Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 39

Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

PROGRAMMABLE ROBOT BASED ON PICAXE-08

MINI PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

NITHIN KP

PRAVEESH A

PREETHY P THANKAPPAN

PREJITH S

RAFAH ABDUL GAFOOR

Department of Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE

KOZHIKODE-673 005

OCTOBER 2009
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to express my greatest gratitude to the


people who have helped and supported me throughout . First and
foremost , we would like to express my deepest appreciation to Prof.
P Reena (Head of the Dept. Applied Electronics & Instrumentation
Engineering)for her kind and valuable support and guidance.
We would like to extend our sincere thanks to Ast.Prof.
Shajahan ES for his patient and unfailing support over the successful
completion of this mini project.

We are convinced that this work would not have been


completed without the assistance and support of the lab assistants
Balan N, Sunil Kumar, Abhilash NS.

Last but not least our course mates who have provided
me with invaluable advice and help.

.
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE

KOZHIKODE

Department of Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering

CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is the bonafide record of the mini project work titled

PROGRAMMABLE ROBOT BASED ON PICAXE-08


done by
Nithin KP, Preethy P Thankappan, Praveesh A, Prejith S & Rafah Abdul Gafoor

during the year 2009 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree
of Bachelor of Technology in Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering of
University of Calicut.

Mini project Co-ordinator Head of Department

Ast.Prof . SHAJAHAN ES Prof. P REENA


Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

ABSTRACT
This project explores the processes and design requirements for a
programmable robot which can sense the ambient light intensity and
move towards the brightest point in a given area. The robot is
capable of detecting and avoiding any obstructions in front of it
while moving with audio indication. Instead of using the typical
microcontrollers, we have chosenPICAXE-08M microcontroller as our
robot’s brain. One of the chief advantages of using the PICAXE
microcontroller over the conventional PIC microcontroller is that, it is
easily programmable and the programmer circuit can be integrated
to the project circuitry with ease. Also, the microcontroller can be
programmed in BASIC which is much simpler compared to other
programming languages. Thus the easy reprogramming of the robot
is easily achieved. The robot senses the light intensity with the help
of a LDR and obstruction detection is done by using a bump switch
installed on the robot.
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

CONTENTS
1. Introduction
2. The Concept
3. Functional Block Diagram
4. Component description
5. Circuit Diagram
6. PICAXE-08M
7. Motor Driver Circuit
8. List of Components
9. PCB Layout
10. Programming the PICAXE
11. Flow Chart and Program description
12. Applications
13. Conclusion
14. Future Scope
15. Bibliography
16. References
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

INTRODUCTION

Robotics is the engineering science and technology of robots, and


their design, manufacture, and application. Robotics is related to
electronics, mechanics, and software. Robotics is a subject of interest
for both professionals as well as hobbyists.Basically,a robot is a
device which have some intelligence to perform a specified task. The
intelligence of the robot is realized with the help of a microcontroller
and the program in it.This project aims at building a light following
robot which can be easily programmed.

1
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

THE CONCEPT

The project aims at building a microcontroller based programmable


robot that can act as a light follower and can detect and avoid
obstructions while moving. The robot can sense light intensities at
various points in a given space and is capable of moving towards the
point where the light intensity is maximum. The robot is
programmable, therefore, the drive circuit is merely a slave to the
software and is of a relatively simple design. The circuit is based on a
PICAXE-08 micro. Although more limited than a ‘raw’
microcontroller, it is a little marvel nonetheless – both cutting out
the need for a programmer and for placing respectable power at the
service of the constructor with great simplicity. The programmer and
the project circuit are one and the same and there is no need of
removing the microcontroller from the main circuit for programming
it.

2
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM

LIGHT SENSING SOUND


OUTPUT

PICAXE-08M

OBSTRUCTION
MOTOR DRIVER
DETECTION

L R
MOTOR MOTOR

The functional block diagram shows the interrelationship between


different blocks of the robot.The center of the robot’s control system
is PICAXE-08M microcontroller.The microcontroller listens to inputs
from the light sensing circuit and the obstruction detection circuit.
The microcontroller triggers the motor driving circuit according to
the inputs from light sensing circuit and obstruction detection circuit.

3
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

The motor driving circuit is based on high current half H bridge IC


LN293D.Under normal operation ,the robot checks for any
obstructions in the path of it through the bump switch. On detecting
any obstruction, the microcontroller commands the motor driving
circuit to turn both motors backwards so that the robot moves
backwards. Once the obstruction has been avoided, the light sensing
circuit compares the light intensities on both sides of the robot as
well as directly in front and moves to the direction where light
intensity is maximum.The comparison of light intensities is done with
the help of microcontroller’s built in ADC and the light sensing
circuit. This repeats until the robot reaches the point with maximum
intensity.

