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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1. Objective There are numerous ways to conserve energy. The process of conserving energy is not only how but also on what to use for it. Solar energy is one alternative energy source, which can be converted to electricity by the use of solar panels. Most solar panels use silicon to produce the panels. The cells that are contained in these solar panels are normally silicon. These individual cells are shrinking all the time and becoming cheaper to produce. Solar panels provide users with a source for their work. Applications of solar panels are presently economical where there is plenty of sunshine. Further solar panels help to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and other depleting resources used to generate electricity. Solar panel is a source of clean, cheap, and renewable energy for our homes. Using solar panels can influence the capacity of our home supplies. This method allows us to generate additional electricity, which fed into our current power systems, will have the effect of reducing consumption from the national grid, saving you money in the process. This project is aboutfabrication of a dual powered outdoor vacuum cleaner, in which we will have a suction pump run by a dc motor. The outlet of the pump will be connected to a bin to hold the litter. The power to the dc motor will be provided by a battery, which will be charged by the solar panels mounted on top of the device. Provision is given to charge the battery in adverse conditions by electricity. The complete unit will be mounted on a trolley for easy movement. By this technology, the use of engines run by fuel for the same purpose can be eliminated as fuel is one depleting source of energy and the price of fuel in the recent years is an increasing curve on the graph, which is still increasing further. This device can be used in places like

school, hospital, compounds, railway stations, bus stand and in lawns to carry away fallen leaves. This project is an attempt to clean the environment at a faster rate and by cost effective means. 1.2. Product Definitions Product definition is an important issue because it helps set the scope of work for this preparatorystudy, which itself will inform the extent of implementing measures that may be required. Vacuum cleaners (VCs) are made in a variety of shapes and sizes for domestic and commercial useand for different applications. Generally, a vacuum cleaner can be defined as An electricallyoperated appliance that removes soiled material (dust, fiber, threads) from the surface to be cleanedby airflow created by a vacuum developed within the unit by an electrically powered vacuumgenerator or fan. The material thus removed is separated and stored in the appliance and the cleanedsuction air is returned to the ambient. 1.3. Scope Multi-use Vacuum For Outdoor Hard Surfaces or Turf Great for quick clean-up of parking lots, playgrounds, airport ramps and more. Ideal For: Condo/Apartment Complexes Schools Hospitals Shopping Centres/Malls Athletics Complexes Stadiums/Arenas Garages Campgrounds

1.3.1 Scope of the study Key aspects in the considerations of the scope of this study are Functionality the function of a vacuum cleaner is to remove soiled material (dust, fiber,threads) from a surface to be cleaned by an airflow created by a vacuum developed within theunit by an electrically powered vacuum generator or fan. End use (domestic / commercial) this study focuses on products designed fordomestic/household use and similar usage by laymen in a commercial or institutionalenvironment such as shops, hospitals, offices and hotels, for removal of settled dust oncarpets and dry hard floors. Because of their specialist application, it is not sensible to includeindustrial vacuum cleaners used, for example, on construction sites or in factories. Availability of test standards For example, the definition according to Standard 60335 isThis International Standard deals with the safety of electrical appliances for households andsimilar purposes, their rated voltage being not more than 250 V for single-phase appliancesand 480 V for other appliances. Appliances not intended for normal household use but which may be a source of danger to the public, such as appliances intended to be usedby nonprofessionals in shops, in light industry and on farms, are within the scope of this standard

1.3.1.1 Products to be considered in scope Household and similar use vacuum cleaners of all types found in homes, offices, hospitals, hotels and shops.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY


2.1. Non-renewable resource A non-renewable resource is a natural resource, which cannot be produced, grown, generated or used on a scale, which can sustain its consumption rate, once depleted there, is no more available for future needs. Also considered non-renewable are resources that are consumed much

faster than nature can create them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum and natural gas), nuclear power (uranium) and certain aquifers are examples. In contrast, resources such as timber (when harvested sustainably) or metals (which can be recycled) are considered renewable resources. 2.1.1 Fossil fuels

Fig 2.1a temporary oil drilling rig Natural resources such as coal, petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas take thousands of years to form naturally and cannot be replaced as fast as they are being consumed. Eventually natural resources will become too costly to harvest and humanity will need to find other sources of energy. At present, the main energy source used by humans are non-renewable fossil fuels, as a result of continual use since the first internal combustion engine in the 17thcentury,the fuel is still in high demand

withconventional infrastructure and transport which are fitted with the combustion engine. The continual use of fossil fuels at the current rate will increase global warming and cause more severe climate change. 2.2. Solar energy

