diverse older adults. In Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy: Assessment, practice, and supervision. Edited by Pamela A. Hays and Gayle Y. Iwamasa, 179197. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/11433-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reviews common presenting problems among diverse older adults such as depression, somatization, caregiver stress, grief and bereavement, mental disorders secondary to physical illness or disability, and culture-bound syndromes. Addresses the strengths and limitations of CBT with diverse elders as well as guides for adapting interventions and case illustrations. Find this resource:

Zahn, Marjorie R., and Bruce S. Zahn. 2007. Mature adults: Working with the depressed aging patients. In Cognitive behavior therapy in clinical social work practice . Edited by Tammie Ronen and Arthur Freeman, 353372. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Describes CBT techniques for depressed elders with particular emphasis on how techniques can be integrated into a variety of settings in which social workers often interact with older adults, including home-based, mental health, medical, and long-term care services. Includes case studies. Find this resource:

Cognitive Treatment with Diverse Groups


The client populations and communities with whom social workers interact embody multiple forms and levels of human diversity. Understanding how to serve a range of persons within a range of settings and geographical locations is imperative for the culturally responsible practitioner. Provided in this section are sources that address the pluralistic nature of our world and push providers to think beyond simplified generalizations and stereotypes of individuals and communities from diverse groups. These sources provide comprehensive presentations of working with diverse groups, incorporating differences around gender, gender expression, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religious or spiritual affiliation, physical and mental ability, age, and so on. Hays and Iwamasa 2006 frames working with diverse groups within a CBT framework and provides guidance on the application and refinement of CBT strategies. Hays 2008 challenges the social work practitioner to reflect on his or her own positionality when working with clients from culturally and socially diverse groups and also integrates considerations of social justice with the treatment process. Muroff 2007 presents CBT for diverse groups, including treatments and culturally responsive practices. Martell, et al. 2004focuses specifically on CBT with gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients and the unique stressors inherent to sexual minority status. Lee, et al. 2009 integrates Western and Eastern philosophies of healing and mental and emotional health along with cognitive-behavioral theories and practices and offers holistic approaches for a wide range of populations and presenting problems. In an overview text that includes but is not limited to CBT, Ponterotto, et al. 2010 discusses multicultural counseling; a chapter on social justice and psychotherapeutic practice is included. Vera, et al. 2003 describes CBT practices with members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Whaley and Davis 2007 offers insight into the tensions surrounding implementation of evidencebased practices with culturally diverse groups.

Hays, Pamela A. 2008. Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy . 2d ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/11650-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Aims to assist therapists in recognizing and understanding cultural influences as a multidimensional combination of age, developmental and acquired disabilities, religion, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, indigenous heritage, native origin, and gender. Describes how to integrate cultural considerations into the evidence-based practice of CBT, with attention to ways in which privilege, marginality, and social disadvantage affect problems and treatment. Find this resource:

Hays, Pamela A., and Iwamasa, Gayle Y., eds. 2006. Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/11433-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Describes the application of CBT with people of diverse cultures, including assessment, supervision, and ways in which therapists can refine cognitive behavioral therapy to increase its effectiveness. Includes common cultural groups in the United States as well as less commonly considered groups such as people of Alaska Native, Arab, and Orthodox Jewish heritage; older adults; people with disabilities; and gay and lesbian individuals. Find this resource:

Lee, Mo Yee, Siu-man Ng, Pamela P. Y. Leung, and Cecilia L. W. Chan. 2009. Integrative body-mind-spirit social work: An empirically based approach to assessment and treatment . New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Connects Western therapeutic techniques with Eastern philosophy and practices within cognitive-behavioral and solution-focused frameworks. Describes the underlying theoretical premises and elements and provides a pragmatic, step-by-step description of assessment and treatment techniques within an integrative, holistic perspective with broad applicability across diverse groups. Provides case examples and applications across a range of life problems. Find this resource:

Martell, Christopher R., Steven A. Safren, and Stacey E. Prince. 2004. Cognitive-behavioral therapies with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Guidelines for affirmative, competent assessment and treatment are integrated with practical descriptions of widely used CBT applications. Describes treatment tools for depression, anxiety, and other problems encountered by gay and straight clients alike, with guidance on helping individuals and couples cope with the stresses of sexual minority status. Includes case examples, resources, and sample client and therapist forms. Find this resource:

Muroff, Jordana. 2007. Cultural diversity and cognitive behavior therapy. In Cognitive behavior therapy in clinical social work practice. Edited by Tammie Ronen and Arthur Freeman, 109146. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reviews the literature on CBT and culture relative to race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, disability, age, and income. Describes sociocultural factors affecting CBT treatment and features of culturally responsive CBT practice. Illustrates CBT modifications for multiple diverse groups. Find this resource:

Ponterotto, Joseph G., J. Manuel Casas, Lisa A. Suzuki, and Charlene M. Alexan, eds. 2010. Handbook of multicultural counseling. 3d ed. London: SAGE. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes, but is not limited to, cognitive therapies. Provides attention to a range of cultural, social, practical, and therapeutic factors germane to cognitive therapy treatment. Includes chapters on social justice considerations in practice. Includes diverse populations at varying points in the lifespan as well as guidelines for assessment and practice. Find this resource:

Vera, Mildred, Doryliz Vila, and Margarita Alegria. 2003. Cognitive-behavioral therapy: Concepts, issues, and strategies for practice with racial/ethnic minorities. In Handbook of racial and ethnic minority psychology. Edited by Guillermo Bernal, Joseph E. Trimble, A. Kathleen Burlew, and Frederick T. L. Leong, 521538. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Walks through characteristics of CBT (underlying assumptions, view of disorders, and action-oriented approach), assessing the strengths and limitations regarding use with racial/ethnic minorities. Summarizes major studies of CBTs with minority groups. Provides recommendations for addressing cultural elements in CBT use with minorities. Find this resource:

Whaley, Arthur L., and King E. Davis. 2007. Cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health services: A complementary perspective. American Psychologist 62.6: 563574. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.6.563Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Acknowledges historical tensions and issues between pursuits of cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health. Views these as complementary in nature, with one point of convergence being cultural adaptation of interventions in the move from controlled efficacy research to natural-setting effectiveness studies. Discusses implications of cultural adaptations of mental health treatments. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:
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Problem-Solving Treatments
Problem-solving therapy (PST) is a cognitive-behavioral intervention that focuses on training clients in adaptive problem-solving attitudes and skills. This approach views the capacity to solve problems successfully in the real world as a crucial component for an individuals well-being. Problem solving is often a major component of CBT treatment techniques and strategies. DZurilla and Nezu 2007 provides a helpful introduction, overview, and practical guide for problem-solving therapy. Chang, et al. 2004 emphasizes the theory underlying problem-solving practices and provides evidence in support of the authors view of problem solving as an essential life skill.DZurilla and Nezu 2010 and Nezu, et al. 2010 offer techniques and applications of PST across a wide range of life problems and clinical scenarios. The following sources address working with clients with specific health issues. Bell and DZurilla 2009 provides a meta-analysis study of PST for clients with depression and finds that PST is an effective treatment for reducing depressive symptoms. In another meta-analytic review, Malouff, et al. 2007 finds mixed results of using PST for clients with mental and physical health problems.

Bell, Alissa C., and Thomas J. DZurilla. 2009. Problem-solving therapy for depression: A metaanalysis. Clinical Psychology Review 29.4: 348353. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.02.003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides details about a meta-analysis of controlled outcome studies on the efficacy of PST for reducing depressive symptomatology, finding PST to be equally effective as other psychosocial therapies and medication treatments and significantly more effective than no treatment and support/attention control groups. Describes conditions under which PST is most effective, stressing the value of a positive problem orientation in addition to the four major problemsolving skills. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Chang, Edward C., Thomas J. DZurilla, and Lawrence J. Sanna, eds. 2004. Social problem-solving: Theory, research, and training. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/10805-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Argues for the central importance of social problem solving as a life skill and ways in which disorders in this realm affect many aspects of peoples lives and functioning. Describes the theory and research support for social problem solving as well as guidance in practical application, spanning a wide range of problems in living and populations. Concludes with attention to future directions. Find this resource:

DZurilla, Thomas J., and Arthur M. Nezu. 2007. Problem-solving therapy: A positive approach to clinical intervention. 3d ed. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise, practical orientation by well-established contributors to problem-solving therapy. Includes theoretical foundations, a five-dimensional model, review of measures, attention to roles of stress and emotions, description of a training manual, case illustrations, and outcome studies. Designed for use with the manual by Nezu and colleagues, Solving Lifes Problems: A 5-Step Guide to Enhanced Well-Being (New York: Springer, 2007). Find this resource:

DZurilla, Thomas J., and Arthur M. Nezu. 2010. Problem-solving therapy. In Handbook of cognitivebehavioral therapies. 3d ed. Edited by Keith S. Dobson, 197225. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides a theoretical overview underlying PST, a summary of empirical support, and illustration of clinical applicationidentifying the fourteen problem-solving modules that constitute the therapy developers training objectives and activities. Illustrates flexible ways in which PST can be applied across very different problem areas, arguing that problem solving prevents or reduces psychopathology by increasing a persons ability to cope with stressful problems effectively. Find this resource:

Malouff, John M., Einar B. Thorsteinsson, and Nicola S. Schutte. 2007. The efficacy of problem solving therapy in reducing mental and physical health problems: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 27.1: 4657. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.005Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This meta-analytic review found that PST is more effective than no treatment, treatment as usual, and attention placebo, but not significantly more effective than other bona fide treatments. Factors associated with better outcomes included whether the PST included problem-orientation training (in addition to skills training), whether homework was

assigned, and whether a developer of PST helped to conduct the study. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Nezu, Arthur M., Christine M. Nezu, and Thomas J. DZurilla. 2010. Problem -solving therapy. InCognitive and behavioral theories in clinical practice. Edited by Nikolaos Kazantzis, Mark A. Reinecke, and Arthur Freeman, 76114. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This chapter is similar to others by the authors, but includes the ways in which the theory base incorporates Arnold Lazaruss relational model of stress, noting parallels between definitions of stress and problems and between coping and problem solving in PSTpoints helpful for explaining PST to clients. Provides detailed case illustration. Find this resource:

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Treatments


Since the 1990s, progressive increases have occurred in the scientific study of mindfulness as a therapeutic tool, and its use with cognitively oriented therapies has grown. Part of what some have characterized as the third wave or generation of cognitive therapies, mindfulness involves self-regulated attention involving conscious or mindful awareness of ones current feelings, thoughts, sensations, and surroundings. This part of skill building of meta cognitive capacity focuses on concentration and aims, generally, to maintain a nonjudgmental stance of acceptance regarding the content of these thoughts, feelings, and sensations. These meditative practices rapidly are becoming part of the compendium of tools for the cognitive therapist. As an introduction to mindfulness practice, Shapiro and Carlson 2009 provides a helpful guide for novice and seasoned practitioners alike and also addresses practitioner mindfulness self-care. Baer 2006 is an overview and detailed practice resource of mindfulness-based treatments, presenting four of the best-researched interventions. Hayes, et al. 2004 provides detailed descriptions of a range of therapies that utilize mindfulness and related centering practices, including less commonly presented modalities. Roemer and Orsillo 2009 offers a comprehensive, practical, and practice overview of mindfulness-based therapies, including case examples, transcripts, and reproducible materials. Dimeff and Koerner 2007 and Bowen, et al. 2011 focus on specific disorders and/or presenting issues and describe the role of mindfulness approaches for treatment.

Baer, Ruth A., ed. 2006. Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinicians guide to evidence base and applications. Boston: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides overviews of conceptual foundations, implementation, and evidence base for the four best-researched mindfulness-oriented interventions: mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Chapters also provide detailed case studies and applications with a range of problem types and populations, representing varied settings of care. Find this resource:

Bowen, Sarah, Neharika Chawla, and G. Alan Marlatt. 2011. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors: A clinicians guide. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Integrates mindfulness practices with evidence-based cognitive and behavioral strategies for problems involving relapse prevention. Aims to complement cognitive therapy and provides detail for implementation, structured through group sessions. User-friendly with guidelines for each session, scripted examples of guided meditations, and more than twenty reproducible handouts and forms. Find this resource:

Dimeff, Linda A., and Kelly Koerner, ed. 2007. Dialectical behavior therapy in clinical practice: Applications across disorders and settings. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Mindfulness is one of several integrated components in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). This book describes applications for depression, substance dependence, eating disorders, psychosis, suicidal and assaultive behaviors, and other complex problems. Addresses use with adults, adolescents, couples, families, and forensic clients and is attentive to the empirical base and issues in establishing and maintaining an effective DBT program. Find this resource:

Hayes, Steven C., Victoria M. Follette, and Marsha M. Linehan, eds. 2004. Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the earlier collections to provide summaries of multiple therapies that share an emphasis on such themes as mindfulness, acceptance, values, spirituality, being in a relationship, focusing on the present moment, and emotional deepening. Includes some therapeutic modalities that are not quite as frequently presented in other collections, such as functional analytic psychotherapy integrated with cognitive therapy and acceptance and in-depth attention to values work. Find this resource:

Roemer, Lizabeth, and Susan M. Orsillo. 2009. Mindfulness- and acceptance-based behavioral therapies in practice. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides a unified framework for integrating acceptance and mindfulness into cognitive behavioral practice. Structured in a walk-through format, including theoretical base, assessment, case formulation and treatment planning, client orientation and engagement, various components of active implementation, progress evaluation, and termination. Illustrates ways to incorporate other evidence-based interventions as well as cultural considerations. Includes case examples, transcripts, and reproducible materials. Find this resource:

Shapiro, Shauna L., and Linda E. Carlson. 2009. The art and science of mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/11885-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Particularly useful resource for readers new to mindfulness. Accessibly addresses questions such as: What is mindfulness and how is it applicable to clinical practice? Does it help and, if so, how? Includes a section on mindfulness and self-care for the practitionera distinctive contribution. Can be used with early-stage students as well as active practitioners. Find this resource:

Cognitive Approaches to Stress Management


Regardless of the particular problem foci, clients in counseling services are typically considerably stressed making stress management a nearly ubiquitous therapeutic concern. Stress manifests itself in many forms in clients lives and may stem from positive or negative experiences. Effects of stress may be physiological, mental, emotional, and/or behavioral. To some extent, stress is part of every persons life, and many people already engage in stress management practices (e.g., sleep, exercise, relaxation, or professional support). However, when levels of stress rise above a persons capacity to cope or when the coping strategies are no longer effective, stress can have detrimental effects on his or her mental and physical health, day-to-day functioning, and overall quality of life. In this section, the sources presented provide fairly wide-spectrum guidance on incorporating stress management into therapeutic practices and CBT strategies. Increasingly, cognitively based practices purposely include self-calming skill development (e.g., breathing and muscle relaxation) and anticipatory coping methods that complement cognitive change strategies.Contrada and Baum 2011 provides a massive compendium that pulls together the broad base of multidisciplinary expertise now understood as germane to the study and treatment of stress-related problems. Lehrer, et al. 2007 reviews a range of stress management techniques and applications for a variety of presenting problems. Each method presented is supported by case studies, how-to guidance, and detailed descriptions. Using an explicitly cognitive approach to managing stress, Pretzer and Beck 2007 offers a variety of principles and techniques underlying presented activities. Meichenbaum 2007 describes stress inoculation training (SIT), a treatment approach developed to assist highly distressed individuals or those with resistant and relapsing presenting problems. Continuing with sources for working with highly stressed clients, Dattilio and Freeman 2007 discusses cognitive stress management techniques in the face of crises.Hofmann and Otto 2008 provides session-by-session CBT and stress management guidance for treating clients with social anxiety disorders and related mental health issues.

Contrada, Richard J., and Andrew Baum, eds. 2011. The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Good single source for intervention guidance with a range of stress-related problems but also provides attention to socialcontextual contributions to stress and to processes of adaptation to stress, including workplace,

socioeconomic status, racism, and social support. Description of the biological and psychological factors involved in how stress is experienced and alleviated builds on and helps extend the use of cognitive therapies. Find this resource:

Dattilio, Frank M, and Arthur Freeman, eds. 2007. Cognitive-behavioral strategies in crisis intervention. 3d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Illustrates the use of cognitive-behavioral interventions with people under marked stress situations, including specific disorders such as suicidal depression, panic disorder, and crisis-prone patients;; medical crises; child and family crises; and environmental and situational crises. Attention to older adults, children, couples, and families as well as individual adults and communities affected by large-scale events. Case examples illustrate application and intervention tailoring. Find this resource:

Hofmann, Stefan G., and Michael W. Otto. 2008. Cognitive behavioral therapy of social phobia: Evidencebased and disorder-specific treatment techniques. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Distinctive for the level of clinical detail, such as session-by-session guidelines with a range of handouts and materials for use with clients. Can be applied in individual or group modalities. Specifically attentive to complicating factors such as co-occurring substance abuse, depression, or paranoia, as well as to issues of maintenance, followup, and research support for intervention components. Find this resource:

Lehrer, Paul M., Robert L. Woolfolk, and Wesley E. Sime, eds. 2007. Principles and practices of stress management. 3d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reviews effective stress management techniques and their applications for treating psychological problems and enhancing physical health and performance. Describes cognitively oriented methods as well as a variety of other methods often used in conjunction (e.g., biofeedback, breathing retraining, meditative methods, and muscle relaxation). Presents each methods theoretical and empirical underpinnings with step -by-step guidelines and case examples. Find this resource:

Meichenbaum, Donald. 2007. Stress inoculation training: A preventative and treatment approach. In Principles and practices of stress management. 3d ed. Edited by Paul M. Lehrer, Robert L. Woolfolk, and Wesley E. Sime, 497516. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Stress inoculation training (SIT) is less a strictly specified set of manualized components and more an individually tailored set of cognitive principles and guidelines for stressed or distressed individuals. Meichenbaum, the SIT founder, describes the components with illustrations. Provides a preventive and relapse preventive orientation, with a strong self-regulation and collaborative, psychoeducational emphasis. Find this resource:

Pretzer, James L., and Aaron T. Beck. 2007. Cognitive approaches to stress and stress management. In Principles and practices of stress management. 3d ed. Edited by Paul M. Lehrer, Robert L. Woolfolk, and Wesley E. Sime, 465496. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Explicitly derivative of CBT and therapy within a cognitive model of stress (e.g., cognitive appraisals of stressors, ways in which these link to emotions and behavioral intentions, and which stressors activate coping activities). Provides a walk-through of cognitive stress management principles and activities with examples of self-assessment and monitoring tools, practical tips, and emphasis on collaborative empiricism. Find this resource:
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Cognitively Oriented Methods for Anxiety and Trauma


Profound and/or persistent exposure to deleterious, stressful experiences or environments can overwhelm an individuals capacity for adaptive coping and resilience. Although trauma can be conceptualized on multiple levels,

cognitive approaches target ways in which emotional disorder is predicated on problematic learned responses and distorted conceptualizations. New learning is required in order to change sustainably entrenched patterns of perceived threat and threat responses spanning cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioral systems. Zayfert and Becker 2007 provides a valuable resource for readers seeking the backdrop of cognitive behavioral therapies as applied to anxiety disorders. A strong, edited collection with some distinctive entries, Richard and Lauterbach 2007 offers a comprehensive presentation of exposure therapies. Abramowitz, et al. 2011 explicitly focuses on the design and implementation of exposure-based interventions for pathological worry or fear of many forms. Follette and Ruzek 2006 overlaps with other sources cited here but provides a broader scope on trauma than solely posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) per se; chapters describe pragmatic and clinician-friendly strategies for working with problems across a variety of trauma experiences. Developed under the auspices of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Foa, et al. 2009 provides thorough reviews and succinct treatment guidelines, is cognitive-behavioral at its core, and includes components suited for working with varying types of trauma and populations. Barlow 2008 contains a practical, how-to orientation to treatment of psychological disorders by well-established treatment authors; several entries are relevant to the topics of trauma, PTSD, anxiety, and related interventions. Use of narrative techniques in exposure therapy is at the early stages of development, but growing. Robjant and Fazel 2010 illustrates one application designed for individuals with multiple traumatic events over long periods of time, such as conditions of war, conflict, and organized violence. The notion of positive growth and transformation as a function of trauma is expanding clinical perspectives. Calhoun and Tedeschi 2007 explores links between traumatic experiences and resilient recovery; the authors are longstanding contributors to the topic with related books of likely interest.

Abramowitz, Jonathan S., Brett J. Deacon, and Stephen P. H. Whiteside. 2011. Exposure therapy for anxiety: Principles and practice. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Describes the links among fear cues, misperceptions, and maladaptive coping patterns. Presents details of individualized assessment and treatment planning, strategies for engaging clients successfully, and evidence-based special considerations such as complex cases, involving significant others, and the complementary use of medication. Find this resource:

Barlow, David H., ed. 2008. Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual. 4th ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This disorder-focused handbook offers a number of chapters related to this entry topic, including largely cognitivebased treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia, PTSD, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and a unified perspective on emotional disorders. Includes detailed guidelines and implementation tools. Find this resource:

Calhoun, Lawrence G., and Richard G. Tedeschi, eds. 2007. Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This collection includes distinctions among posttraumatic growth and resilience (recovery, resistance, and reconfiguration), measurement issues, schema change approaches, links to spirituality and forgiveness, and applications with a range of types of trauma. Find this resource:

Foa, Edna B., Terence M. Keane, Matthew J. Friedman, and Judith A. Cohen, eds. 2009. Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies . 2d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes acute stress disorders, early intervention, and prevention with considerable attention to children and youth as well as adults. Offers guidance to help clinicians select the most suitable therapy for particular patients and overcome frequently encountered obstacles. Find this resource:

Follette, Victoria M., and Josef I. Ruzek, eds. 2006. Cognitive-behavioral therapies for trauma. 2d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Inclusion of multiple trauma-related experiences and topics including intrusion and arousal, guilt, anger, substance abuse, dissociation, and relationship difficulties, as well as the evolution of diagnostic labeling and conceptualization

of trauma. Emphasizes situating problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in the relevant interpersonal and environmental contexts, rather than focusing on trauma history alone or perspective of individual dysfunction. Includes transcripts, case vignettes, and concrete aids. Find this resource:

Richard, David C. S., and Dean Lauterbach, eds. 2007. Handbook of exposure therapies. Amsterdam: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides an overview and applications for particular topics, such as therapy for treating combat veterans, virtual reality applications for exposure, assistance for clients with multiple disorders, obstacles to successful implementation, and public relations problems of exposure therapy. Useful for both practitioners new to exposure therapy and experienced practitioners seeking additional applications and attention to distinctive topics. Find this resource:

Robjant, Katy, and Mina Fazel. 2010. The emerging evidence for Narrative Exposure Therapy: A review. Clinical Psychology Review 30.8: 10301039. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.07.004Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Describes the underlying theory of Narrative Exposure Therapy, such as psychological and neurobiological sequelae as well as applications with adults and children. May be of particular interest with those involved with refugees and asylum-seeking populations, domestic populations facing chronic high-level stress, and global mental health. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Zayfert, Claudia, and Carolyn B. Becker. 2007. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD: A case formulation approach. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Authors illustrate the what, why, and how-to of exposure, cognitive restructuring, and related techniques and show how to organize interventions within a systematic, yet flexible, case formulation. Very accessible and clinically well illustrated, with structured attention to important fundamentals.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


A. Antonio Gonzlez-Prendes

Introduction
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) encompasses various psychotherapeutic approaches that are rooted in the fundamental principle that a persons thinking is the prime determinant of emotional and behavioral responses to life situations. The historical influences of CBT can be found inbehavioral approaches such as John Watsons classical conditioning and B. F. Skinners operant conditioning, with their focus on antecedents and reinforcers of behavior and an empirical approach to evaluating behavior, and Albert Banduras social learning theory and social cognitive theory, with a focus on observational or vicarious learning. Other influences that shaped the philosophical foundations of CBT include Greek and Roman Stoicism and the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism and Taoism, with their emphasis on reason, logic, and acceptance. Nonetheless, CBT as an organized system of psychotherapy, which originated during the 1950s and 1960s with the works of Albert Elliss rational -emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and Aaron Becks cognitive therapy (CT). Both of these models stress that cognitions, in the form of judgments, meanings, attributions, and assumptions tied to life events, are the primary factors that influence how individuals respond to environmental cues. The CBT emphasis on internal, private, conscious thought represents a departure from psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious motivation of behavior, as well as from behaviorism, with its focus on external observable and measurable behaviors. Although there are differences among the various cognitive-behavioral approaches, there are fundamental similarities that include a focus on conscious thinking; the importance laid on information processing and the role that cognitions play in how we process information from our environment and respond to situations; and the assumption that, by changing irrational or maladaptive thoughts in a more rational, logical, realistic, and balanced perspective, people are capable of increasing healthy functioning. CBT is a present-oriented, relatively brief, structured, problem-focused, empirically driven form of psychotherapy. In CBT both the clinician and the client take an active approach in addressing the clients problem. In a nutshell, the therapeutic work revolves around identifying maladaptive thinking; assessing the validity and functionality of such thoughts by evaluating available evidence for or against the thoughts; and formulating a more rational, logical, realistic, and balanced approach to interpreting ones reality. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries various models

of CBT have been applied to a wide range of mental health problems, substance abuse issues, and other disorders. More importantly, CBT has generated voluminous research studies, making it one of the most empirically based systems of psychotherapy.

Introductory Works
Any discussion of CBT should acknowledge the influence of works by Albert Ellis (Ellis 1994) and Aaron T. Beck (Beck 1979) that established the philosophical, theoretical, and practice foundations of this approach. Besides Becks cognitive therapy (CT) and Elliss rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), other popular therapeutic approaches under the CBT umbrella include Donald H. Meichenbaums stres s inoculation training (SIT) (Meichenbaum 1985), problem-solving therapy (PST) (DZurilla and Nezu 2007), Marsha M. Linehans dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) (Dimeff and Koerner 2007), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) (Hayes, et al. 2006). SIT helps individuals develop skills to inoculate themselves against the effects of anxiety and trauma and against future stressors. Skills such as using self-instructions to cope with stress, relaxation strategies, behavioral rehearsals, and in vivo exposure are part of the SIT approach. PST focuses on training individuals in the effective use of problemsolving skills to increase healthy coping and adaptation to life challenges. DBT and ACT are part of the third wave of behavioral therapies that emphasize the role of mindfulness and acceptance in the healing process. Kazantzis, et al. 2010 provides an overview of various CBT models in clinical practice.Freeman 2005 examines key aspects of CBT, with contributions from noted experts in the field .

Beck, Aaron T. 1979. Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: Meridian. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book elucidates the principles of Becks CT approach, underscoring the relationship between cognitions and emotions and discussing the cognitive content of various emotional disorders. It also presents techniques of CT with a special chapter on the cognitive therapy of depression. Find this resource:

Dimeff, Linda A., and Kelly Koerner, eds. 2007. Dialectical behavior therapy in clinical practice: Applications across disorders and settings. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview of Linehans DBT that examines its practical application across various scenarios (e.g., outpatient, inpatient, residential, assertive community treatments, individuals, and families) and with various disorders (e.g., eating disorders, substance abuse, depression). Presents specific tools and strategies to help the practitioner enhance DBT skills. Find this resource:

DZurilla, Thomas J., and Arthur M. Nezu. 2007. Problem-solving therapy: A positive approach to clinical intervention. 3d ed. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors discuss the five-dimensional ADAPT model for problem solving (i.e., Attitude, Defining the problem, Alternatives, Predict outcomes, and Try out). This practical resource discusses the theoretical foundation of the model, its application to various psychopathologies and medical concerns, clinicians tools, case samples, and the empirical basis and support of the model. Find this resource:

Ellis, Albert. 1994. Reason and emotion in psychotherapy: A comprehensive method of treating human disturbances. Rev. ed. New York: Citadel. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An updated version of the seminal work by the founder of REBT that describes the principles and practice of REBT. Includes key philosophical assumptions of the theory, application of REBT to various issues (e.g., marital problems, schizophrenia, and psychopathy), and objections to and limitations of the psychotherapy. Find this resource:

Freeman, Arthur, ed. 2005. Encyclopedia of cognitive behavior therapy. New York: Plenum. DOI: 10.1007/b99240Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comprehensive, inclusive, and multidisciplinary volume that serves as an educational and reference source for practitioners, educators, and students. Includes discussions of common psychological disorders, specific components of CBT treatment, different models of CBT, CBT with specific populations, and CBT approaches with emerging problems (e.g., Internet addiction, pain).

Find this resource:

Hayes, Steven C., Jason B. Luoma, Frank W. Bond, Akihiko Masuda, and Jason Lillis. 2006. Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes, and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy 44.1: 125. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This journal article offers an introductory overview of ACT for students and practitioners. The authors discuss the philosophical and theoretical background, theory of psychopathology, core processes of ACT, and a detailed examination of research associated with ACT. Available onlinefor purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Kazantzis, Nikolaos, Mark A. Reinecke, and Arthur Freeman, eds. 2010. Cognitive and behavioral theories in clinical practice. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Presents ten models of CBT used in clinical practice. For each model there is an introduction and historical background; philosophical and theoretical underpinnings; empirical evidence; the application to clinical practice with case illustrations; and summary and conclusions addressing in some cases future directions, challenges, and limitations of the model. Find this resource:

Meichenbaum, Donald H. 1985. Stress inoculation training. New York: Pergamon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides an overview of the theory and practice of SIT, including a description of the three-stage process of SIT: (1) development of therapeutic collaboration and problem conceptualization, (2) cognitive and behavioral skills acquisition and rehearsal, and (3) application of skills to specific problems. Find this resource:
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Textbooks
CBT and social work have a relationship extending over three decades. Some textbooks highlighted in this section have been authored by social workers or may have a social work orientation, while others offer a broad and comprehensive discussion of CBT that may be useful to students as well as both seasoned and beginning practitioners. Berlin 2002 discusses a perspective of cognitive therapy (CT) that combines the intrapsychic focus on internal experience common to CBT with the environmental perspective traditional to social work. Cormier, et al. 2009offers a comprehensive overview of the use of CBT in practice, including strategies for relationship building, assessment, and intervention with clients. In Sundel and Sundel 2005 the focus is on behavioral strategies for assessing clients and modifying behavior. Ronen and Freeman 2006 is an edited textbook with an emphasis on the application of CBT to various disorders and populations in clinical social work practice. Granvold 1993 examines the use of cognitive and behavioral strategies with children and adults. Thyer 1999 offers a thought-provoking discussion of the philosophical legacy of behaviorism, examining the criticism and viability of behavioral philosophy. The two major schools of CBT are covered in Beck 1995, a comprehensive step-by-step description of the use of CT, and in Ellis and Dryden 1997, an overview of the theory and practice of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and its application to individuals and groups.

Beck, Judith S. 1995. Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Describes the fundamentals of CBT and beyond. Provides a comprehensive discussion of client engagement; case conceptualization; working with different levels of cognition; use of various cognitive and behavioral strategies, including the use of homework; termination; and relapse prevention. Includes vignettes and case examples. Find this resource:

Berlin, Sharon B. 2002. Clinical social work practice: A cognitive-integrative perspective. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An integration of CBT with clinical social work practice. The author examines the CBT focus on internal phenomena against the framework of environmental forces that impact on an individuals problems. The integration of a view of the larger environment in CBT fits well with the person-in-environment perspective of social work. Find this resource:

Cormier, Sherry, Paula S. Nurius, and Cynthia J. Osborn. 2009. Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive-behavioral interventions. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comprehensive examination of CBT throughout the full experience of practice, from assessment and client engagement to treatment and termination. Contains numerous case examples and exercises beneficial for students and practitioners. Also includes chapters on exposure techniques as well as discussions of solution-focused and motivational interviewing therapies. Find this resource:

Ellis, Albert, and Windy Dryden. 1997. The practice of rational emotive behavior therapy. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview of the history, theory, and clinical applications of REBT in various formats, including individual, couples, family, and group therapy. Of particular interest for social workers are the discussions on issues of unconditional selfacceptance and the REBT philosophy of self-interest and social interest. Find this resource:

Granvold, Donald K., ed. 1993. Cognitive and behavioral treatment: Methods and applications. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The focus on examining the application of CBT with children, youths, and adults makes this book a valuable reference for students and practitioners. Includes sections on basics of cognitive-behavioral treatment and approaches with children, adolescents, and adults as well as strategies to address specific problems. Find this resource:

Ronen, Tammie, and Arthur Freeman, eds. 2006. Cognitive behavior therapy in clinical social work practice . New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Aimed at clinical social workers, this book is divided into six sections: basic foundation; methods of intervention; CBT with children; CBT with couples and families; CBT with specific adult disorders, including comorbidity; and future directions. The authors examine evidence-based practice and the commonalities between CBT and social work. Find this resource:

Sundel, Martin, and Sandra S. Sundel. 2005. Behavior change in the humans services: Behavioral and cognitive principles and applications. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Focuses on behaviorism and the use of behavioral strategies in practice. Examines how to conduct a detailed behavioral assessment as well as strategies for reinforcement (positive and negative), stimulus control, modeling, punishment, generalization, and maintenance of behavior change. Numerous case examples are included. Find this resource:

Thyer, Bruce A., ed. 1999. The philosophical legacy of behaviorism. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines the fundamental philosophy of behaviorism and addresses its origins and basic principles. Also discusses the role of cognition in the whole philosophy of behavioral science and criticisms leveled at behavioral philosophy. Find this resource:

Bibliographies
The Academy of Cognitive Therapy offers a bibliography of recommended books on various subjects related to cognitive therapy (CT). The Australian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy has a bibliography of CBT books divided into classifications of specific populations and disorders. A bibliography devoted exclusively to the works of Albert Ellis is included on the Albert Ellis Institute website. Project Cork offers a series of bibliographies related specifically to substance abuse treatment, including separate bibliographies on behavioral contingencies and CT. Kowalik, et al. 2011 provides an annotated bibliography of eight research studies that focus specifically on the effectiveness of CBT in treating pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Academy of Cognitive Therapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Offers a list of recommended books and manuals on various topics related to CBT, including books that focus on CBT with specific disorders and with specific populations, such as children, adolescents, adults, and families. Click on Professional Development and search under Readings and Resources. Find this resource:

Albert Ellis Institute. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Devoted exclusively to the writings of Albert Ellis and includes works published by Ellis between 1945 and 2007. This bibliography is of particular interest to graduate students and practitioners interested in the works of the founder of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT). Find this resource:

Australian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Topics include general application, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, children, depression and suicide, eating disorders, marriage and family problems, medical problems and pain, older adults, personality disorders, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and miscellaneous. Find this resource:

Kowalik, Joanna, Jennifer Weller, Jacob Venter, and David Drachman. 2011. Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 42.3: 405413. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.02.002Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation As part of their meta-analytic review of CBT for pediatric PTSD, the authors offer an annotated bibliography of eight research studies. Although brief, this bibliography is of special interest for those working with this population and seeking evidence-based approaches. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource: Project Cork. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Emphasizes substance abuse disorders and includes separate sections on behavioral contingency therapy and CT. Those working in the field of substance abuse will find a wide array of topics to help build and expand their knowledge on the subject. Find this resource:

Journals
It is essential for social workers to keep up with the latest findings in their field of practice to develop their skills, knowledge, and competence, even if they are not actively engaged in research, whether at the macro or micro levels of practice. This issue assumes greater significance particularly for those social workers engaged in clinical practice and who, under the mandates of managed care, must demonstrate their ability to use evidence-based approaches in their practice. CBT, with its focus on promoting research and the development of evidence-based strategies, provides excellent opportunities for social workers to learn what works with various populations and psychological disorders. Although CBT studies are widely published in journals in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, and other disciplines, a number of CBT-specific journals provide a forum for the dissemination of CBT-related information. This section includes an overview of some national and international CBT-oriented journals. Behavior Therapy focuses on the publication of empirical studies in the fields of behavior or cognitive sciences. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice aims to bridge the gap between research and practice by publishing empirical studies that address the implementation of therapeutic procedures. Cognitive Therapy and Research is devoted to experimental studies that examine all aspects of psychological problems from childhood to adulthood. The International Journal of Cognitive Therapy publishes articles that address all scientific and clinical aspects of cognitive therapy (CT). The Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy publishes studies that examine the theory and practice of rationalemotive behavior therapy (REBT) and CBT. Behaviour Research and Therapy includes articles of a theoretical and experimental nature that impact prevention and treatment of psychopathology. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy publishes studies evaluating the cognitive and/or behavioral assessment and treatment of psychological disorders. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy is devoted to the advancement of the science and practice of CBT through the publication of a wide range of articles, including empirical and case studies. All of these journals are interdisciplinary and peer-reviewed and at times offer special thematic issues.

Behavior Therapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is one of the official journals of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. It has a multidisciplinary target audience, including mental health professionals and students. Emphasis is placed on original empirical studies with a focus on conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of psychopathologies. It is published quarterly. Find this resource:

Behaviour Research and Therapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The journal is published monthly and emphasizes theoretical and experimental investigations of psychopathology with articles that have direct implications for prevention and general practice treatment. The journal publishes studies on various aspects of behavioral change, including predictors and moderators of change as well as evidence-based interventions. Find this resource:

Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This quarterly, an official journal of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, targets practitioners across various disciplines with articles that address challenges facing practitioners regarding the process or content of practice. Find this resource:

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This official journal of the Swedish Association of Behavioural Therapists is published quarterly. It contains studies that address the application of behavioral and cognitive approaches to psychotherapy. The journal considers articles pertinent to CBT in the realms of assessment, behavioral medicine, clinical practice, psychopathology, and theoretical analyses. Find this resource:

Cognitive Therapy and Research. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Six times per year this journal publishes experimental studies on a wide range of topics related to psychological dysfunction across the life span. Although the main objective of the journal is the publication of experimental research, its staff will consider other articles (e.g., case studies, theoretical analyses). Find this resource:

International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This quarterly is the official journal of the International Association of Cognitive Psychotherapy. It publishes a wide range of studies, including empirical and theoretical articles addressing all aspects of CT. The journal also welcomes case studies with a focus on innovative treatment approaches and literature reviews. Find this resource:

Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This quarterly journal publishes studies on interventions associated with a wide spectrum of CBT approaches (i.e., CT, REBT, dialectical behavior therapy [DBT], acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]). Empirical studies, case analyses, integration of CBT with other systems of therapy, and detailed applications (how to) of specific strategies are considered. The main focus is relevance to practice. Find this resource:

Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This quarterly journal mainly publishes articles on research, theory, and practice of REBT in various areas of practice and populations. However, articles that address other CBT approaches are also considered. Find this resource:
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Applications to Clinical Issues


Since the development of the first cognitive-behavioral models of practice in the late 20th century, practitioners have adapted CBT approaches to treat a wide range of mental health and addictive disorders. This section includes works that highlight the application of CBT approaches to common specific disorders (i.e., depression, substance abuse) as well as books in which each chapter is devoted to a discussion of the use of CBT with a specific disorder. An allinclusive list of works on the application of CBT to clinical disorders would be beyond the scope of this article. However, books that address the use of CBT with various disorders offer the reader general overviews that ultimately may lead to a more in-depth exploration on the use of CBT with a specific pathology. Along those lines, Leahy 2004 includes comprehensive chapters examining the application of CBT for various psychopathologies. More specifically, Beck, et al. 1979 provides an understanding of the cognitive theory (CT) and treatment of depression. This work elucidates Aaron T. Becks cognitive triad of depression, which states that internalized negative, exaggerated views of the self, the world, and the future create a vulnerability to depression. The authors also present an overview of the structure of CT as well as cognitive and behavioral strategies to treat depression. Clark and Beck 2010 presents the cognitive theory and treatment of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorders, social phobia, obsessivecompulsive disorders (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Ellis 1998discusses the application of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) to treat anxiety by outlining irrational thoughts that fuel anxiety as well as a number of cognitive, educational, behavioral, and experiential strategies to reduce and eliminate anxiety. Arch and Craske 2009 discusses various aspects of the application of CBT to treat anxiety, including a critical analysis of early 21st-century research. Hope, et al. 2010 offers a detailed, session-by-session therapist guide to treating social anxiety. Beck, et al. 1993 offers an in-depth description of the CT of substance abuse, including the cognitive model for conceptualizing and treating addictions. Datillio and Freeman 2007discusses the application of cognitivebehavioral strategies to crisis situations.

Arch, Joanna J., and Michelle G. Craske. 2009. First-line treatment: A critical appraisal of cognitive behavioral therapy developments and alternatives. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 32.3: 525547. DOI: 10.1016/j.psc.2009.05.001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article focuses on the application of CBT to treat anxiety disorders and includes salient aspects of CBT, such as the central role of exposure in the treatment of anxiety, acceptance and mindfulness approaches, and other key treatment issues. The authors also review treatment efficacy and point to gaps in research. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Beck, Aaron T., A. John Rush, Brian F. Shaw, and Gary Emery. 1979. Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Beck originally developed CT for the treatment of depression. This book describes the cognitive model of depression, including a discussion of the cognitive triad, cognitive and behavioral treatment strategies to target depressogenic thoughts, and specific approaches for addressing suicidal ideation. Find this resource:

Beck, Aaron T., Fred D. Wright, Cory F. Newman, and Bruce S. Liese. 1993. Cognitive therapy of substance abuse. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors present a cognitive model that identifies cognitions that facilitate addiction. Describes the processes of assessment, case conceptualization, structure of treatment, education, and cognitive and behavioral strategies. The book also addresses concomitant issues, such as personality disorders and managing crises, depression, anxiety, and anger. Find this resource:

Clark, David A., and Aaron T. Beck. 2010. Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: Science and practice . New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Builds on Becks cognitive model of anxiety, examines its empirical status, and discusses assessment and cognitive and behavioral interventions. Of special interest to clinicians is a detailed description of the treatment of GAD, panic, social phobia, OCD, and PTSD, including clinician guidelines and reproducible materials. Find this resource:

Dattilio, Frank M., and Arthur Freeman, eds. 2007. Cognitive-behavioral strategies in crisis intervention. 3d ed. New York: Guilford.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Organized into six sections, this book examines the application of CBT with various types of crises: psychological, medically related, child, family, and environmental and situational (i.e., disasters, terrorism, rape, and other trauma). Includes legal and ethical issues in crisis intervention. Case materials provide practical illustrations of crisis interventions. Find this resource:

Ellis, Albert. 1998. How to control your anxiety before it controls you. New York: Citadel. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Ellis discusses anxiety, common symptoms associated with it, and irrational beliefs that contribute to the experience of anxiety in individuals. The book also presents descriptions of cognitive reframing, use of coping self-statement, visualization, relaxation, exposure, and other interventions to eliminate anxiety. Find this resource:

Hope, Debra, Richard G. Heimberg, and Cynthia L. Turk. 2010. Managing social anxiety: A cognitivebehavioral therapy approach; Therapist guide. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A detailed guide for clinicians working with social anxiety. Examines the nature of social anxiety, the role of medications, CBT strategies, and the implementation of a treatment program. Includes a detailed session-by-session description of CBT for social anxiety with a focus on exposure strategies for various types of social anxiety. Find this resource:

Leahy, Robert L., ed. 2004. Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice . New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes theoretical and conceptual aspects of CBT and its use in treating anxiety and mood disorders, substance abuse, and schizophrenia. Other sections cover CBT and personality disorders, including a thought-provoking discussion on personality disorders in childhood and adolescence, and the integration of CBT with psychopharmacology in treating couples and families. Find this resource:

Treatment of Particularly Challenging Disorders


Even the most experienced CBT practitioners encounter cases that pose significant challenges to the traditional CBT approach and may require adaptations or modifications from their standard method of practice. In such cases it is useful to have reference materials that suggest options for addressing those challenges. This section includes CBT approaches to help clinicians address some of these challenges effectively. Beck, et al. 2004 expands on the cognitive therapy (CT) of personality disorders by examining each of the types of personality disorders and presenting an individualized model for the conceptualization and treatment of each. Linehan 1993 offers a detailed discussion of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for the treatment of borderline personality disorders. Basco and Rush 2007 examines the application of CBT to the treatment of bipolar disorders. Kingdon and Turkington 2005 focuses on a CT approach for schizophrenia. Barkley 2006 is a comprehensive handbook on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for clinicians working with children as well as the often overlooked population of adults with ADHD. Fairburn 2008, by one of the leading figures in the research and treatment of eating disorders, discusses enhanced cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT-E) that builds upon prior models of CBT for bulimia nervosa. Beck 2005 examines challenges that may arise in the course of CT (e.g., goal setting, structuring the session) and suggests strategies for effectively overcoming such obstacles. Beck 2007 addresses the challenges that some individuals face in trying to lose weight and presents a cognitive-based approach to help those who have struggled with the ups and downs of dieting.

