51 Votes +7 Votes -

98K vues67 pagesThese are sum of lectures about Heat transfer (conduction & convection).

Nov 02, 2009

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

These are sum of lectures about Heat transfer (conduction & convection).

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

98K vues

These are sum of lectures about Heat transfer (conduction & convection).

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Field Updated Ed: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe
- The Final Day: A John Matherson Novel
- Bloody Sunday: A Thriller
- WomanCode: Perfect Your Cycle, Amplify Your Fertility, Supercharge Your Sex Drive, and Become a Power Source
- The Hormone Reset Diet: The 21-day Diet That Resets Your Metabolism
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- Blackfish City: A Novel
- Blackfish City: A Novel
- Wheels of Life: A User's Guide to the Chakra System
- Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich
- Chernobyl 01:23:40: The Incredible True Story of the World's Worst Nuclear Disaster
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- Zero Hour
- The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life, Work, and Team With Positive Energy
- The Keto Reset Diet: Reboot Your Metabolism in 21 Days and Burn Fat Forever
- The Power of Full Engagement: Managing Energy, Not Time, is the Key to High Performance and Personal Renewal
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- Positive Energy: 10 Extraordinary Prescriptions for Transforming Fatigue, Stress, and Fear into Vibrance, Strength, and Love

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 67

Lectures of

Heat Transfer

Mode Transfer Mechanism Rate of heat transfer (W)

Diffusion of energy due to random dT

Conduction q = - kA

molecular motion dx

Diffusion of energy due to random

Convection

molecular motion plus bulk motion

q = h A(Ts-T∞)

Energy transfer by electromagnetic

Radiation

waves

q = σ ε A(Ts4-Tsur4)

By

Mr. Amjed Ahmed Ali

Syllabus of Heat Transfer (English),

(2 hours/ week, Applied 2 hours /week) Hours

1.Heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation 2

2.One-dimensional steady state conduction 2

3.Systems with conduction-convection 2

4.Radial systems(cylinder and sphere) 2

4. Overall heat transfer coefficient 2

5. Critical thickness of the insulator 2

6. Heat source systems 2

7. Extended Surface (Fins) 2

8. Resistance to heat contact 2

9. Unsteady state conduction 2

• Complete heat capacity system 2

• Limited conditions of convection 2

• Application and Hessler's diagrams 2

11. Multi-dimensions systems 2

12. Principles of heat transfer by convection 1

13. Boundary layer for laminar and turbulent flow 2

14. Thermal boundary layer for laminar and turbulent flow 2

15. Analogy between fluid friction and heat transfer 2

16. Experimental relations of heat transfer by forced convection inside pipes 2

17. Flow through cylindrical and spherical bodies 2

18. Flow through bundle of tubes 2

19. Heat exchangers 4

Scaling 1

Mean logarithmic difference of temperature 1

NTU method 2

20. Heat transfer by radiation 1

21. Properties of radiation 2

22. Body in thermal radiation 2

23. Relation between coefficient and the body 2

24. Heal exchange between non-black bodies 2

25. Radiation barriers 2

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Chapter Oneِ

Introduction

Introduction

A consider the cooling of a hot steal rod which is place in a cold

water Thermodynamics may be used to predict the final equilibrium

temperature of the rod-water combination. It will not tell us how long it

takes to reach this equilibrium condition. Heat Transfer may be used to

predict the temperature of the rod and the water as a function of time.

Heat: is the energy transit as a result of the temperature difference.

Heat transfer: is that science which seeks to predict the energy transfer that may take

place between material bodes as a result of a temperature difference.

Thermodynamics: is the state science of energy, the transformation of energy and the

change in the state of matter. (Thermodynamics can be able to

determination of heat and work requirements for chemical and

physical process and the equilibrium conditions).

Heat flux: heat transfer flow in the direction per unit area (q”).

Steady state: Temperature is very does not very with time (dT/dt) =0.

Unsteady state: temperature is depending on time.

The engineering area frequently referred to as thermal science includes thermodynamics

and heat transfer. The role of heat transfer is to supplement thermodynamic analyses, which

consider only systems in equilibrium, with additional laws that allow prediction of time rates

of energy transfer. These supplemental laws are based upon the three fundamental modes of

heat transfer conduction, convection, and radiation.

Conduction may be viewed as the transfer of energy from the more energetic to the less

energetic particles of a substance due to interactions between the particles. A temperature

gradient within a homogeneous substance results in an energy transfer rate within the medium

which can be calculated by Fourier's law

dT

q = -kA (1.1)

dx

Where q is the heat transfer rate (W or J/s) and k thermal conductivity (W/m K) is an

experimental constant for the medium involved, and it may depend upon other properties,

such as temperature and pressure.

dT

Is the temperature gradient in the direction normal to the area A.

dx

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

dT ∆Τ Τ −Τ T1 T1> T2

= = 2 1

dx ∆χ χ 2 − χ1

T2

q

X2

X1 L

Figure 1.1 Temperature distribution for steady state conduction. Through a

plate wall

The minus sign in Fourier's Law (1.1) is required by the second law of

thermodynamics: thermal energy transfer resulting from a thermal gradient must be from a

warmer to a colder region. If the temperature profile within the medium is linear Fig. 1.1 it is

permissible to replace the temperature gradient (partial derivative) with

Τ −Τ2 (1.2)

q = kA 1

L

The quantity (L/kA) is equivalent to a thermal resistance Rk (K/W) which is equal to the

reciprocal of the conductance. As:

L Τ − Τ1 (1.3)

Rk q= 2

kA R k

Such linearity always exists in a homogeneous medium of fixed k during steady state

heat transfer occurs whenever the temperature at every point within the body, including the

surfaces, is independent of time.

T1

q

T1> T2

T2

of energy due to molecular activity.

dT

If the temperature changes with time , energy is either being stored in or removed

dt

from the body. This storage rate is

dT

qstored = mc p (1.4)

dt

Where m is the mass of substance and Cp is specific heat capacity.

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of the ability of the material to

conduct heat.

I Thermal Conductivity of Solids: In general, k for a pure metal decreases with

temperature; alloying elements tend to reverse this trend. The thermal conductivity of a metal

can usually be represented over a wide range of temperature by

k = k 0(a + bθ + cθ 2 ) (1.5)

Where θ = T − Tref and k0 is the conductivity at the reference temperature Tref

The thermal conductivity of a non homogeneous material is usually markedly dependent

upon the apparent bulk density, As a general rule, k for a no homogeneous material increases

both with increasing temperature and increasing apparent bulk density

II Thermal Conductivity of Liquids: Thermal conductivities of most liquids

decrease with increasing temperature. But insensitive to pressure the exception is water,

which exhibits increasing k up to about 150°C and decreasing k there after. Water has the

highest thermal conductivity of all common liquids except the so-called liquid metals.

III Thermal Conductivity of Gases: The thermal conductivity of a gas increases with

increasing temperature, but is essentially independent of pressure for pressures close to

atmospheric. For high pressure (i.e., pressure of the order of the critical pressure or greater),

the effect of pressure may be significant.