Fig 2.3 Solar Power Plant Solar energyradiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologiesinclude solar heating, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable

contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said, "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared". 2.2.1. Energy from the Sun

Fig 2.4 About half the incoming solar energy reaches the Earth's surface The Earth receives 174 petawatts (1015 watts) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while clouds, oceans and landmasses absorb the rest. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible andnear-infrared ranges with a small part in the near ultraviolet. Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and this raises their temperature. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anti-cyclones. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and landmasses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 C. By photosynthesis, green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy, which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.

Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption Solar Wind Biomass Primary energy use (2005) Electricity (2005)

Energy

3,850,000 EJ 2,250 EJ 3,000 EJ 487 EJ 56.7 EJ

Table 2.1 Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and landmasses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined. Solar energy can be harnessed in different levels around the world. Depending on a geographical location, the closer to the equator the potential" solar energy is available. 2.2.2. Advantages of solar energy Sunlight can be used to directly generate electricity by the use of photovoltaic technology. The use of solar cells or photovoltaic arrays is getting more and more acceptable as an alternative and cost efficient means of generating power. Sunlight concentration is also another way of using solar energy. Heat is also more readily usable than the energy in sunshine. You can use it for heating a building or for cooking or even for generating electricity. Advantages of Solar Energy / Learn 6 Real-World Ways There are plenty of excellent reasons that equate to advantages in using solar energy. Here are some advantages in using solar energy. 1. The abundance of Solar Energy. Even in the middle of winter each square meter of land still receives a fair amount of solar radiation. Sunlight is everywhere and the resource is practically inexhaustible. Even during cloudy days we still receive some sunlight and it is this that can be used as a renewable resource. 2. You dont pay for sunlight. Sunlight is totally free. There is of course the initial investment for the equipment. After the initial capital outlay you wont be receiving a bill every month for the rest of your life from the electric utility. 3. Solar energy is getting more cost effective. The technology for solar energy is evolving at an increasing rate. At present photovoltaic technology is still relatively expensive but the technology is

improving and production is increasing. The result of this is to drive costs down. Payback times for the equipment are getting shorter and in some areas where the cost of electricity is high payback may be as short as five years. 4. Solar energy is non-polluting. Solar energy is an excellent alternative for fossil fuels like coal and petroleum because solar energy is practically emission free while generating electricity. With solar energy the danger of further damage to the environment is minimized. The generation of electricity through solar power produces no noise. So noise pollution is also reduced. 5. Accessibility of solar power in remote locations. Solar power can generate electricity no matter how remote the area as long as the sun shines there. Even in areas that are inaccessible to power cables solar power can produce electricity. 6. Solar energy systems are virtually maintenance free. Once a photovoltaic array is setup it can last for decades. Once they are installed and setup there are practically zero recurring costs. If needs increase solar panels can be added with ease and with no major revamp

2.2.3. Applications of solar technology Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends. However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal, derive their energy from the sun. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position of a building to the Sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are generally considered demand side technologies

Solar power

Fig 2.10The PS10 concentrates sunlight from a field on a central tower Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaic (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. PV converts light into electric current using the photoelectric. Commercial CSP plants were first developed in the 1980s and the 354 MW SEGS CSP installations is the largest solar power plant in the world and are located in the Mojave Desert of California. Other large CSP plants include the Solnova Solar Power Stationand the Andasol solar power station (100 MW), both in Spain. 214MW Charanka Solar Park in India, is the worlds largest photovoltaic plant. Photovoltaic

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Fig 2.1180 MW Okhotnykovo Solar Park A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the 1880s. In 1931, a German engineer, Dr Bruno Lange, developed a photocell using silver selenide in place of copper oxide.Although the prototype selenium cells converted less than 1% of incident light into electricity, both Ernst Werner von Siemens and James Clerk Maxwell recognized the importance of this discovery.Following the work of Russell Ohl in the 1940s, researchers Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin created the silicon solar cell in 1954. These early solar cells cost 286 USD/watt and reached efficiencies of 4.56%. 2.3. Vacuum cleaner The vacuum cleaner evolved from the carpet sweeper via manual vacuum cleaners. The first manual models, using bellows, came in the 1860s, and the first motorized models came in the beginning of the 20th century. 2.3.1 Evolution of vacuum cleaner Daniel Hess Daniel Hess of West Union, Iowa invented a vacuum cleaner in 1860, calling it a carpet sweeper instead of a vacuum cleaner. His machine did, in

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fact, have a rotating brush like a traditional carpet sweeperand possessed an elaborate bellows mechanism on top of the body to generate suction of dust and dirt. Hess received a patent (US No. 29.077) for his invention of the vacuum cleaner on July 10, 1860.