Barkley, Russell. 2006. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment . New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This comprehensive handbook for clinicians who work with ADHD covers every aspect of ADHD, including history, nature, etiology, gender differences, and comorbidity. Discusses assessment and treatment strategies for children and adults, including parent training and the use of pharmacotherapy. Find this resource:

Basco, Monica Ramirez, and A. John Rush. 2007. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bipolar disorder. 2d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Focuses on the nature, assessment, and treatment efficacy of CBT for bipolar disorders, including medication management, adherence and compliance with treatment, early detection, and prevention. Includes step-by-step, detailed strategies to address behavioral and cognitive symptoms and stress management. Case examples, session protocol, and various resources are also covered. Find this resource:

Beck, Aaron T., Arthur Freeman, and Denise D. Davis. 2004. Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. 2d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discusses the theory and assessment of personality disorders and the role of the therapeutic relationship. Each personality disorder is addressed individually, with specific conceptualization and treatment approaches. Brief vignettes are interjected throughout the discussion. Find this resource:

Beck, Judith S. 2005. Cognitive therapy for challenging problems: What to do when the basics do not work . New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Specific step-by-step case examples of challenges in therapy (e.g., identifying and modifying beliefs and assumptions, working with mandated clients, and therapists seeking client approval). Also includes resources for therapists and the Personality Belief questionnaire to help identify beliefs associated with Axis II disorders. Find this resource:

Beck, Judith S. 2007. The Beck diet solution: Train your brain to think like a thin person . Birmingham, AL: Oxmoor House. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The basic premise of this book is to help dieters think differently so that they can change their eating behaviors. The book presents a CT-based, step-by-step, six-week, forty-two-day program. The author addresses cognitive distortions that often sabotage dieting and provides tasks and skills to reduce weight successfully. Find this resource:

Fairburn, Christopher G. 2008. Cognitive behavior therapy and eating disorders. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A practical guide for clinicians for treating the full range of eating disorders. Includes the psychopathology of eating disorders, an overview of CBT-E, preparing the client for treatment, issues around medication management, and implementation of CBT-E. It also covers adaptations of CBT-E to particular populations and contains reproducible materials. Find this resource:

Kingdon, David G., and Douglas Turkington. 2005. Cognitive therapy of schizophrenia. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview of schizophrenia and a review of effective treatments, including the importance of early intervention. Guidelines for assessment, building a therapeutic alliance, and individualized treatment plans are discussed. Presents step-by-step strategies to address delusions, hallucinations, and comorbid conditions. Also includes rating scales and client handouts. Find this resource:

Linehan, Marsha M. 1993. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Offers a comprehensive discussion of the DBT model and its application to the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Includes a discussion of the theoretical foundation of DBT, behavioral targets and the structure of treatment around target behaviors, and specific treatment and case management strategies. Find this resource:

Trauma

CBT has been an effective approach in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other types of trauma-related disorders. This section presents works that examine leading approaches under the CBT umbrella, all of which include some form of exposure to the trauma memory. Foa, et al. 2009 is an in-depth discussion of the latest approaches in the treatment of PTSD with various populations (e.g., children, adolescents, and adults), modalities, and settings.Taylor 2006 focuses on the CBT of PTSD, while Foa, et al. 2007 offers a detailed guide to the use of prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD. Ehlers and Clark 2000 presents a model that integrates cognitive restructuring and exposure to treat PTSD. Cognitive processing therapy (Resick and Schnicke 1996) was initially developed to help victims of rape who had PTSD and incorporates exposure through the detailed writing and reading of the traumatic event. Although eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has been the subject of controversy regarding the specific contributions of eye movement to therapy outcomes and its empirical validation, it has remained a popular and widely adopted approach for treating trauma, with vast numbers of clinicians trained in this method. Shapiro and Forrest 1997 provides a basic overview of the use of EMDR. A relatively new addition to the field of trauma treatment is virtual reality exposure (VRE), which involves the use of computer-generated simulations of various scenarios and sensory stimulation to facilitate exposure to feared and avoided situations. A number of computer-generated scenarios (e.g., the Vietnam War, fighting in urban and rural Iraq, and the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center) have been created to treat PTSD and other types of anxiety.Meyerbrker and Emmelkamp 2011 gives the reader a general overview of this procedure with PTSD and other anxiety disorders. Meichenbaum 2007 provides a twenty-year update on stress inoculation training (SIT), a cognitive-behavioral approach used to treat PTSD and other anxiety disorders.

Ehlers, Anke, and David M. Clark. 2000. A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy 38.4: 319345. DOI: 10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00123-0Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discusses cognitive processing, behavioral and emotional responses, and premorbid individual characteristics that contribute to the onset of PTSD. Also examines specific strategies for the assessment and treatment of PTSD. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Foa, Edna B., Elizabeth A. Hembree, and Barbara O. Rothbaum. 2007. Prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences; Therapist guide. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A detailed and practical discussion on prolonged exposure therapy (PE) useful for clinicians and graduate students. Examines the background, rationale, evidence base for PE and emotional processing, and diagnostic criteria of PTSD. Includes session-by-session outlines, case samples, and reproducible forms. An accompanying workbook for clients is available. Find this resource:

Foa, Edna B., Terence M. Keane, Matthew J. Friedman, and Judith A. Cohen, eds. 2009. Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 2d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A comprehensive and in-depth discussion of PTSD, including assessment and diagnosis; early intervention and prevention; evidence-based treatments of chronic PTSD with adults, adolescents, and children; and various treatment modalities, including pharmacology. Research information on the efficacy of each approach and specific treatment guidelines are included. Find this resource:

Meichenbaum, Donald. 2007. Stress inoculation training: A preventative and treatment approach. In Principles and practice of stress management. 3d ed. Edited by Paul M. Lehrer, Robert L. Woolfolk, and Wesley E. Sime, 497518. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author examines the theoretical basis and fundamental principles of SIT, outlining a three-phase process. Discusses SIT as a preventive and treatment approach for PTSD and other disorders. A case study and a view toward the future of SIT are presented along with an extensive list of research studies supporting its efficacy. Find this resource:

Meyerbrker, Katharina, and Paul M. G. Emmelkamp. 2011. Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: A state of the art. In Advanced computational intelligence in health care 6: Virtual reality in psychotherapy, rehabilitation, and assessment. Edited by Sheryl Brahnam and Lakhmi C. Jain, 47 62. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This overview introduces the reader to VRE. Specific sections include the use of VRE to treat PTSD, panic, and phobias. Also included are discussions on the technical aspects, participant personality characteristics, the process of VRE (psychophysiology and cognitive mechanisms and the therapeutic relationship), and research. Find this resource:

Resick, Patricia A., and Monica K. Schnicke. 1996. Cognitive processing therapy for rape victims: A treatment manual. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A detailed session-by-session outline of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for rape victims. Each session includes specific skills to target, issues to be discussed, client handouts, homework assignments, and case examples. Diagnosis, assessment, and the theoretical foundation of CPT are also discussed. Find this resource:

Shapiro, Francine, and Margot Silk Forrest. 1997. EMDR: The breakthrough therapy for overcoming anxiety, stress, and trauma. New York: Basic Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors indicate that this is not a therapy manual and emphasize the need for EMDR-specific training. Nonetheless, the book presents an overview of EMDR for interested clinicians who may want to get acquainted with the model. Resources on EMDR as well as studies supporting its efficacy are included. Find this resource:

Taylor, Steven. 2006. Clinicians guide to PTSD: A cognitive-behavioral approach. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise yet detailed discussion of PTSD divided into two main sections: conceptual and empirical bases and treatment methods and protocols. Clinicians and graduate students will benefit from the discussions of various treatment models and strategies, integration of pharmacology, and different types of trauma. It also includes case examples and reproducible forms. Find this resource:
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Groups, Families, and Couples


The works in this section target clinicians or graduate students who are interested in the use of CBT with groups, families, and couples. Dattilio and Epstein 2005 is an introduction to the history and application of CBT for couples and families. White and Freeman 2000 examines the application of group CBT to various clinical disorders as well as to specific populations and in specific settings. In a similar approach, Bieling, et al. 2006 focuses exclusively on group CBT with psychiatric conditions, including substance abuse, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. The use of CBT with couples and families is presented in Dattilio 2010 in a detailed and informative discussion. Christner, et al. 2007 examines the use of group CBT with children and adolescents as applied to several problems and across various settings. Also included in this section are presentations on group CBT with specific disorders, such as social phobia (Heimberg and Becker 2002) and substance abuse (Liese, et al. 2002). Scott 2011 is a guide for practitioners with specific steps to form groups for depression and anxiety disorders.

Bieling, Peter J., Randi E. McCabe, and Martin M. Antony. 2006. Cognitive-behavioral therapy in groups. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines the application of group CBT for the assessment and treatment of a wide array of clinical disorders, including substance abuse, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. Discusses the foundation and process of group CBT with chapters on specific behavioral and cognitive group strategies. Session outlines and case examples are included. Find this resource:

Christner, Ray W., Jessica L. Stewart, and Arthur Freeman, eds. 2007. Handbook of cognitive-behavior group therapy with children and adolescents: Specific strategies and presenting problems. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This handbook for clinicians covers the application of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) across various settings (e.g., schools, outpatient, and residential) and problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, attention

deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], self-injury, and coping with parents divorce) related to children and adolescents. Chapters include special considerations for the specific setting or problem addressed. Find this resource:

Dattilio, Frank M. 2010. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with couples and families: A comprehensive guide for clinicians. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Looks at the evolution of CBT with couples and families, empirical evidence, and core principles of learning and cognitive theory. Offers specific strategies for assessment and treatment and a section that addresses special issues and challenges (e.g., divorce, cultural sensitivity, and same-sex couples). Includes case examples and assessment tools. Find this resource:

Dattilio, Frank M., and Norman B. Epstein. 2005. Introduction to the special section: The role of cognitivebehavioral interventions in couple and family therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 31.1: 713. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2005.tb01539.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An introduction to the history and the application of CBT to couples and family therapy. The discussion includes a look at the research behind CBT for couples and families and comments on its compatibility with other approaches. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Heimberg, Richard G., and Robert E. Becker. 2002. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia: Basic mechanisms and clinical strategies. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The first section of this book offers discussions on the diagnosis, etiology, cognitive dimensions, and assessment of social phobia. The second section includes a detailed twelve-session outline for group treatment with specific exposure, cognitive restructuring, and homework procedures. Find this resource:

Liese, Bruce S., Aaron T. Beck, and Kim Seaton. 2002. The cognitive therapy addictions group. In The group therapy of substance abuse. Edited by David W. Brook and Henry I. Spitz, 3758. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Medical. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This chapter presents a cognitive-behavioral group therapy approach for addictions with a focus on substance abuse. The authors discuss how to facilitate an understanding of the beliefs that contribute to substance abuse, recognition of triggers and automatic thoughts, and processes for challenging such thoughts and beliefs within a group setting. Find this resource:

Scott, Michael J. 2011. Simply effective group cognitive behaviour therapy: A practitioners guide . New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A practical guide for practitioners seeking to develop CBT groups for depression, panic with agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and generalized anxiety disorder. Includes specific guidelines for interviewing, selecting, and engaging clients as well as worksheets and questionnaires that can be replicated. Find this resource:

White, John R., and Arthur S. Freeman, eds. 2000. Cognitive-behavior group therapy for specific problems and populations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/10352-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A step-by-step, session-by-session handbook for clinicians looking to use group CBT with depression, panic and phobia, obesity, eating disorders, dual diagnoses, dissociative disorders, and adult attention-deficit disorder (ADD). Special populations include older adults, medical patients and hospitalized clients, parents, Latinos, and women with sexuality issues. Includes case examples and practitioner tools. Find this resource:

Life Span: Children, Adolescents, and Older Adults

Using CBT with children, adolescents, and older adults may require modifications and adaptations of the traditional CBT model and the inclusion of other factors, such as developmental considerations, parental and family involvement, and health and disability issues. This section addresses those factors first by presenting works that examine the clinical application of CBT with children and adolescents across various disorders and settings (Kendall 2005; Mayer, et al. 2009). Also included are works that examine the use of CBT with children to treat anger (Larson and Lochman 2011), depression (Spirito, et al. 2011), and obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) (Kircanski, et al. 2011). Katz, et al. 2009 focuses on the use of CBT and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treat anxiety and depression in adolescents. Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received significant attention elsewhere, it is not included here. However, for a detailed discussion of this subject, see Barkley 2006 (cited in Treatment of Particularly Challenging Disorders). The works presented in this section serve as valuable resources for both graduate students and practitioners. Two works are included that examine the application and adaptations of CBT with older adults, Sorocco and Lauderdale 2011 and Laidlaw, et al. 2003.

Katz, Lawrence Y., Sarah A. Fotti, and Lara Postl. 2009. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and dialectical behavior therapy: Adaptations required to treat adolescents. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 32.1: 95109. DOI: 10.1016/j.psc.2008.10.005Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article focuses on the use of CBT and DBT with adolescents. The authors review the research on CBT and DBT to treat adolescent anxiety and depression and discuss the implementation of these treatments with this population. A section on CBT with somatoform and eating disorders is included. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Kendall, Philip C., ed. 2005. Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures. 3d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines CBT for children and adolescents. Also addresses the assessment of and different strategies for treating externalizing disorders (e.g., aggression, ADHD), internalizing disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety), eating disorders, OCD, disaster, and trauma. A discussion of empirical support is included. Find this resource:

Kircanski, Katharina, Tara S. Peris, and John C. Piacenti. 2011. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessivecompulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 20.2: 239254. DOI: 10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.014Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines CBT for childhood OCD, including clinical presentation; assessment with commonly used instruments; conceptualization; treatment implementation, such as exposure and response prevention; and developmental and family factors in treatment. Discusses psychoeducation, symptom intensity hierarchy, cognitive restructuring, exposure (plus response prevention), contingency management, and empirical support of CBT for childhood OCD. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Laidlaw, Ken, Larry W. Thompson, Dolores Gallagher-Thompson, and Leah Dick-Siskin. 2003.Cognitive behavior therapy with older people. Chichester, UK: Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9780470713402Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides essential information for practitioners working with older adults, including efficacy of the model; a detailed approach to address depression in older adults; and CBT with clients with anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, physical illness, disability, and dementia. The authors also address many of the myths that surround psychotherapy with older adults. Find this resource:

Larson, Jim, and John E. Lochman. 2011. Helping schoolchildren cope with anger: A cognitive-behavioral intervention. 2d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines the development of anger and aggression in children and presents a manualized CBT treatment model, the Anger Coping Program, and the empirical support behind it. This practical guide for clinicians includes suggestions for modification of the model to various settings, case anecdotes, and reproducible treatment forms and handouts. Find this resource:

Mayer, Matthew J., John E. Lochmann, Richard Van Acker, and Frank M. Gresham, eds. 2009. Cognitivebehavioral interventions for emotional and behavioral disorders: School-based practices. New York: Guilford.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This work examines the clinical application and existing research behind cognitive-behavioral interventions for children and adolescents to treat various disorders, including anxiety, depression, anger and aggression, ADHD, and autism, among others. A valuable resource for practitioners working with children and adolescents. Find this resource:

Sorocco, Kristen H., and Sean Lauderdale. 2011. Cognitive-behavior therapy with older adults: Innovations across care settings. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Presents an overview of CBT with older adults and examines CBT for depression, bipolar, suicide, comorbidity, anxiety disorders, dementia, and sexual dysfunction. A section focuses on CBT across care settings (e.g., primary, hospice, and home care). Detailed case samples and tools for practitioners are included. Find this resource:

Spirito, Anthony, Christianne Esposito-Smythers, Jennifer Wolff, and Kristen Uhl. 2011. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression and suicidality. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 20.2: 191204. DOI: 10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.012Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines and describes the use of core CBT strategies to treat depression and suicidality in adolescents. The authors review empirical studies and discuss CBT strategies, such as cognitive restructuring, problem solving, reattribution of responsibility, affect regulation, relaxation, and anger management. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Diverse Populations
Although the literature on the application of CBT with cultural minorities and specific populations is sparse, the available studies support its effectiveness across diverse populations. Hays and Iwamasa 2006 examines culturally responsive assessment, practice, and supervision in CBT with various populations (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, and disability). Hays 2009provides a framework of ten points for integrating multicultural considerations into the practice of CBT. Pantalone, et al. 2010 discusses specific cultural norms and themes to increase cultural competence among CBT practitioners. Martell, et al. 2003 provides a framework for the use of CBT with lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Interian and Daz-Martnez 2007 discusses cultural considerations for the competent practice of CBT in treating depression in Hispanic clients. Kelly 2006 discusses cultural considerations when using CBT with African Americans. Chen and Davenport 2005 examines modifications of CBT with Chinese Americans. Radnitz 2000discusses the use of CBT across a wide range of physical and cognitive disabilities.

Chen, Sylvia Wen-Hsin, and Donna S. Davenport. 2005. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with Chinese American clients: Cautions and modifications. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 42.1: 101110. DOI: 10.1037/0033-3204.42.1.101Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Explores the fit of Chinese cultural values and norms with the CBT philosophy. Covers specific aspects of CBT treatment, including cautions and modifications to increase effectiveness with Chinese-American clients. The authors suggest that CBT is compatible with Chinese cultural values and is a viable model for working with Chinese Americans. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Hays, Pamela A. 2009. Integrating evidence-based practice, cognitive-behavior therapy, and multicultural therapy: Ten steps for culturally competent practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 40.4: 354360. DOI: 10.1037/a0016250Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines three major developments of the early 21st century in the field of psychotherapy: focus on evidence-based practices, the vast increase in the popularity of CBT, and multicultural therapy (MCT). A critical overview and ten specific steps for the effective integration of CBT and MCT are included. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Hays, Pamela A., and Gayle Y. Iwamasa, eds. 2006. Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy: Assessment, practice, and supervision. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

DOI: 10.1037/11433-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides a very much needed discussion of CBT with diverse populations (e.g., various ethnic minorities, age, disabilities, and sexual orientation). Includes a section on multicultural assessment and supervision. Case samples throughout the book illustrate practical applications of CBT. Find this resource:

Interian, Alejandro, and Anglica M. Daz-Martnez. 2007. Considerations for culturally competent cognitivebehavioral therapy for depression with Hispanic patients. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 14.1: 8497. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.01.006Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This journal article discusses how to adapt CBT treatment to fit the culture of the Hispanic client. Considerations such as traditional gender roles and culture-specific values (i.e., familismo[family], respeto [respect], and personalismo [personalism]) are covered within the context of CBT treatment for depression. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Kelly, Shalonda. 2006. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with African Americans. In Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy: Assessment, practice, and supervision . Edited by Pamela A. Hays and Gayle Y. Ywamasa, 97116. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: 10.1037/11433-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discusses common historical threads shared by African Americans and highlights cultural strengths and individual differences. Presents advantages and limitations of CBT with this population. A case example illustrates adaptation to CBT. Also includes a discussion of CBT with African American families. Find this resource:

Martell, Christopher R., Steven A. Safren, and Stacey E. Prince. 2003. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Introduces developmental challenges faced by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals and the basics of CBT. Offers guidelines for treating anxiety and depression and other pathologies in LGB clients. Includes information on therapy with same-gender couples, HIV-related concerns, and ethical issues in therapy. Case samples highlight practical applications. Find this resource:

Pantalone, David W., Gayle Y. Iwamasa, and Christopher R. Martell. 2010. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with diverse populations. In Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. 3d ed. Edited by Keith S. Dobson, 445 464. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discusses the integration of multiculturalism into CBT practice. Addresses the underrepresentation of multicultural individuals in the research literature and identifies cultural norms and thematic issues across groups to increase cultural competence among practitioners; these include health beliefs, self-identification, individual versus collectivistic perspective, communication styles, and family structure. Find this resource:

Radnitz, Cynthia L., ed. 2000. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for persons with disabilities. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Starting with explanations of CBT and the concept of disability, this book examines the application of CBT to persons with physical, cognitive, and developmental disabilities. Examines common cognitive distortions associated with particular problems, assessment and treatment strategies, and relevant research. Includes interventions with caregivers and in school settings. Find this resource:
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The Therapeutic Relationship


The role of the therapeutic relationship in CBT has received relatively little attention in the literature, even though the quality of the therapeutic relationship has been deemed to be an important factor in therapeutic success. The question that arises is whether in CBT the therapeutic relationship is in itself a main mediator of change (i.e., a

sufficient condition for change) or is a condition that facilitates the change process (i.e., the main agent is the change in thinking). The articles in this section explore the role of the relationship in CBT and identify and discuss key aspects of this therapy variable. Gilbert and Leahy 2007 is a wide-ranging discussion of various topics associated with the therapeutic relationship in CBT. Beck and Emery 1985 covers five factors that strengthen the interaction between client and therapist. On the other hand, Ellis and Dryden 1997discusses key factors in the therapeutic relationship in rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and warn of potential risks in the therapist client dyad that therapists need to recognize. Persons 1989 applies a case formulation approach to the understanding of the client therapist relationship and identifies potential difficulties that impact its quality. Burns and Auerbach 1996examines the role of empathy in CBT and whether it makes a difference. Newman 1998 examines similarities and differences between therapeutic and supervisory relationships in CBT. Evans-Jones, et al. 2009 examines factors that impact the quality of the therapeutic relationship in CBT with psychotic clients.

Beck, Aaron T., and Gary Emery. 1985. Principles of cognitive therapy. In Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. By Aaron T. Beck and Gary Emery, 167189. New York: Basic Books. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this chapter the authors discuss the nature of the therapeutic alliance in cognitive therapy and identify five factors that strengthen the interaction: reciprocity, avoiding hidden agendas, collaborative homework design, admitting mistakes, and fostering a collaborative environment. See pp. 175 177. Find this resource:

Burns, David D., and Arthur Auerbach. 1996. Therapeutic empathy in cognitive-behavioral therapy: Does it really make a difference? In Frontiers of cognitive therapy. Edited by Paul M. Salkovskis, 135164. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this critical discussion of the role of empathy in CBT, the authors examine how to assess empathy and the research on empathy in CBT. The authors include clinical implications as well as specific methods of an empathy training program design for improving therapeutic warmth and effectiveness. Find this resource:

Ellis, Albert, and Windy Dryden. 1997. The basic practice of REBT. In The practice of rational emotive behavior therapy. 2d ed. By Albert Ellis and Windy Dryden, 2771. New York: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines the therapists characteristics that facilitate the therapeutic relationship in REBT: unconditional acceptance of the client, genuineness, appropriate humor, and philosophic empathy. The authors also warn of two major risks in this process: reinforcing the clients need for love and approval and reinforcing the clients need for interminable help. See pp. 2731. Find this resource:

Evans-Jones, Catherine, Emmanuelle Peters, and Chris Barker. 2009. The therapeutic relationship in CBT for psychosis: Client, therapist, and therapy factors. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 37.5: 527540. DOI: 10.1017/S1352465809990269Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines twenty-four client-therapist dyads to identify factors linked to effective relationships with psychotic clients. The authors suggest that therapist qualities (e.g., empathy, expertness, and trustworthiness) and therapy factors (e.g., number of sessions, CBT strategies, and collaborative goal setting) are important building blocks for a good therapeutic relationship with these clients. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Gilbert, Paul, and Robert L. Leahy, eds. 2007. The therapeutic relationship in the cognitive behavioral psychotherapies. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The most comprehensive discussion of the therapeutic relationship in CBT to date. Includes twelve chapters examining key issues as well as the therapeutic relationship in specific therapies. A chapter on the therapeutic relationship with difficult-to-engage clients is of particular interests to practitioners. Find this resource:

Newman, Corey. 1998. Therapeutic and supervisory relationships in cognitive-behavioral therapies: Similarities and differences. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 12.2: 95108. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Examines similarities and differences in therapeutic and supervisory relationships in CBT. Although the authors outline common positive aspects of both relationships, practitioners providing supervision will find this article particularly interesting. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Persons, Jacqueline B. 1989. The therapeutic relationship. In Cognitive therapy in practice: A case formulation approach. By Jacqueline B. Persons, 158175. New York: Norton. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines the role of the therapeutic relationship and suggests a case formulation approach. Persons discusses specific difficulties (e.g., lateness, angry outbursts, excessive compliance, passivity, requests for more time) that may affect the relationship and provides case examples on how to effectively manage these situations. Find this resource:

Evidence-Based Practice and Empirical Support


The abundance of research on CBT poses a challenge to anyone trying to single out specific studies to serve as references for the reader. This section includes research articles as well as book chapters that examine the empirical support of CBT across various disorders with children, adolescents, and adults. Dobson and Dobson 2009 discusses the evidence-based practice of CBT and includes an appendix that covers empirical studies supporting the use of CBT with various disorders. Hofmann and Reinecke 2010 reviews empirically informed interventions and assessment strategies in CBT with a wide range of adult psychiatric problems. Butler, et al. 2006reviews meta-analyses to examine the empirical status of CBT. Tolin 2010 presents a meta-analysis that compares the effectiveness of CBT with other bona fide psychotherapies. Gellis and Kenaley 2008 presents a systematic review of the efficacy of problem solving therapy for depression in adults. The role and effectiveness of CBT to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders has been a subject of debate. Therefore this section offers the reader two articles that examine the use of CBT in the treatment of schizophrenia from two perspectives, one supporting its use (Wykes, et al. 2008) and the other one challenging it (Lynch, et al. 2010). Chu and Harrison 2007 presents the results of a meta-analysis that evaluates the efficacy of CBT for anxious and depressed youth.

Butler, Andrew C., Jason E. Chapman, Evan M. Forman, and Aaron T. Beck. 2006. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review26.1: 1731. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.07.003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reviews sixteen meta-analyses assessing the effectiveness of CBT with depression (adults and adolescents), generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, marital distress, anger, bulimia, internalizing childhood disorders, sexual offending, and chronic pain. Compares CBT with controls (i.e., placebo, no treatment, waitlist) and other modalities, including medications. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Chu, Brian C., and Tara L. Harrison. 2007. Disorder-specific effects of CBT for anxious and depressed youth: A meta-analysis of candidate mediators of change. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 10.4: 352 372. DOI: 10.1007/s10567-007-0028-2Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors reviewed twenty-eight randomized clinical trials. Overall, CBT demonstrated positive treatment gains for both anxiety and depression. CBT for anxiety had significant effects across cognitive, behavioral, physiological, and coping processes. CBT for depression reflected small effects for cognitive processes and was nonsignificant for behavioral and coping processes. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Dobson, Deborah, and Keith S. Dobson. 2009. Evidence-based practice of cognitive-behavioral therapy. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reviews evidence behind strategies for assessment, case formulation, and treatment. The authors include practical applications of CBT with case illustrations. Of particular interest are chapters discussing the myths about CBT and starting and managing a practice. Find this resource:

Gellis, Zvi D., and Bonnie Kenaley. 2008. Problem-solving therapy for depression in adults: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice 18.2: 117131.

DOI: 10.1177/1049731507301277Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors examined twenty-two randomized controlled studies using problem-solving therapy (PST) to treat adult depression and discuss the benefits of PST, such as its long-term effects, transportability to clinical social workers, and usefulness across different modalities (e.g., individual and group). They also discuss the limitations of the available research on PST. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Hofmann, Stefan G., and Mark A. Reinecke, eds. 2010. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with adults: A guide to empirically-informed assessment and intervention. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511781919Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discusses eleven disorders, including depression, the anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and eating and body dysmorphic disorders. For each disorder, the authors examine the theoretical model, key characteristics of the disorder, treatment, and available supporting evidence. Of particular interest is a chapter on mindfulness in CBT. Find this resource:

Lynch, D., K. R. Laws, and P. J. McKenna. 2010. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for major psychiatric disorders: Does it really work? A meta-analytical review of well-controlled trials.Psychological Medicine 40.1: 924. DOI: 10.1017/S003329170900590XSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors reviewed studies evaluating CBT for schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorders. They report that CBT is no different than nonspecific controls and does not reduce relapse rates in the treatment of schizophrenia, CBT is effective with major depression, and CBT is ineffective in preventing relapse of bipolar disorder. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Tolin, David F. 2010. Is cognitive-behavioral therapy more effective than other therapies? A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review 30.6: 710720. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.05.003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A review of twenty-six randomized controlled studies with 1,981 participants to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT versus other psychotherapies. The author indicates that CBT is superior in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders and suggests that CBT should be considered as a first-line approach with such conditions. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Wykes, Til, Craig Steel, Brian Everitt, and Nicholas Tarrier. 2008. Cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: Effect sizes, clinical models, and methodological rigor. Schizophrenia Bulletin34.3: 523537. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbm114Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors reviewed thirty-four trials of CBT to treat schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. They concluded that CBT reduces positive symptoms and support its use for treatment of schizophrenia. They identify flaws in some studies and caution against exaggerated effect sizes. Suggestions for future studies of CBT and schizophrenia are included. Find this resource:

Workbooks
Active client participation is an essential feature of CBT. Homework assignments are often designed for clients to practice and reinforce various aspects of therapy. Well-conceptualized client workbooks can serve as valuable adjuncts to therapy and provide options for developing homework assignments. The late 20th and early 21st centuries have seen an increase in CBT-related client workbooks, and because of that many valuable workbooks may not be included in this list. This section contains workbooks that focus on common issues that social workers are likely to find in clinical practice. Corcoran 2005 is designed to help social workers increase their proficiency in applying cognitive-behavioral strategies to situations outside clinical practice. Another workbook for clinicians focuses on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults (Barkley and Murphy 2005). Greenberger and Padesky 1995 is a workbook to help clients use CBT and understand the impact of thoughts on mood and behavior. Problem-specific workbooks cover posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Rothbaum, et al. 2007), social anxiety (Hope, et al. 2010), depression (Gilson, et al. 2009), alcohol and drug abuse (Daley and Marlatt 2006), and anger (Reilly, et al. 2002). These workbooks include case examples and a variety of worksheets, assessment tools, and other activities to facilitate client progress in treatment.

Barkley, Russell A., and Kevin R. Murphy. 2005. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook. 3d ed. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This workbook for clinicians to use as an adjunct to their work with clients contains many reproducible forms (e.g., fact sheets, assessment and rating forms, monitoring academic progress, and behavior checklists) that can be used with parents and teachers of children with ADHD as well as with adult clients. Find this resource:

Corcoran, Jacqueline. 2005. Cognitive-behavioral methods: A workbook for social workers. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This workbook targets students and practitioners and helps social workers extend the use of CBT beyond psychotherapy to other areas of social work practice, such as case manager, caseworker, in-home family service provider, medical social worker, or crisis intervention counselor. Includes exercises and detailed case examples with hypothetical situations. Find this resource:

Daley, Dennis C., and G. Alan Marlatt. 2006. Overcoming your alcohol or drug problem: Effective recovery strategies. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This workbook offers specific strategies to help clients understand and manage the biological, social, cognitive, behavioral, and affective aspects of their substance abuse problems. Includes work sheets, assessment tools, and logs that can serve as exercises and homework assignments for use during therapy. Find this resource:

Gilson, Mark, Arthur Freeman, M. Jane Yates, and Sharon Morgillo Freeman. 2009. Overcoming depression: A cognitive therapy approach. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This workbook can be used as an adjunct to therapy and leads the client to understand the physiological, emotional, behavioral, situational, and cognitive aspects of depression. The authors have included case examples, worksheets, logs to track moods and behaviors, and a thought record to work through depressogenic thinking. Find this resource:

Greenberger, Dennis, and Christine A. Padesky. 1995. Mind over mood: Change how you feel by changing how you think. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A workbook for clients that can be used as a self-help tool or an adjunct to the therapeutic process. Includes a thought record and work sheets for clients to work on automatic thoughts and core beliefs; rating scales for depression and anxiety; and a chapter on anger, guilt, and shame. Find this resource:

Hope, Debra A., Richard G. Heimberg, and Cynthia L. Turk. 2010. Managing social anxiety: A cognitive behavioral approach; Client workbook. 2d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This workbook to be used as an adjunct to therapy guides the client through an understanding of social anxiety. Selfassessment tools, case examples, worksheets, and exercises are valuable equipment to help clients work through their social anxiety. Find this resource:

Reilly, Patrick M., Michael S. Shopshire, Timothy C. Durazzo, and Torri A. Campbell. 2002. Anger management for substance abuse and mental health clients: Participant workbook . Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This twelve-session workbook to be used as an adjunct to therapy provides numerous exercises to help clients understand and manage their anger effectively. Includes worksheets on anger triggers, control plans, monitoring anger, understanding aggression, cognitive restructuring, relaxation strategies, assertiveness, and anger and family. Find this resource:

Rothbaum, Barbara O., Edna B. Foa, and Elizabeth A. Hembree. 2007. Reclaiming your life from a traumatic experience. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This workbook to help clients recover from the impact of traumatic events leads the client through an understanding of PTSD and includes exercises on prolonged exposure (PE) and emotional processing to help confront and digest the traumatic memory. Find this resource:
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Videos
Videos and other forms of electronic media provide are excellent resources for students to learn the process of doing CBT and for seasoned practitioners to sharpen their skills by observing experts in the field work with different disorders and populations. The purpose of using videos as an instructional tool is not to imitate what the therapist in the video is doing but rather for the viewer to critically analyze the therapists approach and acquire new k nowledge that can then be integrated into the viewers unique style of practice. Padesky 19932008 is a seven-part series of live and simulated video sessions demonstrating various aspects of CBT, including strategies for case conceptualization and treatment. In a live session Liese 2000 demonstrates the use of CBT with a man who has a history of alcohol and drug abuse and criminal behavior. Meichenbaum 1996 shows the simulated highlights of a twelve-session CBT to treat panic and depression (based on an actual case). Beck 2006 is a live demonstration of cognitive therapy (CT) applied to depression. The application of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is demonstrated in Ellis 1996 by the case of a woman who had been struggling with feelings of depression, guilt, and anger over the suicide of her husband. It is interesting to observe some of the stylistic difference between Albert Elliss approach and those of Judith S. Beck or Christine A. Padesky. Although CBT videos with children are scarce, Barkley 1993 demonstrates the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using behavior modification and parental education. Freeman 2004 shows how to use CBT with couples.

Barkley, Russell A. 1993. ADHD: What can we do? DVD. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Demonstrates the use of behavioral modification and contingency management coupled with parental education to help children with ADHD. A discussion of characteristics of ADHD and vignettes of the child at home and in school illustrate the application of therapy. Find this resource:

Beck, Judith S. 2006. Cognitive therapy. DVD. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Offers a live demonstration on the use of CT with a woman suffering from chronic depression. Highlights key aspects of CT: agenda setting; mood check; a collaborative relationship; Socratic questioning; evaluating and reframing thoughts; and a structured, problem-focused, and present-oriented approach to therapy. Available for purchase online. Find this resource:

Ellis, Albert. 1996. Coping with the suicide of a loved one. DVD. New York: Albert Ellis Institute. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A live demonstration of the application of REBT with a woman experiencing depression, guilt, and anger over the suicide of her husband. Ellis addresses key aspects of the REBT philosophy that fuel emotional distress, such as demandingness, global negative self- and other-rating, and blaming. Available for purchase online. Find this resource:

Freeman, Arthur. 2004. Cognitive-behavioral couples therapy. DVD. APA Psychotherapy Videotape Series. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Begins with a discussion of the unique aspects of CBT with couples (versus individual clients) and follows with a live demonstration with a couple and the use of CBT to address issues of defensiveness, blaming, justification of each others stances, weighing pros and cons, communication and compromise. Available for purchase online. Find this resource:

Liese, Bruce S. 2000. Cognitive therapy for addictions. DVD. San Francisco: Psychotherapy.net. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Begins with an introduction to CBT followed by a live demonstration using a client with chronic alcohol and drug abuse and criminal behavior and ends by reviewing and discussing the session. Demonstrates case conceptualization, uncovering automatic thoughts and core beliefs that facilitate addiction, and the formulation of an action plan. Available for purchase online. Find this resource:

Meichenbaum, Donald. 1996. Mixed anxiety and depression: A cognitive-behavioral therapy approach. DVD. San Francisco: Psychotherapy.net. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A CBT twelve-session simulation of the therapy of a woman presenting with panic attacks and depression. Takes the viewer through the process of assessment, conceptualization, imaginal exposure to a panic situation, relaxation, assertiveness, and cognitive-restructuring strategies. Available for purchase online. Find this resource:

Padesky, Christine A. 19932008. Cognitive therapy training on disc. DVD. Huntington Beach, CA: Christine A. Padesky. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seven-DVD series for graduate students and professionals that offers live and simulated CBT sessions on the topics of panic disorders, guided discovery using Socratic dialogue, evaluating automatic thoughts with thought records, collaborative case conceptualization, construction of new core beliefs, construction of new underlying assumptions and behavioral experiments, and social anxiety. Available for purchase online. Find this resource:

Professional Development and Educational Resources


Professional growth and continuing education in CBT are essential elements of the ongoing development of the CBT practitioner. Although opportunities for professional growth and development may be more readily available in some geographic areas than others, a number of professional associations and institutes offer a wide range of online and actual alternatives for individuals seeking continued growth in CBT who want to stay current with changes in the field. The resources listed here include the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT), the Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP), the European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (EABCT), the International Association for Cognitive Psychotherapy (IACP), theAmerican Institute for Cognitive Therapy (AICT), and Padesky.com. These organizations offer an array of information on continuing education courses; journals, periodicals, and other reading materials; videos and podcasts; conferences; and special interest groups. For additional important CBT resources, also see the Albert Ellis Institute, the Academy of Cognitive Therapy, and the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy (all cited in Bibliographies).

American Institute for Cognitive Therapy (AICT). Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The AICT provides information on various clinical issues, training opportunities and workshops, supervision, and recommended readings. In addition, the AICT provides links to a wide range of resources of interest to the CBT practitioner. Find this resource:

Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT). Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The ABCT is an interdisciplinary organization founded in 1966. The association offers extensive resources for members and the public at large, including an annual convention, access to its two journals, special interest group participation, career opportunities, finding a therapist, videos and podcasts, books, and fact sheets on a wide number of topics. Find this resource:

Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The Beck Institute provides ongoing CBT workshops and training both onsite and online and nationally and internationally as well as other educational resources for practitioners. In addition, the institute offers psychotherapy services at its campus, and a list of certified cognitive therapists is available to the public.

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British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP). Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The BABCP sponsors training and conference opportunities; information about special interest groups; job listings; and accreditation as a CBT practitioner, supervisor, or trainer. Resources for the public include general information on CBT and a database of accredited CBT providers. Find this resource:

European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (EABCT). Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The EABCT includes associations focused on behavioral and cognitive therapies from thirty-one countries. The association sponsors training and workshops as well as special interest groups on specific issues regarding clinical practice and research. Find this resource:

International Association for Cognitive Psychotherapy (IACP). Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The IACP offers benefits that include access to the International Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy and the newsletter Advances in Cognitive Therapy. The IACP also sponsors international conferences and provides an array of training resources for its members. Find this resource:

Padesky.com. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Padesky.com offers educational resources for students and practitioners in the form of workshops, books on CBT, DVDs, audio CDs, and other educational resources.

Cognitive Dissonance
Natalie Jomini Stroud, Soohee Kim, Joshua M. Scacco

Introduction
Humans strive for cognitive consistency, at least according to the theory of cognitive dissonanceand a host of consistency theories that emerged in the mid-20th century. The theory of cognitive dissonance was advanced by Leon Festinger in the 1950s. It proposes that inconsistencies among our beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and/or behavior can give rise to the uncomfortable feeling of cognitive dissonance. Upon experiencing this feeling, humans are motivated to reduce it in order to return to a more consistent state. Although Festinger theorized that cognitive dissonance can occur, he did not suggest that cognitive dissonance always occurs when people are faced with inconsistency. He noted that the experience of dissonance depends upon three factors: (a) the number of consonant elements, (b) the number of dissonant elements, and (c) the importance of each element. A more important dissonant belief will cause more cognitive dissonance than a less important dissonant belief. One dissonant belief and many consonant beliefs will produce less dissonance than many dissonant and many consonant beliefs. The experience of dissonance can motivate people to engage in any of a number of dissonance reduction strategies. The objectives of these strategies are to (a) increase the number and/or importance of consonant elements and/or (b) to decrease the number and/or importance of dissonant elements. This can be done by changi ng ones attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. This also can be done by seeking agreeable information and avoiding discrepant information. Over the years, many modifications to the theory have been proposed. Some researchers, for example, have argued that the theory works mainly with respect to cognitive elements related to the self. Despite proposed modifications, scholars continue to draw from the original theory. Although the theory was first introduced and examined by psychologists, it gained traction in the field of communication. The theory was helpful in explaining some earlier patterns observed by those researching the influence of communication, such as the seeming preference citizens displayed for likeminded information. In contemporary communication literature, the theory is most frequently referenced when scholars want to offer an explanation for why an effect may occur. Research is less frequently done specifically on the central tenets of the theory. This article focuses predominantly on articles that have been written in the field of communication rather than attempting to review the numerous studies that have been done on this topic in related fields, such as psychology and political science. Although research did yield articles from many different communication subfields, many citations were from the area of mass media as opposed to interpersonal

communication, for example. This article emphasizes recent contributions and those that have garnered considerable attention through high rates of citation.

Core Texts
Cognitive dissonance emerged in the 1950s and inspired many studies that draw from its central tenets. The texts in this section represent the historical texts that introduced and refined the theory. The most-important texts in the cognitive dissonance tradition include two books by Leon Festinger. Festinger 1957 outlines the original version of the theory. Festinger 1964 includes numerous experiments with collaborators that probe the basic tenets of the theory. Festinger and Carlsmith 1959 is also noteworthy because of its counterintuitive findings that are anticipated clearly by cognitive dissonance theory. Later scholarship takes Festingers original theory as a starting point and provides new insights. Brehm and Cohen 1962, for example, focuses on the role of commitment in the experience of dissonance. Abelson, et al. 1968 offers numerous assessments, both critical and laudatory, of cognitive dissonance and clarifies the conditions under which dissonance occurs and how people respond to the experience of dissonance. Although Lazarsfeld, et al. 1944 was written before Festingers theory, it is important to in clude this reference because it illustrates the connection between communication research and cognitive dissonance. All these texts would be most appropriate for graduate students looking to gather insight into the historical ideas of the theory of cognitive dissonance. These texts are also notable in that they showcase the creative experimental methodology that was a central part of early research on cognitive dissonance. Although the texts are historical, they all contain insightful reflections on cognitive dissonance that continue to inspire more-contemporary scholarship. Abelson, Robert P., Elliot Aronson, William J. McGuire, Theodore M. Newcomb, Milton J. Rosenberg, and Percy H. Tannenbaum, eds. 1968. Theories of cognitive consistency: A sourcebook. Chicago: Rand McNally. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This edited volume reviews numerous takes on cognitive consistency theories. The chapters include critical views of cognitive dissonance and explorations of the moderators of cognitive dissonance, including commitment, time of decision, and individual differences. The book also examines attempts to resolve dissonance, such as selective exposure. Find this resource:

Brehm, Jack W., and Arthur R. Cohen. 1962. Explorations in cognitive dissonance. New York: Wiley. DOI: 10.1037/11622-000Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Highlights the role of commitment in the experience of cognitive dissonance. When one is committed to a position, one is more likely to experience dissonance when the commitment is challenged. The text also discusses the role of choice, the magnitude of dissonance, personality variables, and the strategy of rejecting the communicator to resolve dissonance. Find this resource:

Festinger, Leon. 1957. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This seminal book is Festingers exposition of the theory of cognitive dissonance. It is essential reading for any scholar interested in the theory. After describing the theory, Festinger divides the book into four sections probing the implications of dissonance theory: consequences of decisions, effects of forced compliance, exposure to information, and the role of social support. Find this resource:

Festinger, Leon. 1964. Conflict, decision, and dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reports a series of studies conducted by students and postdoctoral fellows working with Festinger at Stanford University, and is designed to expand our understanding of dissonance. Particular attention is paid in this text to the experience of dissonance before and after a decision is made. Find this resource:

Festinger, Leon, and James M. Carlsmith. 1959. Cognitive consequences of forced compliance.Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 58.2: 203210. DOI: 10.1037/h0041593Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, Festinger and Carlsmith find that attitude change is greater when people are asked to say something against their beliefs for a small incentive compared to a large incentive. This wellcited article showcases some of the unexpected findings predicted by cognitive dissonance.

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Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet. 1944. The peoples choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential election. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation For communication researchers, this text is important because it documents recognition of the outcomes of cognitive dissonance even before the theory was formally advanced. The text notes that partisans are more frequently exposed to like-minded messages in political campaigns. Find this resource:
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General Overviews
Contemporary scholars continue to draw from cognitive dissonance theory, albeit with considerable debate on whether the theory should be revised. Psychological Inquiry 1992provides an insightful look at the similarities and differences between cognitive dissonance and a host of more-recent psychological theories. Focusing on the potential revisions to Leon Festingers cognitive dissonance theory, Harmon-Jones and Mills 1999 and Fischer, et al. 2008include reflections on how the theory continues to affect more-contemporary scholarship. All three of these works would be especially useful for those looking to understand the influence of cognitive dissonance in psychology. Donsbach 2009 provides useful guidance for those interested in understanding how communication scholars have oriented themselves with respect to the theory. Bryant and Miron 2004 and Graber 2006 mention the theory only briefly but provide helpful information about how the theory fits in with other theories that have inspired communication researchers.