Whenever a solid body is exposed to a moving fluid having a temperature different

from that of the body, energy is carried or convected from or to the body by the fluid If the

upstream temperature of the fluid is T∞, and the surface temperature of the solid is Ts the heat

transfer per unit time is given by Newton’s Law of cooling:

q = h A(Ts - T∞ ) (1.6)

2

Where h is Convective Heat transfer coefficient (W/m K) as the constant of

proportionality relating the heat transfer

per unit time and area to the overall

temperature difference. It is important to

keep in mind that the fundamental energy

exchange at a solid-fluid boundary is by

conduction, and that this energy is then

converted away by the fluid flow.

The thermal resistance to

convection heat transfer Rc, as:

1

Rc = (1.6)

hA

T -T

q = s ∞ (1.7) Fig (1.4) Velocity and temperature distribution on flat plate

Rc

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

The third mode of heat transmission is due to electromagnetic wave propagation, which

can occur in a total vacuum as well as in a medium. Experimental evidence indicates that

radiant heat transfer is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature, where as

conduction and convection are proportional to a linear temperature difference. The

fundamental Stefan-Boltzmann Law is

q = σ A T4 (1.8)

Where T is the absolute temperature, σ is Boltzmann constant independent of surface,

medium, and temperature; its value is 5.6697 X 10-8 W/m2.K4 ., the thermal emission from

many surfaces (gray bodies) can be well represented by

q = σ ε A(Ts4-Tsur4) (1.9)

Where ε, the emissivity of the surface, ranges (0-1). The ideal emitter or blackbody is

one, All other surfaces emit some what less than one.

Ts and Tsur The temperature of surface and surroundings respectively.

Similarly, The thermal resistance to radiation heat transfer Rr, as:

Τs − Τsur (1.11)

Rr =

σε Α( Τs − Τsur )

4 4

Ts - Tsur

q= (1.12)

Rr

Rate of heat transfer Thermal Resistance

Mode Transfer Mechanism

(W) (K/W)

Diffusion of energy due to dT L

Conduction q = - kA Rk =

random molecular motion dx kA

Diffusion of energy due to 1

Convection random molecular motion q = h A(Ts-T∞) Rc =

hA

plus bulk motion

Energy transfer by Τs − Τsur

Radiation electromagnetic waves q = σ ε A(Ts4-Tsur4) Rr =

σε Α( Τs 4 − Τsur 4 )

The concept of thermal resistance (analogous to electrical resistance) is introduced as an

aid to solving conduction heat transfer problems.

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 1.1

Calculate the rate of heat transfer by natural convection between a shed roof of

area 20 m x 20 m and ambient air, if the roof surface temperature is 27°C, the air

temperature 3°C, and the average convection heat transfer coefficient 10 W/m2 K.

Analysis of Roof Temperature.

Solution

Assume that steady state exists and the direction of

heat flow is from the air to the roof. The rate of heat

transfer by convection from the air to the roof is then

given by Eq:

Note we initially assumed that the heat transfer would be from the air to the roof. But

since the heat flow under this assumption turns out to be a negative quantity the direction of heat

flow is actually from the roof to the air.

Example 1.2 Determine the steady state rate of heat transfer per unit area through a

4.0cm thick homogeneous slab with its two faces maintained at uniform temperatures of 38I

o

C and 21 oC. The thermal conductivity of the material is 0.19 W/m K.

Example 1.3 The forced convective heat transfer coefficient for a hot fluid x1 x2

flowing over a cool surface is 225 W/m2.oC for a particular problem. The fluid temperature

upstream of the cool surface is 1200C, and the surface is held at 10 0C. Determine the heat

transfer rate per unit surface area from the fluid to the surface.

q = h A(Ts-T∞)

q/A= 225(120-10)=24750 W/m2

Example 1.4

After sunset, radiant energy can be sensed by a person standing near a brick wall. Such

walls frequently have surface temperatures around 44 oC, and typical brick emissivity values

are on the order of 0.92. What would be the radiant thermal flux per square foot from a brick

wall at this temperature?

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 1.5

In the summer, parked automobile surfaces frequently average 40-50 oC. Assuming 45

o

C and surface emissivity of 0.9, determine the radiant thermal flux emitted by a car roof

Example 1.6

The air inside an electronics package housing has a temperature of 50°C. A "chip" in

this housing has internal thermal power generation (heating) rate of 3 X 10-3 W. This chip is

subjected to an air flow resulting in a convective coefficient h of 9 W/m2.oC over its two main

surfaces which are 0.5 cm X 1.0 cm. Determine the chip surface temperature neglecting

radiation and heat transfer from the edges

Example 1.7

Calculate the thermal resistance and the rate of heat transfer through a pane of window

glass (k = 0.78 W/m K) 1 m high, 0.5 m wide, and 0.5 cm thick, if the outer-surface temperature

is 24°C and the inner-surface temperature is 24.5°C

24 °C

Figure 1.5 heat transfer by conduction through a window pane.

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Solution

Assume that steady state exists and that the temperature is uniform over the inner and outer

surfaces. The thermal resistance to conduction Rk is from Eq

L 0.005m K

Rk = = = 0.0128

kA 0.78w / mk × 1m × 0.5m W

The rate of heat loss from the interior to the exterior surface is

∆T 24.5 - 24

q= = = 39.1 W

Rk 0.0128

Example 1.8

A long, cylindrical electrically heated rod, 2 cm in diameter, is installed in a vacuum

furnace as shown in Fig.1.8. The surface of the heating rod has an emissivity of 0.9 and is

maintained at 1000 K, while the interior walls of the furnace are black and are at 800 K. Calculate

the net rate at which heat is lost from the rod per unit length and the radiation heat transfer

coefficient.

Solution

Assume that steady state has been reached. Moreover, note that since the walls of the

furnace completely enclose the heating rod, all the radiant energy emitted by the surface of the

rod is intercepted by the furnace walls. Thus, for a black enclosure, Eq. (1.9) applies and the net

heat loss from the rod of surface A1 is

Note that in order for steady state to exist, the heating rod must dissipate electrical energy

at the rate of 1893 W and the rate of heat loss through the furnace walls must equal the rate of

electric input to the system, that is, to the rod.

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 1.9

An instrument used to study the Ozone depletion near the poles is placed on a large

2-cm-thick duralumin plate. To simplify this analysis the instrument can be thought of

as a stainless steel plate 1 cm tall with a 10 cm x 10 cm square base, as shown in Fig. 1.6.

The interface roughness of the steel and the duralumin is between 20 and 30 rms (µm) the

contact resistance is 0.05 k/w. Four screws at the corners. The top and sides of the

instrument are thermally insulated. An integrated circuit placed between the insulation

and the upper surface of the stainless steel plate generates heat. If this heat is to be

transferred to the lower surface of the duralumin, estimated to be at a temperature of

0°C, determine the maximum allowable dissipation rate from the circuit if its temperature

is not to exceed 40°C.