Ives W. McGaffey The first manually powered cleaner using vacuum principle was the "Whirlwind", invented in Chicago in 1868 by Ives W. McGaffey. The machine was lightweight and compact, but was difficult to operate because of the need to turn a hand crank at the same time as pushing it across the floor. McGaffey enlisted the help of The American Carpet Cleaning Co. of Boston to market it to the public. It was sold for $25. It is hard to determine how successful the Whirlwind was, as most of them were sold in Chicago and Boston, and it is likely that many were lost in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Only two are known to have survived, one of which can be found in the Hoover Historical Center. McGaffey was but one of many 19th-century inventors in the United States and Europe who devised manual vacuum cleaners. He obtained a patent (US No. 91,145) on June 8, 1869. Melville Bissell In 1876, Melville R. Bissell of Grand Rapids, Michigan created a push-powered carpet sweeper for his wife, Anna Sutherland Bissell, to clean up sawdust in carpeting. Shortly after, Bissell Carpet Sweepers were born. After Melville died unexpectedly in 1889, Anna took control of the company and became one of the most powerful business-women of the day. The company later added portable vacuum cleaners to its line of cleaning tools. John S. Thurman

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On November 14, 1898, John S. Thurman of St. Louis, Missouri, submitted a patent (US No. 634,042) for a "pneumatic carpet renovator". It was issued on October 3, 1899. Thurman created a gasoline-powered carpet cleaner for the General Compressed Air Company. In a newspaper advertisement from the St. Louis Dispatch, Thurman offered his invention of the horse drawn (which went door to door) motorized cleaning system in St. Louis. He offered cleaning services at $4 per visit. By 1906, Thurman was offering built-in central cleaning systems that used compressed air, yet featured no dust collection. Thurman's machine is sometimes considered the first vacuum cleaner. However, the dust was blown into a receptacle rather than being sucked in, as in the machine now used. In later patent litigation, Judge Augustus Hand ruled that Thurman "does not appear to have attempted to design a vacuum cleaner or to have understood the process of vacuum cleaning". H. Cecil Booth Hubert Cecil Booth has the strongest claim to inventing the motorized vacuum cleaner, in 1901. As Booth recalled decades later, that year he attended a demonstration of an American machine by its inventor at the Empire Music Hall in London. The inventor is not named, but Booths description of the machine conforms closely to Thurmans design, as modified in later patents. Booth watched a demonstration of the device, which blew dust off the chairs, and thought it would be much more useful to have one that sucked dust. He tested the idea by laying a handkerchief on the seat of a restaurant chair, putting his mouth to the handkerchief, and then trying to suck up as much dust as he could onto the handkerchief. Upon seeing the dust and dirt collected on the underside of the handkerchief, he realized the idea could work. Booth created a large device, driven first by an oil engine, and later by an electric motor. Nicknamed the "Puffing Billy", Booth's first petrol-

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powered, horse-drawn vacuum cleaner relied upon air drawn by a piston pump through a cloth filter. It did not contain any brushes; all the cleaning was done by suction through long tubes with nozzles on the ends. Booth initially did not attempt to sell his machine, but rather sold cleaning services. The vans of the British Vacuum Cleaning Company (BVCC) were bright red; uniformed operators would haul hose off the van and route it through the windows of a building to reach all the rooms inside. Booth was harassed by complaints about the noise of his vacuum machines and was even fined for frightening horses.Gaining the royal seal of approval, Booth's motorized vacuum cleaner was used to clean the carpets of Westminster Abbey prior to Edward VII's coronation in 1901. Booth received his first patents on February 18 and August 30, 1901. Booth started the British Vacuum Cleaner Company, and refined his invention over the next several decades. Though his "Goblin" model lost out to competition from Hoover in the household vacuum market, his company successfully turned its focus to the industrial market, building ever-larger models for factories and warehouses. Booth's company, now BVC, lives on today as a unit of pneumatic tube system maker Quire pace Ltd.