Bryant, Jennings, and Dorina Miron. 2004. Theory and research in mass communication.Journal of Communication 54.4: 662704. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02650.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Includes a short description of the use of cognitive dissonance theory and several other theories in the field of mass communication. It includes a brief overview of articles published between 1963 and 1997 on the topic. Around four out of ten articles on cognitive dissonance relied on the theory as a primary theoretical framework. Find this resource:

Donsbach, Wolfgang. 2009. Cognitive dissonance theorya roller coaster career: How communication research adapted the theory of cognitive dissonance. In Media choice: A theoretical and empirical overview. Edited by Tilo Hartmann, 128148. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Donsbach reviews the use of cognitive dissonance theory by communication researchers. The chapter includes a history of the concept and a useful figure of intervening variables, such as ones self -esteem and the credibility of the information. It describes previous work and discusses the importance of using field studies. The chapter also lists some productive areas of newer research, such as mood management theory. Find this resource:

Fischer, Peter, Dieter Frey, Claudia Peus, and Andreas Kastenmller. 2008. The theory of cognitive dissonance: State of the science and directions for future research. In Clashes of knowledge: Orthodoxies and heterodoxies in science and religion. Edited by Peter Meusburger, Michael Welker, and Edgar Wunder, 189198. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This chapter is an accessible description of cognitive dissonance and strategies to reduce dissonance. The authors review several prominent studies on dissonance and discuss a number of moderators, such as need for closure. They also describe modifications to dissonance, such as those theories emphasizing that dissonance occurs when beliefs are inconsistent with ones self-concept. Find this resource: Graber, Doris A. 2006. Political communication faces the 21st century. Journal of Communication 55.3: 479 507. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2005.tb02682.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Scans the scholarly field of political communication and offers prospects for future research. Graber notes that political communication implicates dissonance with the study of information-processing theories. Existing literature on

political communication has found that citizens hold and tolerate conflicting political beliefs, potentially testing theories of dissonance avoidance. Find this resource:

Harmon-Jones, Eddie, and Judson Mills, eds. 1999. Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This edited volume provides modern perspectives on the use of cognitive dissonance theory. The chapters review suggested modifications to dissonance theory, such as the idea that dissonance occurs when the self is threatened. The final chapters in this volume also explore the relationship between dissonance and emotion. Find this resource:

Psychological Inquiry. 1992. 3.4: 303356. DOI: 10.1207/s15327965pli0304_1Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Begins with an essay by Elliot Aronson. The essay argues that many newer theories, such as self-affirmation theory and motivated inference, can be explained by cognitive dissonance. Next, sixteen essays written by prominent scholars respond to Aronson. The issue concludes with Aronsons response. This is important reading for graduate students interested in connecting cognitive dissonance with other theories. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Reducing Dissonance through Attitude and Behavior Change


When experiencing cognitive dissonance, one tool for reducing dissonance is to change an attitude, belief, or behavior. When faced with two conflicting attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors that are causing cognitive dissonance, an individual may change the element that is less resistant to change. Numerous studies have examined instances in which this change occurs. These studies span subfields in health, interpersonal, mass, and political communication.

POLITICAL CONTEXTS

Scholars in political communication have examined how citizens confront cognitive dissonance in political contexts. Electoral contexts have proven to be fruitful ground for examining attitude change based on cognitive dissonance. Beasley and Joslyn 2001 finds that attitude change in a postelectoral context depends on whether and for whom a person voted. Mullainathan and Washington 2009 documents that those eligible to vote polarize more after an election than those ineligible to vote. Holbert, et al. 2009 argues that voters rationalize the loss of their preferred candidate by broaching the possibility of voter fraud to reduce dissonance. Cognitive dissonance has been discussed as an explanation for voting behavior as well. Michelson, et al. 2009 explores whether the effectiveness of get out the vote efforts can be explained by cognitive dissonance. Political communication scholars have also applied dissonance to nonelectoral contexts. Approaching dissonance through media frames and messages, Dardis, et al. 2008 examines how capital punishment frames can lead to cognitive dissonance, resulting in reduced support for capital punishment. Lasorsa 2009 focuses on cognitive components associated with answering political surveys and suggests that the questionsand the order of questionscan inspire cognitive dissonance and strategies to reduce dissonance. Taking a more rhetorical approach to cognitive dissonance, Cloud 2009 posits that people will sometimes change their beliefs about a communication source in response to feelings of cognitive dissonance.

Beasley, Ryan K., and Mark R. Joslyn. 2001. Cognitive dissonance and post-decision attitude change in six presidential elections. Political Psychology 22.3: 521540. DOI: 10.1111/0162-895X.00252Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Beasley and Joslyn examine responses to election results, in the context of dissonance theory. The study examines attitude change (a) among voters and nonvoters and (b) among those voting for the winning candidate and those voting for the losing candidate. Results document the value of cognitive dissonance in explaining attitude changes after an election. Find this resource:

Cloud, Dana L. 2009. Foiling the intellectuals: Gender, identity framing, and the rhetoric of the kill in conservative hate mail. Communication, Culture, and Critique 2.4: 457479. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-9137.2009.01048.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Examines conservative hate mail received by the author through frame analysis, rhetorical criticism, and autoethnography. Cloud discovers three adversarial frames that serve as foils for the establishment of the mail senders identity. Persons who face arguments that contradict their beliefs attempt to reduce their cognitive dissonance by, among other things, attributing the arguments to an irrational source through pathologizing discourse. Find this resource:

Dardis, Frank E., Frank R. Baumgartner, Amber E. Boydstun, Suzanna De Boef, and Fuyuan Shen. 2008. Media framing of capital punishment and its impact on individuals cognitive responses. Mass Communication and Society 11.2: 115140. DOI: 10.1080/15205430701580524Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This research takes a multimethodological approach to study media framing of capital punishment. The authors discover the emergence of an innocence frame, due to increased media coverage of potential legal errors. In an exploratory experiment, the article suggests that cognitive dissonance has an influence in the acceptance of capital punishment frames. People were more likely to mention frames reinforcing their views than uncongenial frames. Find this resource:

Holbert, R. Lance, Heather L. LaMarre, and Kristen D. Landreville. 2009. Fanning the flames of a partisan divide: Debate viewing, vote choice, and perceptions of vote count accuracy. Communication Research 36.2: 155177. DOI: 10.1177/0093650208330248Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines how voters on the losing side of an election manage the subsequent cognitive dissonance. The article concludes that voters rationalize voting for a losing candidate by holding postelection beliefs that their individual vote was not counted properly. This research also examines the impact of debates on this process. Find this resource:

Lasorsa, Dominic L. 2009. Political interest, political knowledge, and evaluations of political news sources: Their interplay in producing context effects. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 86.3: 533544. DOI: 10.1177/107769900908600305Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Using dissonance theory, Lasorsa finds that survey respondents report lower political interest after answering political knowledge questions compared to those reporting their interest before the knowledge questions. When a question giving respondents an excuse about not being informed is asked after the knowledge questions and before the interest question, interest is higher than when respondents are asked an excuse question later in the survey. Find this resource:

Michelson, Melissa R., Lisa Garca Bedolla, and Margaret A. McConnell. 2009. Heeding the call: The effect of targeted two-round phone banks on voter turnout. Journal of Politics 71.4: 15491563. DOI: 10.1017/S0022381609990119Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Finds that contacting likely voters doubles their turnout rate. One explanation for this finding is that reminding voters of a previously stated intention to vote will increase voting likelihood, because individuals do not want to experience dissonance between their stated intention and their behavior. However, the authors are skeptical that dissonance explains their findings, concluding that the theory of reasoned action may provide more insight. Find this resource:

Mullainathan, Sendhil, and Ebonya Washington. 2009. Sticking with your vote: Cognitive dissonance and political attitudes. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1.1: 86111. DOI: 10.1257/app.1.1.86Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This research uses National Election Survey data to assess attitudes toward the president two years following a presidential election. Mullainathan and Washington hypothesize and find greater postelection polarization of attitudes toward the president among eligible voters compared to ineligible voters. They argue that this occurs because eligible voters experience greater dissonance than ineligible voters. Find this resource:

INTERPERSONAL, MEDIATED, AND PERSUASION CONTEXTS

This section reviews several articles in the areas of persuasion, mass, and interpersonal communication that could serve as a starting point for scholars interested in cognitive dissonance. In interpersonal communication, Albada, et al. 2002 qualitatively examines how cognitive dissonance can work in romantic interactions. Examining persuasive contexts, Chung and Fink 2008 focuses on how message valence can affect subsequent belief alterations. The authors attribute belief oscillations after exposure to certain messages to the experience of cognitive

dissonance. Hullett 2005 integrates research on cognitive dissonance with research on the influence of mood on persuasion. Cognitive dissonance has also been used to understand how attitudes and beliefs are changed during mediated interactions. Spangenberg, et al. 2003finds that advertising campaigns creating dissonance between what people value and what they do can cause a change in peoples behavior. Schiappa, et al. 2005 provides support for the parasocial contact hypothesis. This hypothesis explains how mediated exposure to gay television characters can reduce prejudicial feelings by creating cognitive dissonance between mediated perceptions and preexisting attitudes. Several scholars note the potential for dissonance to be aroused by analyzing, as opposed to merely enjoying, media content. Raney 2004 suggests that moral evaluations of characters in media could arouse dissonance and be cognitively taxing, thereby detracting from enjoyment. Dahlstrom 2010 speculates that belief change could result from dissonance, based on (a) wanting to enjoy a narrative and (b) the presence of counterattitudinal information in the narrative. Dissonance from media portrayals also can prompt behavioral changes. Coyne, et al. 2010 finds that cognitive dissonance can result from interactive reality programs depicting rewards for aggression. To resolve the dissonance, viewers can participate through voting. Yee, et al. 2009 suggests that the use of an avatar (role playing) can facilitate attitudinal and behavioral changes, based on the needs for cognitive consistency.

Albada, Kelly Fudge, Mark L. Knapp, and Katheryn E. Theune. 2002. Interaction appearance theory: Changing perceptions of physical attractiveness through social interaction. Communication Theory 12.1: 840. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2002.tb00257.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Qualitatively examines social interaction among romantic partners, using interaction appearance theory. Participants resolve the dissonance created between a hypothetical partners attractiveness and an actual partners attractiveness, by adding additional belief criteria, reweighting the importance of physical attractiveness, altering their original ideal type, or increasing the salience of other traits. Find this resource:

Chung, Sungeun, and Edward L. Fink. 2008. The cognitive dynamics of beliefs: The effects of information on message processing. Human Communication Research 34.3: 477504. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2008.00329.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Uses experimental data to examine the trajectory of belief change during and after exposure to a message. The authors consider both univalent and mixed-valence messages. The research finds that beliefs oscillate more after exposure to a mixed-valence as opposed to a univalent message. Oscillation of beliefs in the postmessage phase is a potential manifestation of cognitive dissonance, according to the researchers. Find this resource:

Coyne, Sarah M., Simon L. Robinson, and David A. Nelson. 2010. Does reality backbite? Physical, verbal, and relational aggression in reality television programs. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 54.2: 282 298. DOI: 10.1080/08838151003737931Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Suggests that a large portion of the aggression in reality programming is relational. Programs where voters can vote about the characters can lead to cognitive dissonance due to the relational aggression exhibited by program characters and the reward received for the aggression. To resolve this dissonance, audience members can vote against the aggressor or for the victim. Find this resource:

Dahlstrom, Michael F. 2010. The role of causality in information acceptance in narratives: An example from science communication. Communication Research 37.6: 857875. DOI: 10.1177/0093650210362683Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Dahlstrom finds that information about science inserted at causal locations in a narrative is perceived as more truthful than information inserted at noncausal locations. Dahlstrom notes that future research should examine counterattitudinal assertions embedded within a narrative. He suggests that enjoyment of narrative information with counterattitudinal assertions could lead to cognitive dissonance, which could lead to belief change. Find this resource:

Hullett, Craig R. 2005. The impact of mood on persuasion: A meta-analysis. Communication Research 32.4: 423442. DOI: 10.1177/0093650205277317Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Hullett examines the effect of mood on persuasion. Hulletts findings are consistent with the predictions of dissonance theory; participants in positive moods attempted to maintain that state by avoiding dissonance-arousing information or by choosing consonant information. He also documents that participants in negative moods were not particularly likely to attend to proattitudinal messages. Find this resource:

Raney, Arthur A. 2004. Expanding disposition theory: Reconsidering character liking, moral evaluations, and enjoyment. Communication Theory 14.4: 348369. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00319.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Raney suggests that people may choose certain types of media to induce feelings of pleasure. According to Raney, moral scrutiny of characters could arouse dissonance and be cognitively taxing, thereby detracting from enjoyment. In short, the needs for maximizing the enjoyment of media products may lead viewers to avoid potentially dissonancearousing processes. See theOxford Bibliographies article Entertainment. Find this resource:

Schiappa, Edward, Peter B. Gregg, and Dean E. Hewes. 2005. The parasocial contact hypothesis. Communication Monographs 72.1: 92115. DOI: 10.1080/0363775052000342544Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Applying parasocial interactions to Gordon W. Allports contact hypothesis, the authors posit that positive parasocial contact with gay television characters may lead to cognitive dissonance among those lacking gay members in their social networks. The dissonance may reduce prejudice. Findings illustrate a reduction in prejudicial attitudes toward gay men after exposure to a sufficient quantity and quality of television programs featuring gay characters. See the Oxford Bibliographiesarticle Media Effects. Find this resource:

Spangenberg, Eric R., David E. Sprott, Bianca Grohmann, and Ronn J. Smith. 2003. Mass-communicated prediction requests: Practical application and a cognitive dissonance explanation for self-prophecy. Journal of Marketing 67.3: 4762. DOI: 10.1509/jmkg.67.3.47.18659Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation With five studies, this article shows that advertisements using self-prophecy (e.g., asking people to make a prediction about what they will do) can result in behavioral changes. Three studies find that cognitive dissonance influences the self-prophecy effect. The marketing technique may be most effective in situations where a performance behavior is accepted (e.g., attending a fitness club) but people do not engage the behavior. Find this resource:

Yee, Nick, Jeremy N. Bailenson, and Nicolas Ducheneaut. 2009. The Proteus effect: Implications of transformed digital self-representation on online and offline behavior.Communication Research 36.2: 285 312. DOI: 10.1177/0093650208330254Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Documents that people infer their expected behaviors and attitudes from observing their avatars appearancewhich they referred to as the Proteus effect. Due to the need to maintain cognitive consistency, people try to align their internal beliefs with their outward behaviors. Thus, enacting certain personas can lead to changes in attitudes and behaviors based on the mechanisms provided by cognitive dissonance. Find this resource:

HEALTH AND PROSOCIAL CAMPAIGN CONTEXTS

Cognitive dissonance has inspired scholars to consider how the theory could be applied to the study of health communication (see the Oxford Bibliographies article Health Communication) and to communication campaigns (see the Oxford Bibliographies article Communication Campaigns) encouraging people to adopt desirable attitudes and behaviors (or to discontinue undesirable attitudes and behaviors). Health communication scholars have focused on how health communication campaigns can create dissonance, as shown in Cho and Salmon 2007. Huh and Langteau 2007 speculates that dissonance may help to explain physician reactions to direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements. Krosnick, et al. 2006 and Zhao and Cai 2008 examine whether antismoking campaigns and messages create dissonance between health attitudes and actual behaviors. Zhao and Nan 2010 examines how the effectiveness of smoking messages is moderated by whether a gain or a loss frame is used and the extent to which the self is threatened. The authors note that threats to the self can result in dissonance and the rejection of a message. Quick and Heiss 2009 applies cognitive dissonance to types of involvement in persuasive messages about high-fiber products. Morgan, et al. 2010 examines how organ donation messages can lead to cognitive dissonance, resulting in bolstered support for organ donations. Waters 2009 focuses on fund-raising campaigns in response to natural disasters, showing that dissonance can prompt donations. These works would provide background for health communication and prosocial campaign scholars interested in the application of cognitive dissonance theory.

Cho, Hyunyi, and Charles T. Salmon. 2007. Unintended effects of health communication campaigns. Journal of Communication 57.2: 293317. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2007.00344.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examining health communication campaigns conceptually, this research creates a typology of eleven unintended effects of these campaigns, including the dissonance created. Reviewing the extant literature on the dissonance effects of health campaigns, the essay notes that dissonance occurs when the ideal portrayed in a message differs from a persons health practices or the persons means to meet the ideal. Find this resource:

Huh, Jisu, and Rita Langteau. 2007. Presumed influence of DTC prescription drug advertising: Do experts and novices think differently? Communication Research 34.1: 2552. DOI: 10.1177/0093650206296080Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Assesses attitudes toward DTC advertising as well as the presumed DTC advertising influence on others. Results reveal that physicians perceive that DTC advertising has less of an effect on the public than consumers do. The authors note that physician perceptions may prevent cognitive dissonance between negative attitudes toward DTC advertising and its potentially positive benefits for consumers. Find this resource:

Krosnick, Jon A., LinChiat Chang, Steven J. Sherman, Laurie Chassin, and Clark Presson. 2006. The effects of beliefs about the health consequences of cigarette smoking on smoking onset. Journal of Communication 56.S1: S18S37. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This longitudinal study discusses the possible dissonance between peoples beliefs about smoking and the values they ascribe to health. The research uncovers that continued education about the health effects of smoking can inhibit smoking onset, with interesting results based on gender. For example, having an older sister who smokes increases the chance of initiating smoking for girls but not for boys. Find this resource:

Morgan, Susan E., Andy J. King, Jessica Rae Smith, and Rebecca Ivic. 2010. A kernel of truth? The impact of television storylines exploiting myths about organ donation on the publics willingness to donate. Journal of Communication 60.4: 778796. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01523.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Approaching attitude change from the tradition of media effects, this research examines how exposure to inaccurate information in television story lines about organ donation affects donation attitudes held by donors and nondonors. The study finds that nondonor attitudes became more negative after exposure. Donors exhibited little change in attitudes or in some cases increased levels of support, a potential bolstering response to minimize cognitive dissonance. Find this resource:

Quick, Brian L., and Sarah N. Heiss. 2009. An investigation of value-, impression-, and outcome-relevant involvement on attitudes, purchase intentions, and information seeking. Communication Studies 60.3: 253 267. DOI: 10.1080/10510970902956008Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Quick and Heiss analyze the effects of different types of involvement on attitude formation, purchase intentions, and information seeking about high-fiber foods. Impression-relevant involvement (IRI), ones perceptions of others views, is seen as a potential source of cognitive dissonance. The research finds that although some types of involvement relate to seeking additional information and attitudes, IRI did not. Find this resource:

Waters, Richard D. 2009. Examining the role of cognitive dissonance in crisis fundraising.Public Relations Review 35.2: 139143. DOI: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2008.11.001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Waters examines whether cognitive dissonance explains why people donated in the aftermath of the December 2004 tsunami. Those who experienced more dissonance were more likely to donate and to reduce their news exposure. This article would be appropriate for undergraduates or graduates interested in nonprofit public relations. Find this resource:

Zhao, Xiaoquan, and Xiaomei Cai. 2008. The role of ambivalence in college nonsmokers information seeking and information processing. Communication Research 35.3: 298318. DOI: 10.1177/0093650208315959Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Examining college nonsmokers attitudes toward smoking, this article assesses how ambivalence about smoking leads to increased information, seeking to reduce cognitive dissonance. The researchers find a significant decline in antismoking beliefs during college, with greater positive evaluations of smoking leading to higher levels of nonsmoker ambivalence. These ambivalent nonsmokers seek out additional nonsmoking information to reduce cognitive discomfort. Find this resource:

Zhao, Xiaoquan, and Xiaoli Nan. 2010. Influence of self-affirmation on responses to gain versus loss framed antismoking messages. Human Communication Research 36.4: 493511. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2010.01385.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Dissonance can result from encountering information critical of the self. By affirming the self, an individual may be less resistant to critical information. This article examines the potential influence of self-affirmation on college smokers response to antismoking messages. Results reveal that self-affirmation increases positive responses to a loss-framed health message and increases negative responses to a gain-framed message. Find this resource:

Reducing Dissonance through Selective Exposure


Attitude change represents one way dissonance can be reduced. Another prominent research question in the literature on cognitive dissonance is whether and to what extent people choose consonant information and avoid dissonant information based on their need for dissonance reduction, a phenomenon known as selective exposure. Here we review studies with a strong connection to cognitive dissonance. Berkowitz 1965 is an early example of interest in connecting communication decisions with cognitive dissonance. The first major reviews of research on selective exposure were Freedman and Sears 1965 and Sears and Freedman 1967. These research summaries concluded that the evidence for selective exposure was not convincing and pointed to methodological shortfalls in previous research. These two pieces had a chilling effect on selective exposure research, and less research was done on this topic in the 1970s and 1980s, although Cotton and Hieser 1980 is a good example of research during this period. The next two major summaries were Cotton 1985 and Frey 1986. These summaries agreed with Jonathan L. Freedman and David O. Sears in some ways; namely, that selective exposure would not occur in all instances. John L. Cotton and Dieter Frey, however, suggest numerous moderators, such as the usefulness of information, and provide reasons to continue to research selective exposure. The Freedman and Sears articles combined with the Cotton and Frey pieces would be most useful for advanced undergraduates or graduate students interested in understanding scholarly debates on selective exposure. Taking advantage of the statistical technique of meta-analysis, scholars have been able to return to the literature on selective exposure to uncover more-consistent effects. Both DAlessio and Allen 2002 and Hart, et al. 2009find evidence of a selective exposure effect in their authors meta-analyses. These pieces would provide helpful guidance for graduate students looking for a comprehensive overview of research on selective exposure.

Berkowitz, Leonard. 1965. Cognitive dissonance and communication preferences. Human Relations 18.4: 361372. DOI: 10.1177/001872676501800405Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Berkowitz examines the relationship between the magnitude of the cognitive dissonance and ones communication behaviors (the motivation to communicate with others and the content of messages one sends to another). The results show that motivation has a curvilinear relationship with the intensity of dissonance. Moderate dissonance, particularly for men, allowed subjects to write the longest messages and to ask for the opinions of others. Find this resource:

Cotton, John L. 1985. Cognitive dissonance in selective exposure. In Selective exposure to communication. Edited by Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant, 1133. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Cotton chronicles changes in the study of selective exposure and dissonance over time. The chapter ends with four unanswered questions that continue to inspire scholarship: the differences between approaching and avoiding information, individual differences in selective exposure, temporal questions, and how selective exposure works in the real world. This is a useful historical look at research on selective exposure based on cognitive dissonance. Find this resource:

Cotton, John L., and Rex A. Hieser. 1980. Selective exposure to information and cognitive dissonance. Journal of Research in Personality 14.4: 518527. DOI: 10.1016/0092-6566(80)90009-4Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Attributing the failure of previous studies to confirm the existence of selective exposure to design deficiencies, Cotton and Hieser confirm Leon Festingers predictions about cognitive dissonance and selective exposure. The authors manipulate dissonance by having subjects write counterattitudinal essays under either high or low choice and then measure subsequent selective exposure. Find this resource:

DAlessio, Dave, and Mike Allen. 2002. Selective exposure and dissonance after decisions. Psychological Reports 91.2: 527532. DOI: 10.2466/pr0.2002.91.2.527Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Employs a meta-analysis of sixteen studies to examine whether cognitive dissonance is associated with selective exposure, confirming an effect with a small magnitude. Testing indicates that there were no moderators of the effect. The authors highlight the importance of statistical methodology and appropriate tests of dissonance theory in testing the relationship between dissonance and selective exposure. Find this resource:

Freedman, Jonathan L., and David O. Sears. 1965. Selective exposure. In Advances in experimental social psychology. Vol. 2. Edited by Leonard Berkowitz, 5797. New York: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this critical article Freedman and Sears review research on selective exposure and conclude that while there is support for the phenomenon in cross-sectional research, there is little support in laboratory contexts. The authors propose numerous methodological reasons for the lack of support for the hypothesis, such as the lack of controls for information availability. The text is invaluable background for scholars interested in exploring selective exposure. Find this resource:

Frey, Dieter. 1986. Recent research on selective exposure to information. In Advances in experimental social psychology. Vol. 19. Edited by Leonard Berkowitz, 4180. New York: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Frey provides a brief historical review of selective exposure research and then enumerates several additional variables that should be considered when examining exposure decisions, such as the usefulness of information. The implications for future research are a helpful preview of some of Freys later research in this area. Find this resource:

Hart, William, Dolores Albarracn, Alice Eagly, Inge Brechan, Matthew J. Lindberg, and Lisa Merrill. 2009. Feeling validated versus being correct: A meta-analysis of selective exposure to information. Psychological Bulletin 135.4: 555588. DOI: 10.1037/a0015701Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This meta-analysis considers articles that have examined selective exposure to pro- and counterattitudinal information. The study finds a moderately sized selective exposure effect and suggests several moderators, such as lower selective exposure when faced with lower-quality information and when subjects had lower levels of closemindedness. Find this resource:

Sears, David O., and Jonathan L. Freedman. 1967. Selective exposure to information: A critical review. Public Opinion Quarterly 31.2: 194213. DOI: 10.1086/267513Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Continues the authors critique of selective exposure research, advancing possible reasons that people seek information, such as its utility. This is critical reading for scholars interested in selective exposure. Several proposed moderators and methodological limitations continue to apply in the early 21st century. Find this resource:

POLITICAL CONTEXTS

Political contexts are well represented in research on selective exposure and cognitive dissonance. In terms of campaigns, Ziemke 1980, for example, reports evidence of selective exposure to candidate information in the 1976 presidential campaign. In terms of political issues,Knobloch-Westerwick and Meng 2009 reveals how certain factors may affect exposure to pro- and counterattitudinal political information. Even religion can affect news use; Scheufele, et al. 2003suggests that the use of mass media by those with strong religious beliefs can lead to cognitive dissonance. Face-to-face political discussions also tend to be between like-minded discussants.Mutz and Martin 2001 finds considerably less counterattitudinal exposure in face-to-face political contexts compared with mediated

contests. The authors note, however, that as media choice expands, more selective exposure may result. Indeed, scholars have explored whether the increasingly diversified media environment may result in audience fragmentation and distinct patterns of selective exposure. Stroud 2011 analyzes patterns of selective exposure across media types and the antecedents and consequences of selective exposure. With respect to cable news outlets, Iyengar and Hahn 2009 documents that the reputations of certain media outlets affect the selection of articles attributed to these outlets. Others have focused on the Internet and its potential to affect selective exposure. Hwang, et al. 2006 suggests that individuals faced with media coverage sharply different from their own views are motivated to exercise selective exposure. The more people feel dissonance from mainstream media coverage, the more motivated they are to use the Internet. Johnson, et al. 2009 proposes that selective exposure is a means of processing information effectively rather than a way to reduce dissonance, noting that the use of blogs is one way people can attend to preferred types of information. Hwang, Hyunseo, Michael Schmierbach, Hye-Jin Paek, Homero Gil de Zuniga, and Dhavan Shah. 2006. Media dissociation, Internet use, and antiwar political participation: A case study of political dissent and action against the war in Iraq. Mass Communication and Society 9.4: 461483. DOI: 10.1207/s15327825mcs0904_5Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Suggests that people faced with media coverage sharply different from their own views are motivated to seek information from supportive sources. Noting that the Internet is especially valuable for those motivated to reduce dissonance, this study suggests that the more people feel dissonance from mainstream media coverage, the more they want to use the Internet. Find this resource:

Iyengar, Shanto, and Kyu S. Hahn. 2009. Red media, blue media: Evidence of ideological selectivity in media use. Journal of Communication 59.1: 1939. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01402.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Noting the mixed results of literature examining the phenomenon of partisan selective exposure, Iyengar and Hahn focus on the greater selectivity individuals exercise in the diversified new political media environment. Using an experiment that randomly assigns source attributions (e.g., Fox, NPR) to articles, the authors show that partisans are drawn toward articles attributed to a congenial media source. Find this resource:

Johnson, Thomas J., Shannon L. Bichard, and Weiwu Zhang. 2009. Communication communities or cyberghettos?: A path analysis model examining factors that explain selective exposure to blogs. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 15.1: 6082. DOI: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01492.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Investigates whether and how media use, political discussion, and political/demographic factors predict selective exposure to blogs. Shows that substantial use of blogs, political activity, high levels of partisanship, and education are positively related with selective exposure to blogs. Find this resource:

Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia, and Jingbo Meng. 2009. Looking the other way: Selective exposure to attitudeconsistent and counterattitudinal political information. Communication Research 36.3: 426448. DOI: 10.1177/0093650209333030Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines how a host of factors may relate to political information exposure. By tracking peoples behavior when browsing an online news source, the authors establish a selective exposure effect. They also show that factors such as attitude certainty, importance, and accessibility are related to the search for attitude-consistent and counterattitudinal political information, in different ways. Find this resource:

Mutz, Diana C., and Paul S. Martin. 2001. Facilitating communication across lines of political difference: The role of mass media. American Political Science Review 95.1: 97114. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Mutz and Martin examine the frequency with which people are exposed to political dissonanceviews with which they disagree. They explore the prevalence of this occurrence in interpersonal contexts (e.g., the workplace) and in mediated contexts (e.g., newspapers). The findings show that political dissonance occurs more frequently from media than from interpersonal sources. Find this resource: Scheufele, Dietram A., Matthew C. Nisbet, and Dominque Brossard. 2003. Pathways to political participation? Religion, communication contexts, and mass media. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 15.3: 300324. DOI: 10.1093/ijpor/15.3.300Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Analyzes the relationship among religion and political discussion, news media use, and antecedents of democratic citizenship. The authors note that strong religious beliefs may impede certain types of media use and discussion that could create cognitive dissonance. Finds that higher levels of doctrinal commitment are associated with lower levels of newspaper reading and political knowledge. Find this resource:

Stroud, Natalie Jomini. 2011. Niche news: The politics of news choice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Stroud documents a consistent selective exposure relationship across different media types. Partisans are more likely to use like-minded newspapers, magazines, political talk radio, cable news programs, and Internet websites. She also examines possible antecedents and consequences of selective exposure, such as political knowledge and issue importance. Find this resource:

Ziemke, Dean A. 1980. Selective exposure in a presidential campaign contingent on certainty and salience. In Communication yearbook. Edited by Dan Nimmo, 497511. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Ziemke examines selective exposure in the context of a presidential election, finding that candidate preference predicted selectively viewing presidential candidate speeches and selectively reading candidate pamphlets. He also finds that certainty positively predicted selective exposure. Find this resource:

NONPOLITICAL CONTEXTS

Selective exposure also operates in nonpolitical contexts. In these instances, scholars are not concerned with political predictors of exposure, such as political partisanship. Instead, these authors are interested in other individual attributes that may help us understand when people seek out other types of information, such as certain news articles or information from an interlocutor. Knobloch-Westerwick and Hastall 2010 shows how individual characteristics, such as status and identity, influence information choice. Robinson 2009 looks at interactions between people and suggests that inconsistencies arising in conversation can motivate information search behavior. Peter and Valkenburg 2009 draws from dissonance theory to address the psychological process by which people select media content that corresponds to their needs, motives, and cognitions.

Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia, and Matthias R. Hastall. 2010. Please your self: Social identity effects on selective exposure to news about in- and out-groups. Journal of Communication60.3: 515535. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01495.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Shows that individuals unique social identity may change the way cognitive dissonance influences the choice of information. The authors find that young individuals select positive information about other young people. Older individuals select negative information about young people. Find this resource:

Peter, Jochen, and Patti M. Valkenburg. 2009. Adolescents exposure to sexually explicit Internet material and notions of women as sex objects: Assessing causality and underlying processes. Journal of Communication 59.3: 407433. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2009.01422.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors suggest that adolescents beliefs about women may predict their exposure to sexually explicit Internet material. Affirming cognitive dissonance theory, media content consistent with existing cognitions may be related to more-pleasant effects than media content that disconfirms existing cognitions. The authors suggest an indirect effect of beliefs and cognitions on exposure to certain media content. Find this resource:

Robinson, Jeffrey D. 2009. Managing counterinformings: An international practice for soliciting information that facilitates reconciliation of speakers incompatible positions. Human Communication Research 35.4: 561587. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2009.01363.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Robinson draws from the idea that discrepant information can prompt information seeking. He analyzes conversations in which it comes to light that the discussants hold incompatible positions. In these situations, one possible reaction is for a discussant to seek additional information to resolve the inconsistency.

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LIMITS OF SELECTIVE EXPOSURE

Although research on selective exposure continues to flourish in the field of communication, there are numerous critical views on the extent to which selective exposure occurs. The best-known critiques are Freedman and Sears 1965 and Sears and Freedman 1967. In their articles Jonathan L. Freedman and David O. Sears raise numerous problems with research on selective exposure from the cognitive dissonance tradition. Their critiques suggest that the instances in which selective exposure occurs may be very limited and that there are numerous moderators of the relationship between cognitive dissonance and selective exposure. Research confirms the presence of moderators. Jonas, et al. 2001 indicates that the extent of selective exposure varies depending on how people evaluate their options before selecting a piece of information. Brannon, et al. 2007 shows that attitude strength moderates the extent of selective exposure. AlthoughFischer, et al. 2008 finds that selective exposure is moderated by the number of information options provided, the authors data do not support the idea that dissonance is responsible. Others have noted that people do not always seek or encounter like-minded views. Both Beaudoin 2011and Huckfeldt and Mendez 2008 find that people do encounter diverse newssomething that would be avoided if people always wanted to maintain cognitive consistency. Huckfeldt and Mendez 2008 argues that the relationship is complex; disagreement does occur within discussion networks, but it does not always prompt the avoidance of political discussion. Some have analyzed selective exposure in an online environment. Garrett 2009 examines selective exposure online and finds that although selective exposure may occur, people may not be motivated to avoid messages they disagree with. Brundidge 2010 also evaluates the phenomenon of selective exposure in an online context, finding that people discussing politics online have more-diverse discussion networks.

Beaudoin, Christopher E. 2011. News effects on bonding and bridging social capital: An empirical study relevant to ethnicity in the United States. Communication Research 38.2: 155178. DOI: 10.1177/0093650210381598Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines the relationship between media use patterns and social capital by ethnicity. The data reveal a positive association between traditional news media use and bonding social capital for whites and Asians, and a negative one for blacks and Latinos. This may counter the idea that individuals seek only cognitively consistent ethnic group information through selective exposure. Find this resource:

Brannon, Laura A., Michael J. Tagler, and Alice H. Eagly. 2007. The moderating role of attitude strength in selective exposure to information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43.4: 611617. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Within the framework of dissonance theory, the authors suggest that there are attitude types more likely to engage in selective exposure. They show that attitude strength plays a critical role in producing selective exposure. Find this resource:

Brundidge, Jennifer. 2010. Encountering difference in the contemporary public sphere: The contribution of the Internet to the heterogeneity of political discussion networks. Journal of Communication 60.4: 680700. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01509.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Brundidge questions whether the Internet will amplify selective exposure. Rather than regarding the Internet as a place that selectivity will be greatly facilitated or reduced, Brundidge finds a small increase in peoples exposure to diverse political discussants (others with different genders, races, and political viewpoints), if only inadvertently. Find this resource:

Fischer, Peter, Stefan Schulz-Hardt, and Dieter Frey. 2008. Selective exposure and information quantity: How different information quantities moderate decision makers preference for consistent and inconsistent information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94.2: 231244. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.94.2.231Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors experimentally test whether dissonance or other psychological explanations might explain why selective exposure is more apparent when people have more options to choose from. Their results suggest that dissonance is not the leading explanation for the relationship between information quantity and selective exposure. Find this resource:

Freedman, Jonathan L., and David O. Sears. 1965. Selective exposure. In Advances in experimental social psychology. Vol. 2. Edited by Leonard Berkowitz, 5797. New York: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Freedman and Sears present numerous reasons to doubt that people are always motivated to select congenial information and avoid uncongenial information. In addition to reviewing the results of previous research, they also propose a series of factors that may affect information exposure, such as education and social class. Find this resource:

Garrett, R. Kelly. 2009. Politically motivated reinforcement seeking: Reframing the selective exposure debate. Journal of Communication 59.4: 676699. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2009.01452.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Garrett reviews literature suggesting that although there is evidence that people seek like-minded information, the evidence is weaker that people avoid non-like-minded information. He conducts a survey to examine this phenomenon, finding that some know both opinion-reinforcing and opinion-challenging information about candidates in the 2004 presidential election. Find this resource:

Huckfeldt, Robert, and Jeanette Morehouse Mendez. 2008. Moths, flames, and political engagement: Managing disagreement within communication networks. Journal of Politics70.1: 8396. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines political heterogeneity among respondents and their discussants. The authors test the commonly held assumption that people prefer political homophily within their networks to reduce cognitive dissonance and increase social conformity. They find substantial disagreement in political discussion networks, with discussion sparking disagreement but disagreement serving as a censoring mechanism for future discussion. Find this resource:

Jonas, Eva, Stefan Schulz-Hardt, Dieter Frey, and Norman Thelen. 2001. Confirmation bias in sequential information search after preliminary decisions: An expansion of dissonance theoretical research on selective exposure to information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80.4: 557571. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.4.557Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors explain biased information searches within the context of dissonance theory. They suggest that information search procedures in research should resemble real-life settings. The findings confirm the presence of an even-stronger preference for consonant information when information is presented and processed sequentially instead of simultaneously. Find this resource:

Sears, David O., and Jonathan L. Freedman. 1967. Selective exposure to information: A critical review. Public Opinion Quarterly 31.2: 194213. DOI: 10.1086/267513Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This piece continues the article Freedman and Sears 1965, adding additional critiques of prior research and factors that researchers should consider before concluding that people are motivated to select attitude-consistent messages and avoid attitude-inconsistent messages, such as the utility of information. Find this resource:
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Study Methods
In research on cognitive dissonance, researchers often manipulate certain variables assumed to create dissonance and then observe whether study participants subsequently engage in dissonance reduction strategies. For example, Mills 1965 manipulates dissonance depending on the difficulty of reaching a decision. More-difficult decisions are assumed to arouse more dissonance. In reviewing the methods used in cognitive dissonance research, scholars often note the creative and in-depth designs utilized (see Psychological Inquiry 1992, cited under General Overviews). More-recent scholarship has examined ways to directly assess whether dissonance is experienced. Elkin and Leippe 1986 discusses the measurement of arousal caused by dissonance. Elliot and Devine 1994 provides a self-report measure of dissonance.

Elkin, Roger A., and Michael R. Leippe. 1986. Physiological arousal, dissonance, and attitude change: Evidence for a dissonance-arousal link and a dont remind me effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51.1: 5565. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.1.55Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Finds that conditions expected to give rise to dissonance also give rise to physiological arousal. Dissonance reduction strategies, however, do not seem to reduce this arousal. Find this resource:

Elliot, Andrew J., and Patricia G. Devine. 1994. On the motivational nature of cognitive dissonance: Dissonance as psychological discomfort. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67.3: 382394. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.3.382Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Elliot and Devine propose and test a self-report measure of the psychological discomfort resulting from dissonance. The authors advocate that this measure could be used as a manipulation check for studies aiming to manipulate the experience of dissonance. Find this resource:

Mills, Judson. 1965. The effect of certainty on exposure to information prior to commitment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 1.4: 348355. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1031(65)90014-4Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Serves as an example of one way dissonance was manipulated in early cognitive dissonance studies. Mills had subjects choose between either (a) two products that they found similarly attractive or (b) two products that they found differentially attractive. The former is expected to produce more dissonance than the latter.

Cognitive Neuroscience
Teal S. Eich, Edward E. Smith

Introduction
In 1918, the American philosopher and psychologist William James wrote: Nature in her unfathomable designs had mixed us of clay and flame, of brain and mind, that the two things hang indubitably together and determine each others being but how or why, no mortal may ever know (Principles of Psychology, 1918, p. 200). The study of how the brain produces thoughts and behaviors is referred to as cognitive neuroscience (CNS). CNS is defined as an interdisciplinary field that combines neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Neuroscience is the scientific study of the central nervous system. Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that explores human cognition (Latin cognitin-em, a getting to know, acquaintance, notion, knowledge [Oxford English Dictionary]), or the internal mental processes, including learning, memory (including long term and short term), perception, attention, cognitive control, language, motor control, decision making, and social cognition. CNS is devoted to understanding how the human brain supports, through neural mechanisms, these cognitive processes. For example, the primacy effect in memory is a cognitive phenomenon in which memory for items that appear at the beginning of a list will be better remembered than items that appear toward the middle of the list. Cognitive psychology helps us to understand why and when this phenomenon occurs: the first items are rehearsed more than the middle items because there are fewer interfering items at the beginning, and therefore the first items are encoded more strongly into long-term memory. CNS would help us to understand what brain mechanisms contribute to this phenomenon: The medial temporal lobe (an area long known to be involved in the formation of memories) is activated only for items from the beginning of the list. Thus, rather than trying to simply understand how and when a memory is formed, CNS attempts to discover how the brain allows for the formation of memories. The methods and technologies used to study these aspects of human cognition are diverse. Cognitive neuroscientists perform behavioral tests on both animals and humans inside and outside of the laboratory. Numerous types of structural brain imaging and functional brain-imaging technologies are used in CNS (for example, MRI, fMRI, EEG, PET, CAT, MEG), and researchers also employ computational modeling, genetic and candidate gene studies, and pharmacologic manipulations to better understand how the brain underlies cognitive processes. Research from numerous scientific disciplines in addition to neuroscience and cognitive psychology are also integrated into the study of CNS, including social and affective neuroscience, neurology, pharmacology, and computational neuroscience.

General Overviews
Readers wishing to gain a historical perspective on the formation of the field of CNS should look to Bennett and Hacker 2008 as well as Moskowitz 2010. Both books provide broad historical overviews of the field , including major theoretical advances from the 20th century. Crick 1995,Gazzaniga 2000, and Purves 2008 also provide excellent

overviews of the major themes in CNS, and these works are intended for an introductory reader. LeDoux 2003 covers a more narrow field of study, including topics in emotion and motivation.

Bennett, M. R, and P. M. S. Hacker. 2008. History of Cognitive Neuroscience. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book explores the major neuroscientific experiments and theories undertaken and advanced during the last 150 years. Find this resource:

Crick, F. 1995. The astonishing hypothesis: The scientific search for the soul. New York: Scribner. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Aimed toward researchers and also lay persons who are interested in science in general, this book focuses on the cornerstone idea of CNS, that all mental processes are due to neural function. Find this resource:

Gazzaniga, M. 2000. Cognitive neuroscience: A reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An ideal source for students, this book provides a collection of seminal readings within the field of CNS. Find this resource:

LeDoux, J. 2003. Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Penguin. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent source for advanced undergraduates and scientists in the field, Ledoux covers topics including cognitive, emotional, and motivational functions of the brain, with an emphasis on how synaptic connections allow for neural communication and eventually enable individuality. Find this resource:

Moskowitz, M. 2010. Reading minds: A guide to the cognitive neuroscience revolution . London: Karnack. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A practical and accessible guide to the cognitive neuroscience revolution. Find this resource:

Purves, D. 2008. Principles of cognitive neuroscience. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the best basic CNS books available, aimed toward advanced undergraduates, this book provides an overview of topics within CNS that are well established as well as a set of issues that remain to be solved by future generations of scientists. Find this resource:
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Textbooks
A number of textbooks are available that are suitable for both introductory readers and those who are more advanced. All provide excellent references. Baars and Gage 2010, Gazzaniga 2009, andSmith and Kosslyn 2006 constitute excellent, comprehensive introductory level textbooks. Banich 2004 takes evidence from clinical populations, while Bear, et al. 2007 emphasizes the biological systems involved in cognition. Finally, Springer and Deutsch 2001 is a more advanced text, focusing upon specific aspects of brain function.

Baars, B. J., and N. M. Gage. 2010. Cognition, brain, and consciousness: An introduction to cognitive neuroscience. 2d ed. Burlington, MA: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An introductory undergraduate-level textbook that will introduce students to the main concepts and topics within CNS. Find this resource:

Banich, M. T. 2004. Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. Florence, KY: Wadsworth. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

A clear and accessible introductory level textbook with an emphasis on both experimental and clinical perspectives of topics within CNS. Find this resource:

Bear, M. F., B. W. Connors, and M. A. Paradiso. 2007. Neuroscience: Exploring the brain. 3d ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An introductory-level textbook with an emphasis on the biology of the brain and the neural systems that support behavior. Find this resource:

Gazzaniga, M. S., ed. 2009. The cognitive neurosciences. 4th ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A broad and encompassing undergraduate-level textbook; includes topics that range from the molecular structure of neurons to language and consciousness. Find this resource:

Smith, E. E., and S. M. Kosslyn. 2006. Cognitive psychology: Mind and brain. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a survey of the major topics in CNS, with an emphasis on the cognitive processes involved. The book covers everything from early perception to problem solving. Find this resource:

Springer, S. P., and G. Deutsch. 2001. Left brain, right brain: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. New York: W. H. Freeman. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation For more advanced readers, this book provides evidence from behavioral and neural imaging techniques of the laterality of mental functions, and how specific cognitive abilities are divided between the left and the right sides of the brain. Find this resource:

Perception
The study of perception within CNS is concerned with how humans perceive and act upon the world. Subcategories of this field include eye movements, object recognition, segmentation and recognition (including reading), face recognition, spatial cognition, perceptual organization, mental imagery, and scene perception. How do we recognize everyday objects? How do we perceive depth and shape? These are just some of the questions addressed by cognitive neuroscientists whose work focuses on perception. The study of perception in CNS is vast, with research dedicated to diverse issues within the field. Different categories of objects are processed by different neural mechanisms (see Downing, et al. 2006 and also Wolfe and Horowitz 2004, which is cited under Attention). Wang and Klein 2010 and OCraven, et al. 1997 show that the location and movement of objects affect the speed at which perception occurs. Reynolds and Chelazzi 2004 (cited under Attention) and Levi 2008 address, through different experimental manipulations, how the amount of perceptual information in a scene affects the ability to attend to the scene, whileGrill-Spector and Kanwisher 2005 investigate the time course of perception. Chun 2003 reviews the literature on how visual scenes are learned and incorporated into memory. Visual perception and auditory perception constitute two main aspects of perception. Farah 2000 provides an overview of the first aspect, while Schnupp and King 2011 investigates the neural mechanisms underlying the second. Finally, Newsome, et al. 1989 compares the neural correlates of perceptual decision making in humans and monkeys.