Solution

Since the top and the sides of the instrument are insulated, all the heat generated

by the circuit must flow downward. The thermal circuit will have three resistances the

stainless steel, the contact, and the duralumin. Using thermal conductivities kss = 14.4

W/m K, kM = 164 W/m K the thermal resistances of the metal plates are calculated from

Equations:

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

In this special case the control surface includes no mass or volume and

appears as shown in Figure 1.8.Accordingly, the generation and storage terms of

the Energy expression,

Ein –Eout -Est + Eg= 0

Consequently, there can be no generation and storage. The conservation

requirement then becomes

Ein –Eout = 0

In Figure 1.8 three heat transfer terms are shown for the control surface. On a unit area

basis they are conduction from the medium to the control surface q"cond convection from the

surface to a fluid q"conv, and net radiation exchange from the surface to the surroundings q"rad.

The energy balance then takes the Form and we

can express each of the terms according to the

appropriate rate equations.

Summarizes the basic relations for the rate equation of each of the three basic heat

transfer mechanisms to aid in setting up the thermal circuits for solving combined heat

transfer problems.

In Fig. 1.15 for a three-layer system, the temperature gradients in the layers are

different. The rate of heat conduction through each layer is qk, and from Eq. (1.1) we get

the form

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

temperature of layer N. and ∆T is the overall temperature difference, often called the

temperature potential.

Example 1.6 Calculate the rate of heat loss from a furnace wall per unit area. The

wall is constructed from an inner layer of 0.5 cm thick steel (k : 40 W/m K) and an outer

layer of 10 cm zirconium brick (k = 2.5 W/m K) as shown in Fig. The inner-surface

temperature is 900 K and the outside surface temperature is 460 K. What is the temperature

at the interface?

Solution

Assumptions:

• Assume that steady state exists,

• neglect effects at the corners and edges of the wall,

• the surface temperatures are uniform.

The rate of heat loss per unit area can be calculated from Eq:

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

q T1 − T2

=

A R1

Solving for T2 gives

Note that the temperature drop across the steel interior wall is only 1.4 K because the

thermal resistance of the wall is small compared to the resistance of the brick.

Example 1.7

Two large aluminum plates (k = 240 W/m K), each 1 cm thick, with 10 µm surface

roughness the contact resistance Ri = 2.75 x 10-4 m2 K/W. The temperatures at the outside

surfaces are 395°C and 405°C. Calculate (a) the heat flux (b) the temperature drop due to the

contact resistance.

Solution

(a) The rate of heat flow per unit area, q'' through the sandwich wall is

(L/k) = (0.01 m)/(240 W/m K) = 4.17 x 10-5 m2 K/W

Hence, the heat flux is

(b) The temperature drop in each section. The fraction of the contact resistance is

Hence 7.67°C of the total temperature drop of 10°C is the result of the contact

resistance.

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Conduction can occur in a section with two different materials in parallel between the

same potential. Fig. 1.18 shows a slab with two different materials of areas AA and AB in

parallel. If the temperatures over the left and right faces are uniform at T1 and T2, the total rate of

heat flow is the sum of the flows through AA and AB:

Figure 1.12 Heat Conduction Through a Wall Section with Two Paths in Parallel.

Note that the total heat transfer area is the sum of AA and AB and that the total resistance

equals the product of the individual resistances divided by their sum, as in any parallel circuit.

A more complex application of the thermal network approach is illustrated in Fig. 1.19,

where heat is transferred through a composite structure involving thermal resistances in series

and in parallel. For this system the resistance of the middle layer, R2 becomes and the rate of

heat flow is

Rn : Thermal resistance of nth layer

∆Toverall : temperature difference

across two outer surfaces

Consisting of Series and Parallel Thermal Paths.

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 1.8

A layer of 2 in thick firebrick (kb = 1.0 Btu/hr ft °F) is placed between two ¼ in.-thick

steel plates (ks = 30 Btu/hr ft °F). The faces of the brick adjacent to the plates are rough,

having solid-to-solid contact over only 30 % of the total area, with the average height of

asperities being L2=1/32 in. If the surface temperatures of the steel plates are 200° and

800°F, respectively. the conductivity of air ka is 0.02 Btu/hr ft °F, determine the rate of heat

flow per unit area.

Figure 1.14 Thermal Circuit for the Parallel-Series Composite Wall. L1 = 1 in.;

L2 = 1/32 in.; L3 = 1/4 in.; T1 is at the center.

Solution

The overall unit conductance for half the composite wall is then, from an inspection of the

thermal circuit

Since the air is trapped in very small compartments, the effects of convection are small

and it will be assumed that heat flows through the air by conduction. At a temperature of

300°F. Then R5 the thermal resistance of the air trapped between the asperities, is, on the basis

of a unit area, equal to

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

The factors 0.3 and 0.7 in R4 and R5, respectively, represent the percent of the total area

for the two separate heat flow paths. The total thermal resistance for the two paths, R4 and R5

in parallel, is

The thermal resistance of half of the solid brick, Rl is and the overall unit conductance is

Inspection of the values for the various thermal resistances shows that the steel offers a

negligible resistance

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Figure (1.15) shows a situation in which heat is transferred between two fluids

separated by a wall, the rate of heat transfer from the hot fluid at temperature Thot to the

cold fluid at temperature Tcold is

Example 1.8 A 0.1 m thick brick wall (k = 0.7 W/m K) is exposed to a cold wind at 270 K

through a convection heat transfer coefficient of 40 W/m2 K. On the other side is air at 330 K,

with a natural convection heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2 K. Calculate the rate of heat

transfer per unit area.

Solution

The three resistances are the rate of heat transfer per unit area is :

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

In many engineering problems a surface loses or receives thermal energy by convection

and radiation simultaneously. Figure 1.23 illustrates the co current heat transfer from a surface

to its surroundings by convection and radiation.

q= qc + qr

q = hcA(T1 - T2)+ hrA (T1 - T2)

q =(hc+ hr)A (T1 - T2)

where hc is the average convection heat transfer coefficient between area A1 and the

surroundings air at T2, the radiation heat transfer coefficient

h = hc + hr

Example 1.5

Air at 20C blow over a hot plate 50 x 75 cm and thick 2 cm maintained at 250 oC. the

convection heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2 C. calculate the inside plate temperature if it is

mode of carbon steel and that 300 W is lost from the plate surface by radiation. Where

thermal conductivity is 43 w/m C.

Solution

qconv = h A(Ts-T∞)

qconv = 25 (0.5 *0.75) (250 - 20)

qconv =2.156 KW

qcond = qconv + qrad

qcond = 2.156 +0. 3=2.456 kW

Τ1 − Τ 2

qcond = kA

L

Τ1 − 250

2.456 = 43 (0.5 × 0.75)

0.02

T1 = 253.05 oC

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 1.9

A 0.5 m diameter pipe (ε = 0.9) carrying steam has a surface temperature of 500 K. The

pipe is located in a room at 300 K, and the convection heat transfer coefficient between the pipe

surface and the air in the room is 20 W/m2 K. Calculate the combined heat transfer coefficient

and the rate of heat loss per meter of pipe length.