4
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

COMPONENT DESCRIPTION

PICAXE-08M MICROCONTROLLER

A PICAXE microcontroller is a standard Microchip PICmicro™


microcontroller that has been pre-programmed with the PICAXE
bootstrap code. The bootstrap code enables the PICAXE
microcontroller to be re-programmed directly via a simple serial
connection. This eliminates the need for an (expensive)conventional
programmer, making the whole download system a very low-cost
simple serial cable. The pre-programmed bootstrap code also
contains common routines (such as how to generate a pause delay or
a sound output), so that each download does not have to waste time
downloading this commonly required data. This makesthe download
time much quicker.

The PICAXE system exploits the unique characteristics of the new


generation of low-cost ‘FLASH’ memory based microcontrollers.
These microcontrollers can be programmed over and over again
5
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

(typically 100 000 times) without the needfor an expensive


programmer. The PICAXE uses a simple BASIC language (or graphical
flowcharts) that younger students can start generating programs
with within an hour of first use. It is much easier to learn and debug
than industrial programming languages (C or assembler code). The
power of the PICAXE system is its simplicity. No programmer, eraser
or complicated electronic system is required - the microcontroller is
programmed via a 3-wire connection to the computers serial port.

L393D-MOTOR DRIVING IC

The bidirectional rotation of motors is achieved with the help of the


motor driving IC. The motor driving IC also acts as a high current
source for the DC motors. The Device is a monolithic integrated high
voltage, high current four channel driver designed to accept standard
DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays
solenoids, DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors.
To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels is equipped with
an enable input. A separate supply input is provided for the logic,
allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are
included.This device is suitable for use in switching applications at
frequencies up to 5 kHz.

6
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

BC 547

BC547 is NPN Silicon Epitaxial Planar Transistor used in AF small


signal amplifier stages and direct coupled circuits. The BC 547 acts as
a part of the Inverter circuit.

7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

A voltage regulator maintains the supply voltage at a constant


level. IC 7805 was used to regulate the supply voltage to 5V,which is
the optimum voltage for the PICAXE microcontroller.The 3 terminal
device can source upto 1A current.

7
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

9V BATTERY

To ensure smooth and continuous operation of the robot, 9V dc


battery was used.The supply voltage was regulated to 5V with the
regulator circuit.

LDR
The light sensing circuit of the robot consists of mainly an LDR.Its
resistance varies with the variations in the light intensity falling on it.

MOTORS
The Robot is designed to move on wheels. Two motor-powered
wheels and a castor wheel are provided for this. Two geared dc-
motors of the following specifications were used.

• 6 Volts DC motors

8
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

• Weight = 90gms

• Rated Voltage = DC 6V

• No-load current < 60mA

• Load current < 300mA

BUZZER

A 6V buzzer was used to give audio indication of an obstruction being


detected by the robot.

9
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

The circuit diagram of the robot is given below.

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The circuit is built around a PICAXE-08M microcontroller.The Vcc for the
microcontroller is given from a 7805 voltage regulator which regulates
the supply voltage to 5V.Picaxe is operated at 4MHz frequency and the
built in oscillator generates this. The programming circuit consists of a
3.5 mm stereo socket, a 10k resistor and a 22 k resistor. The
microcontroller communicates with the PC via pin 2(serial in ) and pin
7(serial out). The 22k resistor clamps the serial voltage to 5V to prevent
damage to the chip. Serial in or pin 2 of the PICAXE should never be left
floating and the 10k resistor is used to ground it whenever it is not
connected to PC for programming. Pin 1 and Pin 8 are connected to the
positive power supply and the ground respectively.

10
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

Pinout diagram of PICAXE-08M

Pin 7 (P0) is designated by the manufacturers for output only and


is used to switch both of the motors on or off at the same time. It
may also be used to pulse the motors on and off (pulse-width
modulation) for speed control or special effects. When it is ‘high’,
the motors are on; when it is ‘low’ they are off.Pin 5 (P2) is
designated for input or output. In this circuit, it is used for output
only and controls the direction (forward or reverse) of the lefthand
motor, as seen from the rear of the robot. Pin 3 (P4) is likewise
designated for input or output and is used here to control the
direction (forward or reverse) of the right hand motor. Neither pin 5
nor pin 3 will accomplish anything unless both motors are switched
on frst via pin 7 (P0). Both pins 5 and 3 cause a wheel to roll forwards
when it is ‘low’ and backwards when it is ‘high’. Pins 7, 5 and 3
together may be used not only to make the robot drive forwards o r
reverse but also to turnPin 4 (P3) is designated for input only and is
used to sense collisions through the robot’s bumper bar. The robot
need not only do a simple reverse-and-turn, but it may also be
programmed to respond in various ways. Pin 6 (P1) is designated for
output, input or analogue input. In this circuit, it is used only for
output and analogue input. In ‘output’ mode, it is used to drive a
piezo sounder for programmable sound. In ‘analogue’ mode, pin 6
reads the light level at the front of the robot. Note that this first
requires the correct adjustment of VR1 with the help of the LDR
11
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