Chun, M. 2003. Scene perception and memory. Psychology of Learning and Motivation 42:79108. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the literature on how information from visual scenes are learned and represented in the brain. Find this resource:

Downing, P. E., A. W. Chan, M. V. Peelen, C. M. Dodds, and N. Kanwisher. 2006. Domain specificity in visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex 16.10: 14531461. DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhj086Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

This article provides important evidence for regions in the visual cortex that are specialized for recognizing different categories of objects, as is evident for faces, scenes, and bodies. Find this resource:

Farah, M. J. 2000. The cognitive neuroscience of vision. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book offers a comprehensive overview of the neural mechanism of vision perception, starting from the transformation of light to neural images in the eye, and extending to our conscious awareness of the things that we see. Find this resource:

Grill-Spector, K., and N. Kanwisher. 2005. Visual recognition: As soon as you know it is there, you know what it is. Psychological Science 16.2: 152160. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article addresses the timing of visual object recognition in perception, and provides unexpected evidence that, by the time a person is aware that an object is present at all, even if they are unable to name the specific object (e.g., pigeon), they already know its category (e.g., bird). Find this resource:

Levi, D. M. 2008. Crowdingan essential bottleneck for object recognition: A mini-review.Vision Research 48.5: 635654. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2007.12.009Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Crowding refers to the phenomenon in which ones ability to recognize stimuli is impaired when they occur in clusters. This article provides an overview of the various theories of how crowding occurs in the brain. Find this resource:

Newsome, W. T., K. H. Britten, and J. A. Movshon. 1989. Neuronal correlates of a perceptual decision. Nature 341:5254. DOI: 10.1038/341052a0Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The behavioral performance of monkeys on a psychophysical task is compared to evidence derived from recordings from their visual cortical neurons. Data recorded from the visual neurons of the monkeys were more sensitive and reliable that that derived from their behavioral performance on the task. Find this resource:

OCraven, K. M., B. R. Rosen, K. K. Kwong, A. Treisman, and R. L. Savoy. 1997. Voluntary attention modulates fMRI activation in human MT/MST. Neuron 18:591598. DOI: 10.1016/S08966273(00)803001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article focuses on the MT/MST (middle temporal/medial superior temporal) area in the brain, a complex that is important in processing visual motion. MT-MST activation is higher when participants attend to moving dots versus stationary dots in a visual stimulus. Find this resource:

Schnupp, J., I. Nelken, and A. King. 2011. Auditory neuroscience: Making sense of sound. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The process of hearing requires an intricate perceptual process in order to make sense of sound. This book covers the neural mechanisms in the auditory system that allows us to do this. Find this resource:

Wang, Z., and R. M. Klein. 2010. Searching for inhibition of return in visual search: A review.Vision Research 50.2: 220228. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2009.11.013Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon in visual search in which the speed and accuracy with which an object is detected are first briefly enhanced after the object is attended and then impaired. It is thought that the function of the IOR is to encourage orientation toward novel items, thus aiding search. This article reviews the support for the IOR as a mechanism to aid in foraging tasks. Find this resource:

Attention
We are bombarded with countless bits of information in daily life. How does the brain allow us both to pay attention to the salient and important information and to filter out unimportant, unnecessary, and distracting information? How are attentional resources used to select visual or auditory information for perception, cognition, and the planning and production of actions? The study of attention in CNS aims to understand the neural mechanism that underlies the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring others.Posner 2004 provides an excellent overview of the problems and topics within the field, as well as in-depth discussions and explanations of various attentional processes. A number of thorough articles on the neural correlates of attention have been published, including Corbetta and Shulman 2002, which provides a review of the evidence for different attentional functions; Kastner and Ungerleider 2000, which provides a review of the systems involved in selective attention;Corbetta, et al. 2005 and Desimone and Duncan 1995, which provide evidence for the neural substrates of spatial and visual attention, respectively; Luck, et al. 1989, which investigates attentional processes in split-brain patients; Wolfe and Horowitz 2004, which investigates how properties of a stimulus affect attention; and finally Reynolds and Chelazzi 2004, which investigates the effects of visual perception on attention in monkeys.

Corbetta, M., M. J. Kincade, C. Lewis, A. Z. Snyder, and A. Sapir. 2005. Neural basis and recovery of spatial attention deficits in spatial neglect. Nature Neuroscience 8.11: 16031610. DOI: 10.1038/nn1574Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article investigates spatial neglect, a condition arising from damage to one hemisphere of the brain that results in a deficit in attention to, and awareness of, one side of space; the article proposes a model of spontaneous recovery from these deficits. Find this resource:

Corbetta, M., and G. L. Shulman. 2002. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:201215. DOI: 10.1038/nrn755Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the evidence for two systems of partially segregated brain areas that underlie different attentional functions. Find this resource:

Desimone, R., and J. Duncan. 1995. Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience 18:193197. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ne.18.030195.001205Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the two basic phenomena that define the problem of visual attention: capacity limits (at a given time, only a certain amount of information can be processed) and selectivity (the ability to filter out unwanted information). Find this resource:

Kastner, S., and L. Ungerleider. 2000. Mechanisms of visual attention in the human cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 23:315341. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.23.1.315Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides a review of the systems involved in selective attention and biased competition between stimuli in the human visual cortex. Find this resource:

Luck, S. J., S. A. Hillyard, G. R. Mangun, and M. S. Gazzaniga. 1989. Independent hemispheric attentional systems mediate visual search in split-brain patients. Nature 342:543545. DOI: 10.1038/342543a0Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Split-brain patients left and right hemispheres are shown to have their own system for focus of attention. Split -brain patients are able to detect bilateral stimulus arrays more quickly than normal control participants. Find this resource:

Posner, M. I. 2004. The cognitive neuroscience of attention. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Suited for readers of all levels, this book highlights the progress in the scientific understanding of attention and discusses the anatomy, neurotransmitters, and development of attentional processes. Find this resource:

Raz, A., and J. Buhle. 2006. Typologies of attentional networks. Nature Reviews Neuroscience7.5: 367379.

DOI: 10.1038/nrn1903Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While attention has typically been investigated as a unitary concept, research indicates that, in fact, disparate modules of attentional networks exist. Find this resource:

Reynolds, J. H., and L. Chelazzi. 2004. Attentional modulation of visual processing. Annual Review of Neuroscience 27:611647. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.26.041002.131039Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Single unit recording from monkeys provides neural evidence for the processes of attention. Attention produces different effects on the firing rates of neurons depending on whether a stimulus appears alone or with distracters. Find this resource:

Wolfe, J. M., and T. S. Horowitz. 2004. What attributes guide the deployment of visual attention and how do they do it? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5.6: 495501. DOI: 10.1038/nrn1411Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the research on how various properties of visual stimuli (e.g., speed, location) control the deployment of attention. Find this resource:
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Learning
Our ability to effectively synthesize different types of information from the environment in order to acquire new skills, knowledge, behaviors, preferences, and values as well as how the brain underlies these processes is the focus of learning in CNS. Associative learning involves acquiring knowledge about relations between events or ideas. This type of learning includes instrumental conditioning the modification of a voluntary behavior based on both past and expected consequences of the behaviorand classical conditioning, or a type of learning that occurs through the temporal association of two events (for example, if something that is fear provoking, such as getting a shock, always occurs with something neutral, such as smelling a particular perfume, eventually the neutral thing (the smell of the perfume) will result in a fear response). Gluck, et al. 2008 provides an excellent overview of the neural systems implicated in learning. Gluck, et al. 2008 focuses to a greater extent on real-world examples of learning and behavior, making the book more suitable for introductory student readers, while Gluck and Myers 2001 presents a more technical, computationally and biologically based review of the current state of the field. DArdenne, et al. 2008 and Schulz 1998 look at the relationship between the firing of dopaminergic neurons in specific brain areas, such as the striatum, and reward prediction.Guitart-Masip, et al. 2010 investigates how novelty modulates the reward response in the striatum.Hampton, et al. 2007 looks not only at the mid-brain and its relation to reward prediction but also at prefrontal cortex activation and its role in guiding decision making and behavior. Valentin, et al. 2007 similarly investigates the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in goal-directed learning. ODoherty, et al. 2004 provides evidence for a neural model of reinforcement learning. Finally, Seymour, et al. 2004 explores the neural correlates of aversive conditioning, while Bray, et al. 2008 explicates the neural mechanisms of classical conditioning and their relation to decision making.

Bray, S., A. Rangel, S. Shimojo, B. Balleine, and J. P. ODoherty. 2008. The neural mechanisms underlying the influence of Pavlovian cues on human decision making. Journal of Neuroscience 28.22: 58615866. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.089708.2008Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation There are neural correlates of outcome-specific transfer in the ventrolateral putamen. This indicates that choosing an action incompatible with Pavlovian conditioning may require the inhibition of the nonselected association. Find this resource:

DArdenne, K., S. M. McClure, L. E. Nystrom, and J. D. Cohen. 2008. BOLD responses in the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area during a classical conditioning task. Science319.5867:12641267. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A seminal article showing through fMRI that dopaminergic signals in the ventral tegmental area reflect the prediction of positive reward. Find this resource:

Gluck, M. A., E. Mercado, and C. E. Myers. 2008. Learning and memory: From brain to behavior. New York: Worth.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book constitutes a review of the converging studies and behavioral approaches to learning and memory in animals and humans. Find this resource:

Gluck, M. A., and Myers, C. E. 2001. Gateway to memory: An introduction to neural network modeling of the hippocampus and learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A technical-, computational-, and biological-based review. Find this resource:

Guitart-Masip, M., N. Bunzeck, K. E. Stephan, R. J. Dolan, and E. Duzel. 2010. Contextual novelty changes reward representations in the striatum. Journal of Neuroscience 30.5: 17211726. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.533109.2010Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Novelty enhances the representation of reward in the striatum. This effect occurs even when the reward and novelty are independent. Find this resource:

Hampton, A. N., R. Adolphs, M. J. Tyszka, J. P. ODoherty. 2007. Contributions of the amygdala to reward expectancy and choice signals in human prefrontal cortex. Neuron 16; 55.4: 545555. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.07.022Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The prefrontal cortex plays a major role in guiding behavior in reward learning and decision making. However, the amygdala is crucial in establishing expected reward in the prefrontal cortex, which is then used to guide behavior. Find this resource:

ODoherty, J., P. Dayan, J. Schultz, R. Deichmann, K. Friston, and R. J. Dolan. 2004. Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning. Science 304:452454. DOI: 10.1126/science.1094285Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Neural evidence is presented for a model of reinforcement learning in which a critic learns to predict reward and an actor maintains information about the reward to enable better future choices. The critic is represented in the ventral striatum, whereas the actor is represented in the dorsal striatum. Find this resource:

Schultz, W. 1998. Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology80.1: 127. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The dopaminergic system is important for reward learning, labeling stimuli with appetitive value, which helps guide behavior. This article summarizes the research on the dopaminergic system, and how it works to direct reward learning. Find this resource:

Seymour, B., J. ODoherty, P. Dayan, M. Koltzenburg, A. K. Jones, R. J. Dolan, K. J. Friston, and R. S. Frackowiak. 2004. Temporal difference models describe higher-order learning in humans.Nature 426:664 667. DOI: 10.1038/nature02581Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The ventral striatum serves a critical role in integrating complex predictions in higher-order aversive conditioning in order to make predictions and coordinate behavior. Find this resource:

Valentin, V. V., A. Dickinson, and J. P. ODoherty. 2007. Determining the neural substrates of goal -directed learning in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience 27.15: 40194026. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.056407.2007Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The orbitofrontal cortex is implicated in the mechanism for goal-directed learning in instrumental conditioning in humans. Find this resource:

Long-Term Memory

Long-term memory is divided into explicit (or declarative) memory, which permits the intentional recollection of previous experiences (e.g., remembering what you had for breakfast yesterday), and implicit (or procedural) memory, which is largely unconscious (for example, knowing how to ride a bike). Explicit memory can be further subdivided into semantic memory, which stores concept-based knowledge that is independent of context and personal relevance (e.g., knowing who is the vice president), and episodic memory, which stores personal episodes (e.g., autobiographical knowledge that is context and personally relevant, for example, knowing where you went on vacation last year). Semantic memory is thought to be dependent on brain areas that include the left inferior prefrontal cortex, the left posterior temporal areas, and the hippocampus (although this is controversial). Episodic memory is dependent primarily on the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal cortex, particularly the hippocampus. An excellent example of implicit memory is priming, wherein prior exposure to a stimulus influences later behavior toward that stimulus (e.g., watching a DVD about cats will make you more likely to notice cats immediately afterward). Another instance of implicit memory is the acquisition of a new skill, for example, learning to play the guitar. Skill learning can depend on the striatum, motor cortex, and cerebellum, as well as other structures. The study of longterm memory encompasses a vast field with many areas of research. Squire and Wixted 2010 and Squire 2009 provide excellent broad reviews of the neural systems involved. Rugg and Curran 2007 investigates the neural systems responsible for familiarity versus recollection. Poldrack, et al. 2001 provides evidence for the interaction between two types of long-term memory, namely, declarative and procedural memory. Uncapher and Rugg 2005 focuses on the relationship between the amount of brain activation while a memory is being encoded and the strength of the ensuing memory. Finally, two articles provide evidence for the effects of emotion on memory (Kroes, et al. 2010 and Schiller, et al. 2010).

Kroes, M. C., B. A. Strange, and R. J. Dolan. 2010. Beta-adrenergic blockade during memory retrieval in humans evokes a sustained reduction of declarative emotional memory enhancement. Journal of Neuroscience 30.11: 39593963. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.546909.2010Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Emotional events are often better remembered than nonemotional memories due to noradrenergic modulation and amygdala activation and this article reports evidence that blocking adrenergic receptors with propranolol during the retrieval of emotional memories results in an inability to retrieve the memories at later times. Broader implications of this finding include the possibility for clinical interventions after an emotional or traumatic event. Find this resource:

Poldrack, R. A., J. Clark, E. J. Pare-Blagoev, D. Shohamy, J. Creso-Moyano, C. Myers, and M. A. Gluck. 2001. Interactive memory systems in the human brain. Nature 414:546550. DOI: 10.1038/35107080Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides evidence that a simple variation in behavioral task can alter the memory system required to perform the task from explicit (declarative) to implicit (procedural). Find this resource:

Rugg, M. D., and T. Curran. 2007. Event-related potentials and recognition memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11.6: 251257. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2007.04.004Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article evaluates the efficacy of using event-related potentials to offer support for dual process models of memory (recognition memory is supported by distinct retrieval processes known as familiarity and recollection). Find this resource:

Schiller, D., M. Monfils, C. M. Raio, D. Johnson, J. E. LeDoux, and E. A. Phelps. 2010. Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms. Nature 463:4953. DOI: 10.1038/nature08637Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article presents a new way to eliminate fear memories that is noninvasive and that does not require pharmacological intervention. Old fear memories are updated with non-fearful information provided during the reconsolidation stage of memory, such that fear responses are no longer expressed. Find this resource:

Squire, L. R. 2009. Memory and brain systems: 1969 2009. Journal of Neuroscience 29:1271112716. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.357509.2009Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article highlights the structure and organization of memory and the brain systems that support memory. Find this resource:

Squire, L. R., and J. Wixted. 2010. The cognitive neuroscience of human memory since H.M. Annual Review of Neuroscience 34.

DOI: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-061010-113720Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A broad review of the literature since the 1950s on the neuroanatomical structures involved in memory with an emphasis on medial temporal structures, the stages of memory processing, memory systems in the brain, short-term memory, and long-term memory storage. Find this resource:

Uncapher, M. R., and M. D. Rugg. 2005. Encoding and the durability of episodic memory: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Neuroscience 25.31: 72607267. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.164105.2005Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study used fMRI to determine that the neural activity elicited by an event as it is encoded is related to the strength of the resulting memory, even when all other factors are kept constant. Find this resource:

Short-Term Memory
Working memory is the ability to hold information in an active state (for around 2030 seconds), as in when you hear a phone number and need to hold the number in mind until you record it. It is thought to be dependent on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal lobe. The frontal lobes are widely believed to underpin the ability to hold information in short-term, or working, memory. Osaka, et al. 2007 provides a broad overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the neural basis of working memory. Johnson, et al. 2005; Jonides, et al. 2008; Smith and Jonides 1999; and Curtis and DEsposito 2003 all provide excellent reviews and data supporting the role of the prefrontal cortex in working memory. Cohen, et al. 1997 provides evidence for different brain processes involved in verbal and visual working memory tasks, respectively. Armstrong, et al. 2009 elucidates the role of the frontal eye fields in the selection and maintenance of spatial information in working memory. Lewis-Peacock and Postle 2008 provides evidence for the interaction between long-term memory and working memory. Finally, Luck and Vogel 1997investigates the capacity limits of working memory.

Armstrong, K. M., M. H. Chang, and T. Moore. 2009. Selection and maintenance of spatial information by frontal eye field neurons. Journal of Neuroscience 29:1562115629. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.446509.2009Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides evidence from single cell recordings from frontal eye field neurons in monkeys that information that is held in working memory can serve to override reflexive, bottom -up attentional capture from stimulus-driven factors. Find this resource:

Cohen, J. D., W. M. Perlstein, T. S. Braver, L. E. Nystrom, D. C. Noll, J. Jonides, and E. E. Smith. 1997. Temporal dynamics of brain activation during a working memory task. Nature 386:604608. DOI: 10.1038/386604a0Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the first fMRI experiments to isolate delay period activity in a working memory study of verbal materials. Find this resource:

Curtis, C. E., and M. DEsposito. 2003. Persistent activity in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7.9: 415423. DOI: 10.1016/S13646613(03)001979Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A systematic review of how information is maintained in working memory. Find this resource:

Johnson, M. K., C. L. Raye, K. J. Mitchell, E. J. Greene, W. A. Cunningham, and C. A. Sanislow. 2005. Using fMRI to investigate a component process of reflection: Prefrontal correlates of refreshing a just-activated representation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience5:339361. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study used fMRI to investigate the functional organization of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a working memory task. Areas in the left dorsolateral, anterior, and ventrolateral PFC were identified as being related to varying types of information, including visual and auditory words, drawings, patterns, people, places, and locations. Find this resource:

Jonides, J., R. L. Lewis, D. E. Nee, C. A. Lustig, M. G. Berman, and K. S. Moore. 2008. The mind and brain of short-term memory. Annual Review of Psychology 59:193224.

DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093615Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A thorough review of the literature on the neural basis of working memory. Find this resource:

Lewis-Peacock, J., and B. R. Postle. 2008. Temporary activation of long-term memory supports working memory. Journal of Neuroscience 28:87658771. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.195308.2008Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides fMRI evidence that the short-term retention of information can be supported by the temporary reactivation of LTM representations in working memory. Find this resource:

Luck, S. J., and E. K. Vogel. 1997. The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature 390:279281 DOI: 10.1038/36846Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides striking behavioral and neural evidence that the capacity of working memory is three to four items (rather than the classic seven plus/minus two). Find this resource:

Osaka, N., R. Logie, and M. DEsposito. 2007. The cognitive neuroscience of working memory. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book provides an excellent and broad summary of the current literature and theories regarding the neural underpinnings of working memory, discussing numerous investigational approaches (single cell recording, neuroimaging, computational modeling). Find this resource:

Smith, E. E., and J. Jonides. 1999. Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science 283:1657 1661. DOI: 10.1126/science.283.5408.1657Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A review of working memory studies that focuses on the extent to which frontal lobe function is organized by the type of information and type of processing required. Find this resource:
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Cognitive Control
This area of CNS focuses on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying selective attention, inhibition, and other processes that allow for the ability to flexibly adapt behavior to current demands rather than remaining rigid and inflexible. The prefrontal cortex, and in particular the dorsolateral PFC, is thought to play a key role in supporting cognitive control in the brain. Badre and DEsposito 2007; Koechlin, et al. 2003; and Miller and Cohen 2001 provide evidence for the role of the prefrontal cortex in cognitive control. Depoe, et al. 2007 provides data showing that the prefrontal cortex is implemented in the suppression of emotional information. Braver, et al. 2009provides evidence that different cognitive control mechanisms can be implemented flexibly within the same brain regions. Finally, Carter, et al. 1998; Kerns, et al. 2004; and MacDonald, et al. 2000show that the anterior cingulate cortex is involved in monitoring cognitive conflict, while Young, et al. 2004 elucidates how error-related negativity relates to cognitive conflict.

Badre, D., and M. DEsposito. 2007. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for a hierarchical organization of the prefrontal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19.12: 20822099. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An fMRI study that supports a model in which the prefrontal cortex reflects a hierarchical order of control, based on the level of abstraction. Find this resource:

Braver, T. S., J. L. Paxton, H. S. Locke, and D. M. Barch. 2009. Flexible neural mechanisms of cognitive control within human prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106.18: 7351 7356. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0808187106Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

This study provides evidence for a theory in which different cognitive control mechanisms can be implemented flexibly within the same brain regions, rather than a model in which dissociable anatomical mechanisms underlie each process. Find this resource:

Carter, C. S., T. S. Braver, D. M. Barch, M. M. Botvinick, D. C. Noll, and J. D. Cohen. 1998. Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection and the on-line monitoring of performance. Science 280:747749. DOI: 10.1126/science.280.5364.747Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the first studies to provide neural evidence that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) monitors cognitive conflict. Find this resource:

Depoe, B., T. Curran, and M. T. Banish. 2007. Prefrontal regions orchestrate suppression of emotional memories via a two-phase process. Science 317:215219. DOI: 10.1126/science.1139560Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides some of the strongest evidence to date for the neural mechanisms behind the intentional inhibition of information. Find this resource:

Kerns, J. G., J. D. Cohen, A. W. MacDonald III, R. Y. Cho, V. A. Stinger, and C. S. Carter. 2004. Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control. Science 303:10231026. DOI: 10.1126/science.1089910Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The ACC plays a crucial role in cognitive control, as is evidenced by neural and behavioral changes. Find this resource:

Koechlin, E., C. Ody, and F. Kouneiher. 2003. The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex. Science 302.5648: 11811185. DOI: 10.1126/science.1088545Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An fMRI study that supports a unified modular model of cognitive control, in which the lateral prefrontal cortex is organized according to the type of stimuli, the present perceptual context, and the temporal episode in which the stimuli occur. Find this resource:

MacDonald, A. W., J. D. Cohen, V. A. Stinger, and C. S. Carter. 2000. Dissociating the role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in cognitive control. Science288:18351837. DOI: 10.1126/science.288.5472.1835Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study shows a neural double dissociation between mechanisms that monitor conflict and mechanisms that resolve conflict. Find this resource:

Miller, E. K., and J. D. Cohen. 2001. An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience 24:167202. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article proposes that cognitive control stems from the maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that guide the representations and means of achieving internal goals. Find this resource:

Young, N., M. M. Botvinick, and J. D. Cohen. 2004. The neural basis of error detection: Conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review 111.4: 931959. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article develops the theory that error-related negativity (ERN), a component of the event-related potential that exhibits after an error is made in an attentional task, can be explained by a response conflict mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex. Find this resource:

Decision Making
Although decision making has been an object of study for centuries, and is of great importance to a wide range of specialists (economists, lawyers, clinicians, policymakers, etc.), how this process is mediated by the brain has only

recently begun to be understood and investigated. The prefrontal cortex, including both lateral and ventromedial areas, is thought to be important in certain as well as uncertain decision making in humans. For readers interested in the brain structures that underlie and support decision-making abilities, Vartanian and Mandel 2011 provides a current and broad review of the relatively nascent literature of this field. Fellows 2004 and Nieuwenhuis, et al. 2005 provide excellent reviews of the neural substrates of decision making. Research presented in Daw, et al. 2006 and Yu and Dayan 2005 demonstrates the brains response to decisions made under conditions of uncertainty. De Drue, et al. 2010 explores the role of oxytocin in the regulation of group conflict. Chib, et al. 2009 explores the brains role in decisions that carry differing values. Wunderlich, et al. 2009 provides data regarding decisions made with different reward outcomes, while Symmonds, et al. 2010 provides data about how people evaluate the potential risks and rewards of multiple sequential decisions.

Chib, V., A. Rangel, S. Shimojo, and J. P. ODoherty. 2009. Evidence for a common representation of decision values for dissimilar goods in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex . Journal of Neuroscience 29.39: 12315 12320. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.257509.2009Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article addresses the issue of whether different brain areas correlate with different types of value representations (e.g., food, nonfood consumables, and monetary gambles). fMRI results implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in the valuation of all categories of goods. Find this resource:

Daw, N., J. P. ODoherty, P. Dayan, B. Seymour, and R. J. Dolan. 2006. Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans. Nature 441:876879. DOI: 10.1038/nature04766Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article addresses the neural substrates of decision making under uncertainty. A model of action-selection under uncertainty that involves switching between exploratory and exploitative behavioral modes is proposed. The frontopolar cortex and intraparietal sulcus are preferentially active during exploratory decisions, while regions of the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are active in value-based exploitative decision making. Find this resource:

De Dreu, C. K. W., L. L. Greer, M. J. J. Handgraaf, S. Shalvi, G. A. Van Kleef, M. Baas, F. S. Ten Velden, E. Van Dijk, and S. W. W. Feith. 2010. The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans. Science 328.5984: 14081411. DOI: 10.1126/science.1189047Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides empirical evidence for the relationship between oxytocin and the regulation of intergroup conflict, which is imperative for survival. Oxytocin promoted in-group trust and cooperation, and aggression toward competing out-groups. Find this resource:

Fellows, L. K. 2004. The cognitive neuroscience of human decision making: A review and conceptual framework. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews 3.3: 159172. DOI: 10.1177/1534582304273251Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides an excellent review of the current neuroscientific literature of human decision making, focusing on the role of the frontal lobes. Find this resource:

Nieuwenhuis, S., G. Aston-Jones, and J. D. Cohen. 2005. Decision-making, the P3, and the locus coeruleusnorepinephrine system. Psychological Bulletin 131.4: 510532. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This review integrates knowledge regarding the neural basis of the P3 (an event-related potential elicited by infrequent, task-relevant stimuli, which is thought to be an index for novelty detection) and elucidates its functional role in internal decision-making processes. Find this resource:

Symmonds, M., P. Bossaerts, and R. J. Dolan. 2010. A behavioral and neural evaluation of prospective decision making under risk. Journal of Neuroscience 30.43: 1438014389. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.145910.2010Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article addresses the question of how people evaluate the potential risks and rewards of multiple sequential decisions, and what brain areas underlie such decisions. Find this resource:

Vartanian, O., and D. R. Mandel. 2011. Neuroscience of decision making: Contemporary topics in cognitive neuroscience series. London: Psychology Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An extremely useful book for readers at all levels, it provides a summary of work in the field focusing on the intersection between decision making and cognitive neuroscience. Topics covered include the role of emotions, dual systems, reward/loss processing, planning, and creativity. Find this resource:

Wunderlich, K., A. Rangel, and J. P. ODoherty. 2009. Neural computations underlying action -based decision making in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences106.40: 1719917204. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0901077106Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Choices between different physical actions to obtain reward activate brain areas, including the supplementary motor cortex. Further, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was found to be involved in encoding the expected value of the action that was ultimately taken. Find this resource:

Yu, A. J., and P. Dayan. 2005. Uncertainty, neuromodulation, and attention. Neuron 46.4: 681692. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.04.026Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article proposes that the neuromodulators acetylcholine and norepinephrine play a major role in the brains response to conditions of uncertainty. Find this resource:

Social Cognition
The field of social cognition within cognitive neuroscience aims to infuse the study of the relations between people and groups with brain science methodology. Social cognitive neuroscience attempts to determine the neural pathways and mechanisms responsible for social phenomena such as stereotyping, attitudes, self-control, prejudice, empathy, perspective-taking, theory of mind, moral reasoning, and emotion regulation. Two of the main books in social neuroscience are Cacioppo and Berntson 2005 and Decety and Cacioppo 2011. Each provides a thorough review of the existing literature and also speaks to future directions in this rapidly advancing area of study. A number of excellent reviews of the neural systems involved in social cognition have been published to date. These include Amodio and Frith 2006; Cacioppo, et al. 2010; andOchsner 2004. Siegal and Varley 2002 provides a review of the literature in the area of theory of mind, while Saxe and Kanwisher 2003 provides evidence for the difference between the recognition of anothers mind and the simple recognition of another. Johnson, et al. 2009 shows medial cortex activity differences between healthy and depressed individuals as they self-reflect.Mitchell, et al. 2006 provides neural evidence for the dissociation between mentalizing about the self versus another person. Singer, et al. 2004 explores how empathy for someone elses pain relates to feeling the pain oneself.

Amodio, D. M., and C. D. Frith. 2006. Meeting of minds: The medial frontal cortex and social cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7:268277. DOI: 10.1038/nrn1884Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides a comprehensive review of the neural mechanisms underlying social interaction, emphasizing the role of the medial frontal cortex. Find this resource:

Cacioppo, J. T., and G. G. Berntson. 2005. Social neuroscience. London: Psychology Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book is intended for more advanced readers. It provides a thorough, comprehensive collection of articles and reviews of the current literature within social neuroscience. Find this resource:

Cacioppo, J. T., G. G. Berntson, and J. Decety. 2010. Social neuroscience and its relation to social psychology. Social Cognition 28:675684. DOI: 10.1521/soco.2010.28.6.675Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the current literature on social interactions and behavior, with an emphasis on evidence relating to the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying such abilities. Find this resource:

Decety, J., and J. T. Cacioppo. 2011. Handbook of social neuroscience. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A thorough handbook with an emphasis on the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms of social cognition. Find this resource:

Johnson, M. K., S. Nolen-Hoeksema, K. J. Mitchell, and Y. Levin. 2009. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection, and depression. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 4:313327. DOI: 10.1093/scan/nsp022Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An fMRI study investigating medial cortex activity in depressed and healthy individuals as they self-reflect. Find this resource:

Mitchell, J. P., C. N. Macrae, and M. R. Banaji. 2006. Dissociable medial prefrontal contributions to judgments of similar and dissimilar others. Neuron 50:655663. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.03.040Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article provides fMRI evidence for a double dissociation between acts of mentalizing about a similar other, which recruits an area in ventral mPFC, and acts of mentalizing about a dissimilar other, which recruits an area in the dorsal subregion of mPFC. Find this resource:

Ochsner, K. N. 2004. Current directions in social cognitive neuroscience. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 14:254258. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent, encompassing review of the current psychological and neural literature in the field, including topics that are well developed and subjects that are emerging. Find this resource:

Saxe, R., and N. Kanwisher. 2003. People thinking about people: The role of the temporo-parietal junction in theory of mind. NeuroImage 19:18351842. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study provides fMRI evidence for the dissociation between theory of mind, which represents another persons mental states, and a representation of the simple presence of another person per se. Find this resource:

Siegal, M., and R. Varley. 2002. Neural systems involved in theory of mind. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:462471. DOI: 10.1038/nrn844Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Theory of mind is the ability to understand and reason about the beliefs of others. This article provides a review from imaging and lesion studies that implicate the involvement of a widely distributed neural system. Find this resource:

Singer, T., B. Seymour, J. ODoherty, H. Kaube, R. J. Dolan, and C. D. Frith. 2004. Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain. Science 303.5661: 11571162. DOI: 10.1126/science.1093535Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study provides fMRI evidence that empathy for anothers pain (the ability to have an experience of anothers pain) activates specific areas in the brain that are also activated when one experiences pain. Find this resource:
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Language
Language appears to be a uniquely human ability, one that is profoundly important to our species. In 1861 Paul Broca localized a language-related function in a specific area in the human brain. Since then, the attempt to uncover the neural bases and genetic underpinnings of the acquisition and use of language, including comprehension and production, has been the subject of intense study. Brain areas thought to be critical for these abilities include Broc as area in the left frontal cortex (responsible for language production), Wernikes area in the posterior part of the temporal lobe (responsible for language processing), and areas surrounding the Sylvian fissure and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) including pars opercularis, pars triangularis, pars orbitalis, and the cortex along the inferior frontal

sulcus. Pinker 1994 is essential reading for anyone interested in the question of why we possess the ability for language. Pinker is an expert in the field, and his clear and fascinating book provides a comprehensive overview of the important questions and topics within this field of study. Hickok and Bellugi 2001 provides evidence for the neural organization of language. The research presented in Mechelli 2004; Sakai 2005; and Sakai, et al. 2008 deals with investigation of the brains role in the acquisition of a s econd language.

Hickok, G., and U. Bellugi. 2010. Neural organization of language: Clues from sign language aphasia. In The handbook of psycholinguistic & cognitive processes: Perspectives in communication disorders . Edited by J. Guendouzi, F. Loncke, and M. Williams, 685706. London: Taylor & Francis. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the similarities between the lateralization of the neural mechanisms for normal speakers and for aphasics (those who are impaired in producing or comprehending spoken or written language) in both spoken and signed language. This sort of comparison gives evidence for the importance of the sensory and motor modalities through which language is perceived and produced. Find this resource:

Mechelli, A., J. T. Crinion, U. Noppeney, J. ODoherty, J. Ashburner, R. S. Frackowiak, and C. J. Price. 2004. Neurolinguistics: Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature 431.7010: 757. DOI: 10.1038/431757aSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Second-language ability is accompanied by an increase in gray matter in the left inferior parietal cortex. The amount of increase depends on the level of proficiency in that language and the age at which the language is acquired. This demonstrates the level of plasticity in the brain in relation to language ability. Find this resource:

Pinker, S. 1994. The language instinct: How the mind creates language . Cambridge, MA: William Morrow. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Pinker argues that humans are born with an innate ability for language. In this book he describes how language works, how children learn it, how it evolved, and how it is constantly changing. Find this resource:

Sakai, K. L. 2005. Language acquisition and brain development. Science 310:815819. DOI: 10.1126/science.1113530Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Research using fMRI helps to show the nature that language takes in the mature brain, and how cortical plasticity allows humans to acquire second languages. Find this resource:

Sakai, K. L., A. Nauchi, Y. Tatsuno, K. Hirano, Y. Muraishi, M. Kimura, M. Bostwick, and N. Yusa. 2008. Distinct roles of left inferior frontal regions that explain individual differences in second language acquisition. Human Brain Mapping 30:24402452. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.20681Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A study that shows there are individual differences in second language learning; the differential acquisition of the second language is associated with specific regions in the F3t and F3O. Find this resource:

Motor Control
In everyday life, our brains issue thousands of motor commands that allow our bodies to be put through a diverse range of movements, enabling us to navigate through the world. How does the brain combine sensory information about the environment and ones own body movement in order to achieve adaptive sensory-motor control? The study of motor control within CNS investigates the behavioral, neural, and mechanical mechanisms underlying the selection, planning, learning, initiation, and execution of movements ranging from blinking to running. Berntejn 1967,Jeannerod 1997, and Rosenbaum 2010 all provide overviews of the central themes in the cognitive neuroscience of action and motor control. All are geared toward more advanced readers, with Rosenbaum 2010 the most suitable for introductory students. Chen, et al. 2010 provides evidence for the key neural networks in the human motor system. The brain areas responsible for speed versus accuracy in motor control are reviewed in Elliot, et al. 2001. Rizzolatti and Craighero 2004 elucidates how the brains mirror neuron system allows for learning through imitation.

Berntejn, N. 1967. The coordination and regulation of movements. London: Pergamon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book illuminates the main problems in understanding the regulation and control of human motor acts. Find this resource:

Chen, C. C., J. M. Kilner, K. J. Friston, S. J. Kiebel, R. K. Jolly, and N. S. Ward. 2010. Nonlinear coupling in the human motor system. Journal of Neuroscience 30.25: 83938399. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.119409.2010Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study used magnetoencephalography in humans to look for evidence for nonlinear (between-frequency) coupling among neuronal sources thought to facilitate communication between areas within distributed networks in the motor system. Find this resource:

Elliot, D., W. F. Helsen, and R. Chua. 2001. A century later: Woodworths (1899) two component model of goal-directed aiming. Psychological Bulletin 127:342357. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Woodworths 1899 two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in the control of upper-limb movements is evaluated with regard to current empirical and theoretical knowledge. Find this resource:

Jeannerod, M. 1997. The cognitive neuroscience of action. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book addresses the nature and role of different representations in the planning and execution of movements. The book is geared toward advanced undergraduates or those working in the area. Find this resource:

Rizzolatti, G., and L. Craighero. 2004. The mirror-neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience 27:169192. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Humans can learn by imitating others (observing the actions of others and copying them). This review presents data on a neurophysiological mechanismthe mirror-neuron systemthat appears to play a fundamental role in both action understanding and imitation. Find this resource:

Rosenbaum, D. A. 2010. Human motor control. 2d ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book provides a broad neurological, psychological, and theoretical background on human motor control both for an introductory audience and for more advanced readers. Find this resource:

Philosophy of Cognitive Science


Peter Mandik

Introduction
Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary study of the mind loosely united by the idea that the mind is a computer. Philosophy is one of the main contributing disciplines (along with psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, and computer science), and many of its contributions concern the conceptual foundations of the separate disciplines (e.g., psychology and artificial intelligence), explorations of the relations between the disciplines (e.g., is psychology reducible to neuroscience?), and examinations of core uniting ideas (e.g., how best can we understand the idea that the mind is a computer?). Much contemporary philosophy of cognitive science overlaps with contemporary philosophy of mind. The present work tries as much as possible to focus on work peculiar to the philosophy of cognitive science, but the reader is advised to see pertinent work discussed in other Oxford Bibliographies Online articles, especially Metaphysics of Mind andConsciousness.

General Overviews

The works presented here address the philosophy of cognitive science considered as a whole. Two sorts of general overviews are represented. The first takes on, as a philosophical project, the problem of how best to view the enterprise of cognitive science (an enterprise to which philosophy may contribute). Overviews of the first sort include Bechtel 2010, Davies 2005, Dennett 2009, andvon Eckardt 1993. Dennett 2009 is the shortest, and von Eckardt 1993 is the lengthiest. Dennett 2009 is perhaps too brief to serve as a solid overview, but the author is such a major player in the field that this piece merits attention. Bechtel 2010 is the next in order of brevity and surpassesDennett 2009 in terms of use as an overview. The second sort of general overview is more descriptive than prescriptive and details the main kinds of philosophical contributions that have been made under the heading philosophy of cognitive science. Overviews of the second sort include Andler 2009, Grush 2002, and Thagard 2008. Grush 2002 is the best of these three. TheAndler 2009 approach is a bit idiosyncratic, and the treatment is longer than that in Grush 2002. The aim of Thagard 2008 is more to supply an overview of cognitive science than the philosophy thereof. However, the intended audience of Thagard 2008 is philosophical, and thus the work serves as a useful overview to the philosophy of cognitive science. Andler, D. Philosophy of Cognitive Science. In French Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Edited by A. Brenner and J. Gayon, 255302. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A slightly idiosyncratic essay and not as brief as other overviews listed in this section. Find this resource:

Bechtel, W. How Can Philosophy Be a True Cognitive Science Discipline? Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (2010): 357366. DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01088.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Spells out an answer to the titular question by focusing on philosophical contributions to the understanding of the mind-body problem, representation, and explanation. Find this resource:

Davies, M. An Approach to Philosophy of Cognitive Science. In The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. Edited by F. Jackson and M. Smith, 358394. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Wide-ranging in the topics covered and deep in their treatment. Perhaps not terribly accessible, however, to novices. Davies gives a subtle and complex overview of the relation of the classical approach to cognitive science to key areas of interest in philosophy. Find this resource: Dennett, D. The Part of Cognitive Science That Is Philosophy. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2009): 231 236. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Very brief, focusing on the question of what philosophy can contribute to cognitive science. Dennetts emphasi s here, as in his other works, is highly deferential to the natural sciences. Worthwhile primarily because it is written by one of the giants of cognitive science philosophy. Find this resource:

Grush, R. Cognitive Science. In Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Edited by P. Machamer and M. Silberstein, 272289. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The best of the overviews in this section, covering most of the main relevant topics in a concise and accessible way. The main areas covered here are cognitive architecture, theories of content, and the embodied/dynamic counterrevolution. Find this resource:

Thagard, P. Cognitive Science. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An introduction to cognitive science for a philosophical audience. Useful, nonetheless, for what it has to say about the philosophy of cognitive science. Find this resource:

von Eckardt, B. What Is Cognitive Science? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Book-length treatment of the titular question, offering an answer that is highly focused on the notion of mental representation.

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Textbooks
Because cognitive science is both a newly emerging discipline and interdisciplinary, theres little consensus on how best to teach either cognitive science or the philosophy thereof. The texts featured in this section are either textbooks for the philosophy of cognitive science or textbooks for cognitive science with major authorial input from philosophers. Clark 2001 is the one most explicitly aimed at treating the philosophy of cognitive science. Also distinctive of A. Clarks contribution is its sympathy for both embodied cognition and connectionism (reflecting Clarks own research interests). Stillings, et al. 1995 is organized by the main contributing disciplines in cognitive science (psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and philosophy).Kolak, et al. 2006, in contrast, is organized by the main areas of inquiry in cognitive science (e.g., memory, language, perception). Kolak, et al. 2006 is written by philosophers and is weighted more toward philosophy and neuroscience than other contributing disciplines. Thagard 1996 is written by a philosopher and is perhaps more weighted toward computational approaches than the other texts in this section and is organized by the main areas of inquiry. P. Thagards focus throughout is on the main theories of mental representation offered by cognitive scientists. Clark, A. Mindware: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Highly accessible, distinctive in part for its emphasis on embodiment and connectionism. Find this resource:

Kolak, D., W. Hirstein, P. Mandik, and J. Waskan. Cognitive Science: An Introduction to the Mind and Brain. New York: Routledge, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview with particular emphasis on philosophy and neuroscience. Its organization is based on the main areas of cognitive scientific inquiry (such as perception, memory, action, and language). Find this resource:

Stillings, N., S. Weisler, C. Chase, M. Feinstein, J. Garfield, and E. Rissland. Cognitive Science: An Introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent overview of the main contributing disciplines to cognitive science (psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and philosophy). Find this resource:

Thagard, P. Mind: Introduction to Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An introduction organized around different cognitive scientific approaches to mental representation. Find this resource:

Reference Works
Both Bechtel and Graham 1998 and Wilson and Keil 1999 are excellent and wide-ranging encyclopedic works containing many articles by leading figures. Bechtel and Graham 1998 is especially noteworthy for the comprehensive introductory essay, The Life of Cognitive Science.Bourget and Chalmers 2009 is a frequently updated online bibliography on the philosophy of cognitive science. Many of the entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles.

Bechtel, W., and G. Graham, eds. A Companion to Cognitive Science. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very thorough encyclopedic resource, especially noteworthy for the comprehensive introductory essay The Life of Cognitive Science. Find this resource:

Bourget, D., and D. Chalmers. PhilPapers: Philosophy of Cognitive Science. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A frequently updated online bibliography. Many entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles. Find this resource:

Wilson, R. A., and F. C. Keil, eds. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very thorough encyclopedic resource with high-profile contributors across the main subdisciplines of cognitive science. Find this resource:

Anthologies
All of the anthologies contain useful material on the philosophy of cognitive science, but the ones most focused on the philosophy of cognitive science (as opposed to cognitive science in general) are Goldman 1993, Stainton 2006, and Thagard 2007. The reader looking for a portable volume should be warned about the large sizes of Cummins and Cummins 2000 and Goldman 1993, though both are excellent collections of classic articles by key figures. Thagard 2007 is similar in quality but is both more up-to-date and more portable. The most portable of the anthologies listed in this section are Stainton 2006 and Thagard 1998. Stainton 2006 and Thagard 2007 are the most up-to-date.

Cummins, D. D., and R. Cummins, eds. Minds, Brains, and Computers: An Historical Introduction to the Foundations of Cognitive Science. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A large collection of classic articles by key figures. Find this resource:

Goldman, A. I. Readings in Philosophy and Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Excellent though voluminous collection of classic articles by key figures. Find this resource:

Stainton, R. Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A collection of commissioned pairs of papers representing opposing sides of key issues. Find this resource:

Thagard, P., ed. Mind Readings: Introductory Selections on Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An accessible and portable anthology aiming at coverage of cognitive science in general (as opposed to only the philosophy of cognitive science). Find this resource:

Thagard, P., ed. Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A highly up-to-date collection. Find this resource:
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Cognitive Architecture
Central issues of cognitive architecture concern the question of modularity (are distinct functions implemented in distinct modules?) and the conflict between connectionists and those who favor the language of thought (LOT) hypothesis. Proponents of LOT hold that the medium wherein thought and reasoning take place is constituted by a

collection of combinable symbols. Many advocates of connectionism oppose LOT and hold that thought is either nonsymbolic or involves symbols that are distributed in a holistic manner across nodes (neurons) in a highly connected network. Davies 1989 touches on all three of these central ideas (modularity, LOT, and connectionism). Aizawa 2002 discusses cognitive architecture primarily through an examination of arguments for the classicist or LOT-based approach. Eliasmith 2003 is primarily aimed at promoting the authors representation and dynamics theory but manages along the way to provide an overview of key issues concerning the connectionism versus LOT debate. Eliasmith 2003contains no explicit discussion of modularity.