Solution

hr = 13.9 W/m2 K

The combined heat transfer coefficient is

h = hc + hr = 20 + 13.9 = 33.9 W/m2 K

and the rate of heat loss per meter is

We noted previously that a common heat transfer problem is to determine the

rate of heat flow between two fluids, gaseous or liquid, separated by a wall. If the wall is

plane and heat is transferred only by convection on both sides, the rate of heat transfer

in terms of the two fluid temperatures is given by:

the rate of heat flow is expressed only in terms of an overall temperature potential

and the heat transfer characteristics of individual sections in the heat flow path., the

overall transmittance, or the overall coefficient of heat transfer U

Writing Eq. (1.29) in terms of an overall coefficient gives

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 1.10

In the design of a heat exchanger for aircraft application, the maximum wall

temperature in steady state is not to exceed 800 k. For the conditions tabulated below,

determine the maximum permissible unit thermal resistance per square meter of the

metal wall that separates the hot gas Tgh = 1300 K from the cold gas Tgc = 300 K.

Combined heat transfer coefficient on hot side h 1 = 200 W/m2 K

Combined heat transfer coefficient on cold side h3 = 400 W/m2 K

Solution

In the steady state we can write

R2 = 0.0025 m2 K/W

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 1.11

The door for an industrial gas furnace is 2 m x 4 m in surface area and is to be insulated

to reduce heat loss to no more than 1200 W/m2. The interior surface is a 3/8-in.-thick Inconel

600 sheet (K= 25 W/m K), and the outer surface is a l/4 in.-thick sheet of Stainless steel 316.

Between these metal sheets a suitable thickness of insulators material is to be placed. The

effective gas temperature inside the furnace is 1200°C, and the overall heat transfer

coefficient between the gas and the door is Ui = 20 W/m2 K. The heat transfer coefficient

between the outer surface of the door and the surroundings at 20°C is hc= 5 W/m2 K. calculate

the thickness of insulated should be use

Solution

The thermal resistance of the two metal sheets are approximately 25 W/m K the thermal

resistance of the two metal sheets are approximately:

L1+L2=0.25+0.375=0.625 in

These resistances are negligible compared to the other three resistances shown in the

simplified thermal circuit below;

The temperature drop between the gas and the interior surface of the door at the

specified heat flux is:

Q=AU ∆T

acceptable since no appreciable load is applied. The temperature drop at the outer surface is

X (1140-240 )

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Chapter Two

Heat Conduction

2.1 Introduction

A major objective in a conduction analysis is to determine the temperature field in a

medium (Temperature Distribution), which represents how temperature varies with position

in the medium. knowledge of the temperature distribution:

• Determination of thermal stresses, It could be used to ascertain structural integrity

through

• To determine the optimize thickness of an insulating material

• To determine the compatibility of special coatings or adhesives used with the material.

Applying energy conservation to the control volume. At an instant, these include the rate

at which thermal and mechanical energy enter Ein and leave Eout. through the control surface,

Is additional to the rate of change of energy generation Eg and stored Est. A general form of

the energy conservation requirement may then be expressed on rate basis as:

Eg

Ein + Eg − Eout = Est 2.1 Ein Eout

Est

Consider the energy processes that are relevant to this control volume. If there are

temperature gradients, conduction heat transfer will occur across each of the control surfaces

at the x, y, and z coordinate. The conduction heat rates at the opposite surfaces can then be

expressed as a Taylor series expansion where, neglecting higher order terms,

dq x dq x

q x+ dx = q x + dx Slope =

dx dx

dq y

q y + dy = qy + dy

dy

dq

q z + dz = q z + z dz

dz

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

E g = q&V = q&dxdydz

dT dT dT

Est = mC p = ρVC p = ρ (dxdydz)C p

dt dt dt

where q& is the rate at which energy is generated per unit volume (W/m3) and to express

conservation of energy using the foregoing rate equation

Ein + E g − Eout = E st

and, substituting equations, we obtain

dq dq y dq dT

q x + q y + q z − (q x + x dx) − (q y + dy ) − (q z + z dz ) + q&dxdydz = ρdxdydzC p 2.2

dx dy dz dt

The conduction heat rates may be evaluated from Fourier's law,

dT dT

q x = − kA = − kdzdy

dx dx

dT dT

q y = − kA = − kdzdx 2.3

dy dy

dT dT

q z = − kA = − kdzdx

dz dz

Substituting Equations 2.3 into Equation 2.2 and dividing out the dimensions of the

control volume (dx dy dz), we obtain

∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂T

(k ) + (k ) + (k ) + q& = ρC p

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂t 2.4

It is often possible to work with simplified versions of Heat Equation (k=Const)is

∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T q& 1 ∂T

+ + + =

∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 k α ∂t 2.5

where α = k/ρCp (m2/s) is the thermal diffusivity.

A plane wall separates two fluids of different

temperatures. Heat transfer occurs by convection from the

hot fluid at T∞ ,1 to one surface of the wall at Ts1, by

conduction through the wall, and by convection from the

other surface of the wall at Ts2 to the cold fluid at T∞ , 2

If the heat transfer one dimensional and under steady-state conditions (there can be no

change in the amount of energy storage and generation; hence Heat Equation reduces to

∂ ∂T

(k )=0

∂x ∂x 2.6

If the thermal conductivity is assumed to be constant (k=Const), the equation may be

integrated twice to obtain the general solution

T(x)=C1 x+C2

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

introduced. Applying the conditions

B.C.1 x=0 at T=Ts1 C2=Ts1

B.C.2 x=L at T=Ts2

T − Ts1

Ts2=C1L+C2 = C1L+Ts1 C1 = s 2

L

Substituting into the general solution, the Temperature Distribution is then

x

T(x) = (TS 2 -TS 1 ) + Ts1 Linearly equation. 2.7

L

The existence of a finite contact resistance is due principally to surface roughness

effects. Contact spots are interspersed with gaps that are, in most instances, air filled. Heat

transfer is therefore due to conduction across the actual contact area and to conduction and/or

radiation across the gaps. The contact resistance may be viewed as two parallel resistances:

that due to :

(1)the contact spots

(2) that due to the gaps (the major contribution to the resistance).

The resistance is defined as

T A − TB

Rtc′′ =

q ′x′

TB

TA

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.1

The temperature distribution across a wall 1 m thick at a certain instant of time is given as

(T(x) = a+ bx + cx2 ) where T is in degrees Celsius and x is in meters, while a = 900° C, b = -

300°C/m, and c= -50°C/m2. A uniform heat generation q=1000 W/m3, is present in the wall of

area 10 m2 having the properties ρ = 1600 kg/m3, k = 40 W/m K, and Cp = 4 kJ/kg K.

1. Determine the rate of heat transfer entering (x = 0) and leaving the wall (x = 1 m).

2. Determine the rate of change of energy storage in the wall.

3. Determine the time rate of temperature change at x = 0, 0.25 and 0.5 m.

Solution

Assumptions:

1. One-dimensional conduction in the x direction.

2. Homogeneous medium with constant properties.

3. Uniform internal heat generation, q (W/m3).

1.

3. The time rate of change of the temperature at any point in the medium may be

determined from the heat equation, Equation 2.15, as

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.2

The diagram shows a conical section from pyroceram (k = 3.46 W/m K). It is of circular

cross section with the diameter D = ax. The small end is at x1 = 50 mm and the large end at x2

= 250 mm. The end temperatures are T1 = 400 K and T2 = 600 K, while the lateral surface is

well insulated and a=0.25.

