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FORMULA SHEET

Measure of central location



1. Mean

a) Arithmetic mean


b) Weighted Arithmetic mean


f
i
is the frequency
c) Weighted group mean
Step 1: Find the middle number:


Step 2: Find the mean


d) Geometric mean:
Type 1: Simple
- With the series of number y
1
, y
2,
..., y
n


- General case:

)(

) (

)
Type 2: Weighted geometric mean



2. Median
a) Arithmetic median
2m numbers:


R
g
(1+ R
1
)
f
1
(1+ R
2
)
f
2
...(1+ R
k
)
f
k n
1
2m+1 numbers: Median = x
m+1

b) Grouped frequency




3. Mode for grouped frequency distribution





Measure of viariation

1. Range = largest value smallest value

2. Variance
a) Set of values
Population variance:
2


Sample variance s
2

s

b)Frequency distribution
Population variance:
2

2
2
1
( )
k
i i
i
x x f
n



Sample variance s
2



b) Coefficient of variance
Population Sample






x
i
2
i1
k

f
i
n

x
i
f
i
i1
k

2
s
2

x
i
x
( )
2
f
i
i1
k

n 1 ( )
s
2

1
n 1 ( )
x
i
2
f
i
i1
k


x
i
f
i
i1
k

2
n

CV

100% cv
s
x
100%
Measure of relative standing
1. Percentile (Location P
th
Percentile)


L
p : Location P
th
percentile
n: Number of observation

2. Interquatile
Interquartile range = upper quartile lower quartile
3. Z score




Probability:

1. Additional law
P (A or B) = P ( ) = P(A) + P(B) P( A B)
2. Conditional Probability
(AB)
( )
()

3. Multiplication Law
( ) ()(AB) (Dependent case)
Or P(A) P(B) (Independent case)
4. BayesTheorem
(

B)
(

)(B
)
(

)(

) (

)(B

) (

)(B

)


L
p
(n +1)
P
100
Sampling distribution

1.
2. Sampling distribution:









- x Error Sampling

x

n