Aizawa, K. Cognitive Architecture. In Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Mind. Edited by S. Stich and T. Warfield, 172189. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Accessible evaluation of key arguments in favor of the classicist language of thought approach to cognitive architecture. Find this resource:

Davies, Martin. Connectionism, Modularity, and Tacit Knowledge. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (December 1989): 541555. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An interesting discussion touching on the main philosophical issues of cognitive architecture: language of thought, connectionism, and modularity. Find this resource:

Eliasmith, C. Moving beyond Metaphors: Understanding the Mind for What It Is. Journal of Philosophy 100 (2003): 493520. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A presentation of Eliasmiths representation and dynamics theory that also manages to serve as an overview of connectionist and language of thought approaches to cognitive architecture. However, the piece contains no explicit discussion of modularity. Find this resource:

CLASSICISM AND LANGUAGE OF THOUGHT

At the core of classicism (also known as symbolicism) is the language of thought (LOT) hypothesis. Classicists in cognitive science hold mental states and processes to be implemented as rule-governed symbol manipulations. Aydede 2008 is a top-notch discussion of LOT and includes a section on the connectionism-classicism debate. J. A. Fodor is an iconic defender of LOT, and Fodor 1975 is a classic treatment. Fodor 2008 is the sequel. Aydede, M. The Language of Thought Hypothesis. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A discussion of the key issues, including the connectionism-classicism debate. Find this resource:

Fodor, J. A. The Language of Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The key defense by the most famous defender of the language of thought (LOT) hypothesis. A classic. In addition to Fodors defense of LOT as a basis for viewing cognition as computational, the text also contains an influential attack on reductionism. Find this resource:

Fodor, J. A. LOT 2: The Language of Thought Revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The sequel to Fodor 1975. Find this resource:

CONNECTIONISM

Advocates of connectionism tend to oppose the language of thought hypothesis and hold that thought is either nonsymbolic or involves symbols that are distributed in a holistic manner across nodes (neurons) in a highly connected network. The best of the bunch in this section as far as covering key issues is concerned are Bechtel and Abrahamsen 2002 and Garson 2008. Ramsey, et al. 1991 is an influential anthology, as is Horgan and Tienson 1991. For more partisan treatments, Fodor and Pylyshyn 1988 is a classic source of skepticism about connectionism, andChurchland 1995 and Clark 1989 are sympathetic defenders of connectionist approaches.Bourget and Chalmers 2009 is a frequently updated online bibliography on connectionism. Many of the entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles.

Bechtel, W., and A. Abrahamsen. Connectionism and the Mind: Parallel Processing, Dynamics, and Evolution in Networks. 2d ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent book-length overview of key issues. This book is rich with accessible detail concerning artificial neural networks, especially as that is pertinent to contemporary debates in cognitive science and philosophy of mind. Find this resource:

Bourget, D., and D. Chalmers.PhilPapers: Philosophy of Connectionism. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A frequently updated online bibliography about the philosophy of connectionism. Many entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles. Find this resource:

Churchland, P. M. The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A presentation of a view of key issues about the mind and the brain from a heavily connectionist-centric and neurocentric point of view. Find this resource:

Clark, A. Microcognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent monograph from a pro-connectionist. Clark here defends a version of connectionism perhaps more sympathetic to classicism than to other versions. Find this resource:

Fodor, J. A., and Z. W. Pylyshyn. Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture. Cognition 28 (1988): 371. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic source for skepticism about the merits of connectionism. The authors argue that connectionism at best merely supplies an account of implementational details of cognitive systems that must nonetheless utilize a language of thought. Find this resource:

Garson, J. Connectionism. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An article-length overview of key issues. Find this resource:

Horgan, T., and J. Tienson. Connectionism and the Philosophy of Mind. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An influential anthology collecting articles by key figures, with special emphasis on the philosophy of mind. Find this resource:

Ramsey, W., S. P. Stich, and D. M. Rumelhart. Philosophy and Connectionist Theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An influential anthology collecting articles by key figures. Find this resource:

MODULARITY

The basic idea of modularity is that distinct cognitive functions are implemented in distinct physical modules. Robbins 2009 is an excellent overview of key issues. Much philosophical discussion of modularity concerns claims made by J. A. Fodor on behalf of modularity. Fodor 1983is a classic source. Churchland 1988 is a classic critique. Related to modularity is the hypothesis of massive modularity, the idea that most and perhaps all cognitive functioning is modular. SeeSamuels 1998 for an overview and critique. Bourget and Chalmers 2009 is a frequently updated online bibliography on modularity in cognitive science. Many of the entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles.

Bourget, D., and D. Chalmers. PhilPapers: Modularity in Cognitive Science. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A frequently updated online bibliography. Many entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles. Find this resource:

Churchland, P. M. Perceptual Plasticity and Theoretical Neutrality: A Reply to Jerry Fodor.Philosophy of Science 55 (1988): 167187. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A key source by one of the most prominent critics of J. A. Fodors views on modularity. Churchland offers a defense of learning and plasticity in sensory systems. Find this resource:

Fodor, J. A. The Modularity of Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1983. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic text by the key defender of the modularity hypothesis. Fodor defends the existence of domain-specific and cognitively impenetrable input systems that can serve as theory-neutral bases for subsequent cognizing by nonmodular central systems. Find this resource:

Robbins, P. Modularity of Mind. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent overview of key issues. Find this resource:

Samuels, R. Evolutionary Psychology and the Massive Modularity Hypothesis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49.4 (1998): 575602. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview and critique of the popular massive modularity hypothesis, the hypothesis that all or nearly all cognitive function is localizable to distinct domain specific modules. Find this resource:

Ontological Status of Cognitive Scientific and Folk-Psychological Posits


The main positions discussed concerning the ontological status of the cognitive-scientific and folk-psychological posits among philosophers of cognitive science are functionalism, reductionism, and eliminativism (also known as eliminative materialism). Functionalism is perhaps the most widely held position in the philosophy of cognitive science. Briefly, reductionism is the view that types of mental states are identical to types of physical or physiological states; functionalism is the view that types of mental states are defined by the roles they play and thus may be multiply realized by but not identical to types of physical or physiological states; eliminative materialism holds that there are no types of mental states and talk of them should be dispensed with in favor of talk of types of physical or physiological states. This general area is perhaps where the greatest overlap exists between the philosophy of cognitive science and the philosophy of mind, and the reader would do well to consult the Oxford Bibliographies Online articleMetaphysics of Mind. For an article-length overview, see Lycan 2003. For an excellent though avowedly contentious book-length overview, see Rey 1997. For definitions of key relevant terminology in this area, see Mandik 2010.

Lycan, W. The Mind-Body Problem. In The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Mind. Edited by S. P. Stich and T. A. Warfield, 4764. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A brief overview of key ontological positions relevant to the philosophy of cognitive science. Find this resource:

Mandik, P. Key Terms in Philosophy of Mind. London: Continuum, 2010. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Dictionary containing many items of terminology pertinent to key ontological positions in the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of cognitive science. Find this resource:

Rey, G. Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: A Contentiously Classical Approach. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Despite its avowedly contentious and classicist approach, this is a book-length treatment of key issues of relevance to the ontology of cognitive science and folk psychology. Find this resource:

ELIMINATIVISM

Eliminativism may be briefly characterized as the view that there are no types of mental states and discussion should concern types of physical or physiological states. Though not the source of eliminativism (eliminative materialism), Churchland 1981 is one of the most discussed sources on the position. Ramsey 2008 offers an excellent overview of the position and key arguments for and against.

Churchland, P. M. Eliminative Materialism and the Propositional Attitudes. Journal of Philosophy 78 (1981): 6790. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic. One of the most discussed sources of advocacy of eliminative materialism. Churchland argues that a conservative view of folk-psychological posits is a degenerating research program. Find this resource:

Ramsey, W. Eliminative Materialism. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Excellent overview of key arguments both for and against. Find this resource:

REDUCTIONISM

Reductionism may be briefly characterized as the view that types of mental states are identical to types of physical or physiological states. One of classic defenders of reductionism (also known as the identity theory and the type identity theory) is J. J. C. Smart, and his article (Smart 2008) offers an excellent overview. Polger 2009 is an excellent review of identity theories. Though a bit dated,Churchland 1986 is still a worthwhile sketch of empirical considerations in favor of a reductionist approach.

Churchland, P. M. Some Reductive Strategies in Cognitive Neurobiology. Mind 95 (1986): 279309. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A dated but worthwhile sketch of empirical considerations in favor of reductionism. Find this resource:

Polger, T. W. Identity Theories. Philosophy Compass 4.5 (2009): 822834. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-9991.2009.00227.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A review of key theories. Find this resource:

Smart, J. J. C. The Identity Theory of Mind. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview by one of the key historical defenders of the position. Find this resource:

FUNCTIONALISM

Functionalism may be briefly characterized as the view that types of mental states are defined by the roles that they play and thus may be multiply realized by but not identical to types of physical or physiological states. One of the core features of the discussion of functionalism is the closely related idea of multiple realizability. Levin 2009 is an excellent overview of the varieties of functionalism. Bickle 2008 and Funkhouser 2007 are both excellent discussions of multiple realizability. For key historical sources of functionalism and multiple realizability considerations, see Fodor 1974, Putnam 1960, and Putnam 1967. For highly discussed sources of the critique of functionalism, see Block 1980 and Block and Fodor 1972.

Bickle, J. Multiple Realizability. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A detailed overview of arguments concerning multiple realizability. Find this resource:

Block, N. Troubles with Functionalism. In Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology, Vol. 1. Edited by Block 268305. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic line of criticism of the adequacy of functionalist approaches. Contains Blocks famous Chinese nation argument against functionalism. Find this resource:

Block, N., and J. A. Fodor. What Psychological States Are Not. Philosophical Review 81 (1972): 159181. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An early classic source of criticisms of functionalism, especially criticisms based on considerations of absent and inverted qualia. Find this resource:

Fodor, J. A. Special Sciences; or, The Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis. Synthese28 (1974): 97115. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An influential argument spelling out the autonomy of special sciences due to multiple realizability considerations. Find this resource:

Funkhouser, E. Multiple Realizability. Philosophy Compass 2.2 (2007): 303315. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview of key issues. Find this resource:

Levin, J. Functionalism. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A discussion of the many varieties of functionalism pertinent to the philosophy of cognitive science, including such varieties as analytic functionalism, psycho-functionalism, role functionalism, and realizer functionalism. Find this resource:

Putnam, H. Minds and Machines. In Dimensions of Mind. Edited by S. Hook, 148180. New York: New York University Press, 1960. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the key early sources of functionalism. Find this resource:

Putnam, H. Psychological Predicates. In Art, Mind, and Religion. Edited by William Capitan and Daniel D. Merrill, 3748. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

One of the key early sources of functionalism. Find this resource:

Philosophy of Neuroscience
The philosophy of neuroscience largely concerns both the philosophy of science as applied to neuroscience and the application of neuroscience to philosophy, especially the philosophy of mind. Though theres considerable overlap with work in eliminativism and reductionism (seeEliminativism and Reductionism), in the late 20th and early 21st centuries the philosophy of neuroscience has taken off as a subdiscipline of its own. Probably the most comprehensive of the article-length overviews is Bickle, et al. 2006, but see also Brook and Mandik 2007. Anthologies of key works in the philosophy of neuroscience are Bechtel, et al. 2001, Bickle 2009, and Brook and Akins 2005. Three excellent research monographs by philosophers of neuroscience are Bechtel 2008, Bickle 2003, and Craver 2007. W. Bechtel and C. F. Craver both defend the increasingly influential mechanistic model of understanding explanation in the neurosciences.

Bechtel, W. Mental Mechanisms: Philosophical Perspectives on Cognitive Neuroscience . London: Routledge, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A research monograph presenting Bechtels distinctive take on the philosophy of neuroscience. A defense of the increasingly influential mechanistic model of understanding explanation in the neurosciences. Find this resource:

Bechtel, W., P. Mandik, J. Mundale, and R. Stufflebeam, eds. Philosophy and the Neurosciences: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A collection of both classic and newer works in the field. Find this resource:

Bickle, J. Philosophy and Neuroscience: A Ruthlessly Reductive Account. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 2003. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A research monograph presenting Bickles distinctive take on the philosophy of neuroscience, defending what he calls a ruthlessly reductive account, wherein aspects of consciousness and cognition are reduced to very low neural levels (cellular and molecular levels). Find this resource:

Bickle, J., ed. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A wide-ranging and updated collection of articles by key contributors to the area. Find this resource:

Bickle, J., P. Mandik, and A. Landreth. The Philosophy of Neuroscience. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2006. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The most comprehensive of the article-length treatments of the philosophy of neuroscience. This article covers neurophilosophy as well as the philosophy of neuroscience proper. Find this resource:

Brook, A., and K. Akins, eds. Cognition and the Brain: The Philosophy and Neuroscience Movement. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A collection of articles based on talks given at a conference dedicated to the topic. Find this resource:

Brook, A., and P. Mandik. The Philosophy and Neuroscience Movement. Analyse and Kritik29.1 (2007): 3 23. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview of the philosophy of neuroscience that pays particular attention to issues concerning consciousness.

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Craver, C. F. Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Neuroscience . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Craver develops his own version of the increasingly influential mechanistic model of understanding explanation in the neurosciences. Find this resource:
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Theory of Content
The goal of a theory of content is to give a philosophical account of the basis on which mental states or brain states are about or represent things. The content of a representation is that which it represents, refers to, depicts, or is about. Cummins 1989 is a short book that offers a terrific and concise overview of the main issues in this area. For another concise overview, see also Pitt 2008.Stich and Warfield 1994 collects articles by key figures discussing key positions. Perhaps the most widely held positions are varieties of causal and teleological theories of content. For upto-date reviews, see Neander 2009 for teleological theories and Rupert 2008 for causal theories. For interesting critical appraisals of representation and theory of content, see Cummins 1996 andRamsey 2007. Clapin 2002 is organized around a series of exchanges between key figures.

Clapin, H. Philosophy of Mental Representation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Organized around a series of exchanges between key figures, such as D. Dennett, A. Clark, R. Cummins, J. Haugeland, and B. Cantwell-Smith. Find this resource:

Cummins, R. Meaning and Mental Representation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This short book supplies an excellent and accessible overview of key issues. It also constitutes a defense of Cumminss favored view at the timean interpretational semantics that he abandons in favor of an isomorphismbased view in Cummins 1996. Find this resource:

Cummins, R. Representations, Targets, and Attitudes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A highly informative critical appraisal of the main theories of content and defense of Cumminss own favored view an isomorphism-based view that he had previously rejected in Cummins 1989in favor of an interpretational semantics. Find this resource:

Neander, K. Teleological Theories of Mental Content. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An updated overview of what is probably the most widely held of the theories of content. Find this resource:

Pitt, D. Mental Representation. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An article-length overview of key issues. Find this resource:

Ramsey, W. Representation Reconsidered. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Critical examination of the mental representation, content, and related notions. Ramsey tends to reject as illegitimate examples of representations what many in cognitive science and philosophy of mind call representations. Find this resource:

Rupert, R. D. Causal Theories of Mental Content. Philosophy Compass 3.2 (2008): 353380. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Excellent and up-to-date review of the varieties of causal theory of content. Find this resource:

Stich, S. P., and T. A. Warfield, eds. Mental Representation: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Useful anthology representing key positions and key figures. Find this resource:

Mental Imagery
Mental images seem more like perceptions than thoughts with respect to their format, but they seem more like thoughts than perceptions in the way they are triggered (thoughts and images are more endogenous than exogenous in their triggering). Thomas 2009 is a terrific article-length overview that also includes an annotated bibliography. One of the central debates about imagery of interest in the philosophy of cognitive science is the debate over the format of mental imagesthe debate between pictorial views of imagery and descriptive views. For an anthology covering this debate, see Block 1981. For representative defenses of the descriptive view, see Fodor 1975and Pylyshyn 1981. For representative defenses of the pictorial view, see Kosslyn 1994, Rollins 1989, and Tye 1991.

Block, N, ed. Imagery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology covering the descriptive-pictorial debate. Find this resource:

Fodor, J. A. The Language of Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Contains a classic defense of descriptivism. Find this resource:

Kosslyn, S. M. Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A very thorough presentation of scientific considerations in favor of the pictorial view. Find this resource:

Pylyshyn, Z. W. The Imagery Debate: Analogue Media versus Tacit Knowledge. Psychological Review 88 (1981): 1645. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A work by one of the key defenders of the descriptive view. Find this resource:

Rollins, M. Mental Imagery: On the Limits of Cognitive Science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A philosophical defense of a pictorial view. Find this resource:

Thomas, N. J. T. Mental Imagery. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A terrific and updated overview of key issues. Also includes an excellent annotated bibliography. Highly recommended. Find this resource:

Tye, M. The Imagery Debate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Spells out an account of the core distinction in the descriptive-pictorial debate and offers a philosophical defense of a pictorial view. Find this resource:

Innateness
The question of which knowledge is learned and which is instead innate has a long history in philosophy, and much progress has been made with the advent of cognitive science. For concise reviews of the contemporary literature, see Cowie 2008 and Griffiths 2009. Much contemporary cognitive scientific interest in innateness and nativism focuses on language; see especiallyCowie 2008. Contemporary concerns with innateness are continuous with a long historical tradition of debate over innateness. For an excellent review of the relevant history, see Samet 2008. For critiques of nativism, see Cowie 1998 and Prinz 2002. For a defense of nativism, seeFodor 1998. Bourget and Chalmers 2009 is a frequently updated online bibliography on nativism in cognitive science. Many of the entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles.

Bourget, D., and D. Chalmers. PhilPapers: Nativism in Cognitive Science. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A frequently updated online bibliography. Many entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles. Find this resource:

Cowie, F. Whats Within? Nativism Reconsidered. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A critique of nativism, primarily regarding language and concept acquisition. Find this resource:

Cowie, F. Innateness and Language. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An up-to-date overview. Find this resource:

Fodor, J. A. Concepts: Where Cognitive Science Went Wrong. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A defense of nativism by one of its key defenders in the contemporary philosophy of cognitive science. Especially interesting here is Fodors solution to the prima facie implausibility of the view that concepts such as doorknob are innate. Find this resource:

Griffiths, P. The Distinction between Innate and Acquired Characteristics. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An up-to-date overview. Find this resource:

Prinz, J. J. Furnishing the Mind: Concepts and Their Perceptual Basis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A defense of empiricism, Prinz here defends his proxytype theory of concepts as grounded in perceptual representations. Find this resource:

Samet, J. The Historical Controversies Surrounding Innateness. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent review of the historical philosophical significance of innateness. Find this resource:
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Simulation Versus Theory Theory


What is the basis for our capacity to understand others with regard to their mental states? The simulation theory holds that such understanding is grounded in an ability to use our own mental states to simulate the states of others.

The theory theory holds that such understanding is grounded in a proto-scientific theory of mental states. Two excellent reviews may be relied on to cover the opposing sides of this debate. Gordon 2009 presents the simulation side and is authored by one of the key proponents of that view. Ravenscroft 2008 presents the theory theory.Bourget and Chalmers 2009 is a frequently updated online bibliography on the theory of mind and folk psychology. Many of the entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles.

Bourget, D., and D. Chalmers. PhilPapers: Theory of Mind and Folk Psychology. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A frequently updated online bibliography. Many entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles. Find this resource:

Gordon, R. M. Folk Psychology as Mental Simulation. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview of the case for holding that folk-psychological understanding is achieved via the simulation of the mental states of others. Find this resource:

Ravenscroft, I. Folk Psychology as a Theory. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Concise overview of the considerations in favor of regarding folk-psychological understanding as embodied as a theory. Find this resource:

Critiques and Challenges


Cognitive science is not simply the science of cognition. However loosely organized, it is nonetheless a specific approach and is not without detractors and critics. Most work critical of cognitive science focuses on specific challenges, but Coulter 1982 and Thagard 2008 offer discussions of many of the main challenges.

Coulter, J. Theoretical Problems of Cognitive Science. Inquiry 25.1 (1982): 326. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A discussion of several of the main theoretical problems facing cognitive science from a broadly Wittgensteinian perspective. Find this resource:

Thagard, P. Cognitive Science. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. Zalta, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the sections is a brief overview of the main lines of critique of cognitive science. Find this resource:

CONSCIOUSNESS

Much of the concern about the adequacy of cognitive science to account for consciousness overlaps with concerns in the philosophy of mind about consciousness and its place in nature as conceived of scientifically. See the Oxford Bibliographies Online article Consciousness. One of the classic articulations of this sort of concern is Nagel 1974. Much of the general sorts of worry about the adequacy of physicalism in accounting for consciousness is gathered in the widely discussedChalmers 1996. An excellent and accessible discussion of the philosophy of consciousness as influenced by D. Chalmers is in Alter and Howell 2009. One of the most widely discussed attempts to give a cognitive scientific account of consciousness is Dennett 1991. See Dennett 1990 for a concise presentation for many of D. C. Dennetts main considerations. For an excellent overview of the main p roblems of consciousness as well as an accessible presentation of a representational theory of consciousness, see Tye 1995. For excellent overviews of the main issues and theories, see van Gulick 2009 and Kriegel 2006.

Alter, T. A., and R. Howell. A Dialogue on Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise and accessible overview of the main positions and problems in the current philosophical discussions of consciousness. Find this resource:

Chalmers, D. The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A highly influential and widely discussed critique of the adequacy of physicalism for consciousness. Find this resource:

Dennett, D. C. Quining Qualia. In Mind and Cognition. Edited by W. Lycan, 519548. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A concise overview of Dennetts skepticism about qualia. Find this resource:

Dennett, D. C. Consciousness Explained. Boston: Little, Brown, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A widely discussed attempt to give a cognitive-scientific account of consciousness. Find this resource:

Kriegel, U. Consciousness, Theories of. Philosophy Compass 1.1 (2006): 5864. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An overview of the main philosophical theories of consciousness. Find this resource:

Nagel, T. What Is It Like to be a Bat? Philosophical Review 83 (1974): 435450. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic exposition of the worry that science may be inadequate for the subjective experience of consciousness. Find this resource:

Tye, M. Ten Problems of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Accessible overview of the main problems of consciousness as well as a defense of a materialistic solution to those problems. Find this resource:

van Gulick, R. Consciousness. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A terrific overview of the main issues concerning consciousness. Find this resource:

EMBODIMENT

Embodied approaches to cognition emphasize the role of the rest of the body (beyond the nervous system) in thought and reason. Closely related is the idea that cognition is embedded or situated: the environment matters for thought and reasoning. For a classic defense of the embodied approach, see Varela, et al. 1991, and for an update, see Thompson 2007. For a defense of a modest embodiment thesis, see Clark 1997, and for an update, see Clark 2008. For a defense of a self-described radical version, see Chemero 2009. Bourget and Chalmers 2009 is a frequently updated online bibliography on embodiment and situated cognition. Many of the entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles. See also the closely related entries inAntirepresentationalism and Dynamic Systems.

Bourget, D., and D. Chalmers. PhilPapers: Embodiment and Situated Cognition. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

A frequently updated online bibliography. Many entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles. Find this resource:

Chemero, A. Radical Embodied Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A defense of a nonrepresentational, dynamical, ecological, embodied cognitive science. Find this resource:

Clark, A. Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A highly readable defense of a modest version of the embodied approach. Find this resource:

Clark, A. Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A continuation of Clark 1997 with special emphasis on Clarks further development of the extended mind hypothesis, the view that mind surpasses the boundaries of the body. Find this resource:

Haugeland, J. Mind Embodied and Embedded. In Having Thought: Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind. Edited by J. Haugeland, 207240. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A powerful defense of not only embodiment (the importance of the body) but also of embeddedness (the importance of environment). Find this resource:

Robbins, P., and M. Aydede. The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Closely related to discussions of embodiment are discussions of the hypothesis that cognition is embedded or situated, that is, that the environment plays some underappreciated role in cognition. This handbook is a collection of articles covering situatedness and embodiment. Find this resource:

Thompson, E. Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A continuation of the line of investigation set forth in Varela, et al. 1991. Thompson emphasizes the continuity of biological and psychological systems. Find this resource:

Varela, F., E. Thompson, and E. Rosch. The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A now classic defense of embodied cognition. Find this resource:

ANTIREPRESENTATIONALISM AND DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

Central to classical approaches in cognitive science is the idea that cognition can be modeled as computational manipulations of symbols or representations. Antirepresentationalists are suspicious of such reliance on the notion of representation. Advocates of the closely related dynamic-systems approach prefer to model cognition in terms of differential equations well-suited to dynamical systems. The now-classic source of the antirepresentational dynamic systems approach is van Gelder 1995. See also Port and van Gelder 1995. For criticisms of the antirepresentational dynamic systems approach, see Eliasmith 2001, Glymour 1997, and Grush 1997. For work on positions similar to the antirepresentational dynamic systems approach, see also the closely related articles in Embodiment.

Eliasmith, C. Attractive and In-Discrete: A Critique of Two Putative Virtues of the Dynamicist Theory of Mind. Minds and Machines 11 (2001): 417442. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A criticism of the dynamic systems theory approach to cognitive science. Find this resource:

Glymour, C. Goethe to van Gelder: Comments on Dynamical Systems Models of Cognition. PhilSci Archive, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A rather cutting attack on the dynamic systems approach to cognitive science. Find this resource:

Grush, R. Review of Port and van Gelders Mind as Motion. Philosophical Psychology 10.2 (1997): 233242. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A highly critical appraisal of the dynamic systems movement in cognitive sc ience. Grush focuses on dynamicisms antirepresentation as well as its claims to a superior account of the importance of real-time responses. Find this resource:

Port, R., and T. van Gelder. Mind as Motion: Explorations in the Dynamics of Cognition . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An anthology of articles exploring the antirepresentational dynamic systems approach to cognitive science. Find this resource:

van Gelder, T. What Might Cognition Be if Not Computation? Journal of Philosophy 92 (1995): 345381. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A now-classic philosophical defense of the antirepresentational dynamic systems approach. Contains the oftdiscussed example of the watt governor as a noncomputational, nonrepresentational control system. Find this resource:

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SKEPTICISM

Skepticism about the feasibility of artificial intelligence (AI) has as its classic philosophical expositions Dreyfus 1992 and Searle 1980. J. R. Searles famous Chinese room argument is inSearle 1980, and various replies to it are reviewed in Cole 2009. Briefly, the Chinese room argument is that following a program cannot suffice for understanding, because a monolingual English speaker can follow a Chinese -understanding program without thereby understanding Chinese. One source of worry about the adequacy of AI approaches to cognition has to do with what has come to be known as the frame problem. See Shanahan 2009 for a review. For a sympathetic philosophical treatment of AI, see Haugeland 1989. An excellent anthology covering many of the main positions concerning AI is Haugeland 1997. Bourget and Chalmers 2009 is a frequently updated online bibliography on the question, can machines think? Many of the entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles.

Bourget, D., and D. Chalmers. PhilPapers: Can Machines Think?. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A frequently updated online bibliography. Many entries contain abstracts and links to the full text of articles. Find this resource:

Cole, D. The Chinese Room Argument. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent overview of the main responses to J. R. Searles famous Chinese room argument. Find this resource:

Dreyfus, H. L. What Computers Still Cant Do. 3d ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic source of AI skepticism. Find this resource:

Haugeland, J. Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A sympathetic philosophical treatment of AI. Find this resource:

Haugeland, J., ed. Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An excellent anthology covering the main positions concerning AI. Find this resource:

Searle, J. R. Minds, Brains, and Programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1980): 417457. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A classic source of AI skepticism containing Searles famous Chinese room argument, the gist of which is that following a program cannot suffice for understanding, because a monolingual English speaker can follow a Chinese understanding program without thereby unders tanding Chinese. Find this resource:

Shanahan, M. The Frame Problem. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. N. Zalta, 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An accessible review of the frame problem, the problem of providing an AI with the capability of dealing with a changing world without providing the AI with an unfeasibly large set of frame axioms concerning relevant ways the world changes.

Philosophy of Communication
Franois Cooren, Nicolas Bencherki

Introduction
Writing a bibliographical article on the topic of the philosophy of communication is not an easy task. The works that have been written under that umbrella range from critical assessments of media to discussions of public debate. Philosophy of communication combines two ambiguous disciplines, philosophy and communication. Communication is commonly said to be at the crossroads of many disciplines. Marshall McLuhan is taken for granted by many communication scholars, but he was a professor of English literature. What should oneor a theorybe or do to be said to fall within the communication umbrella? Tackling philosophy is not any easier. Many sociologists, anthropologists, semioticians, and linguists, as well as communication theorists, have been philosophers at some point in their career. For example, Ferdinand de Saussures contribution to semiotics is no lesser than C. S. Peirces, and yet the latter is called a philosopher while the first is a linguist. Should we, in this entry on the philosophy of communication include Peirce and leave aside Saussure? With so many ambiguities regarding communication and philosophy separately, how can one decide, then, what philosophy of communication (together) should be? When reading communication studies articles, philosophical references range from Aristotle and Arendt to Kierkegaard or Levinas, along with some more obviously communication or language thinkers such as Habermas or Wittgenstein. There is therefore an important element of decision on our part in assessing the contributions of some authors to the study of communication and in deciding whether it is philosophical in nature. We chose to look at where communication studies literature has drawn the line between what constitutes philosophy or not. Furthermore, there are few journals devoted to philosophy of communication proper, perhaps with the exception of Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication (published by Intellect Books) and the International Communication Associations Communication, Culture & Critique. This scarcity makes it harder to identify a well-established set of interests, theories, and methods. That is why this article is divided mainly according to the types of works discussed, rather than attempting to find coherence where there is in fact little. The Classical and Major Textssection, for its part, is further subdivided according to the general theoretical families of authors. Gratitude is extended to Jolle Basque, Mathieu Chaput, and Alexandre Laurin for their assistance and contributions.

Textbooks and Encyclopedias

Philosophy of communication is fragmented among different streams, some focusing on language, others on communication proper, and yet some others on a relatively new effort to formalize a philosophy of information. Regarding this last trend, Adriaans and van Benthem 2008acknowledges, much like Floridi 2004, that philosophy of information is still a nascent discipline and that, therefore, the essays collected aim not so much at describing an established field as to establish it performatively, especially by distinguishing it from its immediate neighbors, such as philosophy of language. Arneson 2007, for its part, is a good representation of the work being currently done in philosophy of communication as such. The word concise in the title of the encyclopedia Barber and Stainton 2010 is misleading: its 836 pages cover everything one needs to know in the philosophy of linguistics, from A Priori Knowledge (G. Lavers) to Verificationism (M. Beaney), and includes entries as varied as Description and Prescription (G. Nelson), Presupposition (P. A. M. Seuren), and Systematicity (P. Robbins). Giving a broader perspective,Chang and Butchart 2012 answers an important demand in teaching philosophy of communication: the editors put together some of the most important foundational texts of the field in a single book. As the editors remark in their introduction, some people may feel that the volumes title, Philosophy of Communication, projects a coherence in what is in fact a collection of unrelated texts how would, for example, Deleuze feel to be included in a communication anthology? As discussed in the Introduction, choosing what constitutes communication, philosophy, and a fortiori is no easy task. The genius of Chang and Butchart lies in having made the exercise explicit, and the very selection of texts reflects the variety of takes at the issue.Mangion 2011 also offers a compelling review of the major authors of philosophy of communication, and each authors core concepts are explicated within his or her thought (for example, Peirces existential graphs are well situated within his logic and semiotics).

Adriaans, Pieter, and Johan van Benthem. 2008. Philosophy of information. Handbook of the Philosophy of Science 8. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This books individual chapters address a range of issues, from the application to specific fields of study (human interaction, artificial intelligence, cognitive science) to the investigation of concepts and theories revolving around the notion of information (belief, truth, Ockams razor or game theory). As should be expected from a burgeoning discipline still looking for its own voice, chapters are written from the perspectives of a variety of other disciplines, and this may explain the great variety in writing style. Find this resource:

Arneson, Pat, ed. 2007. Perspectives on philosophy of communication. Philosophy/Communication. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a very interesting collection of chapters, contributed by some renowned authors of early-21st-century philosophy of communication such as Michael J. Hyde, Ronald C. Arnett, and G. Thomas Goodnight. Sections are devoted to Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, Jrgen Habermas, Emmanuel Levinas, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, each including a biographical sketch, a contributed essay discussing one aspect of the authors theory, sometimes contrasting it with others, and a bibliography suggesting original texts by the author. Each section thus constitutes an interesting picture of the work and life of an author. Find this resource:

Barber, Alex, and Robert J. Stainton, eds. 2010. Concise encyclopedia of philosophy of language and linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The entries, each consisting of several pages, comprise more than definitions and references to further readings: many present the thought of some relevant authors and, in doing so, present a specific reading of those authors. This allows stimulating discussions, but also means that entries somewhat vary in style and range from very technical writing to funny, engaging conversation. However, the volume is, overall, an excellent starting point for readers looking for a quick reference on any of the many concepts and notions it covers. Find this resource:

Chang, Briankle G., and Garnet C. Butchart, eds. 2012. Philosophy of communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The volumes reunion of such classics as Platos Phaedrus, and Derridas Diffrance, along with texts by Alfred Schutz, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Lacan, and Giorgio Agamben will make it an interesting acquisition for teachers looking for a single source for classic texts. The introduction, written by the editors, constitutes in itself an interesting reflection on philosophy of communication as a field. Find this resource:

Cook, Melissa A., and Annette M. Holba, eds. 2008. Philosophies of communication: Implications for everyday experience. New York: Peter Lang. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this collection of texts, chapter authors provide examples of how philosophy may enrich the communicative study of a variety of issues. These case studies illustrate the contribution of Buber, Gadamer, or Schrag, among others, in understanding a diversity of topics. For example, Fadoua Loudiys discussion of public memory is tackled from the perspective of Ricurs notion of narrative identity. Ricurs theory is presented along with a clear exposition of its relevance to the study of Moroccan stories of suffering and their blurring of the line between victim and agent. Find this resource:

Floridi, Luciano, ed. 2004. The Blackwell guide to the philosophy of computing and information. Blackwell Philosophy Guides. Oxford: Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/9780470757017Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While G. Aldo Antonellis discussion on logic (chapter 20) or Donald Gilliess application of probability to artificial intelligence may be said to pertain more closely to computer science than to communication studies (this division is of course debatable), other chapters are obviously relevant to scholars of our field. It is the case, for example, of Thierry Bardinis review of the many attempts to define hypertext, which he relates to the constru ction of the personal computer user and to conceptions of time and space (chapter 19). Some chapters, such as that of Patrick Grim (chapter 26), build bridges between philosophy, computing, and communication. Grim offers a convincing argument of the possible usefulness of computer modeling for tackling philosophical questions and thus offers a creative methodological contribution to all scholars engaged in philosophical investigation. Find this resource:

Mangion, Claude. 2011. Philosophical approaches to communication. Bristol, UK: Intellect. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The contributions of the likes of Saussure, Peirce, Foucault, Eco, Derrida, or Gadamer (and six others) are each approached from a specific problem and are situated in early-21st-century debates in the field of communication studies. The volume, however, only addresses perspectives inside the language and semiotic family: while the choices are undeniably relevant, some may regret that Mangion does not embrace a broader understanding of communication. Find this resource:
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Journals
Philosophically oriented papers are regularly published in journals such as Communication Theory; Communication, Culture & Critique; or Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, even though they each publish a range of works beyond the scope of philosophy proper. Journals specifically dedicated to the intersection of philosophy and communication are rare, butEmpedocles is worth consideration, although it was founded in the early 2000s and is relatively young. Many philosophy of communication scholars choose to publish in journals outside the field of communication proper. For instance, Paragraph, while describing itself as a critical theory journal and while having a strong focus on literature, explores many issues of interest to communication scholars (reading, writing, meaning, culture, etc.) and refers to several of the authors mentioned in this bibliography. Similarly, diacritics (spelled in lowercase) is a literary criticism journal that raises many of the questions that preoccupy communication scholars.Theory, Culture & Society, while being geared toward social sciences in general, also offers an interesting outlet for some communication-minded papers. Finally, Inquiry, an interdisciplinary journal of philosophy, has published several papers by Jrgen Habermas, which is of relevance to the field.

Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies. 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This may be viewed as the National Communication Associations equivalent to Communication, Culture & Critique, an International Communication Association (ICA) journal. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies has been edited for a time by Briankle Chang and has a clear leaning toward philosophically informed works. Find this resource:

Communication, Culture & Critique. 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

An ICA journal. Although more clearly philosophically oriented, it is also more narrowly focused toward critical studies of (popular) culture. There are, however, several theoretical pieces of interest to a broader readership. Find this resource:

Communication Theory. 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This journal is published by Wiley on behalf of the ICA. As its name indicates, it publishes theoretically sophisticated papers, and it welcomes occasionally philosophically oriented work, even though it is not specifically dedicated to such work. Find this resource:

diacritics. 1971. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Another literary journal, diacritics also covers a range of topics of interest to communication scholars, with perhaps a stronger focus on language and related topics. Find this resource:

Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Empedocles is one of the rare journals to specifically be dedicated to the philosophy of communication yet it publishes a range of works whose philosophical character is not obvious. Find this resource:

Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy. 1958. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation As its name indicates, Inquiry is a philosophical journal that welcomes contributions from all fields. It deserves a place in this bibliography because of the many papers by Jrgen Habermas (and the many more about his work) that have been published throughout the years. Find this resource:

Paragraph. 1983. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While this journal is mostly concerned with the application of critical theory to the study of literature, it is of relevance to communication scholars, both in the issues it raises and in the range of authors mobilized (e.g., Derrida, Ricur, Gadamer). Find this resource:

Theory, Culture & Society. 1982. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This theoretically intensive journal welcomes philosophically minded papers. Although not specific to the field of communication studies, communication and language issues are regularly dealt with by contributors. Find this resource:

Discussions of Classic Philosophers


Works on classical philosophers abound, but few are immediately relevant to communication scholars. There are however some interesting works that may prove useful to some scholars and students in our field. For example, many of Merleau-Pontys insights, as presented in Lanigan 1991, will resonate with speech and discourse-centered perspectives on practice and situated action, especially those for whom language does not imply a necessary divorce with materiality. Communication researchers in the field of medium theory will appreciate the book Marchessault 2005 where, through an approximately chronological review of Marshall McLuhan s life and work, Marchessault develops some of the famous authors contributions to communication, media, and cultural studies. From the outset, though, Marchessault insists that McLuhans contribution is more methodological that theoretical. Of interest to critical scholars and students, the Morris 2001book may constitute an interesting work for those looking to go beyond the superficial understanding many of us have of Habermas, Adorno, and, to a lesser degree, Horkheimer and other critical authors. Morris points out that their concern was to offer an alternative to philosophys conventional subject while at the same time preserving both the subject (as opposed to what Morris believes poststructuralism suggests) and a critique of domination. At a methodological level, the contribution in Phillips 1981 lies in the suggestion that

philosophy of communication is not only a set of axioms about the way communication takes place, but also a method to approach a variety of texts, including works not intended as such to address communication head-on. The book concerns a disputed, albeit important, figure of Christian theology, Karl Barth, who called for a renewed focus on God, contra liberal theologys attention to mankind. In the field of semiotics, Peirces most valiant admirers will appreciate the 496-page discussion in Pietarinen 2006 on some of the polymath philosophers contributions. One of Pietarinens originalities is to describe some of Peirces thought with a vocabulary borrowed from game theory. While the author acknowledges modeling semiosis and logic in this way is anachronistic, the result is clear and helpful. Finally, the contributors in the Ramsey and Miller 2003 book, including Stanley Deetz, Michael J. Hyde, and Dennis K. Mumby, tackle a variety of issues (collective decision making, repression and the public sphere, acknowledgement, feminism and narratives, to name a few) sta rting from Calvin O. Schrags ideas, especially his insistence on praxis and his theorization of the in -between. Lanigan, Richard L. 1991. Speaking and semiology: Maurice Merleau-Pontys phenomenological theory of existential communication. 2d ed. Approaches to Semiotics 22. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI: 10.1515/9783110877113Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The reality of man speaking [is a] principium of knowledge, indeed of existence. This is the starting point of Lanigans investigation of Merleau-Pontys ideas about communication and, in particular, speech. The author explains that a phenomenological analysis of man speaking is thus an inquiry into mans existence in the world and the conditions of the worlds presence for man (p. 16). This centering on homo loquens experience of the world as it is manifested to him/her through language will be of special interest to those involved in interaction analysis. The French philosophers thought, especially the relation between language and body (see chapter 3), is presented with simplicity, yet engagingly and with numerous references to the original texts. Find this resource:

Marchessault, Janine. 2005. Marshall McLuhan: Cosmic media. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author does not hesitate to situate McLuhan in his philosophical tradition including his Catholic background, to which an entire chapter is devotedbut also within his Canadian upbringing (which, Marchessault argues, allowed him to have a detached and external point of view on both European and American imperial cultures) or his studies at Cambridge (Marshall McLuhn should be considered to have been first and foremost an English professor is the first sentence of the first chapter [p. 3]). This is an interesting take at introducing one of the most famous thinkers of media and society, without resorting to the clichs many of us have of McLuhan, and situating his ideas and methodology without a broader biographical context. Find this resource:

Morris, Martin. 2001. Rethinking the communicative turn: Adorno, Habermas, and the problem of communicative freedom. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author engages with Habermass and Adornos critical project, especially with respect to subjectivity and the possibility of the subjects freedom. Habermass and Adornos treatment of critical concepts such as class consciousness, ideology, and their engagement with philosophy of consciousness are discussed. Morriss avowed objective is to show that, when Adornos theory is taken into account, a notion of communicative freedom as a utopian project without a foundational subject can then be reconstructed within the tradition of critical theory (p. 193). While this discussion is highly specialized, its contribution is to highlight the varieties within the critical tradition (especially within the Frankfurt school and its heirs). Find this resource:

Phillips, Donald E. 1981. Karl Barths philosophy of communication. Philosophische Texte und Studien 2. Hildesheim, Germany, New York: G. Olms. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reminds us of the connection between theology and communication (which is known to scholars of medieval canonical texts and which is being rediscovered by a handful of our contemporaries) and renovates it by showing it in action in the work of a modern-time Christian thinker. While Phillips acknowledges from the outset that Barth did not articulate a philosophy of communication under that rubric, he offers to conduct an inductive investigation of his writings in search for traces of a philosophy of communic ation. The exercise is not mere hairsplitting, for as he uncovers Barths implicit view of communication, the author also succeeds in revealing his assumptions about ontology, epistemology, language, experience, world views, the purpose of human expression, and the generation of social and communal relationships (p. xi). Find this resource:

Pietarinen, Ahti-Veikko. 2006. Signs of logic: Peircean themes on the philosophy of language, games, and communication. Synthese Library 329. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the strengths of Pietarinens work is not to limit Peirce to what he is mostly known for, his pragmatic semiotics. Instead, the books thirteen chapters (if you exclude the introduction and the final word) highlight the coherence of Peirces work throughout his logic (including his work on existential graph and in spite of his regular redefinitions of categories). The author also makes Peirce converse with Kant, Wittgenstein, and Grice. The book remains, overall, arid and is to be reserved to the most expert readers. Find this resource:

Ramsey, Eric R., and David J. Miller. 2003. Experiences between philosophy and communication: Engaging the philosophical contributions of Calvin O. Schrag. SUNY Series in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The intro is aptly-named In-between Philosophy and Communication Studies, which indeed stresses Calvin O. Schrags contribution at resituating communication (or rhetoric) with respect to philosophy, and raises the question of the very possibility of a philosophy of communication. The volume also includes a bibliography presenting selected works by Schrag. Find this resource:

Original Works
Philosophy of communication counts few truly original works. Exceptions include Chang 1996, which is a fascinating contribution to the philosophy of communication. One of Changs strengths is his profound yet accessible engagement with the authors he mobilizes, meaning that the reader learn s more about Changs ideas, but also about those of Kant, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, de Man, and Derrida. On his part, Luciano Floridi has long been a proponent of an autonomous field of philosophy concerned with the concept of information (not to be mistaken with communication), and Floridi 2011 may be interpreted as the authors attempt to systematize his suggestion. While some of his contentions may be debatable, Floridis undeniable contribution to philosophy lies in the very insistence that information may constitute an autonomous field of study. The book Grant 2010 is a series of essays on universal pragmatics, i.e., on the necessary communicational conditions for understanding. The work can be saluted as an interesting attempt to address Habermass problem without necessarily resorting to its authors own terms. Finally, the work in Olivier 2009 borrows from philosophy, but also from psychoanalysis to provide heuristic tools for discussions on a variety of topics that highlight some key issues in communication studies. In reading Oliviers analyses, one is taken on a journey through the authors erudite knowledge of many classic works and, most importantly, through a mash-up of topics that broadens ones understanding of what constitutes communication proper.