1. Derive an expression for the temperature distribution T(x) in symbolic form,

assuming one-dimensional conditions.

2. Sketch the temperature distribution.

3. Calculate the heat rate through the cone.

Solution

Assumptions:

1. Steady-state conditions.

2. One-dimensional conduction in the x direction.

3. No internal heat generation.

4. Constant properties.

dT

q x = − kA

dx

With A=лD2/4= лa2x2/4 and separating variables

4q x dx

= − kdT

πa 2 x 2

Integrating from x1 to any x within the, it follows that

x T

4q x dx

πa 2 x∫1 x 2

= − k ∫ dT (k = const )

T1

Hence

4q x 1 1

( − + ) = − k (T − T1 )

πa 2

x x1

and solving for q

πa 2 k (T1 − T )

qx =

4[((1 / x1 ) − (1 / x))]

or solving for T

4q x 1 1

T ( x ) = T1 − (− + )

πa k x x1

2

πa 2 k (T1 − T2 )

qx =

4[((1 / x1 ) − (1 / x 2 ))]

4q x (T1 − T2 )

=

πa k [((1 / x1 ) − (1 / x 2 ))]

2

Substituting for q into the expression for T(x), the temperature distribution becomes

⎡ (1 / x) − (1 / x1 )) ⎤

T ( x ) = T1 + (T1 − T2 ) ⎢ ⎥

⎣ (1 / x1 ) − (1 / x2 ) ⎦

Substituting numerical values into the foregoing result for the heat transfer rate

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

A common example is the hollow cylinder, whose inner and outer surfaces are exposed

to fluids at different temperatures.

For a general transient three-dimensional in the cylindrical coordinates T= T(r, φ ,z, t),

the general form of the conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates becomes

1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ 2T ∂ 2T q& 1 ∂T

(r )+ 2 + + = 2.8

r ∂r ∂r r ∂φ 2 ∂z 2 k α ∂t

If the heat flow in a cylindrical shape is only in the radial direction and for steady-state

conditions with no heat generation, the conduction equation reduces to

1 ∂ ∂T

(r )=0

r ∂r ∂r

Integrating once with respect to radius gives

∂T ∂T C1

r = C1 and =

∂r ∂r r

A second integration gives T = C1 ln r + C2. 2.9

To obtain the constants (C1 and C2), we introduce the following boundary conditions

B.C.1 T=Ti at r=ri Ti = C1 ln ri+ C2.

B.C.2 T=To at r=ro To = C1 ln ro + C2.

Solving for C1 and C2 and substituting into the general solution, we then obtain

r

To − Ti = C1 ln o

ri

T − Ti T − Ti

C1 = o C2 = To − o ln ro

ln(ro / ri ) ln(ro / ri )

T − Ti r

T (r ) = o ln( ) + Ti 2.10

ln(ro / ri ) ri

we obtain the following expression for the heat transfer rate

dT C 2πLk (Ti − To )

qr = − kA = −(2πrLk ) 1 = 2.11

dr r ln(ro / ri )

(T − To ) ln(ro / ri )

qr = i R= 2.12

R 2πLk

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

A hot fluid flows through a tube that is covered by an insulating material. The system

loses heat to the surrounding air through an average heat transfer coefficient hc,o. the thermal

resistance of the two cylinders at the inside of the tube and the outside of the insulation gives

the thermal network shown below the physical system

where Th∞ hot fluid temperature and

Tc,∞

the environmental air temperature

2.13

q = UAo (Thot-Tcold)

The area varies with radial distance. Thus, the numerical value of U will depend on the

area selected. Since the outermost diameter is the easiest to measure in practice, Ao= 2л r3L is

usually chosen as the base area. Comparing between above Equations. we see that

Note that

UA=UiAi=UoAo 2.14

Ao = 2πro L and the overall coefficient becomes

3

2.15

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.3

Compare the heat loss from an insulated and an un-insulated copper pipe (k = 400

W/m K) has an internal diameter of 10 cm and an external diameter of 12 cm. Saturated steam

flows inside the pipe at 110°C ( hci = 10,000 W/m2 K). The pipe is located in a space at 30°C

and the heat transfer coefficient on its outer surface is estimated to be 15 W/m2 K. The

insulation available to reduce heat losses is 5 cm thick and its thermal conductivity is 0.20

W/m K

Solution

a Hollow Cylinder with Convection Surface Conditions

The heat loss per unit length is

q Ts − T∞

=

L R1 + R2 + R3

Hence we get

For the un-insulated pipe.

q/L = 80/0.177 = 452 W/m

For the insulated pipe, we must add a fourth resistance between r1 and r3.

ln(ri / ro ) ln(11 / 6)

R4 = = = 0.482mK / W

2πk 2π (0.2W / mK )

Also, the outer convection resistance changes to

1

Ro = = 0.096mK / W

2π (0.11 × 15)

The total thermal resistance per meter length (RTotal=R4+Ro= 0.578 m K/W)

Adding insulation will reduce the heat loss from the steam by 70%.

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.4

A hot fluid at an average temperature of 200oC flows through a plastic pipe of 4 cm OD

and 3 cm ID. The thermal conductivity of the plastic is 0.5 W/m K, and the heat transfer

coefficient at the inside is 300 W/m2 K. The pipe is located in a room at 30°C, and the heat

transfer coefficient at the outer surface is 10 W/m2 K, Calculate the overall heat transfer

coefficient and the heat loss per unit length of pipe.

Solution

The overall heat transfer coefficient is based on the outside area of the pipe

Although the conduction resistance increases with the addition of insulation, the

convection resistance decreases due to increasing outer surface area. Hence there may exist an

insulation thickness that minimizes heat loss by maximizing the total resistance to heat

transfer.

Air

T∞

ln( r / ri ) 1

RTotal =+

2π k 2π rh

An optimum insulation thickness would be associated with the value of r that minimized

qr or maximized RTotal. Such a value could be obtained from the requirement that

dq

=0 at r=r Critical

drc

dq r − 2πL(Ti − To )((1 / Krc ) − (1 / hrc ))

2

= 2

=0

drc ⎡ ln(rc / ri ) 1 ⎤

⎢ + ⎥

⎣ k rh ⎦

1 1 k

− 2 =0 rc = 2.16

krc rc h h

For spherical shape:

2k

rc =

h

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.5

Calculate the total thermal resistance per unit length of tube for a 10 mm diameter tube

having the following insulation thicknesses: 0, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mm. The insulation is

composed of Cellular Glass (k=0.055 w/m K), and the outer surface convection coefficient is

5 W/m2 K.

k 0.055

Solution rc = = = 0.011m

h 5

Hence rc > r, and heat transfer will increase with the addition of insulation up to a

thickness of rc-ri =(0.011-0.005)=0.006m

The thermal resistances corresponding to the prescribed insulation thicknesses may be

calculated and are summarized as follows.

