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Quantitative vs.

• Experimental • Field research
• Laboratory-like • Ethnography or
control phenomenology
• Logical Positivism • Constructivist

• Both are empirical!

Reductionistic vs. Constructivistic
• Seeks facts and causes • Seeks to understand a
apart from individual phenomenon from
states within an individual’s
• How is experience state of being
shaped by the world? • How is the world
Role of Measurement
• Creates variables that • Uses discourse as data,
are amenable to long descriptive text
statistical analysis using people’s own
• External, easily words and dialogues.
verifiable • Seeks techniques to
explore a phenomenon
from “under the skin”
of another
Deductive vs. Inductive
• Variables are • No preconceived
conceived a priori assumptions/ suspend
• Research your beliefs
question/Hypothesis • Patterns emerged from
comes first the collected data after
the fact
Interventions vs. Naturalistic
• Interventions are seen • Sensitive to the effects
as a way of discovery of the research(er) on
• Manipulate the the population studied
environment and • Try to develop trust in
measure changes the population being
Role of the Researcher
• Researcher’s • Researcher “becomes
judgement essential the instrument”
before and after • Tries to suspend any
• Researcher should be predispostions and
“absent” during assume it is being
experiment experienced for the
“first time”
Reduction vs. Holist
• Truth is to be found • Humanistic
incrementally, one perspective urges a
small “tweak” after holist approach
another • When we reduce
• Science has always people to variables, we
found out about lose the larger
phenomena little at a understandings
time possible
Science vs. Art
• Quantitative Approach • Qualitative Approach

• Once you understand • Takes a lot of practice

the basic rules, anyone to do it well.
can do it.