Chang, Briankle G. 1996. Deconstructing communication: Representation, subject, and economies of exchange. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book starts by questioning the possibility of communication, while stressing that it is inevitable. This tension leads Chang to follow Derridas deconstructionist method, which, the author explains, is based on an interplay between mimesis and castration. Chang suggests that philosophy of communication requires thinking seriously about the ontological groundings of communication theory and going beyond strategic and referential conceptions of language, whose only concern is distinguishing between truth and falsehood. Drawing on phenomenology, including Husserls and Heideggers, Chang relates the ontological problem with that of the Being, which leads to a second section on The Economy of Difference, presenting a (Derridean) picture of an essentially scattered being. Find this resource:

Floridi, Luciano. 2011. The philosophy of information. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232383.001.0001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While undeniably logical and methodic, Floridis writing is arid for those who are not in direct conversation with him, especially given that he introduces a large number of new concepts and establishes few lineages with extant theories of information that readers may be more familiar with. Shannon, von Neumann, and Wiener, for example, are only mentioned in passing and in a lump. Find this resource:

Grant, Colin B., ed. 2010. Beyond universal pragmatics: Studies in the philosophy of communication . Interdisciplinary Communication Studies 4. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

While many essays concern Habermas head-on, the originality of this volume is to include other perspectives as well, including an essay by Mark Olsen on Foucaults materialism (where the relationship between the di scursive and the nondiscursive is addressed) and a section on systemic perspectives. Find this resource:

Olivier, Bert. 2009. Philosophy and communication: Collected essays. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Bert Oliviers volume is a collection of short essays (most of them already published in journals in South Africa and other parts of the world) that share a conception of communication not limited to rational or strategic exchange. His understanding of communication, however, is not restricted to the common topoi of the field. The first essay, for example, concerns the ethical dimension of architecture as it plays a part in the symbolic aspect of the attack on the World Trade Center. Next to such original analyses, some essays more directly address the works of other authors: Derrida on the (im)possibility of communication or Julia Kristeva on communication and revolt. Find this resource:
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Classical and Major Texts


For their part, John L. Austins collected writings and conferences (gathered at the initiative of J. O. Urmson and G. J. Warnock), the most famous collection being 1962s How to Do Things with Words (cited under Pragmatics and Performativity), are regularly cited as the birth of speech acts and in the broader pragmatic tradition. Roland Barthess S/Z (see Structuralism and Its Critiques) provides the most specific detail of his theory, through the analysis of Balzacs Sarrasine, and was one of the first departures from conventional structuralism, which, Barthes contends, is unable to account for each storys specificity. While not a communication or linguistics work per se, Steps to an Ecology of Mind (cited under Cybernetics), a collection of essays written (and for the most part published) throughout Gregory Batesons career , provides many concrete examples of the British anthropologist and philosophers view, the most famous probably being his essay on alcoholism and his series of texts on schizophrenia. In Simulacra and Simulation (see Structuralism and Its Critiques), Baudrillard writes that the iconoclasts saw the true value of images while their opponents were content to venerate a filigree God (p. 5) and is probably one of the best examples of postmodernism as it is frequently portrayed. Communication scholars should not overlook Excitable Speech (cited under Pragmatics and Performativity), where Butler addresses the issues of free speech and censorship, especially in the case of racial and homophobic slurs in popular music. In Desert Islands and Other Texts, 1953 1974 (see Structuralism and Its Critiques) Deleuze reiterates his stance against language and affirms that a text is nothing but a cog in a larger extra-textual practice (p. 260). John Deweys Theory of Valuation (see Pragmatics and Performativity) may not be as known as his work on the notion of the public, but it is gaining a renewed interest across disciplines. As a privileged approach to the study of the way people constitute value, communication finds its way into several disciplines, including for instance the sociology of economics. In The Theory of Communicative Action (see Pragmatics and Performativity), Habermas sketches out the conditions under which communication may serve the purpose of social integration and cohesion by allowing cultural reproduction and collective action.

RHETORIC AND ARGUMENTATION

Communication studies being a diverse and fragmented field, there is little agreement over what major figures have contributed to the field. Aristotles work, especially in The Rhetoric, certainly is considered as having set the standard of our understanding of rhetoric as a discipline. Kenneth Burkes A Grammar of Motives represents one stream of the revival of rhetoric in the 20th century. His approach constitutes a truly communicational framework for the study of textsin the larger sense. Another perspective is represented by Perelman and Olbrechts-Tytecas The New Rhetoric, which introduces audiences as part of the rhetorical mechanics. Toulmins The Uses of Argument follows a similar line, although in a different way: he shows that arguments, while they share commonalities, operate within specific communities and settings.

Aristotle. 2004. Rhetoric. Translated by W. Rhys Roberts. Mineola, NY: Dover. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The legacy of Aristotle in the field of communication studies has found its main vehicle in his work on rhetoric and logic, to which few alternatives have been offered to this day. Aristotles rhetoric is today mostly expressed through the writings of Neo-Aristotelians, including Michael Leff or, in France, Olivier Reboul. In addition to discussions of rhetoric proper, however, Aristotle also presents his views on worthiness (in commenting on the epideictic genre),

pleasure, emotions, metaphors, and other notions whose interest extends beyond the study of speech and argumentation, and Rhetoric should not be divorced from a wider understanding of the Ancient Greek philosophers thought. Find this resource:

Burke, Kenneth. 1969. A Grammar of Motives. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book, initially published in 1945, is the first part of what was supposed to constitute a triptych, followed by A Rhetoric of Motives and then by A Symbolic of Motives (which in fact remained unpublished). Burke introduces one of his most famous notions, that of the pentad of action. The author explains that texts offer a privileged entry point to the analysis of action and allow the study of what people do when they describe action and their reasons, for texts embody strategies for dealing with specific rhetorical situations. Action, therefore, can be analyzed using five dimensions that jointly constitute the description of action: the act (what happened), the scene (the material context of action), the agent (who acted), the agency (the means of action), and the purpose (the goals of action). The grammar consists in the analysis of the internal relationships between the elements of the pentad. Find this resource:

Perelman, Cham, and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca. 1969. The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Polish-born Belgian philosopher Cham Perelman, following Freges intuition, set out, along with collabor ator Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, to uncover the mechanics of nonformal arguments. However, contrary to analytic tradition on which they built, they based their research on the assumption that the audience to be convinced is playing a part in the argument. Therefore, they move their focus away from rhetoric proper, i.e., the study of the internal structure of argument, to the discovery of the audience implicit within argumentation. This means that it is not possible, anymore, to presume a universal audience, which could be convinced by equally universal arguments. Some have interpreted this state of fact with a hint of regret, as a loss of reality. However, it is also possible to understand this as a great shift in the understanding of language: moving away from a perspective where the strength of the argument lies in its external truth, the new rhetoric stresses the ability of argumentation to discursively bring about a reality that constitutes its truth and triggers the actions it entails. Find this resource:

Toulmin, Stephen. 2003. The Uses of Argument. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511840005Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Strongly influenced by Wittgenstein, Toulmin has dedicated his career to stressing th e applicability of the formers language-games in argumentation. For Toulmin, arguments, while sharing some commonalities across fields, are strongly anchored in specific disciplinary, cultural, or practical settings, where the ways we play the game ar e different. What remains common, according to the British philosopher, is the necessity of a basic triadic structure: (1) the claim is based on (2) an evidence, and the movement between both is made possible by (3) a warrant, which is the general rule that connects both. What constitutes a claiman evidence and a rulehowever, is variable, and it is this variety that causes difficulties in discussing across argumentative fields. The Uses of Argument was first published in 1958. Find this resource:

STRUCTURALISM AND ITS CRITIQUES

Rhetoric is not the only discipline that witnessed a rebirth in the 20th century. While in Switzerland, Ferdinand de Saussure was laying the foundations of semiology (see the Course in General Linguistics) and of structural analysis. In the United States, C. S. Peirce was independently developing semiotics (see The Essential Peirce, cited under Pragmatics and Performativity) and starting the philosophical tradition known as pragmatism (which we will see next). Structuralism and pragmatism regularly enriched each other, for example in the work of Barthes (who insisted on the role of the reader in the process of signification, see S/Z), Deleuze (who is exemplar of the attempt to move beyond structuralism, while acknowledging the effect of speech, see Desert Island and Other Texts), Derrida (for whom text acquires autonomy and may act beyond its author, see Limited Inc), or Foucault (and his exposition of the effect of discourse, including on the constitution of speaking subjects, The Order of Things). A similar emphasis on action and on the process of signification may be found in Ecos work (Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language). However, other (post)structuralist authors, including Baudrillard (Simulacra and Simulation), have been considered regretting the possibility of finding a true meaning, in an era where effects and appearances are all that count.

Barthes, Roland. 1974. S/Z: An essay. Translated by Richard Miller. New York: Hill and Wang. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1970. Barthes never actually leaves the ground of structuralism (which is why S/Z may be truly poststructuralist) and provides five codes that structure texts while allowing genuine difference and plurality. Barthess concern for variability is echoed in the very work he chooses to study: Sarrasine is a story within a story, the story of a ball during which a character tells the story of an old man, who, during his youth, was the very impersonation of variability, a castrato who performed as a woman. Find this resource:

Baudrillard, Jean. 1994. Simulacra and Simulation. Translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. The Body, in Theory. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation It is hard to tell whether Baudrillard was a philosopher, a sociologist, or a communication theorist. For sure, he was a poststructuralist and in constant dialog with the group of 1970s French philosophers who shared, more or less wholeheartedly, the label, including Deleuze, Lyotard, or Foucault. Throughout his career, Baudrillard has been concerned with the disappearance of the referent and the replacement of reality by the signs that claim to merely represent it. In other words, Baudrillards position is sometimes in terpreted as a form of regret of the loss of the referent, in sharp contrast with, for example, Austins or Derridas affirmation of the autonomy of language. Yet, the French thinker is also acutely aware of the self-referentiality of the simulacrum, i.e., that it becomes its own reality, and thereby he is also urgently conscious of the pragmatic effect of signs in their ability to constitute reality. Find this resource:

Deleuze, Gilles. 2004. Desert Islands and Other Texts, 19531974. Semiotext(e) Foreign Agents. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e). Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Gilles Deleuze was a virulent opponent to the linguistic turn, which he saw as negligent of philosophical tradition and unconcerned with bodies as such. Attention should be drawn to this lesser-known collection of essays, where most of his concepts and notions are addressed in one way or another. Regarding language, Desert Islands includes among several essays concerned with language, one entitled Nomadic Thought where Deleuze discusses with Nietzsche an alternative view of interpretation, where what matters is not so much finding the meaning than observing the forces at play and the assemblages that hook up sentences with meanings. Find this resource:

Derrida, Jacques. 1988. Limited Inc. Evanston, IL: Northwestern Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Recommending a single work throughout Derridas prolific career is no easy task. Limited Incconsists of the essays Signature, Event, Context, where Derrida exposes his views on Austins speech act theory, and Limited Inc a b c . . .an answer to John Searles criticism of Derridas understanding of Austin. Limited Inc thus presents, through essays that jointly constitute a discussion, Derridas general theory of writing, as divorced from any author and not constrained by a specific context (but rather reiterating it while always breaking from it through citationality, a concept that later became central to Judith Butlers thought). Find this resource:

Eco, Umberto. 1984. Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language. Advances in Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Eco is mainly known for his large public works, especially his novels. Even people who know his academic work often limit themselves to his most accessible work. However, Ecos interest goes much deeper than that. His erudite knowledge of antique and medieval texts (for which some have criticized him) allows him, among others in Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language, to suggest a truly novel understanding of the sign. He stresses that the dual notion of sign (signifier versus signified) made popular by Saussure may be reworked into an understanding of the sign that drifts away from the once-for-all association between a signifier and a signified. Rather, similarly to what Peirce or the Stoics contend, the sign is a process through which a relationship between two entities may be established. The work of semiotics, therefore, is not to list preestablished pairs, but rather to uncover the practices through which relationships are performed and stabilized. Find this resource:

Foucault, Michel. 1970. The Order of Things: An archaeology of the human sciences. Word of Man. London: Tavistock. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Not unlike Deleuze, including Foucault in a philosophy of communication bibliography may appear to some as a heresy. However, his extensive use in communication studies, most importantly in works influenced by cultural studies, justifies his inclusion in such a compilation. Furthermore, Foucault, while having gained notoriety as a thinker of the body, develops in The Order of Thingsthe argument that what may be saidand indeed what may be known, and who may say/know itis bounded by discourse and, more specifically, Discourse (that is a heterogeneous and distributed dispersion of discourses) on the production and circulation of valid knowledge. The reconstitution of the discourses that bound (and bind) our understanding of knowledge production and circulation allows the denaturalization of taken-for-granted facts. In this sense, Foucault provides a truly performative theory of communication. Find this resource:

Saussure, Ferdinand de. 1986. Course in General Linguistics. Edited by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye. LaSalle, IL: Open Court. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Considered by many as the starting point of structuralism, Saussures Course in General Linguistics is, in fact, a posthumous compilation of lectures given by the Swiss linguist from 1906 to 1911. His most popular notions are the distinction between parole (speech as performance) and langue (language as an abstract system), and that between signifier (the sound or the written mark) and signified (the concept being referred to). Saussures truly original contribution, though, was to conceive meaning as a set of differences between words within the closed system of thelangue (for example, within French or English). This intuition paved the way for a conception of semiotics and social sciences more generally based on the study of the structure of a system, where meaning or function is not determined by each elements essential characteristics but rather by its position relative to others. Find this resource:
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PRAGMATICS AND PERFORMATIVITY

According to William James, the notion of pragmatism is attributable to Peirce ( The Essential Peirce) and to his work on semiotics, where he offered an understanding of meaning based on the effect of signs. Important representatives of the American pragmatic tradition include John Dewey (whose Theory of Valuation can be read as one of the first proposals of an interactional and communication view of ethics) and, most famously, William James (The Writings of William James). The pragmatic tradition was picked up by other scholars of relevance to communication studies, including George Herbert Mead (Mind, Self, and Society), who discussed the interactive constitution of the self, and Jrgen Habermass (The Theory of Communicative Action) view of communication as allowing collective action. However, pragmatism, for many communication scholars today, refers to Austins ( How to Do Things with Words) description of speech acts, i.e., of the ability of speech to act on the world. Searle continued the work of Austin in many respects and raised many issues of speech act theory in his work Intentionality. One of queer studies most renowned proponents, Judith Butler, uses pragmatism (and in particular Austins pers pective) to show how issues of gender, sexual orientation, hate speech, and, more generally, marginality may be studied from the perspective of the effect of speech (Excitable Speech).

Austin, John L. 1975. How to Do Things with Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198245537.001.0001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1962. A bibliography on communication theory is incomplete without a mention of speech acts theorys founding father. It is in this book that one can find Austins most famous ideas, including the distinction among the locutionary (the deed of talking), illocutionary (what is done in talking), and perlocutionary (the consequences of what is done in talking) levels of speech acts, the notion of conditions of felicity (what are necessary conditions for a given speech act to be successful), and his discussion of the context of speech acts. All rely on the intuition that language does much more than make claims about the state of the world, this descriptive view of language having been to that point the main concern of philosophy of language. Many philosophers have discussed and borrowed from Austin, including Gilles Deleuze, Judith Butler, Jacques Derrida, and, most famously, John Searle, who has importantly extended his predecessors work. Find this resource:

Butler, Judith. 1997. Excitable Speech: A politics of the performative. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Butlers position is sophisticated and stresses that while some words may wound, they also constitute subjectivities from which marginal people may find a position to speak. Given that questions of censorship are regularly resurface, Butlers analysis is worth it to be read again to remind us that there is no easy answer.

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Dewey, John. 1939. Theory of Valuation. Foundations of the Unity of Science 2.4. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While this may not be John Deweys most famous bookhis work on the notion of the public is also of relevance for communication scholarsthis is where he exposes his theory of valuation, as opposed to value. In other words, Dewey exposes here his pragmatic perspective of values, where they cannot be discovered once for all or ranked philosophically. Rather, valuation, i.e., the formulation and attribution of values, is a practical concern, where people engage, among others, through communication. Dewey also criticizes the existence of eternal ends, which would be divorced from the concrete means of their achievement. Find this resource:

Habermas, Jrgen. 1984. The Theory of Communicative Action. 2 vols. Boston: Beacon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Mostly known for his notion of the public sphere, Habermas contribution to philosophy and communication in fact hinges on another of the German philosophers central propositions: that ofcommunicative action. It has profound relevance to communication scholars and s tudents. Confident in mankinds rationality, Habermas proceeds to describe communication, rather than economical dimensions, as the most capital aspect in the possibility of emancipation, in the sense that it allows coordinated action. Find this resource:

James, William. 1977. The Writings of William James: A comprehensive edition. Edited by John J. McDermott. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation William Jamess relevance for communication studies is well established. McDermotts compilation of Jamess texts includes some classics such as What Pragmatism Means, where the author explains that pragmatism is an attitude hinging on the notion that philosophy and scientific inquiry must turn toward action: questions depend on what is to be done with their possible answers. Of special relevance to communication theorists is the essay The Meaning of Truth, where the pragmatist method is applied to truth by asking what concrete difference will [an ideas] being true make in any ones actual life? What experiences [may] be different from those which would obtain if the belief were false? (p. 430). Find this resource:

Mead, George Herbert. 1934. Mind, Self, and Society: From the standpoint of a social behaviourist. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A popular stream of research in the field of communication studies as well as in sociologyis that of interaction analysis. The approach may find in George Herbert Mead a precursor, especially through his work on the interactional constitution of the self. For Mead, the self is not a given, but rather elaborated in forms of dyadic roleplay, where the other responds to ones actions. Of special interest is Meads idea of a generalized other, where social systems, organizations, family, and other organized groups in providing one with a given rolealso participate in the constitution of the self. The self is split into both a me and an I. The first notion corresponds to the self as it is apprehended and reflected upon as an object by the individual. The second, the I, is the acting self, which does not necessarily reflect on its own actions. When those actions become the object of concern or are discussed, they move into the realm of the me. Find this resource:

Peirce, Charles S. 19921998. The Essential Peirce: Selected philosophical writings. 2 vols. Edited by the Peirce Edition Project. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Peirces work extends semiotics proper and includes works on mathematics, logics, and natural philosophy. Contrary to Saussure, Peirce does not view language as working in a closed system and includes the object as part of a triad, including the sign and the interpretant, which together form the semiotic process. The interpretant is not an individual doing the interpretive work in his or her mind, but is rather constituted by the semiotic process itself. Peirces view is therefore inherently pragmatic: it is the effect of the semiotic process, the interpretant, that provides meaning and qualifies the relationship between the sign and the object. (William James, in 1898, credited Peirce with the invention of the very notion of pragmatism.) While many students of Peirce limit their understanding of Peircian semiotics to his list of categories, the impact of the American philosopher extends well beyond the creation of a taxonomy, to a conception of language that includes the world in which it is used and on which it has an impact. Find this resource:

Searle, John. 1983. Intentionality: An essay in the philosophy of mind. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139173452Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Most students will probably need to read Searles earlier work extending John Austins theory of speech acts and presenting his famous categorization of illocutionary speech acts into assertives, directives, commissives, expressives, and declaratives. However, Searles argument and his involvement in academic debates (including with Derrida) hinge on the notion of intentionality. For Searle, intentionality is a necessary component of meaning and of the agency of speech acts, and any given interpretation is an interpretation of the authors intentionality. Find this resource:

HERMENEUTICS

Hermeneutics is arguably, along with rhetoric, one of the most ancient precursors of communication studies. The science that began as the study of the Bible, however, is still of great relevance, including to other segments of our discipline. For instance, Diltheys (The Formation of the Historical World in the Human Sciences) work will probably prove of great relevance to organizational communication scholars, as the German philosopher proposes a way of reconciling the parts and the larger whole of society. Gadamer (Truth and Method), for his part, developed a perspective on meaning that insists on application, i.e., on what relevance the text may have today. French philosopher Paul Ricur (From Text to Action), for his part, viewed interpretation as the constitution of world and of a life where the meaning of the text makes sense.

Dilthey, Wilhelm. 2002. The Formation of the Historical World in the Human Sciences. Translated by Rudolf A. Makkreel and Frithjof Rodi. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey is perhaps mostly known in the early-21st-century for his distinction between the sciences of the spirit (Geisteswissenschaften) and natural sciences (Naturwissenschaften), a distinction that has been criticized as the establishment and naturalization of a divide between, on the one side, the human and the social, and, on the other, the natural. However, Diltheys work constitutes an invaluable contribution to the study of communication, and perhaps most especially to the relationship between communication and collectives of all sorts ranging from organizations to networks and nations. Indeed, Diltheys notion of Wirkungszusammenhangwhich may roughly, but imperfectly, be translated as interactive ensemble is of great interest in the study of collectives, as he insisted on the necessity of understanding the whole from the interaction of the parts. Find this resource:

Gadamer, Hans-Georg. 1989. Truth and Method. 2d ed. Translated by Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall. New York: Continuum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A student of Heidegger, Gadamer inherited his masters concern for hermeneutics and, more broadly, understanding (Verstehen). He is not so much concerned with the elaboration of a proper way of understanding or of reading, but rather about what actually happens when we are engaged in the process of understanding, i.e., when we try to decipher what the world, things, and people have got to say. It is one of Gadamers contributions to have extended hermeneutics to the study of works of art, but his main contribution probably is his displacement of the locus of understanding from the work or the text itselfas if there could be a real meaning awaiting to be uncoveredto the actual act of understanding, that is the reception of the work. The idea of reception, however, does not imply that the reader or the spectator may do what he or she pleases. Meaning lies in application, in the ever-renewed relevance of the work as it is presented and, thus, made present. For Gadamer, meaning lies not only in the syntactic and semantic structure texts, and not only in the intentions of the author, it is also the present-day relevance of the text as it is mediated by history, which brings about the present that constitutes the meaning of the text. Find this resource:

Ricur, Paul. 1991. From Text to Action: Essays in hermeneutics, II. Evanston, IL: Northwestern Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The French philosopher was inspired, among others, by phenomenology and the structuralist tradition when he elaborated his unique theory of hermeneutics, relying on a dynamic of detachment and appropriation. Ricur presents a view of hermeneutics that distinguishes from structuralism in that he considers meaning to emerge in the act of interpretation, which comprises three iterative steps: figuration, configuration, and refiguration. Ricurs original contribution is that, departing from more conventional hermeneutics, he understands the action of the text as

the opening up of a world, that is to say a new reality where one can act and be. The narrative therefore has ontological and pragmatic consequences, including on the reader. Find this resource:
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ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY

Analytical philosophy has a long and contentious history with continental philosophy. Gilles Deleuze, in particular, was a prominent critic of analytical philosophy. In particular, he believed this branch of philosophy to be overconcerned with languagewhich, to him, was but a cog in a larger system (see Desert Islands and Other Texts, 19531974, cited under Structuralism and Its Critiques). In a sense, Deleuze was right: analytic philosophy did make a tremendous contribution to the study of language. For example, Frege (On the Scientific Justification of a ConceptScript) devoted most of his career to the study of sense and denotation, in particular to predicate calculus. For Paul Grice (in Studies in the Ways of Words), meaning stems from intention. In other words, what someone means is what he or she intends to say. Finally, Wittgenstein (On Certainty), perhaps one of the most prominent figures of analytical philosophy (and Deleuzes bte noire), has had a tremendous impact on communication and language studies by suggesting that meaning has its roots in the way words are used in specific settingsa position that influenced Toulmins understanding of arguments (see Toulmin 2003, cited under Rhetoric and Argumentation), but also JeanFranois Lyotards definition of postmodernism, for example.

Bartlett, James M. 1964. Frege: On the Scientific Justification of a Concept-Script. Mind 73.290: 155160. DOI: 10.1093/mind/LXXIII.290.155Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Written by Gottlob Frege and translated by James M. Bartlett. The German philosopher Frege was first and foremost a mathematician and a logician. His contribution to the two disciplines, however, consists in the development of a language to express logical relations and allow predicate calculation. The importance of communication and language for Frege stems from his belief that language is necessary to access absent objects, to provide endurance of concepts or ideas beyond individual memory, and to allow generalizability. In other words, the study of language is a necessary gateway to the study of thought, for the latter rests on the former. This position earned Frege the paternity of analytic philosophy. The work of Frege has been immensely influential, including on Bertrand Russell and on the early Wittgenstein. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Grice, Paul. 1989. Studies in the Ways of Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The work of Paul Grice is known mostly for two related aspects: its focus on intentionality as the source of meaning and its introduction of the notion of implicature. The latter is the idea that in addition to the strict meaning of words, utterances convey additional meanings that are implied or that may be deducted from the sentence Finally a good wine! does suggest that some other(s) are not so good, although this supposition is not logically necessary for the truth of the sentence. Meaning, for Grice, lies in the hearers recognition of the speakers intention and in the subsequent belief caused by that recognition. In other words, what the utterer means is the effect he intends by accomplishing the meaningful action: in the most basic case, what is intended is that the hearer believes what the utterer says. We may recognize here a collapse between meaning as synonymous to signification and meaning as intending. While some have lauded Grices focus on effect, other have lamented that this effect should be intentional, thus limiting meaning to whatever the speaker recognizably meant to do. Find this resource:

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1991. On Certainty. Edited by Gertrude E. M. Anscombe and Georg H. von Wright. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Wittgensteins career is usually divided into an early and a later period. Wittgensteins notion of language games where the meaning and effect of words depend on the specific game in which they are involvedand his contribution to linguistic pragmatism are probably the most common reasons the Austrian philosopher is cited. However, this collection of notes written right before Wittgensteins death in 1951, and published in 1969, while lesser known, offers an interesting insight into the authors epistemology and allows shedding a bright er light on his other works. Find this resource:
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CULTURAL STUDIES, MEDIA, AND POWER

Cultural studies, while now constituting a tradition of their own, take their roots in the study of the use of media, in particular in The Uses of Literacy, Hoggarts study of the consumption of newspapers by working -class people. Raymond Williams (Culture and Society), for his part, was one of the first scholars to suggest that culture should be studied in the daily, banal practices of members. Brian Massumi (Parables for the Virtual), for his part, suggests reintegrating movement and the body in the study of culture (especially in a cultural studies perspective). We also include in this section the work of Marshall McLuhan (Understanding Media): while not immediately related to cultural studies, the Canadian literary scholar, who probably founded medium theory, certainly did more for the understanding of media and their use than many others. Finally, the work of Stuart Hall (with Lawrence Grossberg, On Postmodernism and Articulation), while perhaps not a philosopher per se, his contribution to communication studies certainly situates him among the most prominent figures of the discipline. Furthermore, Halls writings on cultural studies make him one of the authors through which people discover this underestimated stream of our discipline.

Grossberg, Lawrence. 1986. On Postmodernism and Articulation: An interview with Stuart Hall.Journal of Communication Inquiry 10.2: 4560. DOI: 10.1177/019685998601000204Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article introduces another important name in cultural studies: Lawrence Grossberg. And more importantly, because in this interview, Hall exposes his philosophical roots, including his commitment to a form of modernism, where meaning, contrary to what he thinks is the case with postmodernism, is not lost. Hall develops his own brew of representation theory, putting the subject back under the spotlight by borrowing from Foucault. However, Halls understanding of representation, but also of the study of culture more broadly, cannot be divorced from his theory of articulation, which is the crux of the article we are presenting. For Hall, an important aspect on which research has to focus is the locus where different elements, which may be of diverse natures, meet and constitute temporary configurations, including subjects. While he acknowledges that some specific configurations may be tied to historically situated contexts, the configurations themselves are always open to be reassembled and are not the necessary products of these contexts. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Hoggart, Richard. 1959. The Uses of Literacy: Aspects of working-class life with special reference to publications and entertainments. London: Chatto and Windus. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation It is undoubtedly a sociological posture Hoggart took when he observed the British working classs relationship with the magazines geared at it. In fact, the authors anchoring in sociology is exa ctly what constitutes his greater contribution to philosophy: his dedicated empirical work allowed Hoggart to move past conventional works on the working class, which were, in his logic, little more than sympathetic but condescending judgments formulated from the point of view of upper classes. To Hoggart, the working class was not merely a victim of false consciousness, but had its own culture, whose lack of legitimacy in no way equated a lack of reality and complexity. For Hall, The Uses of Literacy offers an empirical insight into the working of ideologies, and we believe such a contribution affords Hoggart the right to be styled a philosopher. Find this resource:

Massumi, Brian. 2002. Parables for the Virtual: Movement, affect, sensation. Post-contemporary Interventions. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Trained as a literary scholar and later a professor of communication studies, Massumi wrote extensively about micropolitics (following in that sense Guattaris program). He is especially concerned with the bod y, and Parables for the Virtual is his critique of the evacuation of movement and sensation from cultural studies understanding of the body. The body, usually understood as the result of his position in a given society or setting, is often viewed as static, and albeit the possibility of moving from one position to another may be granted, the movement itself is never looked at as an event in itself. Massumi succeeds in stressing the importance of movement and sensation, through a minute study of (self-) perception and image, down to the study of ligaments and skin, but without ever losing the connection with more general (but never larger) issues of power, which are central to cultural studies. Find this resource:

McLuhan, Marshall. 1994. Understanding Media: The extensions of man. New York: McGraw-Hill. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1964. McLuhan presents each medium, including writing, as an extension of specific human senses. Media, however, do not merely prolong or improve the senses, but also reconfigure the relationship human

beings entertain with their environment, their body, and thought. McLuhan also explains the effects of media evolution of Western rationality: causality becomes simultaneity; information becomes obsolete as soon as it is moved, etc. Find this resource:

Williams, Raymond. 1983. Culture and Society, 17801950. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Along with Richard Hoggart, Raymond Williams is commonly cited as a founder of cultural studies, and rightly so. His 1958 Culture and Society gained wide popularity and was viewedand still is viewedas one of the most important redefinitions of the notion of culture. Williams, whether in his reflection on culture or in his association with the New Left movement, criticized the conventional Marxist focus on labor struggles, to extend critique to broader issues of culture as experienced in ordinary peoples daily lives. In this sense, Williamss work was not only a Marxist reading of culture, but also a cultural critique of Marxism. Find this resource:

CYBERNETICS

Often equated with communication studies proper, cybernetics probably represents one of the main attempts to make our discipline scientific. Shannon and Weavers The Mathematical Theory of Communication, albeit much more sophisticated, laid the foundation of what we know as the basic model of communication, with a sender, a receiver, a message, a canal, and some noise to interfere with the messages transmission. Wiener ( Cybernetics), almost at the same time, introduced the notion of cybernetics proper, as the study of the feedback loop that changes the senders behavior with respect to the recipients reaction to the initial message. Cybernetics further led to various developments. Of particular interest to communication, Watzlawick, et al.sPragmatics of Human Communication constitutes one of the first attempts to apply cybernetics and a form of systems theory to the study of human interactions and psychology. Polymath Gregory Bateson in Steps to an Ecology of Mind, on his part, shows the applicability of cybernetics to a variety of fields, including to psychology and human interactions, but also toward an understanding of the notion of difference.

Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Ballantine. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Batesons work lies at the intersection of biology, anthropology, philosophy, and psychology. He never explicitly wrote something like a theory of communication (and even less so a theory of language). However, his thought relies on the concept of interaction and as such, we believe, deserves its right place in a philosophy of communication bibliography. As heir of (and contributor to) cybernetics, Batesons understanding of communication is th at of transactions or exchanges between entities within a system, which may correct or intensify given behaviors. Find this resource:

Shannon, Claude, and Warren Weaver. 1998. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book introduces the notion of bits, now omnipresent in computer science lingo as well as in common speech. However, the contribution of Claude Shannons 1948 article and its extension into this book, published a year later with Warren Weaver, is remarkable well beyond this anecdotic fact. The essay sets the first basis for a statistical and systematic study of language (introducing the n-gram, for example), of its encoding, transmission, and decoding, taking into account channel capacity and related issues. Cl aude Shannons mathematical work, coupled with Warren Weavers concern with automated processing of language and translation, yielded a foundational work whose importance may be sometimes overlooked exactly because the ideas it propounds now are woven into the fabric of common knowledge and normal science. Find this resource:

Watzlawick, Paul, Janet B. Bavelas, and Don D. Jackson. 2011. Pragmatics of Human Communication: A study of interactional patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes . New York: W. W. Norton. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1967. On the footsteps of his predecessor at Palo Altos Mental Research Institute, Gregory Bateson, Paul Watzlawick and his collaborators continued working on a systemic approach to communication. They present the axioms that became common premises for interaction, the most famous being probably that one cannot not communicate, meaning that all behavior constitutes communication. A crux of the Palo Alto schools argument lies in the idea that communication is both content and relation, and that therefore the researchers (or the clinicians)

attention should be focused as much on the interaction pattern established between individuals as on the exchanged words. The work builds heavily on some of the ideas exposed in Batesons insights. Find this resource:

Wiener, Norbert. 2007. Cybernetics: Or, control and communication in the animal and in the machine . Whitefish, MT: Kessinger. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation From the Greek word kybernetes (steerer or pilot), Wiener developed cybernetics, the science of control in a systemic perspective, where feedback plays a part in modifying the original instruction depending on its outcome. Developed initially in response to an engineering problem how could machines be built that adjusted themselves to their environments reactionthe approach quickly expanded to other disciplines, especially through the Macy conferences held in New York between 1946 and 1953, where Wiener exchanged ideas with, among others, Gregory Bateson, Paul Lazarsfeld, Margaret Mead, and Kurt Lewin. This book was first published in 1948. Find this resource:

Philosophy of Communication
Franois Cooren, Nicolas Bencherki

Introduction
Writing a bibliographical article on the topic of the philosophy of communication is not an easy task. The works that have been written under that umbrella range from critical assessments of media to discussions of public debate. Philosophy of communication combines two ambiguous disciplines, philosophy and communication. Communication is commonly said to be at the crossroads of many disciplines. Marshall McLuhan is taken for granted by many communication scholars, but he was a professor of English literature. What should one or a theorybe or do to be said to fall within the communication umbrella? Tackling philosophy is not any easier. Many sociologists, anthropologists, semioticians, and linguists, as well as communication theorists, have been philosophers at some point in their career. For example, Ferdinand de Saussures contribution to semiotics is no lesser than C. S. Peirces, and yet the latter is called a philosopher while the first is a linguist. Should we, i n this entry on the philosophy of communication include Peirce and leave aside Saussure? With so many ambiguities regarding communication and philosophy separately, how can one decide, then, what philosophy of communication (together) should be? When reading communication studies articles, philosophical references range from Aristotle and Arendt to Kierkegaard or Levinas, along with some more obviously communication or language thinkers such as Habermas or Wittgenstein. There is therefore an important element of decision on our part in assessing the contributions of some authors to the study of communication and in deciding whether it is philosophical in nature. We chose to look at where communication studies literature has drawn the line between what constitutes philosophy or not. Furthermore, there are few journals devoted to philosophy of communication proper, perhaps with the exception of Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication (published by Intellect Books) and the International Communication Associations Communication, Culture & Critique. This scarcity makes it harder to identify a well-established set of interests, theories, and methods. That is why this article is divided mainly according to the types of works discussed, rather than attempting to find coherence where there is in fact little. The Classical and Major Textssection, for its part, is further subdivided according to the general theoretical families of authors. Gratitude is extended to Jolle Basque, Mathieu Chaput, and Alexandre Laurin for their assistance and contributions.

Textbooks and Encyclopedias


Philosophy of communication is fragmented among different streams, some focusing on language, others on communication proper, and yet some others on a relatively new effort to formalize a philosophy of information. Regarding this last trend, Adriaans and van Benthem 2008acknowledges, much like Floridi 2004, that philosophy of information is still a nascent discipline and that, therefore, the essays collected aim not so much at describing an established field as to establish it performatively, especially by distinguishing it from its immediate neighbors, such as philosophy of language. Arneson 2007, for its part, is a good representation of the work being currently done in philosophy of communication as such. The word concise in the title of the encyclopedia Barber and Stainton 2010 is misleading: its 836 pages cover everything one needs to know in the philosophy of linguistics, from A Priori Knowledge (G. Lavers) to Verificationism (M. Beaney), and includes entries as varied as Description and Prescription (G. Nelson), Presupposition (P. A. M. Seuren), and Systematicity (P. Robbins). Giving a broader perspective,Chang and Butchart 2012 answers an important demand in teaching philosophy of communication: the

editors put together some of the most important foundational texts of the field in a single book. As the editors remark in their introduction, some people may feel that the volumes title, Philosophy of Communication, projects a coherence in what is in fact a collection of unrelated texts how would, for example, Deleuze feel to be included in a communication anthology? As discussed in the Introduction, choosing what constitutes communication, philosophy, and a fortiori is no easy task. The genius of Chang and Butchart lies in having made the exercise explicit, and the very selection of texts reflects the variety of takes at the issue.Mangion 2011 also offers a compelling review of the major authors of philosophy of communication, and each authors core concepts are explicated within his or her thought (for example, Peirces existential graphs are well situated within his logic and semiotics).

Adriaans, Pieter, and Johan van Benthem. 2008. Philosophy of information. Handbook of the Philosophy of Science 8. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This books individual chapters address a range of issues, from the application to specific fields of study (human interaction, artificial intelligence, cognitive science) to the investigation of concepts and theories revolving around the notion of information (belief, truth, Ockams razor or game theory). As should be expected from a burgeoning discipline still looking for its own voice, chapters are written from the perspectives of a variety of other disciplines, and this may explain the great variety in writing style. Find this resource:

Arneson, Pat, ed. 2007. Perspectives on philosophy of communication. Philosophy/Communication. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is a very interesting collection of chapters, contributed by some renowned authors of early-21st-century philosophy of communication such as Michael J. Hyde, Ronald C. Arnett, and G. Thomas Goodnight. Sections are devoted to Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, Jrgen Habermas, Emmanuel Levinas, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, each including a biographical sketch, a contributed essay discussing one aspect of the authors theory, sometimes contrasting it with others, and a bibliography suggesting original texts by the author. Each section thus constitutes an interesting picture of the work and life of an author. Find this resource:

Barber, Alex, and Robert J. Stainton, eds. 2010. Concise encyclopedia of philosophy of language and linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The entries, each consisting of several pages, comprise more than definitions and references to further readings: many present the thought of some relevant authors and, in doing so, present a specific reading of those authors. This allows stimulating discussions, but also means that entries somewhat vary in style and range from very technical writing to funny, engaging conversation. However, the volume is, overall, an excellent starting point for readers looking for a quick reference on any of the many concepts and notions it covers. Find this resource:

Chang, Briankle G., and Garnet C. Butchart, eds. 2012. Philosophy of communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The volumes reunion of such classics as Platos Phaedrus, and Derridas Diffrance, along with texts by Alfred Schutz, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Lacan, and Giorgio Agamben will make it an interesting acquisition for teachers looking for a single source for classic texts. The introduction, written by the editors, constitutes in itself an interesting reflection on philosophy of communication as a field. Find this resource:

Cook, Melissa A., and Annette M. Holba, eds. 2008. Philosophies of communication: Implications for everyday experience. New York: Peter Lang. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In this collection of texts, chapter authors provide examples of how philosophy may enrich the communicative study of a variety of issues. These case studies illustrate the contribution of Buber, Gadamer, or Schrag, among others, in understanding a diversity of topics. For example, Fadoua Loudiys discussi on of public memory is tackled from the perspective of Ricurs notion of narrative identity. Ricurs theory is presented along with a clear exposition of its relevance to the study of Moroccan stories of suffering and their blurring of the line between victim and agent. Find this resource:

Floridi, Luciano, ed. 2004. The Blackwell guide to the philosophy of computing and information. Blackwell Philosophy Guides. Oxford: Blackwell.

DOI: 10.1002/9780470757017Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While G. Aldo Antonellis discussion on logic (chapter 20) or Donald Gilliess application of probability to artificial intelligence may be said to pertain more closely to computer science than to communication studies (this division is of course debatable), other chapters are obviously relevant to scholars of our field. It is the case, for example, of Thierry Bardinis review of the many attempts to define hypertext, which he relates to the construction of the personal computer user and to conceptions of time and space (chapter 19). Some chapters, such as that of Patrick Grim (chapter 26), build bridges between philosophy, computing, and communication. Grim offers a convincing argument of the possible usefulness of computer modeling for tackling philosophical questions and thus offers a creative methodological contribution to all scholars engaged in philosophical investigation. Find this resource:

Mangion, Claude. 2011. Philosophical approaches to communication. Bristol, UK: Intellect. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The contributions of the likes of Saussure, Peirce, Foucault, Eco, Derrida, or Gadamer (and six others) are each approached from a specific problem and are situated in early-21st-century debates in the field of communication studies. The volume, however, only addresses perspectives inside the language and semiotic family: while the choices are undeniably relevant, some may regret that Mangion does not embrace a broader understanding of communication. Find this resource:
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Journals
Philosophically oriented papers are regularly published in journals such as Communication Theory; Communication, Culture & Critique; or Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, even though they each publish a range of works beyond the scope of philosophy proper. Journals specifically dedicated to the intersection of philosophy and communication are rare, butEmpedocles is worth consideration, although it was founded in the early 2000s and is relatively young. Many philosophy of communication scholars choose to publish in journals outside the field of communication proper. For instance, Paragraph, while describing itself as a critical theory journal and while having a strong focus on literature, explores many issues of interest to communication scholars (reading, writing, meaning, culture, etc.) and refers to several of the authors mentioned in this bibliography. Similarly, diacritics (spelled in lowercase) is a literary criticism journal that raises many of the questions that preoccupy communication scholars.Theory, Culture & Society, while being geared toward social sciences in general, also offers an interesting outlet for some communication-minded papers. Finally, Inquiry, an interdisciplinary journal of philosophy, has published several papers by Jrgen Habermas, which is of relevance to the field.

Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies. 2004. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This may be viewed as the National Communication Associations equivalent to Communication, Culture & Critique, an International Communication Association (ICA) journal. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies has been edited for a time by Briankle Chang and has a clear leaning toward philosophically informed works. Find this resource:

Communication, Culture & Critique. 2008. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An ICA journal. Although more clearly philosophically oriented, it is also more narrowly focused toward critical studies of (popular) culture. There are, however, several theoretical pieces of interest to a broader readership. Find this resource:

Communication Theory. 1991. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This journal is published by Wiley on behalf of the ICA. As its name indicates, it publishes theoretically sophisticated papers, and it welcomes occasionally philosophically oriented work, even though it is not specifically dedicated to such work. Find this resource:

diacritics. 1971. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Another literary journal, diacritics also covers a range of topics of interest to communication scholars, with perhaps a stronger focus on language and related topics. Find this resource:

Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication. 2009. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Empedocles is one of the rare journals to specifically be dedicated to the philosophy of communication yet it publishes a range of works whose philosophical character is not obvious. Find this resource:

Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy. 1958. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation As its name indicates, Inquiry is a philosophical journal that welcomes contributions from all fields. It deserves a place in this bibliography because of the many papers by Jrgen Habermas (and the many more about his work) that have been published throughout the years. Find this resource:

Paragraph. 1983. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While this journal is mostly concerned with the application of critical theory to the study of literature, it is of relevance to communication scholars, both in the issues it raises and in the range of authors mobilized (e.g., Derrida, Ricur, Gadamer). Find this resource:

Theory, Culture & Society. 1982. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This theoretically intensive journal welcomes philosophically minded papers. Although not specific to the field of communication studies, communication and language issues are regularly dealt with by contributors. Find this resource:

Discussions of Classic Philosophers


Works on classical philosophers abound, but few are immediately relevant to communication scholars. There are however some interesting works that may prove useful to some scholars and students in our field. For example, many of Merleau-Pontys insights, as presented in Lanigan 1991, will resonate with speech and discourse-centered perspectives on practice and situated action, especially those for whom language does not imply a necessary divorce with materiality. Communication researchers in the field of medium theory will appreciate the book Marchessault 2005 where, through an approximately chronological review of Marshall McLuhan s life and work, Marchessault develops some of the famous authors contributions to communication, media, and cultural studies. From the outset, though, Marchessault insists that McLuhans contribution is more methodological that theoretical. Of interest to critical scholars and students, the Morris 2001book may constitute an interesting work for those looking to go beyond the superficial understanding many of us have of Habermas, Adorno, and, to a lesser degree, Horkheimer and other critical authors. Morris points out that their concern was to offer an alternative to philosophys conventional subject while at the same time preserving both the subject (as opposed to what Morris believes poststructuralism suggests) and a critique of domination. At a methodological level, the contribution in Phillips 1981 lies in the suggestion that philosophy of communication is not only a set of axioms about the way communication takes place, but also a method to approach a variety of texts, including works not intended as such to address communication head-on. The book concerns a disputed, albeit important, figure of Christian theology, Karl Barth, who called for a renewed focus on God, contra liberal theologys attention to mankind. In the field of semiotics, Peirces most valiant admirers will appreciate the 496-page discussion in Pietarinen 2006 on some of the polymath philosophers contributions. One of Pietarinens originalities is to describe some of Peirces thought with a vocabulary borrowed from game theory. While the author acknowledges modeling semiosis and logic in this way is anachronistic, the result is clear and helpful. Finally, the contributors in the Ramsey and Miller 2003 book, including Stanley Deetz, Michael J. Hyde, and Dennis K. Mumby, tackle a variety of issues (collective decision making, repression and the public sphere, acknowledgement, feminism and narratives, to name a few) sta rting from Calvin O. Schrags ideas, especially his insistence on praxis and his theorization of the in -between. Lanigan, Richard L. 1991. Speaking and semiology: Maurice Merleau-Pontys phenomenological theory of existential communication. 2d ed. Approaches to Semiotics 22. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

DOI: 10.1515/9783110877113Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The reality of man speaking [is a] principium of knowledge, indeed of existence. This is the starting point of Lanigans investigation of Merleau-Pontys ideas about communication and, in particular, speech. The author explains that a phenomenological analysis of man speaking is thus an inquiry into mans existence in the world and the conditions of the worlds presence for man (p. 16). This centering on homo loquens experience of the world as it is manifested to him/her through language will be of special interest to those involved in interaction analysis. The French philosophers thought, especially the relation between language and body (see chapter 3), is presented with simplicity, yet engagingly and with numerous references to the original texts. Find this resource:

Marchessault, Janine. 2005. Marshall McLuhan: Cosmic media. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author does not hesitate to situate McLuhan in his philosophical tradition including his Catholic background, to which an entire chapter is devotedbut also within his Canadian upbringing (which, Marchessault argues, allowed him to have a detached and external point of view on both European and American imperial cultures) or his studies at Cambridge (Marshall McLuhn should be considered to have been first and foremost an English professor is the first sentence of the first chapter [p. 3]). This is an interesting take at introducing one of the most famous thinkers of media and society, without resorting to the clichs many of us have of McLuhan, and situating his ideas and methodology without a broader biographical context. Find this resource:

Morris, Martin. 2001. Rethinking the communicative turn: Adorno, Habermas, and the problem of communicative freedom. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The author engages with Habermass and Adornos critical project, especially with respect to subjectivity and the possibility of the subjects freedom. Habermass and Adornos treatment of critical concepts such as class consciousness, ideology, and their engagement with philosophy of consciousness are discussed. Morriss avowed objective is to show that, when Adornos theory is taken into account, a notion of communicative freedom as a utopian project without a foundational subject can then be reconstructed within the tradition of critical theory (p. 193). While this discussion is highly specialized, its contribution is to highlight the varieties within the critical tradition (especially within the Frankfurt school and its heirs). Find this resource:

Phillips, Donald E. 1981. Karl Barths philosophy of communication. Philosophische Texte und Studien 2. Hildesheim, Germany, New York: G. Olms. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reminds us of the connection between theology and communication (which is known to scholars of medieval canonical texts and which is being rediscovered by a handful of our contemporaries) and renovates it by showing it in action in the work of a modern-time Christian thinker. While Phillips acknowledges from the outset that Barth did not articulate a philosophy of communication under that rubric, he offers to conduct an inductive investigation of his writings in search for traces of a philosophy of commun ication. The exercise is not mere hairsplitting, for as he uncovers Barths implicit view of communication, the author also succeeds in revealing his assumptions about ontology, epistemology, language, experience, world views, the purpose of human expression, and the generation of social and communal relationships (p. xi). Find this resource:

Pietarinen, Ahti-Veikko. 2006. Signs of logic: Peircean themes on the philosophy of language, games, and communication. Synthese Library 329. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of the strengths of Pietarinens work is not to limit Peirce to what he is mostly known for, his pragmatic semiotics. Instead, the books thirteen chapters (if you exclude the introduction and the final word) highlight the coherence of Peirces work throughout his logic (including his work on existential graph and in spite of his regular redefinitions of categories). The author also makes Peirce converse with Kant, Wittgenstein, and Grice. The book remains, overall, arid and is to be reserved to the most expert readers. Find this resource:

Ramsey, Eric R., and David J. Miller. 2003. Experiences between philosophy and communication: Engaging the philosophical contributions of Calvin O. Schrag. SUNY Series in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

The intro is aptly-named In-between Philosophy and Communication Studies, which indeed stresses Calvin O. Schrags contribution at resituating communication (or rhetoric) with respect to philosophy, and raises the questio n of the very possibility of a philosophy of communication. The volume also includes a bibliography presenting selected works by Schrag. Find this resource:

Original Works
Philosophy of communication counts few truly original works. Exceptions include Chang 1996, which is a fascinating contribution to the philosophy of communication. One of Changs strengths is his profound yet accessible engagement with the authors he mobilizes, meaning that the reader learn s more about Changs ideas, but also about those of Kant, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, de Man, and Derrida. On his part, Luciano Floridi has long been a proponent of an autonomous field of philosophy concerned with the concept of information (not to be mistaken with communication), and Floridi 2011 may be interpreted as the authors attempt to systematize his suggestion. While some of his contentions may be debatable, Floridis undeniable contribution to philosophy lies in the very insistence that information may constitute an autonomous field of study. The book Grant 2010 is a series of essays on universal pragmatics, i.e., on the necessary communicational conditions for understanding. The work can be saluted as an interesting attempt to address Habermass problem without necessarily resorting to its authors own terms. Finally, the work in Olivier 2009 borrows from philosophy, but also from psychoanalysis to provide heuristic tools for discussions on a variety of topics that highlight some key issues in communication studies. In reading Oliviers analyses, one is taken on a journey through the authors erudite knowledge of many classic works and, most importantly, through a mash-up of topics that broadens ones understanding of what constitutes communication proper.