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

For spherical coordinates, the temperature is a function of the three space coordinates

T(r ,θ , φ , t). The general form of the conduction equation is then

2.17

For a hollow sphere with uniform temperatures at the inner and outer surfaces, the

temperature distribution without heat generation in the steady state can be obtained by

simplifying Eq 2.17. Under these boundary conditions the temperature is only a function of

the radius r, and the conduction equation is

1 ∂ 2 ∂T

(r )=0

r 2 ∂r ∂r

∂T C1

r2 = C1 ∂T = ∂r

∂r r2

C

T (r ) = C 2 − 1

r

B.C.1 T=Ti at r=ri C1

Ti = C 2 −

ri

B.C.2 T=To at r=ro C

To = C 2 − 1

ro

Ti − To Ti − To 1

C1 = C 2 = To + ( )

1 1 ((1 / ro ) − (1 / r i )) ro

( )−( )

ro ri

The temperature distribution is

Ti − To 1 1 2.18

T (r ) = ( )( − ) + Ti

1 1 r ro

−

ri ro

The rate of heat transfer through the spherical shell is

dT dT

qr = −kA = − k (4πr 2 ) A=4πr2 ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ

dr dr

may be expressed in the integral form A=πD2 اﻟﻜﺮة

V=4πr2/3 ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﻜﺮة

ro To

1 qr dr

4π ∫ri r 2

= − ∫ kdT

Ti

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

qr = R= (2.19)(2.20)

ro − ri 4πkro ri

Example 2.6

The spherical, thin-walled metallic container is used to store liquid nitrogen at 77 K. The

container has a diameter of 0.5 and is covered with an evacuated insulation system composed

of silica powder (k = 0.0017 W/m K). The insulation is 25 mm thick, and its outer surface is

exposed to ambient air at 300 K. The latent heat of vaporization hfg of liquid nitrogen is 2 ×

105 J/kg. If the convection coefficient is 20 W/m2 K over the outer surface,

1. Determine the rate of liquid boil-off of nitrogen per hour?

2. Show expiration of critical radius of insulation? Ans: rc= 2h/k

Solution

1. The rate of heat transfer from the ambient air to the nitrogen in the container can be

obtained from the thermal circuit. We can neglect the thermal resistances of the metal wall

and between the boiling nitrogen and the inner wall because that heat transfer coefficient is

large. Hence

Ein=Eout m& h fg = q

Solving for m gives

q (13.06 J/s)(3600 s/hr)

m& = = = 0.235kg / hr

h fg 2 x 105 J/kg

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

A common thermal energy generation process involves

• The conversion from electrical to thermal energy in a current-carrying medium Eg=I2R.

• The deceleration and absorption of neutrons in the fuel element of a nuclear reactor

• Exothermic chemical reactions occurring within a medium. Endothermic reactions

would, of course, have the inverse effect

• A conversion from electromagnetic to thermal energy may occur due to the absorption

of radiation within the medium.

(a) Asymmetrical plane wall (b)Symmetrical plane wall (c) Adiabatic surface at midline

Figure 2.8 Conduction in a with uniform heat generation

Assumptions

• Uniform heat generation per unit volume q =Const.

• For constant thermal conductivity k=Const.

• One dimension and steady state heat transfer.

∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T q& 1 ∂T

+ + + =

∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 k α ∂t 2.5

the equation may be integrated twice to obtain the general solution

q& 2

T(x) = - x + C1 x + C 2 2.21

2k

To obtain the constants of integration, C1 and C2 boundary conditions must be

introduced.

q& 2

B.C.1 T=Ts1 at x=L Ts1 = - L + C1 L + C2

2k

q& 2

B.C.2 T=Ts2 at x= -L Ts 2 = − L − C1 L + C 2

2k

T − Ts 2 q&L2 Ts1 + Ts 2

C1 = s1 C2 = +

2L 2k 2

In which case the Temperature distribution is

q&L2 x2 T − Ts1 x Ts1 + Ts 2

T ( x) = (1 − 2 ) + s 2 + 2.22

2k L 2 L 2

32

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

when both surfaces are maintained at a common temperature, Ts1= Ts2= Ts. The

temperature distribution is given by

q&L2 x2

T(x) = ( 1 − 2 ) + Ts 2.23

2k L

The maximum temperature (T=To) exists at the midline (x=0).

q&L2 q&L2

To = + Ts or To − Ts = 2.24

2k 2k

which case the temperature distribution, after substitution eq 2.24 into eq 2.23

T ( x) − Ts x2

= 1− 2 2.25

To − Ts L

Consider the surface at x = L for (Fig. 2.8b) or the insulated plane wall (Fig. 2.8c).

The energy balance given by

E g = Eout

q&V = Ah(Ts − T∞ ) Neglecting radiation

q&AL = Ah(Ts − T∞ )

The surface temperature is

q&L

Ts = T∞ + 2.26

h

Example 2.7

A long electrical heating element made of iron has a cross section of 10 cm x 1.0 cm. It

is immersed in a heat transfer oil at 80°C. If heat is generated uniformly at a rate of 106 W/m3

by an electric current, determine the heat transfer coefficient necessary to keep the

temperature of the heater below 200°C. The thermal conductivity for iron is 64 W/m K.

Solution

q&L2 10 6 × (0.01) 2

Tmax − T1 = = = 0.2o C

8k 8 × 64

L

q&V = Ah(Ts − T∞ ) q&A = Ah(Ts − T∞ )

2

q&L

h= = 42W / m 2 K

2(Ts − T∞ )

33

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 2.8

A plane wall is a composite of two materials, A and B. The wall of material A (k = 75

W/m K) has uniform heat generation 1.5 X 106 W/m3, and thickness 50 mm. The wall material

B has no generation with (k = 150 W/m K) and thickness 20 mm. The inner surface of

material A is well insulated, while the outer surface of material B is cooled by a water stream

with 30°C and heat transfer coefficient 1000 W/m2 K.

1. Sketch the temperature distribution that exists in the composite under steady-state

conditions.

2. Determine the maximum temperature To of the insulated surface and the temperature

of the cooled surface Ts.

Solution

Assumptions:

1. Steady-state conditions.

2. One-dimensional conduction in x direction.

3. Negligible contact resistance between walls.

4. Inner surface of A adiabatic.

5. Constant properties for materials A and B.

q&L

T2 = T∞ + A 2.26

h

1.5 × 10 6 × 0.05

T2 = 30 + = 105o C

1000

T1 − T∞

q′′ =

′′ + Rconv

Rcond ′′

′′ + Rconv

T1 = T∞ + ( Rcond ′′ )q′′

q′′

q& =

ALA

where the resistances for a unit surface area are

Hence

T1 =115oC

From Equation 2.24 the temperature at the insulated surface is

q&L2 A

To = T1 +

2k A

1.5 × 10 6 (0.05) 2

To = 115 + = 140 o C

2 × 75

34

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

To determine the temperature distribution in the cylinder, we begin with the appropriate

form of the heat equation. For constant thermal conductivity is

1 ∂ ∂T q&

(r )+ =0

r ∂r ∂r k

∂T q& 2

r =− r + C1

∂r 2k

q& 2

T (r ) = − r + C1 ln r + C 2

4k

A Solid Cylinder

To obtain the constants (C1 & C2), we introduce the following boundary conditions