David T. Kenney Nine patents granted to the New Jersey inventor David T.

Kenney between 1903 and 1913 established the foundation for the American vacuum cleaner industry. Membership in the Vacuum Cleaner

Manufacturers' Association, formed in 1919, was limited to licensees under his patents. Walter Griffiths In 1905, "Griffith's Improved Vacuum Apparatus for Removing Dust from Carpets" was another manually operated cleaner, patented by Walter Griffiths Manufacturer, Birmingham, England. It was portable, easy to store,

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and powered by "any one person (such as the ordinary domestic servant)", who would have the task of compressing a bellows-like contraption to suck up dust through a removable, flexible pipe, to which a variety of shaped nozzles could be attached. This was arguably the first domestic vacuumcleaning device to resemble the modern vacuum cleaner. Hermann Bogenschild German immigrant engineer Hermann Bogenschild filed a patent in 1906 for a mechanical "dust removing apparatus". He had emigrated from Berlin to Milwaukee in 1892. Bogenschild's device was mounted on wheels for portability and its motor was connected to a hose and filter system. James Murray Spangler In 1907, James Murray Spangler, a janitor from Canton, Ohio, invented the first practical, portable vacuum cleaner. Crucially, in addition to suction that used an electric fan, a box, and one of his wife's pillowcases, Spangler's design incorporated a rotating brush to loosen debris. Unable to produce the design himself due to lack of funding, he sold the patent in 1908 to William Henry Hoover who had Spangler's machine redesigned with a steel casing, casters, and attachments. Subsequent innovations included the first disposal filter bags in the 1920s and the first upright vacuum cleaner in 1926. Hoover Spangler patented his rotating-brush design June 2, 1908, and eventually sold the idea to his cousin's husband, Hoover. He was looking for a new product to sell, as the leather goods produced by his 'Hoover Harness and Leather Goods' company were becoming obsolete, because of the invention of the automobile. In the United States and other countries, the Hoover Company remains one of the leading manufacturers of household goods, including vacuum cleaners; and Hoover became very wealthy from the invention. Indeed, in Britain the name Hoover became synonymous with

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the vacuum cleaner so much, so that one "hoovers one's carpets". Initially called 'The Electric Suction Sweeper Company' - their first vacuum was the 1908 Model O, which sold for $60.

Constellation

Fig 2.14Hoover Constellation of 1960 Hoover is also notable for an unusual vacuum cleaner, the Hoover Constellation, which is a cylinder type but lacks wheels. Instead, the vacuum cleaner floats on its exhaust, operating as a hovercraft, although this is not true of the earliest models. They had a swivel top hose with the intention being that the user would place the unit in the center of the room, and work around the cleaner. Introduced in 1952, they are collectible, and are easily identified by the spherical shape of the housing. They tended to be loud, had poor cleaning power, and could not float over carpets. However, they remain an interesting machine; restored, they work well in homes with lots of hardwood floors.

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The Constellations were changed and updated over the years until discontinued in 1975. These Constellations route all of the exhaust under the vacuum using a different airfoil. The updated design is quiet even by modern standards, particularly on carpet as it muffles the sound. These models float on carpet or bare flooralthough on hard flooring, the exhaust air tends to scatter any fluff or debris around. Hoover has now re-released an updated version of this later model Constellation in the US (model # S3341 in Pearl White and # S3345 in stainless steel). Changes include a HEPA filtration bag, a 12 amp motor; a suction turbine powered rotating brush floor head, and a redesigned version of the handle, which tended to break. This same model was marketed in the UK under the Maytag brand as the Satellite because of licensing restrictions. The 5.2 amp motor on older US units provides respectable suction but they all lack a motorized brush head. Therefore, they generally work better on hard floors or short pile rugs. Old units take Hoover type J paper bags but the slightly smaller type S allergen filtration bags can be easily trimmed to fit the retaining notches on the old vacuums. Replacement motors are still available from Hoover US for some models. Hoover made another hovering vacuum cleaner model called the Celebrity in 1973. It has a flattened "flying saucer" shape. Hoover added wheels to it to make it a conventional cylinder model after a brief run as a hovering vacuum. It uses "Type H" bags. Nilfisk In 1910, P.A. Fisker patented a vacuum cleaner using a name based on the companys telegram addressNilfisk. It was the first electric vacuum cleaner in Europe. His design weighed just 17.5 kg and could be operated by a single person. The company Fisker and Nielsen was formed just a few years before. Today the Nilfisk vacuums are delivered by Nilfisk-Advance.

