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GS.

HOANG NGQC HA

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; TINH TOAN TRAC DIA



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co so DO'LIEU



( Tdi ban ldn th{( hai)

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NHAXUAT BAN GIAO D\TC

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LOINOIDAU

Trang cdc chuyen nganh. khoa hoc ve'Trui Ddt, d{1c biet khoa hoc Trac diuBan do, Dia chinh luang thong tin cdn phdi xu ly ngay cang tang. Tinh da dang cita cae nguon thong tin cung vdi su ket nOI' mang may tinh, nhdt la truy cap Internet doi hoi hinh thanh cdc huang nghien CUu mai. M6n "Tinh toan true diu va ca sa diJ' lieu" dd duoc hinh thanh trong hOl cdnh tren va trd thanh man hoc trong chuang

. trinh dao tao cao h9C cua truang Dai hoc Mo - Dia chat Ha Noi tit kh6a ddu tien . ndm 1996. Ca sit df hinh thanh cuon sdch. lil tui li¢u hili guing "Tinh todn (rae diu" '" duac in noi h¢ tai truong Dai hoc Mo- Dia chdt ndm 1996.

Sau mot s6' ruim gidng day man h9C "Tinh toan true diu va ca sit dilli¢u" cho cac hoc vien cao hoc dao tao hf Thac SI va Tie'n SI trong truong Dai hoc Mo-Dja chd: Ha Noi, chung toi dd due rut duac mot sa' kinh nghi¢m de' hoan chinh tai lieu. Tit tuim 2001 man hoc nay duoc lua chon iam man thi tuye'n nghien CUu sinh lam luan an Tie'n SI chuyen nganh "Trac dia dai cuong", do do xudt hien nhu cdu xudt han cu/in sach de'lam tai lieu gidng day va tra cuu. Trong cuon sach phdn dnh noi dung ke'tie'p nhiing phdn dd duoc trinh bay trong cdc man hoc it h¢ dao tao Dui hoc nhu: XU If so'li¢u trdc dia, tin hoc ung dung vil thong tin ddt dai. Trong nhiing nam vita qua cac tien he) cua c6ng nghe, nhti! la cong ngh¢ thong tin. cong ngh¢ do CPS (Global Positioning System) va CIS (Geographic Information system) dd lam thay ddi be) mdt cua trdc dia, film cho cue be) man khoa hoc chuyen sdu gdn ket han. Do d6 viec cung cap nhiing kiln thuc vetinh toan ciing nhu luu tnl cae dii lieu dd gop phdn trang bi cho cac nha nghien cuu va gidng vien nhiing co sa de' phdt trien kiln thuc cua minh.

Trang tha! gian qua, Trdc dia - Bdn do a nuoc ta dii huang tbi hoi nhap, dinh huang thea su phat trien cua the'gitJi va khu VlfC. M(Jt sophdn mem tien lien dii duoc zmg dung a Vi¢t Nam lam cho nhiing nguai lam cong lac nghien cuu phdi vuan len

'j .)

de' phat trien cdc phdn mem co khd nang canli tranh. Do do, can cung cap mot s6' kien thuc sdu va CO' bdn eho cae dai tuong dedap Ung nhu cdu d6.

Noi dung cua cuon sach baa g6m:

- CO' sa tinh todn binh sai trdc dia.

- M¢t s6' van de' cua phuong phap tinh va tal uu h6a tinh toano

- Co s6 dii lieu tren nen tang Ung dung cac h¢ thong thong tin dia fy (GIS)

M ¢t so van (N' trinh bay trong cuon sach dd duoc lua chon til cdc van de' nghien Cltu Iy thuye'l cling nhu kef qua nghien cuu trong qua trtnh tham gia cua tdc gid trong viec xU ly mang luai Thien win - Triie dia - V ¢ tinh Quae gia trong nhiing ndm 1992-2000 (thanh lap h¢ toa d¢ QuO(' gia VN 2000). Chung toi cling mong muon dinh huang mot s6' van de' cdn gidi quyef trong tuang lai.

'. Tdc gid hy vong cuan sdch se bd icli cho sinh vien cdc ndm cuoi, hoc vien

cao hot: I'd nghien OIU sinh, CUO!1 sach ciing co the' fa tai lieu tham khdo cho cae nha nghien cuu .

