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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

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Networking Basics 1
What you ever wanted to know and never asked for

Werner Sponer

IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Agenda
Ethernet Standard CSMA/CD Hardware Repeater Hub Switch

L2-Technologies Spanning-Tree Etherchannel


Adapters DAC SFP, SFP+ GBIC QSFP Cables Copper Optical Fibre

VLAN
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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

History and Standards

ETHERNET

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Robert M. Metcalfe - Who?

Robert Melancton Metcalfe (born April 7, 1946 in Brooklyn, New York) is an electrical engineer from the United States who co-invented Ethernet

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Werner Sponer IT Architect

IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

R. Metcalfe original draft

http://www.ieee802.org/3/ethernet_diag.html

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Beginning in the stoneage Ethernet used a technique called Carrier Sense Multiple Access ...

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

... Collision detection CSMA/CD.

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Connecting PCs with an Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) to the Ethernet ...

Yellow cable or Thick Ethernet

Thick Ethernet - 10Base5: 10 Mbit/s 50 Ohms cable impedance

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This picture: Source: Wikipedia

Werner Sponer IT Architect

IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

LAN segments could be extended ...

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

The ethernet cable got thinner and thinner, and the Cable got collapsed into one box. The Hub was born. ..10BASE-T
Twisted Pair Hub

NIC with 10BASE-T connector

10BASE-T Transceiver

NIC with AUI

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Later the hubs got connected with bridges, and the bridges got collapsed into one box the switch was born.

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Transceiver

AUI <-> Fiber

RJ45 <-> AUI

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

HUBs and Switches

BAY Networks
12 / 24 Port manag., unmanag.

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Spanning Tree Non Redundant Design

Single point of failure


SW2

Single point of failure

SW1

SW3

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Spanning Tree Physical Loop

SW2

SW1

Physical Loop problems: Duplicated Frames MAC Table inconsistency Broadcast storm

SW3

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Spanning Tree Disabling ports

SW2

SW1

SW3

Solution: Disabling redundant ports

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Spanning Tree root switch election

MAC: 0000.0000.0000.000B Priority: 32768 RP MAC: 0000.0000.0000.000A Priority: 32768 DP


SW1 SW2

DP

X
DP

MAC: 0000.0000.0000.000C BLK Priority: 32768

RP

SW3

Bridge ID: Bridge priority + MAC Root bridge = Bridge with lowest bridge ID

Port type Designated Port (DP) Root Port (RP) Blocked Port (BP)

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Rudundant Links
Without redundant links single point of failure

SW1

SW2

With redundant links

STP will block ports (hopefully!)

SW1

SW2

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Redundant Links with Link Aggregation (Etherchannel)


With Link Aggregation STP no port blocked More bandwith

SW1

SW2

Etherchannel protocols LACP (industry standard IEEE 802.3ad) PAgP (Cisco proprietary) manual Advantages Load balancing based on IP/MAC Increased redundancy more bandwith

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Adapters

ETHERNET

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

The Evolution of Data Center Network ... Its a part of the Ethernet history

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

DAC, Twinax, SFP, SFP+ and GBIC?


GBIC (1Gb)
Gigabit Interface Coupler

SFP (1Gb)
Small Form-factor Pluggable Fiber Channel SFP with fiber media only

SFP+ (10 Gb)


like SFP (same physical dimension) for 10GbE Media types

DAC (10Gb)
Direct attached copper cable Is a copper cable with a fixed installed SFP+ on both ends

QSFP (40Gb)
Quad Small Formfactor Pluggable

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Length of DAC, Twinax, SFP, SFP+, single- multi-mode


Short Range Transceiver 100 Meters
550 Meters Long Range Transceiver

10km

1GbE
RJ-45

Optical Cable + 2x 1GbE SX Transceiver

Optical Cable + 2x 1GbE LX Transceiver

10GbE
DAC/TwinAx

7 Meters

Short Range Transceiver

300 Meters

Long Range Transceiver

10km

Extended Range Transceiver

40 km

Optical Cable + 2x 10GbE SR Transceiver

Optical Cable + 2x 10GbE LR Transceiver

Optical Cable + 2x 10GbE ER Transceiver

40GbE
QSFP

7 Meters

Short Range Transceiver

100 Meters

Long Range Transceiver

10 km

Optical Cable + 2x 40GbE SR Transceiver

Optical Cable + 2x 40GbE LR Transceiver

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Gigabit Ethernet - GBIC


1000 Mbps MAC 802.3z CSMA/CD Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Interface Converter

1000BASE-CX Shielded Copper

1000BASE-T Copper Cat5 UTP

1000BASE-SX Multimode Fibre (780 nm) 500 m

1000BASE-LX Singlemode Fibre (1300 nm) 3000 m

25 M

100 m

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

40GbE: Baseline Draft Fibre Options


40 Gigabit MAC 40 Gigabit Media Independent Interface (XLGMII), 4 Lanes 40 Gigabit Attachment Unit Interface (XLAUI), 4 Lanes 4-Lane Parallel PHY