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Electrolux Model V The first vacuum cleaners were bulky stand-up units and not easily portable. However, in 1921 Electrolux launched the Model V, which was designed to lie on the floor on two thin metal runners. This innovation, conceived by Electrolux founder Axel Wenner-Gren, became a standard feature on generations of future vacuum cleaners. There is a recorded example of a 1930s Electrolux vacuum cleaner surviving in use for over 70 years, finally breaking in 2008.

Post-World War II

Fig 2.15Dyson DC07 upright cyclonic vacuum cleaner For many years after their introduction, vacuum cleaners remained a luxury item, but after World War II, they became common among the middle classes.Vacuums tend to be more common in Western countries because, in most other parts of the world wall-to-wall carpeting is uncommon and homes have tile or hardwood floors, which are easily swept, wiped, or mopped manually without power assist.The last decades of the twentieth century saw the more widespread use of technologies developed earlier, including filter

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less cyclonic dirt separation, central vacuum systems, and rechargeable hand-held vacuums. In addition, miniaturized computer technology and improved batteries allowed the development of a new type of machine the autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner.

2.3.2. Recent developments In 2004, a British company released Airider, a hovering vacuum cleaner that floats on a cushion of air. It has claimed to be lightweight and easier to maneuver (compared to using wheels), although it is not the first vacuum cleaner to do this, the Hoover Constellation predated it by at least 35 years. A British inventor has developed a new cleaning technology known as Air Recycling Technology, which instead of using a vacuum uses an air stream to collect dust from the carpet. This technology was tested by the Market Transformation Program (MTP) and shown to be more energy efficient than the vacuum method. Although working prototypes exist, Air Recycling Technology is not currently used in any production cleaner. Modern configurations A wide variety of technologies, designs, and configurations are available for both domestic and commercial cleaning jobs. Upright Upright vacuum cleaners are common in the US, Britain and several Commonwealth countries, but very unusual in Continental Europe. They take the form of a cleaning head, onto which a handle and bag are attached.

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Upright designs usually employ a rotating brushroll or beater bar, which removes dirt through a combination of sweeping and vibration. There are two types of upright vacuums; dirty-air/direct fan (found mostly on commercial vacuums), or clean-air/fan-bypass (found on most of today's domestic vacuums). The older of the two designs, direct-fan cleaners have a large impeller (fan) mounted close to the suction opening, through which the dirt passes directly, before being blown into a bag. A separate cooling fan often cools the motor. Because of their large-bladed fans, and comparatively short air paths, directfan cleaners create a very efficient airflow from a low amount of power, and make great carpet cleaners. Their "above-floor" cleaning power is less efficient, since the airflow is lost when it passes through a long hose, and the fan has been optimized for airflow volume and not suction. Fan-bypass uprights have their motor mounted after the filter bag. Dust is removed from the airstream by the bag, and usually a filter, before it passes through the fan. The fans are smaller, and are usually a combination of several moving and stationary turbines working in sequence to boost power. The motor is cooled by the airstream passing through it. Fan-bypass vacuums are good for both carpet and above-floor cleaning, since their suction does not significantly diminish over the distance of a hose, as it does in direct-fan cleaners. However, their air-paths are much less efficient, and can require more than twice as much power as direct-fan cleaners to achieve the same results. The most common upright vacuum cleaners use a drive-belt powered by the suction motor to rotate the brush-roll. However, a more common design of dual motor upright is available. In these cleaners, the suction is provided via a large motor, while a separate, smaller motor, which does not create any suction, powers the brush roll. The brush-roll motor can sometimes be switched off, so hard floors can be cleaned without the brushroll scattering the dirt. It may also have an automatic cut-off feature, which

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shuts the motor off if the brush-roll becomes jammed, protecting it from damage. Cylinder Cylinder models (in the US also often called canister models) dominate the European market. They have the motor and dust collector (using a bag or bag less) in a separate unit, usually mounted on wheels, which is connected to the vacuum head by a flexible hose. Their main advantage is flexibility, as you can attach different heads for different tasks, and maneuverability (the head can reach under furniture and makes it very easy to vacuum stairs and vertical surfaces. Many cylinder models have power heads, as standard or add-on equipment, which contain the same sort of mechanical beaters as in upright units, making them as efficient on carpets as upright models. A separate electric motor or a turbine, which uses the suction power to spin the brush roll via a drive belt, drives such beaters. Drum