ADJUST program. The robot is capable of detecting sixteen levels of


light which may be used for light-seeking (or light-avoidance), line
tracking and day-night sensing. Pin 7 (P0) activates both motors
simultaneously via the L293D’S enable inputs. Pin 6 (P1), used in
‘output’ mode, drives piezo sounder X1. Since VR1 and LDR1 are
connected to the same pin, two 330Ω resistors are included as
protection for these components. In analogue mode, pin 6 monitors
LDR1 and the PICAXE-08 interprets the voltage as 16 discrete levels,
between <0.22V (level 1) and >3.38V (level 16).
Transistors Q1 and Q8 are used as inverters, so that when the
‘forward motion’ of motors is disabled, the ‘reverse motion’ of
motors is activated. Pin 4 is normally held low by its 47kΩ resistor.
When bump-and-respond switch S1 (the bumper bar) is closed,
pin 4 is pulled high. The 10µF capacitor and the 47kΩ resistor
determine how long a bump will be ‘remembered’ and the values of
these components may be modifed as desired. These components
are required because the software, as it executes, may need a
moment to reach the pro-gram line which monitors the status of S1
and because there is bound to be some switch-bounce too.

Motor control with Picaxe.

12
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

PICAXE-08M MICROCONTROLLER

A PICAXE microcontroller is a standard Microchip PICmicro™


microcontroller that has been pre-programmed with the PICAXE
bootstrap code. A PIC microcontroller is a single integrated circuit
small enough to fit in the palm of a hand. ‘Traditional’
microprocessor circuits contain four or five separate integrated
circuits - the microprocessor (CPU) itself, an EPROM program
memory chip, some RAM memory and an input/output interface.
With PIC microcontrollers all these functions are included within one
single package, making them cost effective and easyto use.PIC
microcontrollers can be used as the ‘brain’ to control a large variety
of products. In order to control devices, it is necessary to interface
(or ‘connect’) them to the PIC microcontroller. This section will help
to enable those with limited electronics experience to successfully
complete these interfacing tasks.The bootstrap code enables the
PICAXE microcontroller to be re-programmed directly via a simple
serial connection. The PICAXE-08M IS based on PIC12F683 .The
monitor program uses all of the flash memory and the program is
stored in EEPROM (256 bytes).

The PICAXE-08M offers:

80 lines memory
1-4 inputs (configurable)
1-4 outputs (configurable)
2 8/10-bit Analog-to-Digital converters (ADC)
8MHz maximum operation speed (4MHz normally)
Supports
o Interrupts
o Digital temperature sensors

13
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

o Servo control
o IR transmit/receive
o Plays user-defined musical tones
o PWM Motor control

The PICAXE Memory

The PICAXE memory consists of three different areas. The amount of


memory varies between PICAXE types.

Program Memory.

Program memory is where the program is stored after a new


download. This is ‘FLASH’ rewritable memory that can be
reprogrammed up to (typically) 100,000times. The program is not
lost when power is removed, so the program will start running again
as soon as the power is re connected. It is not generally required to
erase a program, as each download automatically over-writes the
whole of the last program. However if you want to stop a program
running you can use the PICAXE>Clear Hardware Memory menu to
download an ‘empty’ program into the PICAXE.The PICAXE-08M
supports 80 lines or 256 bytes of BASIC program code.

Data Memory

Data memory is additional storage space within the microcontroller.


The data is also not lost when power is removed. Each download
resets all data bytes to 0, unless the EEPROM command has been
used to ‘preload’ data into the data memory. See the EEPROM, read
and write command descriptions for more details. On the PICAXE-
08M the data memory is ‘shared’ with the program memory
Therefore larger programs will result is a smaller available data
memory area.

14
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

RAM (Variables)

The RAM memory is used to store temporary data in variables as the


program runs. It loses all data when the power is removed. There are
four types of variable general purpose, storage, scratchpad and
special function. Variables are memory locations within the PICAXE
microcontroller that store data whilst the program is running. All this
information is lost when the microcontroller is reset.

General Purpose Variables.