4 Lane 850 nm 100 m OM3 PMD

4 CWMD ~1310 nm 10 km OS2 PMD

SR4 40GBASE-SR
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LR4 40GBASE-LR4

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

100GbE: Baseline Draft Fibre Options


100 Gigabit MAC 100 Gigabit Media Independent Interface (CGMII), 10 Lanes 100 Gigabit Attachment Unit Interface (CAUI), 10 Lanes 10-Lane Parallel PHY 10 Lane 850 nm = 100 m OM3 PMD 10-to-4-Lane Parallel PHY 4? WDM ~1310 nm = 40 km OS2 PMD

4? WDM ~1310 nm = 10 km OS2 PMD

SR10 100GBASE-SR
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LR4
100GBASE-LR 100GBASE-SR
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ER4
100GBASE-ER 100GBASE-SR
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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre 40 Gbit/s


8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
B A B A B A B A

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre 100 Gbit/s

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre and copper

ETHERNET CABLES

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Ethernet - History
Year
1973

Standard

Comment
R. Metcalfe develops LAN bustopology

1976
1980 1982 1983 1990 1995 1999 2002 2008 2010 2014
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Xerox prototype
Digital/Intel/Xerox Ethernet v1 DIX Ethernet v2 IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3i (10BASE-T) IEEE 802.3u (100BASE-T) IEEE 802.3z (1000BASE-T) IEEE 802.3ae (10GBASE) IEEE 802.3an (10GBASE-T) IEEE 802.3ba (100GBASE, 40GBASE) IEEE 802.3bj (100GBASE-T) Ethernet coaxial cable 10 Mbit/s Twisted Pair 100 Mbit/s Twisted Pair 1000 Mbit/s Twisted Pair 10 Gbit/s optical fibre 10 Gbit/s Twisted Pair 100 Gbit/s and 40 Gbit/s optical fibre 100 Gbit/s Twisted Pair
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Werner Sponer IT Architect

IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Cablecategories and length (Copper 1/2)


Category
Cat-3 Cat-5 Cat-5

Transfer class
Class C -

Standard
10BASE-T 100BASE-TX 1000BASE-T

Link length

Transmission freq.
2 x 10 MHz

Norm freq.
16 MHz 100 MHz 100 MHz

100 m

2 x 31.25 MHz 4 x 62.5 MHz

Cat-5e
Cat-5e, unshielded Cat-5e, shielded Class D

100 MHz
100 MHz 100 MHz

45 m ? > 45 m 10GBASE-T 55...100 m 4 x 417 MHz

Cat-6, unshielded
Cat-6, schielded

250 MHz 250 MHz

Class E 100 m

Cat-6A
Cat-7
Source: Wikipedia

Class EA
Class F

500 MHz
600 MHz

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Cablecategory and length (Copper 2/2)


Standard 40GBASE-KR4 40GBASE-CR4 40GBASE-SR4 40GBASE-LR4 BW 40 Gb/s 40 Gb/s 40 Gb/s 40 Gb/s Channel 4 4 4 4 Transmissio n Backplane shielded OM3 OS Medium Copper Copper Optical fibre Optical fibre Min. lenght 1m 7m 100 m 10 km

100GBASE-CR10 100GBASE-SR10
100GBASE-LR4 100GBASE-ER4
Source: Wikipedia

100 Gb/s 100 Gb/s


100 Gb/s 100 Gb/s

10 10
4 4

shielded OM3
OS OS

Copper Optical fibre


Optical fibre Optical fibre

7m 100 m
10 km 40 km

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Cable 10 and 100 MBit

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

1 Gbit Copper transmission

Quelle: Wikipedia

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre - modes


Multi-mode fiber (MMF) with step-index profile

Multi-mode fiber (MMF) with graded-index fiber


Monomode- or Singlemodefiber (SMF) with step-index profile

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre - modes

Cross section of a step-index profile

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre - modes

Cross section of a graded-index profile

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre - modes

Cross section of a monomode/singlemode faser

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre category and length (ISO/IEC 11801 und 24702)

Quelle: Wikipedia

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Optical fibre maximum transmission distance

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Quelle: Wikipedia

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

VLAN

ETHERNET TECHNOLOGIES

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

VLAN Virtual Local Area Network


Protocol based VLAN Port based VLAN

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

VLAN 802.1Q

The Ethernet Frame gets an additional tag

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

VLAN 802.1Q
The frame gets marked according the PVID

PVID ... Port VLAN Identifier

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

VLANs across switches w/o 802.1Q

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

VLANs across switches with 802.1Q

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Questions & Answers

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IBM Systems Technical University | Istanbul, Turkey 8-11 April 2014

Thank You!

Werner Sponer
Executive Architect STG System Networking

Obere Donaustrasse 95 A-1020 Wien Phone: +43 1 21145 4607 Mobile: +43 664 6186187
werner.sponer@at.ibm.com

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