Fig 2.16Wet/dry shop vacuum for home use Drum or shop vacuum models are essentially heavy-duty industrial versions of cylinder vacuum cleaners, where the cylinder consists of a large vertically positioned drum, which can be stationary or on wheels. Smaller versions, for use in garages or small workshops, are usually electrically

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powered. Larger models, which can store over 200 litres,are often hooked up to compressed air, utilizing the Venturi effect to produce a partial vacuum. Wet/Dry Wet or wet/dry vacuum cleaners are a specialized form of the cylinder/drum models that can be used to clean up wet or liquid spills. They commonly can accommodate both wet and dry soil age; some are also equipped with a switch or exhaust port for reversing the airflow, a useful function for everything from clearing a clogged hose to blowing dust into a corner for easy collection. Pneumatic Pneumatic or pneumatic wet/dry vacuum cleaners are a specialized form of wet/dry models that hook up to compressed air. They commonly can accommodate both wet and dry soil age, a useful feature in industrial plants and manufacturing facilities. Backpack Backpack vacuum cleaners are commonly used for commercial cleaning: they allow the user to move rapidly about a large area. They are essentially cylinder vacuum cleaners strapped on the user's back. Hand-held

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Fig2.17USB-powered hand-held vacuum cleaner Lightweight hand-held vacuum cleaners, either powered

from rechargeable batteries or mains power, are also popular for cleaning up smaller spills. Frequently seen examples include the Black & Decker DustBuster, introduced in 1979, and the various hand-held models from Dirt Devil, first introduced in 1984. Some battery-powered handheld vacuums are wet/dry rated; the appliance must be partially disassembled and cleaned after picking up wet materials, to avoid developing unpleasant odors. Robotic

Fig 2.18The Electrolux Trilobite robotic vacuum cleaner In early 1999/2000, several companies developed robotic vacuum cleaners, a form of carpet sweeper, usually equipped with limited suction power. Some examples These

are Roomba, Robomaxx, Intellibot, Trilobite, FloorBot and Dyson.

machines move autonomously, usually in a mostly chaotic pattern ("random bounce") across a floor, collecting surface dust and debris into a dustbin. They usually can navigate around furniture and come back to a docking station to charge their batteries, and a few are able to empty their dust containers into the dock as well. Most robotic vacuum cleaners are designed for home use, although there are more capable models for operation in offices, hotels, hospitals, woodshops, etc. Most models are equipped with motorized brushes that

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sweep debris from the floor into a collection bin. Additionally, some such as the Roomba are equipped with an impeller motor to create an actual vacuum, to collect finer dust particles.By the end of 2003, about 570,000 units were sold worldwide.The Dyson robotic vacuum cleaner (DC06) was too expensive for home use due to its high technical specifications. Thus, it was never released, although it is claimed that it would have been the first robotic vacuum cleaner sold.

Cyclonic Portable vacuum cleaners working on the cyclonic separation principle became popular in the 1990s. This dirt separation principle was well known and often used in central vacuum systems. Cleveland's P.A. Geier Company had obtained a patent on a cyclonic vacuum cleaner as early as 1928, which was later sold to Health-Mor in 1939, introducing the Filter Queen cyclonic canister vacuum cleaner. In 1979, James Dyson introduced a portable unit with cyclonic separation, adapting this design from industrial sawmills.He launched his cyclone cleaner first in Japan in the 1980s at a cost of about US$1800 and in 1993 brought out the Dyson DC01 upright in the UK for 200. Critics expected that people would not buy a vacuum cleaner at twice the price of a conventional unit, but the Dyson design later became the most popular cleaner in the UK. Cyclonic cleaners do not use filtration bags. Instead, the dust is separated in a detachable cylindrical collection vessel or bin. Air and dust are sucked at high speed into the collection vessel at a direction tangential to the vessel wall, creating a fast-spinning vortex. The dust particles and other debris