Tac Ria chan thanh cam an hoc vien cao hoc C(1c khoa hoc dd thiing thdn, ca; ma trong tranh luan khoa hoc WI pha! hien nhiing sai sot in un, Chung toi ddnh gia cao cong SilC bien t(ip cua bo ph(lJ1 bien tap Nha xud: han Gido due. Nha su giup dB nay ban thao dd duoc hoan chlnh them. Chung toi hy vong tai li¢u nay se h6 ich cho nhiing ai lam cong lac trdc dia va rdt mong s~r dong gop cua d6ng nghiep,'.

Giao su, TSKH. Hoang Ngoc Ha Truong bo mon

TRAC DIA PHO THONG vA SAl s6 TROONG DA'I HQC MO - D~A CHAT HA NQI

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PHANI

TiNH ToAN TRAC VIA

CHUONGI

TONG QUAN vt CAC PHUONG PHAP BINH SAl TRAC D~A

'.

1.1 KHAI NreM VE BINH SAl V61 cAc TRJ DO PHl,) THUQC

Trong cac giao trmh giang day cling nhu tai lieu nghien ciru a mroc ta, thong thuong khi xern xet viec binh sai theo phuong phap s6 binh phirong nho nhat da coi cac tri do la doc lap. Trong nhimg truong hop do rna tran he s6 R trang he phirong trinh chuan trong phuong phap binh sai gian tiep :

R8X + b =0;

se co dang:

[paa] [pab]... [pag] l

[pbb 1... [pbg]

, , "(pggj.j

Con trong phuong phap binh sai dieu kien h~ phuong trinh chuan cac s6 lien h~ :

NK+W=O rna tran N diroc xac dinh nhu sau:

N=

1 1

[ - ab]... [ - ar]

p p

1 1

[ - bb 1... [ - br 1

p p

.............. , ····································i······J·

[- IT] P

1

[- aa]

p

D~ xern xct ve van de cac tri do phu thuoc, cluing ta xern xet VI du dan gian do g6c theo phirong phap do toan vong (h 1.1).

Vi du 1.1. Chung ta binh sai theo plnrong phap dieu kien v6i cac goc y\ = a2 - at, Y2 = U3 - a2, Y3 = a3 - a\; Neu cac huang do voi ciing dQ chinh xac PI = P2 = P3 = 2; p = p = p = 1; cluing ta co phircng trinh lien h8. cac s6 hie. u chinh:

y, y, Yl

VI + v2 + v3 + W = O.

Hay co the viet lai duoi dang:

3

BV+W=O B = (1 1 1)

t,

H¢ phuong trinh chuan:

Ht'nh 1.1

NK+W=O

N = BP-l . BT = 3. Neu coi cac tri do la doc lap, rna tran

1

P = 1

1

so lien he:

Gia sir cluing ta can danh gia dQ chinh xac ham s6 la cac huang 1 va 2 sau binh sai :

f~ (~

o

6

Neu cluing ta hru y cac goc Y\, Y2' Y3 duoc tfnh theo cac hu6ng, co cac he s6 nrong quan:

r y y = - 0,5; r y s = 0 ;

\ 2 \ 3

ry y = - 0,5

2 3 .

rna tran trong s6 dao cac tri y,; Y2: Y3 se la

2 1 - 0,5 0
my r r
\ Y12 Y\3
Q= 2 1 - 0,5
my r =
2 Y23
2 1
my
3 Ma tran N trong h¢ phuong trtnh NK + W = a se la:

Tit do

N=l. K=-W

t,

D~ tfnh rna tran trong s6 dao aI' u2 theo cong thirc QF = fp·lfT - NrN-1Nf voi (N, = Bp·1fT, N = Br-1ST) cluing ta xac dinh diroc:

(0.75 0.25) Qf = 0.25 0.75

Nhu vay, dac diem co ban cua blnh sai cac tri do phu thuoc lit phai tinh tm cac thanh phdn ngoai duong cheo ciia rna tran trong s6 dao Q cua cac tri do theo phuong

phap blnh sai dieu kien hay rna tran trong s6 P = o'' trong binh sai gian tiep,

1.2. MO HINH TONG QUAT BINH SAl THEO pHUONG PHAp s6 BINH pHUONG NHO NHA T

Trong mot s6 tai lieu [1], [2], [3] da t6ng quat hoa cac phirong phap di~n hlnh: blnh sai gian tiep va binh sai dieu kien duoi mo hlnh sau:

7

Vi~t dum dang rna tr~n h¢ plurong trlnh s6 hieu chinh:

v = A. ~x + L

(l.l)

voi cac vector diroi dang kh6i sau:

~x = I:

\~X

L

( 1.2)

L =

"

L

-

Cac rna tran h¢ s6 A va trong s6 P diroc bieu dien:

( 1.3)

Dieu kien cua phirong phap s6 binh phirong nho nhat V Tp V = min. Chung ta thanh lap he plurong trlnh chuan.