B.C.1 dT/dr=0 at r=0 C1=0

q& 2

B.C.2 T=Ts at r=ro C2 = ro + Ts

4k

Solving for C1 and C2 and substituting into the general solution, we then obtain

2

q&ro r2

T (r ) = − (1 − 2 ) + Ts 2.28

4k ro

The maximum temperature T=To at r=0

2 2

q&r q&ro

To = − o + Ts = To − Ts 2.29

4k 4k

2

q&ro

substitution replace group in equation 2.28

4k

T (r ) − Ts r2

= 1− 2 2.30

To − Ts ro

The energy balance given by

E g = Eout

q&V = Ah(Ts − T∞ )

q&πro L = 2πro hL(Ts − T∞ )

2

q&ro

Ts = T∞ + 2.31

2h

35

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

q& 2

T (r ) = − r + C1 ln r + C 2

4k

To obtain the constants (C1 and C2), we introduce the following boundary conditions

q& 2

B.C.1 T=Ti at r=ri Ti = − ri + C1 ln ri + C2

4k

q& 2

B.C.2 T=To at r=ro To = − ro + C1 ln ro + C2

4k

Solving for C1 and C2 and substituting into the general solution, we then obtain

2 2

(T − To ) + q& (ri − ro ) / 4k

C1 = i

ln(ri / ro )

2 2

q& 2 (Ti − To ) + q& (ri − ro ) / 4k

C2 = To + ro − × ln ro

4k ln(ri / ro )

In which case the Temperature distribution is

2 2

q& (ri − ro ) ln(r / ro ) ⎡ q& 2 ⎤

T (r ) = To + + ⎢ (ro − ri 2 ) + (To − Ti )⎥ 2.32

4k ln(ro / ri ) ⎣ 4k ⎦

The energy balance given by

E g = E out

q&V = Ah (Ts − T∞ )

q&π (ro − ri ) L = 2πro hL (Ts − T∞ )

2 2

2 2

q& (ro − ri )

Ts = T∞ + 2.33

2hro

:اﺷﺘﻘﺎﻗﺎت ﻣﻬﻤﺔ

اﺷﺘﻖ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻟﻼﺳﻄﻮاﻧﻪ اﻟﺤﻠﻘﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺠﻮﻓﺔ؟

اﺷﺘﻖ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻟﻼﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺔ اﻟﺤﻠﻘﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺠﻮﻓﺔ اذا آﺎن اﻟﺴﻄﺢ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ ﻣﻌﺰول؟

اﺷﺘﻖ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻟﻠﻜﺮة؟

36

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 2.9

A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor. Heat is generated uniformly in uranium rods of

0.05 m diameter at the rate of 7.5 x 107 W/m3. These rods are jacketed by an annulus in

which water at an average temperature of 120°C is circulated. The water cools the rods and

the average convection heat transfer coefficient is estimated to be 55,000 W/m2 K. If the

thermal conductivity of uranium is 29.5 W/m K, determine the center temperature of the

uranium fuel rods.

Solution

The rate of heat flow by conduction at the outer surface equals the rate of heat flow by

convection from the surface to the water:

q& ro

T s = T∞ +

2h

7 . 5 × 10 7 × 0 . 025

T s = 120 + = 137 o C

2 × 55000

The maximum temperature from equation 2.29

2

q&r 7.5 × 10 7 × (0.025) 2

To = o + Ts = + 137 = 534 o C

4k 4 × 29.5

37

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Extended surfaces have wide industrial application as fins attached to the walls of heat

transfer equipment in order to increase the rate of heating or cooling q = h As (Ts- T∞). Fins

come in many shapes and forms, some of which are shown in Fig 2.11.

Figure 2.10 Use of fins to enhance heat transfer from a plane wall.

(a) Rectangular Fin, (b)& (c)Pin Fin

The selection of fins is made on the basis of thermal performance and cost. the fins is

stronger when the fluid is a gas rather than a liquid. The selection of suitable fin geometry

requires a compromise among:

• A cost and weight are available space

• Pressure drop of the heat transfer fluid

• Heat transfer characteristics of the extended surface.

(a) Parabolic (b) Triangular (c) Annular fin (d) Pin fin.

38

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Consider a pin fin having the shape of a rod whose base is attached to a wall at surface

temperature Ts. The fin is cooled along its surface by a fluid at temperature T∞

To derive an equation for temperature distribution, we make a heat balance for a small

element of the fin. Heat flows by conduction into the left face of the element, while heat flows

out of the element by conduction through the right face and by convection from the surface.

Assumptions

1. The fin has a uniform cross-sectional area

2. The fin is made of a material having uniform conductivity (k = constant)

3. The heat transfer coefficient between the fin and the fluid is constant (h=constant).

4. One dimensional steady state condition only.

5. Non heat generation(q=0).

6. Radiation is negligible.

Ein = Eout

qx = qx+dx +qconv

dq

q x +dx = q x + x dx

dx

In symbolic form, this equation becomes

dT ( x ) dT (x )

− kA = − kA + hc dAs (T ( x) − T∞ ) 2.34

dx x dx x + dx

dAs= Pdx

Pdx is the fin surface area between x and x+dx.

A Cross section area of fin

d 2T ( x ) hP

− [T ( x) − T∞ ] = 0 2.35

dx 2 kA

It will be convenient to define an excess temperature of the fin above the environment,

θ(x) = [T(x) - T∞], and transform Eq. 2.35 into the form

d 2θ (x )

− m 2θ = 0

dx 2 2.36

Where m2= hP/kA.

39

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

general solution is of the form

conditions.

B.C.1 θ(0) = (Ts – T∞) at x=0

θs = C1 + C2 2.38

A second boundary condition depends on the physical condition at the end of the fin.

we will treat the following Four Cases:

Case1: The fin is very long and the temperature at the end approaches the fluid

temperature:

θ(∞) = (T∞ – T∞) = 0 at x=∞

dθ ( x )

=0 at x=L

dx

Case3: The temperature at the end of the fin is fixed:

θ(L) = (TL – T∞) at x=L

dθ ( x )

−k = hθ (L ) at x=L

dx x= L

Case 2

X L X L

40

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Case 1

The second boundary condition is:

B.C.2 θ(∞) = (T∞ – T∞) = 0 at x=∞

m∞ –m ∞

0= C1 e + C2 e C1=0

B.C.1 θ(0) = (Ts – T∞) at x=0

θs = C1 + C2 C2= θs

Differentiating

∂θ

= −mθ s e −mx 2.40

∂x

Since the heat conducted across the root of the fin must equal the heat transferred by

convection from the surface of the rod to the fluid,

dT

q fin = − kA = h P(T(x) − T∞ )dx 2.41

dx x =0

Method 1. By left term in equation 2.41 substituting Eq. 2.40 for x= 0 yields

dθ

q fin = − kA = − kA[− mθ (0 )e (−m )0 ] 2.42

dx x =0

⎡ hP ⎤

q fin = kA[mθs ] = kA⎢ θs ⎥

⎢⎣ kA ⎥⎦

q fin = h PAk ⋅ θ s

∞

q fin = hP (T(x) − T∞ )dx = hP ∫ θ s e −mx dx

0

− mx ∞

e

q fin = h Pθ s = h PAk ⋅ θ s 2.43

m 0

Case 2

The second boundary condition is :