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move to the outside of the vessel by centrifugal force, where they fall due to gravity. In fixed-installation central vacuum cleaners, the cleaned air may be exhausted directly outside without need for further filtration. A welldesigned cyclonic filtration system does not lose suction power due to airflow restriction, until the collection vessel is almost full. This is in marked contrast to filter bag systems, which lose suction as pores in the filter become clogged as dirt and dust are collected. In portable cyclonic models, the cleaned air from the center of the vortex is expelled from the machine after passing through a number of successively finer filters at the top of the container. The first filter is intended to trap particles, which could damage the subsequent filters that remove fine dust particles. The filters must regularly be cleaned or replaced to ensure that the machine continues to perform efficiently.Since Dyson's success in raising public awareness of cyclonic separation, several other companies have introduced cyclone models. Competing manufacturers include Hoover, Bissell, Eureka, Electrolux, Filter Queen, etc., and the cheapest models are no more expensive than a conventional cleaner is. Central

Fig 2.19Power unit of a typical central vacuum cleaner

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Central vacuum cleaners, also known as built-in or ducted, are a type of cylinder model which has the motor and dirt filtration unit located in a central location in a building, and connected by pipes to fixed vacuum inlets installed throughout the building. Only the hose and cleaning head need be carried from room to room, and the hose is commonly 8 m (25 ft) long, allowing a large range of movement without changing vacuum inlets. Plastic or metal piping connects the inlets to the central unit. The vacuum head may be unpowered, or have beaters operated by an electric motor or by an airdriven turbine. The dirt bag or collection bin in a central vacuum system is usually so large that emptying or changing needs to be done less often, perhaps a few times per year for an ordinary household. The central unit usually stays in stand-by, and is turned on by a switch on the handle of the hose. Alternately, the unit powers up when the hose is plugged into the wall inlet, when the metal hose connector makes contact with two prongs in the wall inlet and control current is transmitted through low voltage wires to the main unit. A central vacuum typically produces greater suction than common portable vacuum cleaners, because a larger fan and more powerful motor can be used when they are not required to be portable. A cyclonic separation system, if used, does not lose suction as the collection container fills up, until the container is nearly full. This is in marked contrast to filter bag designs, which start losing suction immediately as pores in the filter become clogged by accumulated dirt and dust. A benefit to allergy sufferers is that unlike a standard vacuum cleaner, which must blow some of the dirt collected back into the room being cleaned (no matter how efficient its filtration), a central vacuum removes all the dirt collected to the central unit. Since this central unit is usually located outside the living area, no dust is re-circulated back into the room being cleaned. In

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addition, it is possible on most new models to vent the exhaust entirely outside, even with the unit inside the living quarters. In addition, because of the remote location of the motor unit, there is much less noise in the room being cleaned than with a standard vacuum cleaner. Other variations Some vacuum cleaners include an electric mop in the same machine: for a dry and a later wet clean. The iRobot company developed the Scooba, a robotic wet vacuum cleaner that carries its own cleaning solution, applies it and scrubs the floor, and vacuums the dirty water into a collection tank.

Attachments Most vacuum cleaners are supplied with various specialized attachments, such as tools, brushes and extension wands, which allow them to reach otherwise inaccessible places or to be used for cleaning a variety of surfaces. The most common of these tools are:

Hard floor brush (for non-upright models) Carpeted floor brush (for non-upright models) Dusting brush Crevice tool Upholstery tool Specifications

The performance of a vacuum cleaner can be measured by several parameters:

Airflow, in litres per second [l/s] or cubic feet per minute (CFM or ft/min)

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Air speed, in meters per second [m/s] or miles per hour [mph] Suction, vacuum, or water lift, in Pascals [Pa] or inches of water

Other specifications of a vacuum cleaner are:


Weight, in kilograms [kg] or pounds [lb] Noise, in decibels [dB] PROPOSED MODEL In this project,a dc motor will run suction pump; the outlet of the pump

will be connected to a bin, which will hold the litter. The power to the dc motor will be provided by a battery, which will be charged by the solar panels mounted on top of the device. Provision is done to charge the battery in adverse conditions by electricity. The complete unit will be mounted on a trolley for easy movement. By this technology, the use of engines run by fuel for the same purpose can be eliminated as fuel is one depleting source of energy and the price of fuel in the recent years is an increasing curve on the graph, which is still increasing further. This device can be used in places like school, hospital, compounds, railway stations, bus stand, where people tend to throw litter wastes and this device can be used in lawns to carry away fallen leaves. This project is an attempt to clean the environment at a faster rate and by cost effective means.

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