There are 14 or more general purpose byte variables. These byte


variables are labeled b0, b1 etc. Byte variables can store integer
numbers between 0 and 255.Byte variables cannot use negative
numbers or fractions, and will ‘overflow’ without warning if you
exceed the 0 or 255 boundary values (e.g. 254 + 3 = 1),(2 - 3 = 255)

Storage Variables.

Storage variables are additional memory locations allocated for


temporary storage of byte data. They cannot be used in
mathematical calculations, but can be used to temporarily store byte
values by use of the peek and poke commands.PICAXE-08M uses
48variables, 80 to 127 ($50 to $7F).

Special Function Variables (SFR)

The special function variables available for use depend on the PICAXE
type.

PICAXE-08M SFR

pins = the input / output port


dirs = the data direction register (sets whether pins are inputs
or outputs)
infra = another term for variable b13, used within the infrain2
command

15
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PICAXE-08M

16
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

THE MOTOR DRIVER CIRCUIT

The motor driver circuit is built around the high current half H -Bridge
IC LN 293D. For each motor connected, if the Enable is kept high and
DIR1 is made high, then the motor will rotate in the clockwise
direction. If Enable and DIR2 is made high, then the motor will rotate
in the ant-clockwise direction. If both DIR1 and DIR2 are kept at high,
then the motor will remain static. If enable is low, then the motor
remains static. The inputs DIR1 and DIR2 of each motor are driven by
outputs from the Pin 3(P4) and Pin 5(P2) of the PICAXE.

The IC L293D is a quadruple high-current half h-Drive. The L293D is


designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 600-mA at
voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. It is designed to drive inductive loads
such as relays, solenoids, dc and bipolar stepping motors, as well as
other high-current/high-voltage loads in positive-supply applications.
All inputs are TTL compatible. Each output is a complete totem-pole
drive circuit, with a Darlington transistor sink and a pseudo-
Darlington source. Drivers are enabled in pairs, with drivers 1 and 2
enabled by 1,2EN and drivers 3 and 4 enabled by 3,4EN. When an
17
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

enable input is high the associated drivers are enabled and their
outputs are active and in phase with their inputs. When the ena ble
input is low, those drivers are disabled and their outputs are off and
in the high-impedance state. With the proper data inputs, each pair
of drivers forms a full-H (or bridge) reversible drive suitable for
solenoid or motor applications. A VCC1 terminal, separate from
VCC2, is provided for the logic inputs to minimize device power
dissipation. The L293D is characterized for operation from 0°C to
70°C.

18
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

Absolute maximum ratings

Supply voltage, VCC1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 36 V

Output supply voltage, VCC2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 V

Input voltage, VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 V

Output voltage range, VO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –3 V to VCC2 + 3 V

Peak output current, IO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ±1.2 A

Continuous output current, IO: L293 . . . .….... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ±1 A

Continuous output current, IO: L293D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ±600 mA

Continuous total dissipation at (or below) 25°C free-air temperature

…………………………………………………………………. . . . . . …………….2075 mW

Continuous total dissipation at 80°C case temperature . . . 5000 mW

Maximum junction temperature, TJ. . . . . . . . . . …. . . . . . 150°C

Lead temperature………………… . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . … . 260°C

Storage temperature range, Tstg . . . . . . . . . . –65°C to 150°C

19
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

LIST OF COMPONENTS
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION QUANTITY

PICAXE-08M MICROCONTROLLER 1

L293D MOTOR DRVER IC 1

BC 547 2

VOLTAGE L7805,5V 1
REGULATOR
RESISTORS R1",22k, ¼ WATT
R2",10k,
R5",10k,
R6",10k,
R3",1k,
R4",1k,
R7",330,
R8",330,
R9",47k,
10K POT
CAPACITORS C1",100n, C2",100n,
C3",100u,
C4",100u,
C5",10u,

LDR 1
SPEAKER 1
CONNECTOR 1
DIODE 1N4001 1
BUMP SWITCH 1

20
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

PCB LAYOUT

21
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

PROGRAMMING THE PICAXE

The serial download circuit is identical for all PICAXE chips. It consists
of 3 wires from the PICAXE chip to the AXE026 serial cable. One wire
sends data from the computer to the serial input of the PICAXE, one
wire transmits data from the serial output of the PICAXE to the
computer, and the third wire provides a common ground. See the
USB adapter section for details on how to use the USB port adapter.
The minimum download circuit is shown here. This circuit is
appropriate for most educational and hobbyist work.