-

Rill. + b = 0

(1.4)

o day

-[ - -T--

R = A PA; b = A PL.

DVa vao ky hieu (1.2), (1.3) cluing ta viet lai (1.4) duoi dang: (R+BTpB)~x+(ATPa+BTpp)Lix + ATpL+ BTp L =0

(aPA + PPP)flx+ (aTPa+ pTPP):ix +uTpL+PP L =0 (1.5) a day, R = AT PA.

Chung ta dira ra vector phu:

.....

K = P Pllx + P P Ax + P L

hay Ia:

........ AI ........

pL\x + P Ax - P - K + L = O.

(1.6)

H¢ phirong trlnh (1.5) diroc viet lai duoi dang:
R Ra BT llx b
pT "
Ra Raa Ax + ba =0
B P _p.l K L (1.7)

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a day,

T T T

Ra = A Pa; Raa. = a Pa; ba = a PL.

(1.8)

H~ phuong trinh (1.7) va bieu thuc (1.8) dtroc goi la rna hinh tong qual dai s6 cua bai roan binh sai. Chung ta se xern xet cac tnrong hop dac biet:

A

1.2.1. Neu a = 0, B = 0, ~ = 0, L = 0, Ta co:

R. lix+ B=O.

(1.9)

Day chinh lit phirong phap blnh sai gian tiep thong thuong. 1.2.2. Neu a = 0 vii ~ = o. H~ phtrong trinh (1. 7) co dang:

Rax + BTK = 0 Blix- p.IK+ L =0

(1.10)

1.2.3. a = 0; p = 0; p.1 = 0, he phirong trinh (1.10) duoc rut gQn nhu sau:

R6.x+BTK=O

"

B6.x + L = 0

Day chinh la rna hlnh cua plurong phap blnh sai gian tiep kern thea dieu kien.,

1.2.4. A = E; a = 0; p = 0; L = o.

6 day E Iii rna tran don vi. ta co:

B _p-I

+

A

L

P

v

o

=0

(1.11)

K

Hay iii:

(N - P-I)K+ £. =0

a day N = BVI B T; P = 0. Nhu vay, cluing ta thu diroc NK+ W=O

day chinh hi phuong phap blnh sai dieu kien.

(1.12)

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1.2.S. A = E; a = 0; L = O~ p= 0

Chung ta co he phirong trinh rut gon sau:

"'" "'"

NK+ pdx+ L =0

=0

(1.13)

1.2.6. B = 0; P = E. H¢ phuong trinh (1.7) co dang:
R Ra 0 .6.x b
RT -'"
Raa E dx + ba = 0
(l
_p.l "'"
0 E K L (1.14)
Sau khi khir tham s6 K, chung ta co: .. L,

+

R

b

= 0

( 1.15)

R-

x

Day chinh la rno hlnh blnh sai voi sai s6 so lieu g6c.

1.3. BtNH SAl co TiNH ro; SAl s6 s6 LIeU G6c

Bai toan hinh sai co tinh tm sai s6 s6 lieu g6c co trong thuc t~ khi cluing ta n6i rnang Ium vao cac diem diroc xac dinh voi d¢ chinh xac cao hon hoac chung ta co thong tin ve cac tham s6 dn xac dinh.

Tnroc het, cluing ta xem xet bai toan trong mo hlnh blnh sai gian tiep, Chung ta co th~ xem xet tir khia canh tnrong hop dac biet cua mO hinh (1.7) B = 0; P = E.

,..

V = A.6.x + adx + L

"'" .,..

V = dx + L

(1.16)

"'"

a day d x Ia vector cua cac in s6 lien quan tm s6 lieu g6c hoac cac diem rna cluing ta

co thong tin ban dau .

Ax - vector cua cac tham s6 hieu chinh voi vector cac gia tri gtin dung )«0). Neu X(O)

/

cua vecto s6 lieu g6c Ufy hang 56 lieu g6c [ = 0, thi khi d6 cluing ta co h¢ phuong trinh

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