Chang, Briankle G. 1996. Deconstructing communication: Representation, subject, and economies of exchange. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book starts by questioning the possibility of communication, while stressing that it is inevitable. This tension leads Chang to follow Derridas deconstructionist method, which, the author explains, is based on an interplay between mimesis and castration. Chang suggests that philosophy of communication requires thinking seriously about the ontological groundings of communication theory and going beyond strategic and referential conceptions of language, whose only concern is distinguishing between truth and falsehood. Drawing on phenomenology, including Husserls and Heideggers, Chang relates the ontological problem with that of the Being, which leads to a second section on The Economy of Difference, presenting a (Derridean) picture of an essentially scattered bei ng. Find this resource:

Floridi, Luciano. 2011. The philosophy of information. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232383.001.0001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While undeniably logical and methodic, Floridis writing is arid for those who are not in direct conversation with him, especially given that he introduces a large number of new concepts and establishes few lineages with extant theories of information that readers may be more familiar with. Shannon, von Neumann, and Wiener, for example, are only mentioned in passing and in a lump. Find this resource:

Grant, Colin B., ed. 2010. Beyond universal pragmatics: Studies in the philosophy of communication . Interdisciplinary Communication Studies 4. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While many essays concern Habermas head-on, the originality of this volume is to include other perspectives as well, including an essay by Mark Olsen on Foucaults materialism (where the relationship between the di scursive and the nondiscursive is addressed) and a section on systemic perspectives. Find this resource:

Olivier, Bert. 2009. Philosophy and communication: Collected essays. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Bert Oliviers volume is a collection of short essays (most of them already published in journals in South Africa and other parts of the world) that share a conception of communication not limited to rational or strategic exchange. His understanding of communication, however, is not restricted to the common topoi of the field. The first essay, for example, concerns the ethical dimension of architecture as it plays a part in the symbolic aspect of the attack on the

World Trade Center. Next to such original analyses, some essays more directly address the works of other authors: Derrida on the (im)possibility of communication or Julia Kristeva on communication and revolt. Find this resource:
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Classical and Major Texts


For their part, John L. Austins collected writings and conferences (gathered at the initiative of J. O. Urmson and G. J. Warnock), the most famous collection being 1962s How to Do Things with Words (cited under Pragmatics and Performativity), are regularly cited as the birth of speech acts and in the broader pragmatic tradition. Roland Barthess S/Z (see Structuralism and Its Critiques) provides the most specific detail of his theory, through the analysis of Balzacs Sarrasine, and was one of the first departures from conventional structuralism, which, Barthes contends, is unable to account for each storys specificity. While not a communication or linguistics work per se, Steps to an Ecology of Mind (cited under Cybernetics), a collection of essays written (and for the most part published) throughout Gregory Batesons career , provides many concrete examples of the British anthropologist and philosophers view, the most famous probably being his essay on alcoholism and his series of texts on schizophrenia. In Simulacra and Simulation (see Structuralism and Its Critiques), Baudrillard writes that the iconoclasts saw the true value of images while their opponents were content to venerate a filigree God (p. 5) and is probably one of the best examples of postmodernism as it is frequently portrayed. Communication scholars should not overlook Excitable Speech (cited under Pragmatics and Performativity), where Butler addresses the issues of free speech and censorship, especially in the case of racial and homophobic slurs in popular music. In Desert Islands and Other Texts, 1953 1974 (see Structuralism and Its Critiques) Deleuze reiterates his stance against language and affirms that a text is nothing but a cog in a larger extra-textual practice (p. 260). John Deweys Theory of Valuation (see Pragmatics and Performativity) may not be as known as his work on the notion of the public, but it is gaining a renewed interest across disciplines. As a privileged approach to the study of the way people constitute value, communication finds its way into several disciplines, including for instance the sociology of economics. In The Theory of Communicative Action (see Pragmatics and Performativity), Habermas sketches out the conditions under which communication may serve the purpose of social integration and cohesion by allowing cultural reproduction and collective action.

RHETORIC AND ARGUMENTATION

Communication studies being a diverse and fragmented field, there is little agreement over what major figures have contributed to the field. Aristotles work, especially in The Rhetoric, certainly is considered as having set the standard of our understanding of rhetoric as a discipline. Kenneth Burkes A Grammar of Motives represents one stream of the revival of rhetoric in the 20th century. His approach constitutes a truly communicational framework for the study of textsin the larger sense. Another perspective is represented by Perelman and Olbrechts-Tytecas The New Rhetoric, which introduces audiences as part of the rhetorical mechanics. Toulmins The Uses of Argument follows a similar line, although in a different way: he shows that arguments, while they share commonalities, operate within specific communities and settings.

Aristotle. 2004. Rhetoric. Translated by W. Rhys Roberts. Mineola, NY: Dover. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The legacy of Aristotle in the field of communication studies has found its main vehicle in his work on rhetoric and logic, to which few alternatives have been offered to this day. Aristotles rhetoric is today mostly expressed through the writings of Neo-Aristotelians, including Michael Leff or, in France, Olivier Reboul. In addition to discussions of rhetoric proper, however, Aristotle also presents his views on worthiness (in commenting on the epideictic genre), pleasure, emotions, metaphors, and other notions whose interest extends beyond the study of speech and argumentation, and Rhetoric should not be divorced from a wider understanding of the Ancient Greek philosophers thought. Find this resource:

Burke, Kenneth. 1969. A Grammar of Motives. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book, initially published in 1945, is the first part of what was supposed to constitute a triptych, followed by A Rhetoric of Motives and then by A Symbolic of Motives (which in fact remained unpublished). Burke introduces one of his most famous notions, that of the pentad of action. The author explains that texts offer a privileged entry point to the analysis of action and allow the study of what people do when they describe action and their reasons, for texts

embody strategies for dealing with specific rhetorical situations. Action, therefore, can be analyzed using five dimensions that jointly constitute the description of action: the act (what happened), the scene (the material context of action), the agent (who acted), the agency (the means of action), and the purpose (the goals of action). The grammar consists in the analysis of the internal relationships between the elements of the pentad. Find this resource:

Perelman, Cham, and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca. 1969. The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Polish-born Belgian philosopher Cham Perelman, following Freges intuition, set out, along with collabor ator Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, to uncover the mechanics of nonformal arguments. However, contrary to analytic tradition on which they built, they based their research on the assumption that the audience to be convinced is playing a part in the argument. Therefore, they move their focus away from rhetoric proper, i.e., the study of the internal structure of argument, to the discovery of the audience implicit within argumentation. This means that it is not possible, anymore, to presume a universal audience, which could be convinced by equally universal arguments. Some have interpreted this state of fact with a hint of regret, as a loss of reality. However, it is also possible to understand this as a great shift in the understanding of language: moving away from a perspective where the strength of the argument lies in its external truth, the new rhetoric stresses the ability of argumentation to discursively bring about a reality that constitutes its truth and triggers the actions it entails. Find this resource:

Toulmin, Stephen. 2003. The Uses of Argument. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511840005Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Strongly influenced by Wittgenstein, Toulmin has dedicated his career to stressing th e applicability of the formers language-games in argumentation. For Toulmin, arguments, while sharing some commonalities across fields, are strongly anchored in specific disciplinary, cultural, or practical settings, where the ways we play the game ar e different. What remains common, according to the British philosopher, is the necessity of a basic triadic structure: (1) the claim is based on (2) an evidence, and the movement between both is made possible by (3) a warrant, which is the general rule that connects both. What constitutes a claiman evidence and a rulehowever, is variable, and it is this variety that causes difficulties in discussing across argumentative fields. The Uses of Argument was first published in 1958. Find this resource:

STRUCTURALISM AND ITS CRITIQUES

Rhetoric is not the only discipline that witnessed a rebirth in the 20th century. While in Switzerland, Ferdinand de Saussure was laying the foundations of semiology (see the Course in General Linguistics) and of structural analysis. In the United States, C. S. Peirce was independently developing semiotics (see The Essential Peirce, cited under Pragmatics and Performativity) and starting the philosophical tradition known as pragmatism (which we will see next). Structuralism and pragmatism regularly enriched each other, for example in the work of Barthes (who insisted on the role of the reader in the process of signification, see S/Z), Deleuze (who is exemplar of the attempt to move beyond structuralism, while acknowledging the effect of speech, see Desert Island and Other Texts), Derrida (for whom text acquires autonomy and may act beyond its author, see Limited Inc), or Foucault (and his exposition of the effect of discourse, including on the constitution of speaking subjects, The Order of Things). A similar emphasis on action and on the process of signification may be found in Ecos work (Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language). However, other (post)structuralist authors, including Baudrillard (Simulacra and Simulation), have been considered regretting the possibility of finding a true meaning, in an era where effects and appearances are all that count.

Barthes, Roland. 1974. S/Z: An essay. Translated by Richard Miller. New York: Hill and Wang. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1970. Barthes never actually leaves the ground of structuralism (which is why S/Z may be truly poststructuralist) and provides five codes that structure texts while allowing genuine difference and plurality. Barthess concern for variability is echoed in the very work he chooses to study: Sarrasine is a story within a story, the story of a ball during which a character tells the story of an old man, who, during his youth, was the very impersonation of variability, a castrato who performed as a woman. Find this resource:

Baudrillard, Jean. 1994. Simulacra and Simulation. Translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. The Body, in Theory. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation It is hard to tell whether Baudrillard was a philosopher, a sociologist, or a communication theorist. For sure, he was a poststructuralist and in constant dialog with the group of 1970s French philosophers who shared, more or less wholeheartedly, the label, including Deleuze, Lyotard, or Foucault. Throughout his career, Baudrillard has been concerned with the disappearance of the referent and the replacement of reality by the signs that claim to merely represent it. In other words, Baudrillards position is sometimes in terpreted as a form of regret of the loss of the referent, in sharp contrast with, for example, Austins or Derridas affirmation of the autonomy of language. Yet, the French thinker is also acutely aware of the self-referentiality of the simulacrum, i.e., that it becomes its own reality, and thereby he is also urgently conscious of the pragmatic effect of signs in their ability to constitute reality. Find this resource:

Deleuze, Gilles. 2004. Desert Islands and Other Texts, 19531974. Semiotext(e) Foreign Agents. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e). Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Gilles Deleuze was a virulent opponent to the linguistic turn, which he saw as negligent of philosophical tradition and unconcerned with bodies as such. Attention should be drawn to this lesser-known collection of essays, where most of his concepts and notions are addressed in one way or another. Regarding language, Desert Islands includes among several essays concerned with language, one entitled Nomadic Thought where Deleuze discusses with Nietzsche an alternative view of interpretation, where what matters is not so much finding the meaning than observing the forces at play and the assemblages that hook up sentences with meanings. Find this resource:

Derrida, Jacques. 1988. Limited Inc. Evanston, IL: Northwestern Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Recommending a single work throughout Derridas prolific career is no easy task. Limited Incconsists of the essays Signature, Event, Context, where Derrida exposes his views on Austins speech act theory, and Limited Inc a b c . . .an answer to John Searles criticism of Derridas understanding of Austin. Limited Inc thus presents, through essays that jointly constitute a discussion, Derridas general theory of writing, as divorced from any author and not constrained by a specific context (but rather reiterating it while always breaking from it through citationality, a concept that later became central to Judith Butlers thought). Find this resource:

Eco, Umberto. 1984. Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language. Advances in Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Eco is mainly known for his large public works, especially his novels. Even people who know his academic work often limit themselves to his most accessible work. However, Ecos interest goes much deeper than that. His erudite knowledge of antique and medieval texts (for which some have criticized him) allows him, among others in Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language, to suggest a truly novel understanding of the sign. He stresses that the dual notion of sign (signifier versus signified) made popular by Saussure may be reworked into an understanding of the sign that drifts away from the once-for-all association between a signifier and a signified. Rather, similarly to what Peirce or the Stoics contend, the sign is a process through which a relationship between two entities may be established. The work of semiotics, therefore, is not to list preestablished pairs, but rather to uncover the practices through which relationships are performed and stabilized. Find this resource:

Foucault, Michel. 1970. The Order of Things: An archaeology of the human sciences. Word of Man. London: Tavistock. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Not unlike Deleuze, including Foucault in a philosophy of communication bibliography may appear to some as a heresy. However, his extensive use in communication studies, most importantly in works influenced by cultural studies, justifies his inclusion in such a compilation. Furthermore, Foucault, while having gained notoriety as a thinker of the body, develops in The Order of Thingsthe argument that what may be saidand indeed what may be known, and who may say/know itis bounded by discourse and, more specifically, Discourse (that is a heterogeneous and distributed dispersion of discourses) on the production and circulation of valid knowledge. The reconstitution of the discourses that bound (and bind) our understanding of knowledge production and circulation allows the denaturalization of taken-for-granted facts. In this sense, Foucault provides a truly performative theory of communication. Find this resource:

Saussure, Ferdinand de. 1986. Course in General Linguistics. Edited by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye. LaSalle, IL: Open Court. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Considered by many as the starting point of structuralism, Saussures Course in General Linguistics is, in fact, a posthumous compilation of lectures given by the Swiss linguist from 1906 to 1911. His most popular notions are the distinction between parole (speech as performance) and langue (language as an abstract system), and that between signifier (the sound or the written mark) and signified (the concept being referred to). Saussures truly original contribution, though, was to conceive meaning as a set of differences between words within the closed system of thelangue (for example, within French or English). This intuition paved the way for a conception of semiotics and social sciences more generally based on the study of the structure of a system, where meaning or function is not determined by each elements essential characteristics but rather by its position relative to others. Find this resource:
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PRAGMATICS AND PERFORMATIVITY

According to William James, the notion of pragmatism is attributable to Peirce ( The Essential Peirce) and to his work on semiotics, where he offered an understanding of meaning based on the effect of signs. Important representatives of the American pragmatic tradition include John Dewey (whose Theory of Valuation can be read as one of the first proposals of an interactional and communication view of ethics) and, most famously, William James (The Writings of William James). The pragmatic tradition was picked up by other scholars of relevance to communication studies, including George Herbert Mead (Mind, Self, and Society), who discussed the interactive constitution of the self, and Jrgen Habermass (The Theory of Communicative Action) view of communication as allowing collective action. However, pragmatism, for many communication scholars today, refers to Austins ( How to Do Things with Words) description of speech acts, i.e., of the ability of speech to act on the world. Searle continued the work of Austin in many respects and raised many issues of speech act theory in his work Intentionality. One of queer studies most renowned proponents, Judith Butler, uses pragmatism (and in particular Austins pers pective) to show how issues of gender, sexual orientation, hate speech, and, more generally, marginality may be studied from the perspective of the effect of speech (Excitable Speech).

Austin, John L. 1975. How to Do Things with Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198245537.001.0001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1962. A bibliography on communication theory is incomplete without a mention of speech acts theorys founding father. It is in this book that one can find Austins most famous ideas, including the distinction among the locutionary (the deed of talking), illocutionary (what is done in talking), and perlocutionary (the consequences of what is done in talking) levels of speech acts, the notion of conditions of felicity (what are necessary conditions for a given speech act to be successful), and his discussion of the context of speech acts. All rely on the intuition that language does much more than make claims about the state of the world, this descriptive view of language having been to that point the main concern of philosophy of language. Many philosophers have discussed and borrowed from Austin, including Gilles Deleuze, Judith Butler, Jacques Derrida, and, most famously, John Searle, who has importantly extended his predecessors work. Find this resource:

Butler, Judith. 1997. Excitable Speech: A politics of the performative. New York: Routledge. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Butlers position is sophisticated and stresses that while some words may wound, they also constitute subjectivities from which marginal people may find a position to speak. Given that questions of censorship are regularly resurface, Butlers analysis is worth it to be read again to remind us that there is no easy answer. Find this resource:

Dewey, John. 1939. Theory of Valuation. Foundations of the Unity of Science 2.4. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While this may not be John Deweys most famous bookhis work on the notion of the public is also of relevance for communication scholarsthis is where he exposes his theory of valuation, as opposed to value. In other words, Dewey exposes here his pragmatic perspective of values, where they cannot be discovered once for all or ranked philosophically. Rather, valuation, i.e., the formulation and attribution of values, is a practical concern, where people

engage, among others, through communication. Dewey also criticizes the existence of eternal ends, which would be divorced from the concrete means of their achievement. Find this resource:

Habermas, Jrgen. 1984. The Theory of Communicative Action. 2 vols. Boston: Beacon. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Mostly known for his notion of the public sphere, Habermas contribution to philosophy and communication in fact hinges on another of the German philosophers central propositions: that ofcommunicative action. It has profound relevance to communication scholars and s tudents. Confident in mankinds rationality, Habermas proceeds to describe communication, rather than economical dimensions, as the most capital aspect in the possibility of emancipation, in the sense that it allows coordinated action. Find this resource:

James, William. 1977. The Writings of William James: A comprehensive edition. Edited by John J. McDermott. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation William Jamess relevance for communication studies is well established. McDermotts compilation of Jamess texts includes some classics such as What Pragmatism Means, where the author explains that pragmatism is an attitude hinging on the notion that philosophy and scientific inquiry must turn toward action: questions depend on what is to be done with their possible answers. Of special relevance to communication theorists is the essay The Meaning of Truth, where the pragmatist method is applied to truth by asking what concrete difference will [an ideas] being true make in any ones actual life? What experiences [may] be different from those which would obtain if the belief were false? (p. 430). Find this resource:

Mead, George Herbert. 1934. Mind, Self, and Society: From the standpoint of a social behaviourist. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A popular stream of research in the field of communication studies as well as in sociologyis that of interaction analysis. The approach may find in George Herbert Mead a precursor, especially through his work on the interactional constitution of the self. For Mead, the self is not a given, but rather elaborated in forms of dyadic roleplay, where the other responds to ones actions. Of special interest is Meads idea of a generalized other, where social systems, organizations, family, and other organized groups in providing one with a given rolealso participate in the constitution of the self. The self is split into both a me and an I. The first notion corresponds to the self as it is apprehended and reflected upon as an object by the individual. The second, the I, is the acting self, which does not necessarily reflect on its own actions. When those actions become the object of concern or are discussed, they move into the realm of the me. Find this resource:

Peirce, Charles S. 19921998. The Essential Peirce: Selected philosophical writings. 2 vols. Edited by the Peirce Edition Project. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Peirces work extends semiotics proper and includes works on mathematics, logics, and natural philosophy. Contrary to Saussure, Peirce does not view language as working in a closed system and includes the object as part of a triad, including the sign and the interpretant, which together form the semiotic process. The interpretant is not an individual doing the interpretive work in his or her mind, but is rather constituted by the semiotic process itself. Peirces view is therefore inherently pragmatic: it is the effect of the semiotic process, the interpretant, that provides meaning and qualifies the relationship between the sign and the object. (William James, in 1898, credited Peirce with the invention of the very notion of pragmatism.) While many students of Peirce limit their understanding of Peircian semiotics to his list of categories, the impact of the American philosopher extends well beyond the creation of a taxonomy, to a conception of language that includes the world in which it is used and on which it has an impact. Find this resource:

Searle, John. 1983. Intentionality: An essay in the philosophy of mind. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139173452Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Most students will probably need to read Searles earlier work extending John Austins theory of speech acts and presenting his famous categorization of illocutionary speech acts into assertives, directives, commissives, expressives, and declaratives. However, Searles argument and his involvement in academic debates (including with Derrida) hinge on the notion of intentionality. For Searle, intentionality is a necessary component of meaning and of the agency of speech acts, and any given interpretation is an interpretation of the authors intentionality.

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HERMENEUTICS

Hermeneutics is arguably, along with rhetoric, one of the most ancient precursors of communication studies. The science that began as the study of the Bible, however, is still of great relevance, including to other segments of our discipline. For instance, Diltheys (The Formation of the Historical World in the Human Sciences) work will probably prove of great relevance to organizational communication scholars, as the German philosopher proposes a way of reconciling the parts and the larger whole of society. Gadamer (Truth and Method), for his part, developed a perspective on meaning that insists on application, i.e., on what relevance the text may have today. French philosopher Paul Ricur (From Text to Action), for his part, viewed interpretation as the constitution of world and of a life where the meaning of the text makes sense.

Dilthey, Wilhelm. 2002. The Formation of the Historical World in the Human Sciences. Translated by Rudolf A. Makkreel and Frithjof Rodi. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey is perhaps mostly known in the early-21st-century for his distinction between the sciences of the spirit (Geisteswissenschaften) and natural sciences (Naturwissenschaften), a distinction that has been criticized as the establishment and naturalization of a divide between, on the one side, the human and the social, and, on the other, the natural. However, Diltheys work constitutes an invaluable contribution to the study of communication, and perhaps most especially to the relationship between communication and collectives of all sorts ranging from organizations to networks and nations. Indeed, Diltheys notion of Wirkungszusammenhangwhich may roughly, but imperfectly, be translated as interactive ensemble is of great interest in the study of collectives, as he insisted on the necessity of understanding the whole from the interaction of the parts. Find this resource:

Gadamer, Hans-Georg. 1989. Truth and Method. 2d ed. Translated by Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall. New York: Continuum. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A student of Heidegger, Gadamer inherited his masters concern for hermeneutics and, more broadly, understanding (Verstehen). He is not so much concerned with the elaboration of a proper way of understanding or of reading, but rather about what actually happens when we are engaged in the process of understanding, i.e., when we try to decipher what the world, things, and people have got to say. It is one of Gadamers contributions to have extended hermeneutics to the study of works of art, but his main contribution probably is his displacement of the locus of understanding from the work or the text itselfas if there could be a real meaning awaiting to be uncoveredto the actual act of understanding, that is the reception of the work. The idea of reception, however, does not imply that the reader or the spectator may do what he or she pleases. Meaning lies in application, in the ever-renewed relevance of the work as it is presented and, thus, made present. For Gadamer, meaning lies not only in the syntactic and semantic structure texts, and not only in the intentions of the author, it is also the present-day relevance of the text as it is mediated by history, which brings about the present that constitutes the meaning of the text. Find this resource:

Ricur, Paul. 1991. From Text to Action: Essays in hermeneutics, II. Evanston, IL: Northwestern Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The French philosopher was inspired, among others, by phenomenology and the structuralist tradition when he elaborated his unique theory of hermeneutics, relying on a dynamic of detachment and appropriation. Ricur presents a view of hermeneutics that distinguishes from structuralism in that he considers meaning to emerge in the act of interpretation, which comprises three iterative steps: figuration, configuration, and refiguration. Ricurs original contribution is that, departing from more conventional hermeneutics, he understands the action of the text as the opening up of a world, that is to say a new reality where one can act and be. The narrative therefore has ontological and pragmatic consequences, including on the reader. Find this resource:
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ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY

Analytical philosophy has a long and contentious history with continental philosophy. Gilles Deleuze, in particular, was a prominent critic of analytical philosophy. In particular, he believed this branch of philosophy to be overconcerned with languagewhich, to him, was but a cog in a larger system (see Desert Islands and Other Texts, 19531974, cited under Structuralism and Its Critiques). In a sense, Deleuze was right: analytic philosophy did make a tremendous contribution to the study of language. For example, Frege (On the Scientific Justification of a ConceptScript) devoted most of his career to the study of sense and denotation, in particular to predicate calculus. For Paul Grice (in Studies in the Ways of Words), meaning stems from intention. In other words, what someone means is what he or she intends to say. Finally, Wittgenstein (On Certainty), perhaps one of the most prominent figures of analytical philosophy (and Deleuzes bte noire), has had a tremendous impact on communication and language studies by suggesting that meaning has its roots in the way words are used in specific settingsa position that influenced Toulmins understanding of arguments (see Toulmin 2003, cited under Rhetoric and Argumentation), but also JeanFranois Lyotards definition of postmodernism, for example.

Bartlett, James M. 1964. Frege: On the Scientific Justification of a Concept-Script. Mind 73.290: 155160. DOI: 10.1093/mind/LXXIII.290.155Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Written by Gottlob Frege and translated by James M. Bartlett. The German philosopher Frege was first and foremost a mathematician and a logician. His contribution to the two disciplines, however, consists in the development of a language to express logical relations and allow predicate calculation. The importance of communication and language for Frege stems from his belief that language is necessary to access absent objects, to provide endurance of concepts or ideas beyond individual memory, and to allow generalizability. In other words, the study of language is a necessary gateway to the study of thought, for the latter rests on the former. This position earned Frege the paternity of analytic philosophy. The work of Frege has been immensely influential, including on Bertrand Russell and on the early Wittgenstein. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Grice, Paul. 1989. Studies in the Ways of Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The work of Paul Grice is known mostly for two related aspects: its focus on intentionality as the source of meaning and its introduction of the notion of implicature. The latter is the idea that in addition to the strict meaning of words, utterances convey additional meanings that are implied or that may be deducted from the sentence Finally a good wine! does suggest that some other(s) are not so good, although this supposition is not logically necessary for the truth of the sentence. Meaning, for Grice, lies in the hearers recognition of the speakers intention and in the subsequent belief caused by that recognition. In other words, what the utterer means is the effect he intends by accomplishing the meaningful action: in the most basic case, what is intended is that the hearer believes what the utterer says. We may recognize here a collapse between meaning as synonymous to signification and meaning as intending. While some have lauded Grices focus on effect, other have lamented that this effect should be intentional, thus limiting meaning to whatever the speaker recognizably meant to do. Find this resource:

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1991. On Certainty. Edited by Gertrude E. M. Anscombe and Georg H. von Wright. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Wittgensteins career is usually divided into an early and a later period. Wittgensteins notion of language games where the meaning and effect of words depend on the specific game in which they are involvedand his contribution to linguistic pragmatism are probably the most common reasons the Austrian philosopher is cited. However, this collection of notes written right before Wittgensteins death in 1951, and published in 1969, while lesser known, offers an interesting insight into the authors epistemology and allows shedding a bright er light on his other works. Find this resource:
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CULTURAL STUDIES, MEDIA, AND POWER

Cultural studies, while now constituting a tradition of their own, take their roots in the study of the use of media, in particular in The Uses of Literacy, Hoggarts study of the consumption of newspapers by working -class people. Raymond Williams (Culture and Society), for his part, was one of the first scholars to suggest that culture should be studied in the daily, banal practices of members. Brian Massumi (Parables for the Virtual), for his part, suggests reintegrating movement and the body in the study of culture (especially in a cultural studies perspective). We also include in this section the work of Marshall McLuhan (Understanding Media): while not immediately related to cultural

studies, the Canadian literary scholar, who probably founded medium theory, certainly did more for the understanding of media and their use than many others. Finally, the work of Stuart Hall (with Lawrence Grossberg, On Postmodernism and Articulation), while perhaps not a philosopher per se, his contribution to communication studies certainly situates him among the most prominent figures of the discipline. Furthermore, Halls writings on cultural studies make him one of the authors through which people discover this underestimated stream of our discipline.

Grossberg, Lawrence. 1986. On Postmodernism and Articulation: An interview with Stuart Hall.Journal of Communication Inquiry 10.2: 4560. DOI: 10.1177/019685998601000204Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article introduces another important name in cultural studies: Lawrence Grossberg. And more importantly, because in this interview, Hall exposes his philosophical roots, including his commitment to a form of modernism, where meaning, contrary to what he thinks is the case with postmodernism, is not lost. Hall develops his own brew of representation theory, putting the subject back under the spotlight by borrowing from Foucault. However, Halls understanding of representation, but also of the study of culture more broadly, cannot be divorced from his theory of articulation, which is the crux of the article we are presenting. For Hall, an important aspect on which research has to focus is the locus where different elements, which may be of diverse natures, meet and constitute temporary configurations, including subjects. While he acknowledges that some specific configurations may be tied to historically situated contexts, the configurations themselves are always open to be reassembled and are not the necessary products of these contexts. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Hoggart, Richard. 1959. The Uses of Literacy: Aspects of working-class life with special reference to publications and entertainments. London: Chatto and Windus. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation It is undoubtedly a sociological posture Hoggart took when he observed the British working classs relationship with the magazines geared at it. In fact, the authors anchoring in sociology is exa ctly what constitutes his greater contribution to philosophy: his dedicated empirical work allowed Hoggart to move past conventional works on the working class, which were, in his logic, little more than sympathetic but condescending judgments formulated from the point of view of upper classes. To Hoggart, the working class was not merely a victim of false consciousness, but had its own culture, whose lack of legitimacy in no way equated a lack of reality and complexity. For Hall, The Uses of Literacy offers an empirical insight into the working of ideologies, and we believe such a contribution affords Hoggart the right to be styled a philosopher. Find this resource:

Massumi, Brian. 2002. Parables for the Virtual: Movement, affect, sensation. Post-contemporary Interventions. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Trained as a literary scholar and later a professor of communication studies, Massumi wrote extensively about micropolitics (following in that sense Guattaris program). He is especially concerned with the bod y, and Parables for the Virtual is his critique of the evacuation of movement and sensation from cultural studies understanding of the body. The body, usually understood as the result of his position in a given society or setting, is often viewed as static, and albeit the possibility of moving from one position to another may be granted, the movement itself is never looked at as an event in itself. Massumi succeeds in stressing the importance of movement and sensation, through a minute study of (self-) perception and image, down to the study of ligaments and skin, but without ever losing the connection with more general (but never larger) issues of power, which are central to cultural studies. Find this resource:

McLuhan, Marshall. 1994. Understanding Media: The extensions of man. New York: McGraw-Hill. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1964. McLuhan presents each medium, including writing, as an extension of specific human senses. Media, however, do not merely prolong or improve the senses, but also reconfigure the relationship human beings entertain with their environment, their body, and thought. McLuhan also explains the effects of media evolution of Western rationality: causality becomes simultaneity; information becomes obsolete as soon as it is moved, etc. Find this resource:

Williams, Raymond. 1983. Culture and Society, 17801950. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Along with Richard Hoggart, Raymond Williams is commonly cited as a founder of cultural studies, and rightly so. His 1958 Culture and Society gained wide popularity and was viewedand still is viewedas one of the most important redefinitions of the notion of culture. Williams, whether in his reflection on culture or in his association with the New

Left movement, criticized the conventional Marxist focus on labor struggles, to extend critique to broader issues of culture as experienced in ordinary peoples daily lives. In this sense, Williamss work was not only a Marxist reading of culture, but also a cultural critique of Marxism. Find this resource:

CYBERNETICS

Often equated with communication studies proper, cybernetics probably represents one of the main attempts to make our discipline scientific. Shannon and Weavers The Mathematical Theory of Communication, albeit much more sophisticated, laid the foundation of what we know as the basic model of communication, with a sender, a receiver, a message, a canal, and some noise to interfere with the messages transmission. Wiener (Cybernetics), almost at the same time, introduced the notion of cybernetics proper, as the study of the feedback loop that changes the senders behavior with respect to the recipients reaction to the initial message. Cybernetics further led to various developments. Of particular interest to communication, Watzlawick, et al.s Pragmatics of Human Communication constitutes one of the first attempts to apply cybernetics and a form of systems theory to the study of human interactions and psychology. Polymath Gregory Bateson in Steps to an Ecology of Mind, on his part, shows the applicability of cybernetics to a variety of fields, including to psychology and human interactions, but also toward an understanding of the notion of difference.

Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Ballantine. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Batesons work lies at the intersection of biology, anthropology, philosophy, and psychology. He never explicitly wrote something like a theory of communication (and even less so a theory of language). However, his thought relies on the concept of interaction and as such, we believe, deserves its right place in a philosophy of communication bibliography. As heir of (and contributor to) cybernetics, Batesons understanding of communication is that of transactions or exchanges between entities within a system, which may correct or intensify given behaviors. Find this resource:

Shannon, Claude, and Warren Weaver. 1998. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This book introduces the notion of bits, now omnipresent in computer science lingo as well as in common speech. However, the contribution of Claude Shannons 1948 article and its extension into this book, published a year later with Warren Weaver, is remarkable well beyond this anecdotic fact. The essay sets the first basis for a statistical and systematic study of language (introducing the n-gram, for example), of its encoding, transmission, and decoding, taking into account channel capacity and related issues. Claude Shannons mathematical work, coupled with Warren Weavers concern with automated processing of language and translation, yielded a foundational work whose importance may be sometimes overlooked exactly because the ideas it propounds now are woven into the fabric of common knowledge and normal science. Find this resource:

Watzlawick, Paul, Janet B. Bavelas, and Don D. Jackson. 2011. Pragmatics of Human Communication: A study of interactional patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes . New York: W. W. Norton. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Originally published in 1967. On the footsteps of his predecessor at Palo Altos Mental Rese arch Institute, Gregory Bateson, Paul Watzlawick and his collaborators continued working on a systemic approach to communication. They present the axioms that became common premises for interaction, the most famous being probably that one cannot not communicate, meaning that all behavior constitutes communication. A crux of the Palo Alto schools argument lies in the idea that communication is both content and relation, and that therefore the researchers (or the clinicians) attention should be focused as much on the interaction pattern established between individuals as on the exchanged words. The work builds heavily on some of the ideas exposed in Batesons insights. Find this resource:

Wiener, Norbert. 2007. Cybernetics: Or, control and communication in the animal and in the machine. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation From the Greek word kybernetes (steerer or pilot), Wiener developed cybernetics, the science of control in a systemic perspective, where feedback plays a part in modifying the original instruction depending on its outcome. Developed initially in response to an engineering problem how could machines be built that adjusted themselves to

their environments reactionthe approach quickly expanded to other disciplines, especially through the Macy conferences held in New York between 1946 and 1953, where Wiener exchanged ideas with, among others, Gregory Bateson, Paul Lazarsfeld, Margaret Mead, and Kurt Lewin. This book was first published in 1948. Find this resource:

Complexity and Systems Theory


Diane T. Finegood, Lee M. Johnston, Philippe Giabbanelli, Penny Deck, Sarah Frood, Lina BurgosLiz, Marla Steinberg, Allan Best

Introduction
Public health embraces a holistic, cell-to-society approach to understanding both the direct and underlying causes of disease and the conditions that contribute to an absence of well-being. In the early 21st century, interdisciplinary methods that address the interconnected and overlappingdeterminants of health are needed more than ever for dealing with modern, intractable, complex health problems, such as obesity and chronic disease. The relatively recent explosion of complexity science and systems thinking across a broad range of disciplines promises to bring new insight into the nature of these challenges while providing new methods for grappling with the characteristics specific to complex problems (such as nonlinearity, feedback loops, and their chaotic nature). There are varying definitions across these disciplines of complex system, systems approach, and even systems thinking. Some researchers have called for a common language and logic to describe systems approaches; this will likely emerge in the coming years as the many disciplines working together establish common terminology. In this bibliography, complexity science refers to the methodologies and tools used to understand complex problems, such as agent-based and systemdynamic modeling. Systems thinking is used more broadly in reference to approaches that support thinking about the system, as both the causes of a complex problem and the solutions to it will be found within the structure and function of the system. Systems thinking tends to be integrative and solution oriented when compared with traditional reductionist science, which is more linear and focused on locating the causes of a problem. Complexity science provides frameworks and methods for integrating large amounts of data to enable development of a detailed picture of the workings of a complex system. Systems thinking differs in that it does not require a detailed understanding of specific system dynamics but may provide direction based on one or more of the characteristics common to complex problems. The works in this bibliography either introduce the reader to the general principles of systems thinking and complexity science or review their application to public health concerns. Applied methods include system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling. Applications in public health include behavior change, program planning, evaluation, and knowledge exchange.

Introductory Works
The works in this section tell the story of public healths incorporation of novel methods and a pproaches drawn from complexity science and systems thinking in order to further strengthen its holistic approach. Plsek and Greenhalgh 2001 emphasizes the need for systems approaches and provides a guide to newcomers on the terminology and basic concepts required to understand complex systems. Leischow and Milstein 2006 introduces a collection of original and review material from leaders in systems thinking and modeling across a range of public health issues. Sterman 2006 offers an excellent introduction to the notion that dealing with complex problems requires a fundamental change in our mental models, whereas Trochim, et al. 2006looks at new methods and tools for intervention. Finegood 2011 considers the application of a systems lens to the problem of obesity. Glass and McAtee 2006 reinforces the notion that we need to understand the many dimensions of the complexity inherent in public health challenges and calls for new metaphors and models to help us integrate a large amount of discipline-specific information. Although Mabry, et al. 2008 specifically addresses the work of the National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, its account of the or ganizations aggressive turn toward systems science speaks to the larger direction public health is taking to deal with issues associated with interdisciplinarity. Finally, Luke and Stamatakis 2012 argues that public health can build upon its already impressive adoption of system science research methods and presents case studies that demonstrate their utility for the uninitiated. Finegood, Diane T. 2011. The complex systems science of obesity. In The Oxford handbook of the social science of obesity. Edited by J. Cawley, 208236. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

This chapter describes the characteristics of a complex system and uses the problem of obesity as an exemplar. The chapter also considers the usual responses to complex problems and provides two frameworks for intervention that do not depend on a detailed understanding of a systems dynamics. Find this resource:

Glass, Thomas A., and Matthew J. McAtee. 2006. Behavioral science at the crossroads in public health: Extending horizons, envisioning the future. Social Science and Medicine 62.7: 16501671. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.08.044Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper argues that biology and individual health behaviors must be studied within their broader social and environmental contexts. The authors offer a multilevel framework for examining behavior but remain rooted in the reductionist paradigm by suggesting that working out the causes of a problem will lead to solutions. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Leischow, Scott J., and Bobby Milstein. 2006. Systems thinking and modeling for public health practice. American Journal of Public Health 96.3: 403405. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.082842Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Addresses the questions of what systems thinking and modeling are and why they are important with respect to public health. Notes that a systems view emphasizes relationships, transcends boundaries, bridges silos, and embraces heterogeneity. Introduces other articles in the issue as examples of applying systems thinking and complexity to public health. Find this resource:

Luke, Douglas A., and Katherine A. Stamatakis. 2012. Systems science methods in public health: Dynamics, networks, and agents. Annual Review of Public Health 33:357376. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031210-101222Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Arguing for a broader inclusion of systems science study designs and analytic methods in public health training and curricula, the authors present three case studies, demonstrating their application to pressing public health issues (infectious disease, tobacco control, obesity). Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Mabry, Patricia L., Deborah H. Olster, Glen D. Morgan, and David B. Abrams. 2008. Interdisciplinarity and systems science to improve population health: A view from the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. American Journal of Preventive Medicine35.2S: S211S224. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.05.018Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Overviews the four key programmatic directions (next-generation basic science, interdisciplinary research, systems science, a problem-based focus for population impact) of an organization leading the charge for bridging systems science and public health. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Plsek, Paul E., and Trisha Greenhalgh. 2001. Complexity science: The challenge of complexity in health care. British Medical Journal 323.7313: 625628. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.323.7313.625Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Explains basic concepts for understanding complex adaptive systems within a health care context. An example of complexity facing a physician and patient runs throughout the paper and serves to make the concepts discussed more concrete. Find this resource:

Sterman, John D. 2006. Learning from evidence in a complex world. American Journal of Public Health 96.3: 505514. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.066043Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Describes three fundamental impediments to the goal of improving health policy: complexity, learning failures, and implementation challenges. Asserts that understanding complexity can help overcome policy resistance. Focuses on the role of feedback and time delays. Explores the use of simulations to facilitate learning through the creation of new feedback loops. Find this resource:

Trochim, William M., Derek A. Cabrera, Bobby Milstein, Richard S. Gallagher, and Scott J. Leischow. 2006. Practical challenges of systems thinking and modeling in public health.American Journal of Public Health 96.3: 538546.

DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.066001Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Gives brief overview of systems thinking, stressing that it goes beyond ecological models and the social determinants of health. Frames discussion with two organizing ideas: complexity and dynamics. Uses mechanical and biological metaphors to set context. Identifies eight challenges of systems thinking and modeling in public health; based on results of an empirical study. Find this resource:
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Monographs
Milstein 2008 presents a broad examination of the values and roles embedded in public health perspectives before turning specifically to systems thinking as a tool for modern-day practice.Savigny and Adam 2009 also addresses systems thinking in health care, whereas Best, et al. 2007 turns this lens to the public health challenge of tobacco control.

Best, Allan, Pamela I. Clark, Scott J. Leischow, and William M. K. Trochim, eds. 2007. Greater than the sum: Systems thinking in tobacco control. National Cancer Institute Tobacco Control Monograph. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This monograph is the combined effort of an interdisciplinary group of scientists funded by the National Cancer Institute and brought together under the Initiative on the Study and Implementation of Systems. This collaborative effort examined the application of systems thinking and systems methods in tobacco control and public health. Find this resource:

Milstein, Bobby. 2008. Hygeias constellation: Navigating health futures in a dynamic and democratic world . Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation In the first two sections of this monograph, Milstein studies the values embedded in public health through its early history and development. The third section expands on the whole of systems approach inherent in public health practice and considers how systems analysis will carry this work forward in addressing the complex problems of our time. Find this resource:

Savigny, Don de, and Taghreed Adam, eds. 2009. Systems thinking for health systems strengthening. Geneva, Switzerland: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This monograph gives the authors definition of systems thinking and describes how it can help us better understand complex problems and how researchers and decision makers can use it, including how it can be used to strengthen health systems. The monograph conflates systems thinking and complexity science, as they are used in this bibliography, but provides an introduction to the application of these ideas in health care systems. Find this resource:

Journals
As of yet there is no journal dedicated to the intersection of public health and complexity. However, there have been several special issues of health-focused journals that have explored the area. A key landmark in the history of complexity science and systems thinking in public health is the March 2006 issue of the American Journal of Public Health (McLeroy, et al. 2006), which collected works from leaders in these domains, many of whom were involved in the National Cancer Institutes systems thinking in tobacco control projec t (see Best, et al. 2007, cited underMonographs). A 2008 special issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Stokols, et al. 2008) reviews the role of team science in prevention, whereas another issue, in 2011 (American Journal of Preventive Medicine), deals with public health services and systems research. The 2007 American Journal of Community Psychology special issue on systems change (Foster-Fishman and Behrens 2007) bridges systems theory and the development of healthy communities. In 2011 the Lancet published a special series on obesity that applies a systems lens to this complex public health problem. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2011. 41.1: 100117.

Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This issue features an introduction and three papers about the emerging field of public health services and systems research. The papers document the growth of this research community in terms of people, organizations, and publications. Find this resource:

Foster-Fishman, Pennie G., and Teresa R. Behrens, eds. 2007. Special issue: Systems change.American Journal of Community Psychology 39.34. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology focusing on systems change bridges theory and practice, integrating systems thinking concepts with the diverse work in community psychology. An introduction by Foster-Fishman and Behrens highlights the theoretical frameworks, methods, examples, and future directions discussed in the seventeen papers included in the issue. Articles available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

McLeroy, Kenneth, S. J. Leischow, and B. Milstein, eds. 2006. Special issue: Thinking of systems. American Journal of Public Health 96.3. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This landmark issue presents the first comprehensive gathering of commentaries and original articles on systems approaches to public health. Frames public health and public health concerns with systems thinking and systems models. The authors present systems tools for facilitating further understanding, aiding in the development of new interventions, and improving outcome effectiveness. Find this resource:

Special issue: Obesity. 2011. Lancet 378.9793. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This special issue puts the spotlight on obesity and includes several commentaries and original articles using systems science and systems thinking to consider solutions to this complex problem. Articles available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Stokols, Daniel, Kara L. Hall, Brandie K. Taylor, Richard P. Moser and S. Leonard Syme, eds. 2008. Special issue: The science of team science: Assessing the value of transdisciplinary research . American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35.2. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides an introduction to the science of team science, including the major conceptual, methodological, and translational issues. Examples of team science initiatives are used to highlight collaborative and cross-disciplinary approaches spanning a variety of topics. An introduction by Stokols and colleagues offers a road map to the articles. Articles available onlinefor purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Principles of Systems Thinking and Complexity Science


There are a number of relatively accessible introductions to systems thinking and complexity science. Although not all of these are health specific, all have interdisciplinary applicability. Bar-Yam 2004 and Meadows 2008 overview systems thinking principles from an engineering perspective and consider their potential application to complex problems. The popular work ofSenge 2006 and Wheatley 2006 on the application of systems thinking to organizational issues has been adopted across a range of disciplines. Other authors present rigorous examinations of specific topics and methods, including Checkland and Scholes 1999, on soft systems methodology, and Miller and Page 2007, on the nature of complex adaptive systems.

Bar-Yam, Yaneer. 2004. Making things work: Solving complex problems in a complex world . Edited by C. Ramalingam, L. Burlingame, and C. Ogata. Cambridge, MA: Knowledge Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Bar-Yam presents a compelling case for using complex systems to address complex problems, explains some of the key concepts of complexity science, and gives specific examples in domains such as education, international development, and health. Find this resource:

Checkland, Peter, and Jim Scholes. 1999. Soft systems methodology in action. Chichester, UK: Wiley. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A dense account of the origins and development of soft systems thinking, a flexible action-research approach that accounts for the construction, in part, of modern social problems by the observers drawing of system boundaries. Includes examples of application in health care settings. Find this resource:

Meadows, Donella H. 2008. Thinking in systems: A primer. Edited by D. Wright. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Meadows uses plain language and engaging examples to discuss the philosophy behind systems thinking and elements common to most complex systems. Emphasizing a solution-oriented approach, she distills her decades of experience into a list of leverage points with which to approach change in social systems. Find this resource:

Miller, John H., and Scott E. Page. 2007. Complex adaptive systems: An introduction to computational models of social life. Princeton studies in complexity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Similar to the work of Bar-Yam and Meadows in its overviews of the characteristics that distinguish complex adaptive systems from merely complicated systems, but diverges in its focus on the role of modeling in furthering our understanding of the social world. Find this resource:

Senge, Peter M. 2006. The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization . New York: Currency/Doubleday. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Although written for a mainstream audience, and specifically focused on business practices, Senges overview of learning practices in complex organizations is transferable to health care settings, where effective and nurturing management will help successful growth and collaboration. Find this resource:

Wheatley, Margaret J. 2006. Leadership and the new science: Discovering order in a chaotic world. 3d ed. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Wheatley considers how the developments taking place in the fields of biology, chaos theory, and quantum physics are relevant to our understanding and management of complex organizations. A highly accessible and grounded introduction to challenging concepts. Find this resource:
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Theoretical Frameworks
The works in this section survey theories that have informed the application of systems thinking to public health issues. A common thread is the acknowledgment that the complex social problems of postindustrial societies will only be adequately addressed through the development and application of novel theory and methodologies. Systems engineering, as it was introduced in the 1950s, is generally viewed here as a reductionist, hard systems approach, lacking the flexibility to grapple with complex social issues. Rittel and Webber 1973 was among the first studies to identify the wicked nature of the modern social problem and the ways in which it might not be best served by traditional scientific means. The authors sentiments, particularly those regarding the subjective nature of problem definition in complex systems, are extended and formalized in the development of soft systems theory and methods in Checkland 2000. Soft systems theorists are sensitive to the nonlinear activities of human systems, which often function with unclear or competing objectives that preempt the application of classic systems engineering methodology. Whereas hard systems engineers observe systems as external, knowable, and ultimately malleable entities, soft systems theorists recognize the socially constructed aspect of problems and of the systems models developed to represent them. Although reflexivity is built into soft systems theory, the political role of the researcher is given further prominence in critical systems theory in Jackson 1991, an action research approach blending elements of hard and soft systems methodology. Olaya 2009 provides a countercritique of the claims made by soft and critical systems theorists in its overview of systems dynamics underlying theories. For a broader look at the integration of

systems theory into an already established field , the reader can turn toCastellani and Hafferty 2009, a review of the complexity turn taking place in sociology.

Castellani, Brian, and Frederic W. Hafferty. 2009. Sociology and complexity science: A new field of inquiry . Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A thorough account of the new field of sociology and complexity science and its five main areas of research: computational sociology, the British-based school of complexity, complex socialnetwork analysis, sociocybernetics, and the Luhmann school of complexity. Find this resource:

Checkland, Peter. 2000. Soft systems methodology: A thirty year retrospective. Systems Research and Behavioral Science 17.S1: S11S58. DOI: 10.1002/1099-174320001117:1+<::AID-SRES374>3.0.CO;2-OSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Overviews the emergence of soft systems methodology, in part as a response to the limitations of traditional (hard) systems thinking in developing action research to tackle the messy problems of social management. Includes a helpful bibliography. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Jackson, M. C. 1991. The origins and nature of critical systems thinking. Systemic Practice and Action Research 4.2: 131149. DOI: 10.1007/BF01068246Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Reviews the origins of critical systems thinking as a further extens ion of soft systems methodologys reaction to hard systems thinking and identifies its central commitments to social and critical awareness, theoretical and methodological complementarism, and human emancipation. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Olaya, Camilo. 2009. System dynamics philosophical background and underpinnings. In Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science. Vol. 9. Edited by R. A. Meyers, 90579078. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-30440-3Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Best approached as a broad introductory overview of the philosophical theory behind system dynamics and a reflection of the underlying assumptions of this methodology and their importance for practice. Provides a jumping-off point to other relevant literature, including works of Jay Forrester, David Lane, and Yaman Barlas, among others. Find this resource:

Rittel, Horst W. J., and Melvin M. Webber. 1973. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences 4.2: 155169. DOI: 10.1007/BF01405730Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Early philosophical overview of the tricky nature of complex problems and of problem definition in and of itself. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Modeling
As shown in Epstein 2008, all people model, though most run implicit rather than explicit models. Epstein also points out the problems with implicit models, for example, the assumptions underlying them are mostly hidden, their internal consistency is untested, and their logical consequences and relation to data are unknown. When we make our implicit models more explicit by creating mathematical or computational models, we surface and can test assumptions, incorporate data, and check for consistency, thereby illuminating core dynamics and the importance of factors that may be difficult to change or that change rapidly in the real world. Two institutes with a focus on modeling and complexity that provide content relevant to public health audiences are the New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI) and the Santa Fe Institute. Both institutes have websites with considerable resources for students and researchers interested in complexity science, modeling, and systems thinking. There are many different types of modeling, including several traditional statistical approaches, but the three methods most used at the interface of complex systems and public health are network analysis, agent-based modeling, and system dynamics. These three methods are a focus for the annual Institute on Systems Science and Health and have many possible applications for understanding and solving complex public health problems, such as epidemics, sexually transmitted diseases, and intervention cost-effectiveness. Hethcote 2000 discusses the fundamental mathematics used by several modeling

methodologies, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, whereas Habbema, et al. 2008 gives a helpful introduction to modeling methods relevant to chronic disease. TheEpiwork Consortium is integrating multiple methods, including network, multiscale, and agent-based models to support epidemic forecasting. Epiwork. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Epiwork is a multidisciplinary project sponsored by the European Community under the Seventh Framework Programme aimed at developing the appropriate framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of epidemic forecast infrastructures. Multiple modeling methods and data sources are being integrated. Find this resource:

Epstein, Joshua M. 2008. Why model?. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation11.4: 12. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article is essentially the lecture notes from several of Epsteins addresses on the topic. This document is a concise reminder of the many and varied reasons for modeling. Find this resource:

Habbema, J. D. F., R. Boer, and J. J. Barendregt. 2008. Chronic disease modeling. InInternational encyclopedia of public health. Edited by H. K. Heggenhougen, 704709. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Walks the reader through the crucial steps of setting up models. Although many steps, such as simulation and validation, also hold for models in biology and meteorology, modeling diseases has its own needs, such as the importance of describing cohorts well. Available online for purchase. Find this resource:

Hethcote, Herbert W. 2000. The mathematics of infectious diseases. SIAM Review 42.4: 599663. DOI: 10.1137/S0036144500371907Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Exposes classical epidemic modeling, which started in the 1920s. These models became less common with the rise of agent- and network-based models, but the terminology still exists, and many of the ideas can be found in system dynamics models of infectious diseases. Availableonline for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Institute on Systems Science and Health. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The institute is a week-long course designed to introduce general principles of systems science and foster a deeper understanding of selected methodologies that may be useful in research on the behavioral and social drivers of population health. The website provides open access to course materials from each year the institute is run. Find this resource:

New England Complex Systems Institute. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation NECSI is an independent academic research institute led by Yaneer Bar-Yam at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. NECSI is known for its applied work in many fields, including health care. Its website is fairly accessible and has many resources for newcomers to complexity science and systems thinking. Find this resource:

Santa Fe Institute. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Established in 1984, the Santa Fe Institute is one of the premier research centers focused on complexity and has many well-known faculty. Its website offers resources on research topics relevant to health and health systems, such as behavioral dynamics and robustness and innovation. Find this resource:

SYSTEM DYNAMICS

System dynamics is a modeling method developed in the mid-1950s by Jay Forrester and his students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The method evolved out of the need to understand increasingly complex industrial processes, and it is now applied to a wide range of social and health-related problems. Forrester 1994 details the process of system dynamics modeling and its intersection with systems thinking. Homer and Hirsch

2006 highlights that system dynamics depends on ongoing accumulation of people, material or financial assets, information, or even biological or psychological statesand on both balancing and reinforcing feedback mechanisms. The work explores the potential of system dynamics for contributing to public health. Sterman 2000 illustrates how system dynamics enables consideration of dynamic complexity and disequilibrium and suggests that equilibrium (a stable state) is more the exception than the rule when it comes to the real world. As access to increasingly powerful computing systems has grown, so, too, have computational approaches, allowing for examination of the potential impact of public policies. Thompson and Tebbens 2007 looks at the impact of public policies on systems for disease eradication, and Granich, et al. 2009 discusses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Other applications of system dynamics include Osgood, et al. 2011, an examination of early life influences on tuberculosis outcomes, and Hovmand and Gillespie 2007, a study of innovation in mental health service organizations. Richardson 1996, a key contribution to the development and application of system dynamics methods, cautions users and modelers about potential pitfalls of the approach.

Forrester, Jay W. 1994. System dynamics, systems thinking and soft OR. System Dynamics Review 10.23: 245256. DOI: 10.1002/sdr.4260100211Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Details the system dynamics process and its intersections with systems thinking and soft operations research. The steps of model building are considered, including creating the mathematical model; simulation, to understand dynamic behavior; evaluation of alternative policies; education and better policy choice; and implementation. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Granich, Reuben M., Charles F. Gilks, Christopher Dye, Kevin M. De Cock, and Brian G. Williams. 2009. Universal voluntary HIV testing with immediate antiretroviral therapy as a strategy for elimination of HIV transmission: A mathematical model. Lancet 373.9657: 4857. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-67360861697-9Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Explores the much debated issue of whether HIV testing followed by immediate use of antiretroviral therapy should be universal by estimating the possible consequences of this policy. Demonstrates a thorough calibration process, which is key to having a model that is a good representation of reality. Find this resource:

Homer, Jack B., and Gary B. Hirsch. 2006. System dynamics modeling for public health: Background and opportunities. American Journal of Public Health 96.3: 452458. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.062059Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article makes reference to previous applications of system dynamics to public health problems; presents examples of system dynamics models of chronic disease prevention and public health more generally; and suggests opportunities and new directions for modeling that will enable testing of policy options and examination of the counterintuitive behaviors that will affect the success of specific policies. Find this resource:

Hovmand, Peter S., and David F. Gillespie. 2007. Dynamics of innovation implementation and organizational performance in mental health services. 2007. In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society and 50th Anniversary Celebration, 29 July 2 August, Boston, Massachusetts. Edited by J. Sterman, R. Oliva, R. S. Langer, J. I. Rowe, and J. M. Yanni, 126. Boston: System Dynamics Society. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Shows how implementation of evidence-based practice impacts organizational performance. A simulation model based on existing theory, system dynamics research, and key informant interviews helps answer two main questions: What initial conditions are needed to improve organizational performance, and what mechanisms drive this improvement? Find this resource:

Osgood, Nathaniel D., Aziza Mahamoud, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Yuan Tian, Assaad Al-Azem, and Vernon H. Hoeppner. 2011. Estimating the relative impact of early-life infection exposure on later-life tuberculosis outcomes in a Canadian sample. Research in Human Development8.1: 2647. DOI: 10.1080/15427609.2011.549692Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Elucidates the temporal dynamics of tuberculosis transmission and quantifies these effects in the local context. Historical epidemiological patterns and their drivers can be better understood through this model, as it gives convincing explanations for patterns that can be used to inform decision making. Find this resource:

Richardson, George P. 1996. Problems for the future of system dynamics. System Dynamics Review 12.2: 141157. DOI: 10.1002/SICI1099-172719962212:2<141::AID-SDR101>3.0.CO;2-OSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Richardson reviews a number of challenges to the field of system dynamics, including understanding model behavior, advancing practice, and making models accessible. Provides both historical context and guidance on problems for consideration. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Sterman, John D. 2000. Business dynamics: Systems thinking and modeling for a complex world. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Sterman examines systems thinking and the system dynamics worldview, including tools and methods to elicit the structure of complex systems and to relate those structures to their dynamics and behaviors. Provides advice and examples of applications in the real world, using simple language suited for a variety of audiences. Find this resource:

Thompson, Kimberly M., and Radhoud J. Duintjer Tebbens. 2007. Eradication versus control for poliomyelitis: An economic analysis. Lancet 369.9570: 13631371. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-67360760532-7Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Addressing the complexity of health systems using system dynamics can reveal counterintuitive behavior and help design better policies than if using only mental models. Responding to calls to decrease the intensity of immunization because of its high cost in poliomyelitis, this paper shows that increasing immunization is cost-effective. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

NETWORK MODELS

Network models represent connections between actors. Luke and Harris 2007 provides an overview of network models and indicates that they can be used to analyze the public health system, in which actors are individuals, organizations, programs, and other entities. Network models connect actors (nodes) through edges, based on relationships, such as social ties or information sharing. Bolland and Wilson 1994 demonstrates that interorganizational network analysis must consider specific organizational functions, such as service delivery, administration, and planning, when assessing coordination. With respect to individuals, Valente 2010 looks at how the methodology has uncovered important relationships between health and social/contact networks. Newman 2003 explains that individuals play different roles, such as being in contact with a large number of people or acting as a bridge connecting two social groups. Taking contact types and patterns into consideration can lead to different estimates for the course of a disease, as discussed in Bansal, et al. 2007. Kretzschmar and Wallinga 2007 demonstrates that most individuals have few connections, whereas few individuals have many, which could make it difficult to avoid the spread of a disease in a population. However, as the research in Piccardi and Casagrandi 2008 illustrates, the impact of network structures also depends on other parameters, such as the dynamics of mixing and dynamic changes in network structure. Gross, et al. 2006shows the impact of changes when a network of individuals takes action to prevent becoming infected. When individual decision making matters more than the social ties of individuals, one should consider using an agent-based model instead; if both aspects are of equal importance, then network modeling techniques can include individual agents.

Bansal, Shweta, Bryan T. Grenfell, and Lauren Ancel Meyers. 2007. When individual behaviour matters: Homogeneous and network models in epidemiology. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 4.16: 879891. DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2007.1100Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This study examines when to switch from grouping individuals into modeling their explicit connections. Shows that network models are more accurate for heterogeneous populations. Finds that individuals are not as homogeneous as assumed in many system dynamics models nor as heterogeneous as claimed in several network models. Find this resource:

Bolland, John M., and Jan V. Wilson. 1994. Three faces of integrative coordination: A model of interorganizational relations in community-based health and human services. Health Services Research 29.3: 341366. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

This work uses network modeling to study coordination in six community-based elder service systems between 1989 and 1991 in Alabama. Coordination was found to be dependent on the specific function, with coordination for service delivery being better than for planning. Find this resource:

Gross, Thilo, Carlos J. Dommar DLima, and Bernd Blasius. 2006. Epidemic dynamics on an adaptive network. Physical Review Letters 96.20: 208701-1208701-4. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.208701Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Most of the work in the early 2000s assumed that a dynamic process (the disease) took place on a static network (links between individuals). This study provides insight into what happens when individuals try to avoid an epidemic and modify the structure of the network as the disease unfolds. Find this resource:

Kretzschmar, Mirjam, and Jacco Wallinga. 2007. Networks in epidemiology. In Special issue: Networks in epidemiology. Edited by M. Kretzschmar and J. Wallinga. Mathematical Population Studies 14.4: 203209. DOI: 10.1080/08898480701612840Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The finding that populations can be scale-free had a large impact on the conceptualization of public health, the most well-known being the claim that it would be impossible to stop the spread of a disease. This review uses that claim and offers a widespread viewpoint on why networks are of central importance to epidemiology. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Luke, Douglas A., and Jenine K. Harris. 2007. Network analysis in public health: History, methods, and applications. Annual Review of Public Health 28:6993. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144132Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This article reviews the history of network analysis, gives an overview of methods, and discusses its application in public health, including investigation of disease transmission, diffusion of innovations, and interorganizational structure of health systems. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Newman, M. E. J. 2003. The structure and function of complex networks. SIAM Review 45.2: 167256. DOI: 10.1137/S003614450342480Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Shows that real-world networks share several important properties, including that they are scale free (most individuals have few social contacts, whereas few individuals have many) and small world (individuals are densely connected in small clusters, and some act as bridges between clusters). These properties directly apply to understanding the spread of diseases between individuals. Find this resource:

Piccardi, Carlo, and Renato Casagrandi. 2008. Inefficient epidemic spreading in scale-free networks. Physical Review E 77.2: 026113-1026113-4. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.026113Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The claim that scale-free populations are prone to disease spread relied on numerous theoretical assumptions that may not always hold in the real world. This study demonstrates that, depending on the model of disease, a randomly connecting population would be more prone to infection than a scale-free one. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Valente, Thomas W. 2010. Social networks and health: Models, methods and applications . Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Valente offers a comprehensive introduction to complex networks in relation to health. He exposes why contacts between individuals matter and how they can be collected and analyzed. Find this resource:

AGENT-BASED MODELS

Agent-based models are ideal for representing the behavior of each individual in a population in detail. The dynamics of a disease process are affected by an individuals beliefs, experiences, and fears, which can all be modeled with this methodology, as illustrated by Brown, et al. 2011, in its study of H1N1, and by Barrett, et al. 2005, in its

examination of smallpox. Epstein, et al. 2007explains that whereas early models could only simulate small populations (thousands of individuals), advances in supercomputing are allowing much larger populations, on a global scale. To set up a virtual population, agent-based models need data on individual agents; however, most studies report aggregated population data. Wheaton, et al. 2009 argues that designing realistic agent-based models requires direct access to individual-level data or to synthesized population databases. Perez and Dragicevic 2009 and Auchincloss and Diez Roux 2008 demonstrate that this can be made even more accurate when data are available on the environment. Gibbons 2007 illustrates how agent-based models can be used to investigate the impact of network structures on diffusion of information throughout a health system.

Auchincloss, Amy H., and Ana V. Diez Roux. 2008. A new tool for epidemiology: The usefulness of dynamicagent models in understanding place effects on health. American Journal of Epidemiology 168.1: 18. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwn118Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Place is known to be associated with health outcomes (e.g., the lack of places to exercise in a neighborhood may limit physical activity and contribute to obesity). The authors propose using agent-based models to study how inhabitants and environments change together, which can address problems unreachable with traditional statistical analysis. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Barrett, Chris L., Stephen G. Eubank, and James P. Smith. If smallpox strikes Portland . . . .Scientific American (1 March 2005): 5461. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Highly accessible description of modeling, as applied to simulating the population of Portland, Oregon, to investigate the spread of disease. The authors also applied network models to locations instead of individuals, examining the use of various areas to demonstrate that some are better for disease surveillance than others. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Brown, Shawn T., Julie H. Y. Tai, Rachel R. Bailey, et al. 2011. Would school closure for the 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic have been worth the cost? A computational simulation of Pennsylvania. BMC Public Health 11. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-353Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation By combining multiagent models with Monte Carlo simulations, the authors made the counterintuitive finding that the cost of closing schools during an influenza epidemic would have outweighed the benefits. That this result is unexpected exemplifies the limitations of our mental models and the need for computational models. Find this resource:

Epstein, Joshua M., D. Michael Goedecke, Feng Yu, Robert J. Morris, Diane K. Wagener, and Georgiv V. Bobashev. 2007. Controlling pandemic flu: The value of international air travel restrictions. PLoS ONE 2.5: e401. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000401Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Studies the impact of travel restrictions and vaccinations on the spread of pandemic flu. Also shows an important interaction between policy and seasonality that could only be seen in models with this scale of simulation. Find this resource:

Gibbons, Deborah E. 2007. Interorganizational network structures and diffusion of information through a health system. American Journal of Public Health 97.9: 16841692. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.063669Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Illustrates the combination of agent-based and network modeling by using agent-based modeling to simulate the diffusion of information through various network configurations, enabling examination of different features of network structures on information transfer. Find this resource:

Perez, Liliana, and Suzana Dragicevic. 2009. An agent-based approach for modeling dynamics of contagious disease spread. International Journal of Health Geographics 8.50. DOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-8-50Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Presents the combination of an agent-based model and a geographical information system. This enables the modeling of individuals with decision-making process, moving in a realistic environment, in this case agents commuting in Burnaby, Canada. Find this resource:

Wheaton, William D., James C. Cajka, Bernadette M. Chasteen, et al. 2009. Synthesized population databases: A US geospatial database for agent-based models. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute. DOI: 10.3768/rtipress.2009.mr.0010.0905Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Summarizes the design of a human agent database for the fifty American states. The article addresses key steps in setting up a virtual population. The database has been used to study the spread of diseases, such as seasonal influenza. Find this resource:

Individual Behavior Change


Populations made up of individuals and Agent-Based Models are helping us simulate the aggregate behavior of small and large populations. But, these models are only as good as the data we have about the behavior of individuals. The topic of behavior change is both important and popular, as illustrated by the commercially successful works Heath and Heath 2010, Thaler and Sunstein 2008, and Ariely 2009, all useful entrees into the world of behavioral economics that demonstrate that behavior change is complex and not always rational. Resnicow and Vaughn 2006 describes behavior as chaotic and stochastic in nature and suggests that we need to understand this better in order to address behavior change. Hayes, et al. 2007 challenges the traditional linear, deterministic models of behavior change and identifies the importance of unplanned and random elements. Carver and Scheier 1998 examines the importance of feedback and feedback loops at the level of the individual. Bainbridge 1997 challenges the reductionist perspective espoused by most traditional behavior change theories and applies an integrative approach that views contributing factors within the context of the system as a whole. Together, these papers highlight the complex characteristics of behavior change and provide a theoretical framework for approaching behavior change with a complex systems lens.

Ariely, Dan. 2009. Predictably irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions . Rev. ed. New York: Harper. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation One of many popular books on the topic of behavioral economics. Ariely describes his work on problems such as why cautious people make poor decisions about sex when aroused and why decisions are always based on comparisons. Ariely argues that a greater understanding of emotions, relativity, and social norms allows for a reexamination of economic and social policy. Find this resource:

Bainbridge, L. 1997. The change in concepts needed to account for human behavior in complex dynamic tasks. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans 27.3: 351359. DOI: 10.1109/3468.568743Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Discusses models of behavior change, noting that human behavior does not conform to sequential (linear) stages, but incorporates dynamic cognitive processes. Suggests that management of complex behavior requires an overview of the whole task at hand and development of skills specific to dealing with that task. Available online by subscription. Find this resource:

Carver, Charles. S., and M. F. Scheier. 1998. On the self-regulation of behavior. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139174794Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Uses concepts from control theory to explore individual behavior change. Emphasizes the systems characteristic of feedback through self-regulation to support behavior change. Find this resource:

Hayes, Adele M., Jean-Philippe Laurenceau, Greg Feldman, Jennifer L. Strauss, and LeeAnn Cardaciotto. 2007. Change is not always linear: The study of nonlinear and discontinuous patterns of change in psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology Review 27.6: 715723. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.01.008Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Applies dynamical systems theory to challenge the notion that change is linear and gradual. Offers examples from the psychology literature in which change occurs randomly and is unplanned. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Heath, Chip, and Dan Heath. 2010. Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York: Broadway. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation An enjoyable read that also provides a nice analogy for behavior change, the rider (rational) and his elephant (emotional). Gives many examples that illustrate important ideas, such as the impact of too much choice when designing behavior change interventions. Find this resource:

Resnicow, Ken, and Roger Vaughan. 2006. A chaotic view of behavior change: A quantum leap for health promotion. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 3.1:25. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-25Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Applies systems concepts, including chaos and quantum change, to individual behavior change. Posits that a new conceptualization of health behavior is needed in order to influence change more effectively. The ideas were debated in subsequent issues of the journal by Tom Baranowski and Johannes Brug. Find this resource:

Thaler, Richard H., and Cass R. Sunstein. 2008. Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The authors present their ideas on libertarian paternalism and choice architecture in the design of population interventions. Nudge takes behavioral economics into the realm of politics and public policy and helps us understand how we can shape more effective public policy by understanding how people interact with their environments. Find this resource:
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Program Planning and Implementation


The planning and implementation of interventions in complex environments are challenging tasks for organizations and governments, and the tool kit that has been applied in the public health domain is limited. Probably the most advanced tool is the use of system dynamics as an instrument of planning, as illustrated by Huz, et al. 1997. The authors also provide a ten-point framework for evaluating systems thinking, using group model building and system dynamics, and demonstrate the application of the framework in evaluating a systems change intervention in mental health services in New York State. Tseng and Seidman 2007 presents another framework for consideration in planning interventions, though its focus is social process, resources, and organization of resources. Keshavarz, et al. 2010 and Suarez-Balcazar, et al. 2007 look at specific interventions in the school setting, each taking a different approach to the process of applying systems thinking. On a larger scale, Thompson and Tebbens 2008 discusses the successful use of systems dynamics and modeling as a tool for the analysis and planning of global polio eradication policies. Together, these papers provide a sense of the potential for systems thinking and complexity science in the planning, and implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies.

Huz, Steven, David F. Andersen, George P. Richardson, and Roger Boothroyd. 1997. A framework for evaluating systems thinking interventions: An experimental approach to mental health system change. In Special issue: Group model building. Edited by Jac A. M. Vennix, David F. Andersen, and George P. Richardson. System Dynamics Review 13.2: 149169. DOI: 10.1002/SICI1099-172719972213:2<149::AID-SDR122>3.0.CO;2-SSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Proposes a framework for evaluating the impact of systems thinking interventions. The framework consists of ten domains of measurement and analysis and is designed to evaluate measurable outcomes. The findings from the piloting identify a number of challenging issues for organizations attempting to apply systems thinking interventions and highlight what should be the focus of future research. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Keshavarz, Nastaran, Don Nutbeam, Louise Rowling, and Freidoon Khavarpour. 2010. Schools as social complex adaptive systems: A new way to understand the challenges of introducing the health promoting schools concept. Social Science and Medicine 70.10: 14671474. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.034Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Examines the usefulness of complex adaptive systems as a framework for understanding the potential impact of health promotion interventions in primary schools. Primary data were from semistructured interviews with twenty-six school principals and teachers.

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Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda, Ladonna Redmond, Joanne Kouba, et al. 2007. Introducing systems change in the schools: The case of school luncheons and vending machines. American Journal of Community Psychology 39.34: 335345. DOI: 10.1007/s10464-007-9102-7Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This paper uses the social ecological model to illustrate the interaction between the individual and different systems that impact individual behavior. Explores the specific conditions that facilitate change in a system, in this case the luncheon program and food vending machines in schools. Also looks at the challenges to creating change in an organization and the critical antecedent factors leading to systems change. Find this resource:

Thompson, Kimberly M., and Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens. 2008. Using system dynamics to develop policies that matter: Global management of poliomyelitis and beyond. Systems Dynamics Review 24.4: 433439. DOI: 10.1002/sdr.419Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Provides an example of how system dynamics and modeling can help influence decision makers and shape policies. The authors reflect on their previous work, using modeling to assess the risk, costs, and benefits of polio eradication versus control. This paper also stresses the importance of understanding the audience and the complex physical and social systems within which large projects operate. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Tseng, Vivian, and Edward Seidman. 2007. A systems framework for understanding social settings. American Journal of Community Psychology 39.34: 217228. DOI: 10.1007/s10464-007-9101-8Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Presents a systems framework that describes important aspects of social settings and how those aspects are interrelated in a system. Focuses on three aspects of settings that represent intervention targets: social process, resources, and organization of resources. Find this resource:

Evaluation
The incorporation of systems thinking and concepts into evaluation has grown tremendously since the late 20th century, with new approaches continuing to emerge. Green 1977 introduces the complex characteristics of interventions in public health that make evaluation and measurement a challenge. Patton 2011 offers a thorough and readable explanation of system concepts and a new approach for evaluators to support innovation and evaluative thinking throughout a program life cycle. Two publications formally mark the beginning of the active promotion of systems thinking in evaluation, even though many evaluators had applied system concepts to their evaluations without explicitly naming them, and a smattering of published evaluations did articulate an explicit adoption of system thinking. Parsons 2007 is a guide to designing systems-oriented evaluation that helps evaluators incorporate systems thinking into their evaluations. Williams and Imam 2007 showcases the application of system concepts in a variety of evaluations. The Cornell Office for Research on Evaluation 2009 report, led by William Trochim, presents a comprehensive, step-by-step guide to planning an evaluation. Hargreaves 2010 provides quantitative and qualitative research and evaluation methods that are appropriate under different system dynamics. Best, et al. 2003 explores the role of theory and its practical contribution to understanding complex interventions and guiding evaluation. Examples of the types of indicators evaluators use to study and assess system change can be found in Huz, et al. 1997.

Best, Allan, Daniel Stokols, Lawrence W. Green, Scott Leischow, Bev Holmes, and Kaye Buchholz. 2003. An integrative framework for community partnering to translate theory into effective health promotion strategy. American Journal of Health Promotion 8.2: 168176. DOI: 10.4278/0890-1171-18.2.168Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Some of the leading thinkers in the field of health promotion collaborated to present the case for better use of theory in developing implementation and evaluation strategy. Find this resource:

Cornell Office for Research on Evaluation. 2009. The evaluation facilitators guide to systems evaluation protocol. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Digital Print Services. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

The Systems Evaluation Protocol provides a step-by-step guide for planning evaluations that is based on complexity theory, evolutionary theory and natural selection, general systems theory, ecology, system dynamics, and ideas on researchpractice integration. Find this resource:

Green, Lawrence W. 1977. Evaluation and measurement: Some dilemmas for health education.American Journal of Public Health 67.2: 155161. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.67.2.155Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Articulates seven challenges to evaluation and measurement of health promotion interventions. Many of the challenges are due to the complex nature of public health problems and interventions, including nonlinearity and time dependence of effects, heterogeneity of contexts, and interdependence of parts of a system. Find this resource:

Hargreaves, Margaret B. 2010. Evaluating system change: A planning guide. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This methods brief offers guidance on planning an evaluation of a systems change initiative to ensure there is alignment between the dynamics of the targeted system, the dynamics of the change intervention, and the intended purpose of the evaluation. Find this resource:

Huz, Steven, David F. Andersen, George P. Richardson, and Roger A. Boothroyd. 1997. A framework for evaluating systems thinking interventions: An experimental approach to mental health systems change. System Dynamics Review 13.2: 149169. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1727(199722)13:2%3C149::AID-SDR122%3E3.0.CO;2-SSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Huz, et al. developed a framework for assessing the impact of a systems-thinking intervention and illustrated the typical indicators that evaluators use to gauge system change, including changes in relationships and networks and changes in practices, policies, and resource allocation. Availableonline for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Parsons, Beverly. 2007. Designing initiative evaluation: A systems-oriented framework for evaluating social change efforts. Battle Creek, MI: W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This monograph, developed for Kellogg initiative evaluators, represents the first attempt to offer evaluation approaches that incorporate system concepts. The monograph describes four evaluation designs that are appropriate for the differing dynamics of complex social systems. Find this resource:

Patton, Michael Q. 2011. Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. New York: Guilford. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This can be considered the only textbook on system thinking and evaluation. Here, Patton gives a clear explanation of many system concepts and suggests new ways for evaluators to engage with social innovators to bring evaluative thinking to their journeys. Find this resource:

Williams, B., and I. Imam, eds. 2007. System concepts in evaluation: An expert anthology. Point Reyes, CA: EdgePress. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The chapters in this edited volume either illustrate the use of particular systems concepts (e.g., soft systems, system dynamic-based computer simulations, cybernetics, critical systems heuristics) in an evaluation or provide a description of how particular system methodologies would be used in evaluation. Find this resource:

Knowledge Translation, Dissemination, and Implementation


Application of complexity and systems thinking perspectives in public health to knowledge translation, dissemination, and implementation (KTDI) offers a practical case study of the utility of the models and tools described in other

sections. KTDI has grown significantly in the early 21st century, integrating systems thinking to an ever-increasing extent. However, it has also been plagued by the same key challenge encountered by complexity and systems thinking in general: the critical need to develop a common language and logic for understanding core principles and how best to apply them. This section includes references that illustrate the application of systems thinking to conceptual models for KTDI. Best and Holmes 2010 shows how an increased focus on translation of knowledge, to action in particular, has evolved. Elliott, et al. 2003; Graham, et al. 2006; Greenhalgh, et al. 2004; Brownson, et al. 2009; and Wandersman, et al. 2008 provide a sampling of models that address complexity issues. There is no one size fits all model for applying systems thinking to KTDI; this sampling is designed to give useful examples that can be selected or tailored for particular situations. Ward, et al. 2009 presents a way to organize this tailoring process by synthesizing several published models. Finally, Greenhalgh, et al. 2009 offers an outstanding illustration of how models like these can guide evaluation.

Best, Allan, and Bev Holmes. 2010. Systems thinking, knowledge and action: Towards better models and methods. Evidence and Policy 6.2: 145159. DOI: 10.1332/174426410X502284Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation As a sequel to an earlier article that describes three generations in the evolution of thinking about knowledge translation, this paper zeroes in on the third generation, systems thinking generation of knowledge translation models, and highlights key areas for further work: the nature of evidence, leadership, networks, and integrated communication strategy. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Brownson, Ross C., Jonathan E. Fielding, and Christopher M. Maylahn. 2009. Evidence-based public health: A fundamental concept for public health practice. Annual Review of Public Health 30:175201. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.031308.100134Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Although not explicitly about systems thinking and knowledge translation, this review highlights the challenges in evidence-based decision making in public health, challenges that arise because of the complexity of conducting sound evaluation. Also addresses solutions to this complexity that are similar to solutions that emerge from systems thinking and complexity science. Availableonline for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Elliott, Susan J., Jennifer OLoughlin, Kerry Robinson, et al. 2003. Conceptualizing dissemination research and activity: The case of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative. Health Education and Behavior 30.3: 267287. DOI: 10.1177/1090198103030003003Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation There are few, if any, comprehensive yet practical models for how systems thinking can be applied to public health. This example, from a large, national heart health initiative in Canada, provides a prototype of the kind of model needed to guide public health strategy that builds on systems theory. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Graham, Ian D., Jo Logan, Margaret B. Harrison, et al. 2006. Lost in translation: Time for a map?Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 26.1: 1324. DOI: 10.1002/chp.47Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This landmark article presents the first conceptual model for KTDI that builds on a systematic review. The eightphase cycle details considerations and tactics at each stage. Find this resource:

Greenhalgh, Trisha, Charlotte Humphrey, Jane Hughes, Fraser Macfarlane, Ceri Butler, and Ray Pawson. 2009. How do you modernize a health service? A realist evaluation of whole-scale transformation in London. Milbank Quarterly 87.2: 391416. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00562.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Greenhalgh and colleagues build on their earlier systematic review to apply learnings to the task of evaluating implementation and system change, addressing the key questions of what works, for whom, and under what circumstances. The study serves as a model for comprehensive evaluation of the outcomes from KTDI processes. Available online for purchase or by subscription. Find this resource:

Greenhalgh, Trisha, Glenn Robert, Fraser Macfarlane, Paul Bate, and Olivia Kyriakidou. 2004.Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: Systematic review and recommendations.Milbank Quarterly 82.4: 581 629. DOI: 10.1111/j.0887-378X.2004.00325.xSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation

Arguably the seminal article on this topic, this massive synthesis of thirteen academic traditions maps out the common ground for key factors affecting diffusion and implementation. Prepared for the National Health Services in the United Kingdom, the article gives a detailed checklist of influences to consider. Find this resource:

Wandersman, Abraham, Jennifer Duffy, Paul Flaspohler, et al. 2008. Bridging the gap between prevention research and practice: The interactive systems framework for dissemination and implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology 41:171181. DOI: 10.1007/s10464-008-9174-zSave Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation The unique contribution of this article is its focus on community-centered systems approaches to knowledge translation. The article provides an interactive systems framework highlighting three complementary systems for knowledge synthesis, capacity building, and implementation. Find this resource:

Ward, Vicky, Allan House, and Susan Hamer. 2009. Developing a framework for transferring knowledge into action: A thematic analysis of the literature. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 14.3: 156164. DOI: 10.1258/jhsrp.2009.008120Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation Ward and colleagues offer a thematic analysis of the various theoretical models for knowledge translation that are found in the literature. The authors identify five broad components and three general processes for knowledge translation strategy and suggest a framework to guide planning and evaluation. Available online for purchase or by subscription.

Connectionism
Kenneth Aizawa

Introduction
Connectionism in its most generic sense describes theories that postulate interconnected networks of simple neuron-like information-processing elements (often called nodes) with modifiable interconnections (often called weights) to explain cognitive processes or their implementation. Although the term was used in the first half of the 20th century to describe theories of the neurobiological implementation of principles of associationism, most recent philosophical work on connectionism has focused on cognitive scientific research in the late 20th century that uses computers to simulate the activities of artificial neural networks . Often this work goes under the rubric of parallel distributed processing (PDP). Typically, the neural network simulations consist of presenting a network with data in order to have the network modify the connections between the processing elements in such a way as to enable a network to compute a desired function. Although advocates of connectionis m often insist on the neurobiological inspiration of their models, this does not always translate into models that are in all respects neurobiologically plausible. In many cases, the models are, in the first instance, developed with an eye to accounting for one or another psychological phenomenon. Advocates of connectionism often advance their models as alternatives to computational models of cognition. Since computational models typically invoke computer programs that manipulate syntactically and semantically combinatorial representations, much of the philosophical discussion of connectionism has focused on questions of representation, the structure of representations, the existence of (explicit) rules for the manipulation of representations, and the nature of computation. Although research on connectionism is an extremely active area of cognitive science, this bibliography is largely, and somewhat artificially, limited to works by philosophers. Those wishing to conduct more serious research on connectionism will have to delve into the connectionist scientific literature.

General Overviews
There are numerous general overviews of connectionism. These overviews vary in the level of technical detail they offer regarding the apparatus of nodes, weights, and weight change procedures. There are also differences in the audiences to which they are directed, such as psychologists, philosophers, or computer scientists. Bechtel and Abrahamsen 2002 provides the most robust attention to both technical detail and philosophical issues. McClelland and Rumelhart 1987 and Rumelhart and McClelland 1987 provide a technical introduction directed primarily toward psychologists. There is also a companion volume, McClelland and Rumelhart 1989, with software for running connectionist simulations. Ellis and Humphreys 1999 provides an extensive introduction suitable for an

undergraduate or graduate psychology course in connectionism.Smolensky 1988, Rumelhart 1989, Goldblum 2001, and Garson 2007 offer article-length introductions to connectionism with divergent levels of technical detail. Bechtel, William, and Adele A. Abrahamsen. Connectionism and the Mind: Parallel Processing, Dynamics, and Evolution in Networks. 2d ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A detailed, well-informed introduction to both the technical dimensions of connectionist modeling and some of the relevant philosophical issues that this modeling raises. Find this resource:

Ellis, Rob, and Glyn W. Humphreys. Connectionist Psychology: A Text with Readings. Hove, UK: Psychology, 1999. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A textbook with reading directed primarily to psychologists. Find this resource:

Garson, James W. Connectionism. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by E. Zalta. 2007. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A brief overview of the structure and capabilities of current connectionist networks, along with some discussion of connectionist representation, systematicity, state space semantics for connectionist networks, and the elimination of folk psychology. Find this resource:

Goldblum, Naomi. The Brain-Shaped Mind: What the Brain Can Tell Us about the Mind. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511612749Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A short, informal introduction that does not use any of the mathematical apparatus typical of introductions to connectionism. Find this resource:

McClelland, James L., and David E. Rumelhart, eds. Parallel Distributed Processing : Psychological and Biological Models. Vol. 2. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is one-half of a two-volume collection of essays that constitute the principal source of scientific input into philosophical discussions of connectionism. Find this resource: McClelland, James L., and David E. Rumelhart. Explorations in Parallel Distributed Processing: A Handbook of Models, Programs, and Exercises. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A companion volume to McClelland and Rumelhart 1987 and Rumelhart and McClelland 1987, explaining many of the technical details needed to run computer simulations of connectionist networks. It also includes computer software with which to run the simulations. Find this resource:

Rumelhart, David E. The Architecture of Mind: A Connectionist Approach. In Foundations of Cognitive Science . Edited by Michael Posner, 133159. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A relatively brief overview of some of the principal ideas in the parallel distributed processing approach to connectionism. Find this resource: Rumelhart, David E., and James L. McClelland, eds. Parallel Distributed Processing: Foundations. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This is one-half of a two-volume collection of essays that constitute the principal source of scientific input into philosophical discussions of connectionism. Find this resource:

Smolensky, Paul. On the Proper Treatment of Connectionism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences11.1 (1988): 123.

DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X00052432Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation A widely cited account of what connectionism is all about. Find this resource:
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Anthologies
There have been several types of anthologies concerning connectionism. Anderson and Rosenfeld 1988 and Anderson, et al. 1993 cast their nets broadly in collecting scientific work bearing on natural and artificial neural networks. McClelland and Rumelhart 1987 and Rumelhart and McClelland 1987 constitute the strand of connectionist scientific research that has been at the center of most philosophical discussion. Ramsey, et al. 1991 and Horgan and Tienson 1991 are two of the earliest anthologies on the philosophy of connectionism, staking out many of the principal themes. The essays in Macdonald and Macdonald 1995 focus more narrowly on the philosophical debates about systematicity and the elimination of folk psychology. Chalmers and Bourget provides a regularly updated bibliography of philosophical literature pertaining to connectionism.

Anderson, James, Andrew Pellionisz, and Edward Rosenfeld, eds. Neurocomputing 2: Directions for Research. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation This volume is a companion to Anderson and Rosenfeld 1988, extending the number of models studied under the broad umbrella of neurocomputing. Find this resource:

Anderson, James, and Edward Rosenfeld, eds. Neurocomputing: Foundations of Research. Cambridge, MA: MIT press, 1988. Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation While most philosophical work on connectionism has centered on