Picaxe Programming Editor


The programs are edited and compiled in Picaxe Programming
editor,which is provided by the manufacturer.It also have a built in
simulator to debug the programs created by the user.The programs
are written and compiled in BASIC and saved with .bas
extension.They are then downloaded to the Microcontroller with the
help of the serial download cable.

22
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

Picaxe programming editor

Serial Download Cable

23
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

FLOWCHART AND PROGRAM DESCRIPTION


The program used three variable memory spaces b0,b1 and b2 to
store the adc reading corresponding to light intensities at front,left
side and right side of the robot. The direction of motion was then
determined by comparing these variables.
MAIN PROGRAM:

24
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

SUBROUTINES

25
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

PROGRAM
MAIN PROGRAM

pwm 1,21,30 'start-up beep


'PWM is used here to circumvent a
' potential SOUND/READADC conflict

main:
if pin3=1 then reverseout 'reverse if S1 bumper bar closes
pause 2000 'pause for two seconds
readadc 1,b1 'check light level directly in front
gosub checkleft 'turn left, using subroutine
readadc 1,b0 'check light level to the left
gosub checkright 'turn right, using subroutine
readadc 1,b2 'check light level to the right
if b0<b2 then left 'if the left is brighter than the right,
' turn left, using subroutine
if b1<b0 then left 'if directly in front is brighter than
' the left, provisionally use subroutine
goto main 'repeat the process

reverseout:
pwm 1,21,20 'beep
high 2 'left motor backwards
high 4 'right motor backwards
high 0 'turn both motors on
for b0=0 to 40 'add a sound effect while reversing
pwm 1,b0,10 ' by varying the PWM duty cycle

26
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

next b0 ' from 0 to 40


low 2 'left motor forwards (and right
backwards)
pause 1800 ' for 1.8 seconds
low 0 'turn both motors off
goto main

checkleft:
high 2 'left motor backwards
low 4 'right motor forwards
high 0 'turn both motors on
pause 600 ' for 0.6 seconds
low 0 'turn both motors off
return 'return to where the main program
left off

checkright:
low 2 'left motor forwards
high 4 'right motor backwards
high 0 'turn both motors on
pause 1200 ' for 1.2 seconds
low 0 'turn both motors off
return

left:
if b1<b0 then middle 'skip this if directly in front is
brighter
' than the left, using subroutine middle
high 2 'left motor backwards
low 4 'right motor forwards
27
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

high 0 'turn both motors on


pause 1200 ' for 1.2 seconds
low 0 'turn both motors off
goto straight 'drive straight ahead, using subroutine
goto main

middle:
high 2 'left motor backwards
low 4 'right motor forwards
high 0 'turn both motors on
pause 600 ' for 0.6 seconds
low 0 'turn both motors off
goto straight 'drive straight ahead, using subroutine
goto main

straight:
low 2 'left motor forwards
low 4 'right motor forwards
high 0 'turn both motors on
pause 1200 ' for 1.2 seconds
low 0 'turn both motors off
goto main

LDR ADJUST PROGRAM


;LDR TEST
;this adjusts VR1 to suit LDR1 and lighting conditions
;b3=160 when the LDR is directed at the darkest areas of a
room
;aim for the widest variation in b3 as the LDR surveys a scene
;keep the jack plug inserted in the robot while taking readings

28
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

main:
readadc 1,b3 ;read the light level
debug b3 ;display the light level on screen (watch b3)
pause 100 ;pause 0.1 seconds
goto main ;repeat the procedure

29
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

APPLICATION

The circuit could operate a pulley system, serve as a line-tracker


or rotate motors in response to broken beams of varying intensity
without modification to the PC board.

30
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

CONCLUSION

The Programmable Robot was constructed successfully, yielding


satisfactory results. The robot is capable of moving towards areas
having a higher light intensities and avoids obstructions in its path.

31
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

FUTURE SCOPE

The Programmable robot has a tremendous scope for improvement .


Some of the possible improvements are listed below.
Instead of using a single LDR, three LDR s can be used so that
the robot needn’t turn every time to read the light intensities
on its sides.
With effective programming, the robot can be configured to do
multitasks.
With a more advanced Microcontroller like Picaxe 14M or
28M,more sensors and output modules can be integrated to
the robot.

32
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Ramakanth A.Gayakwad : Op-Amps and Linear Integrated


Circuits
2. R S Sedha: Applied Electronics
3. Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill: The Art of Electronics

33
Mini Project 2009 Programmable Robot Using PICAXE-08M

REFERENCES

1. www.microchip.com
2. www.wikipedia.com
3. www.roboticsindia.com
4. www.electro-tech-online.com
5. www.howstuffworks.com
6. www.picaxe.co.uk
7. http://www.picaxeforum.co.uk

34