B.C. 1 θ s = C1 + C2

dT

B.C.2 =0 at x=L

dx

θ(x) = C1 e mx + C2 e –mx

dθ ( x )

= mC1e mL − mC2 e −mL = 0

dx x= L

mC1e mL = mC 2 e − mL C1 = C2e −2 mL

Substituting in B.C.1

θs

θ s = C2 e −2 mL + C2 Î C2 =

1 + e −2 mL

41

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

θs θs

C1 = − 2 mL

e −2 mL Î C1 =

1+ e 1 + e 2 mL

Substituting the above relations for C1 and C2 into Eq.(2.37)

θs θs

θ ( x) = e mx

+ e -mx

1+ e 2 mL

1+ e − 2 mL

θs ⎛ e -mL ⎞ θs ⎛e mL

⎞

θ ( x) = e mx

⎜⎜ ⎟+

-mL ⎟

e -mx ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

1+ e 2 mL

⎝ e ⎠ 1+ e − 2 mL

⎝e

mL

⎠

θs θs

θ ( x) = e mx e -mL + e -mx e mL

e -mL

+e mL

+e e mL − mL

⎛ e -m(L- x)

e ⎞ m(L- x)

θ ( x) = θ s ⎜⎜ -mL mL + mL − mL ⎟⎟

⎝e +e e +e ⎠

⎛e -m(L- x)

+e m(L- x)

⎞ ⎛ (e -m(L-x) + e m(L-x) ) / 2 ⎞

θ ( x) = θ s ⎜⎜ ⎟

⎟ = θ ⎜ (e -mL + e mL ) / 2 ⎟⎟

s⎜

⎝ e +e

-mL mL

⎠ ⎝ ⎠

e mL − e − mL e mL + e − mL

Noting that Sinh(mL) = Cosh(mL) =

2 2

The temperature distribution is:

⎛ cosh m( L − x) ⎞

θ ( x) = θ s ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2.44

⎝ cosh(mL) ⎠

The heat loss from the fin can be found by substituting the temperature gradient at the

root into Eq.(2.37), we get

dθ ( x ) − m sinh m( L − x)

= θs

dx cosh( mL)

dθ ( x ) − m sinh mL

= θs = −θ s m tan mL

dx x=0 cosh mL

dθ

q fin = − kA

dx x =0

42

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Case 3

The second boundary condition is :

B.C. 1 θ s = C1 + C 2 C 2 = θ s − C1

B.C.2 θ(x)= θL at x=L

Substituting in B.C.2

θ(x) = C1 e mx + C2 e –mx 2.37

θ(L) = C1 e mL + C2 e –mL

θ(L) =C1 e mL +( θs –C1) e –mL

θ ( L ) − θ s ⋅ e − mL

C1 =

e mL − e −mL

θ ( L ) − θ s ⋅ e − mL θ s (e mL − e − mL ) − θ ( L ) + θ s ⋅ e − mL

C2 = θ s − =

e mL − e −mL e mL − e −mL

θ s ⋅ e mL − θ ( L )

C 2 = mL

e − e −mL

Substituting the above relations for C1 and C2 into Eq.(2.37)

θ ( L ) − θ s ⋅ e − mL mx θ s ⋅ e mL − θ ( L ) –mx

θ(x) = e + mL − mL e

e mL − e −mL e −e

⎡ (θ ( L ) / θ s )(e − e ) + e m ( L − x ) − e − m ( L− x ) ⎤

mx − mx

θ(x) = θ s ⎢ ⎥

⎣⎢ e mL − e −mL ⎦⎥

⎡ θ ( L ) e mx − e − mx e m ( L− x ) − e − m ( L− x ) ⎤

⎢ ( θ )( )+( )⎥

⎢ 2 2 ⎥

θ(x) = θ s s

⎢ e mL − e −mL ⎥

⎢ 2 ⎥

⎣ ⎦

The temperature distribution is:

⎡ (θ ( L ) / θ s ) sinh mx + sinh m( L − x) ⎤

θ(x) = θ s ⎢ ⎥ 2.46

⎣ sinh mL ⎦

The heat loss from the fin can be found by substituting the temperature gradient at the

root into Eq.(2.37), we get

dθ ( x ) ⎡ {(θ / θ )m ⋅ cosh mx + ( − m) cosh m( L − x)}(sinh mL ) − 0 ⎤

= θ s ⎢ ( L) s ⎥

dx x=0 ⎣ (sinh mL )2 ⎦

dθ ( x ) ⎡ {(θ / θ )m ⋅ − m cosh mL}(sinh mL )⎤

= θ s ⎢ ( L) s ⎥

dx x=0 ⎣ (sinh mL )2 ⎦

dθ ( x ) ⎡ (θ / θ ) − cosh mL ⎤

= mθ s ⎢ ( L ) s ⎥

dx x=0 ⎣ sinh mL ⎦

dθ ⎡ − (θ ( L ) / θ s ) + cosh mL ⎤

q fin = − kA = − mθ s kA⎢ ⎥

dx x =0 ⎣ sinh mL ⎦

hP ⎡ cosh mL − (θ ( L ) / θ s ) ⎤

q fin = θ s kA⎢ ⎥

kA ⎣ sinh mL ⎦

43

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

⎡ cosh mL − (θ ( L ) / θ s ) ⎤

q fin = M ⎢ ⎥ 2.47

⎣ sinh mL ⎦

Noting that M = hPAk ⋅ θ s

Case 4

The second boundary condition is:

B.C. 1 θ s = C1 + C 2 C 2 = θ s − C1

dθ ( x )

B.C.2 −k = hθ (L )

dx x = L

θ(L) = C1 e mL + C2 e –mL

dθ ( x )

= mC1e mL − mC 2 e −mL

dx x= L

Substituting above equations in B.C.2

− k ( mC1e mL − mC 2 e − mL ) = h(C1 e mL + C 2 e -mL )

Substituting B.C.2

− k ( mC1e mL − m(θ s − C1 )e − mL ) = h (C1 e mL + (θ s − C1 ) e -mL

)

θ s (e − e -2mL ( h / km))

-2mL

C1 =

e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL − (h / km ) + 1

θ s (e − ( h / km )e -2mL )

-2mL

C1 =

e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)

θ s (e − ( h / km )e -2mL )

-2mL

C1 =

e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)

θ s e -2mL (1 − (h / km ))

C2 = θ s −

e 2mL

+ ( h / km)e 2mL

+ 1 − ( h / km)

θ s (e 2mL

+ ( h / km )e 2mL

+ 1 − ( h / km )) − θ s e -2mL (1 − ( h / km))

C2 =

e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − (h / km )

e 2mL

+ ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km ) − e -2mL + e -2mL ( h / km))

C2 = θ s

e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)

e 2mL

−e

+ e 2mL (h / km ) + e -2mL ( h / km) + 1 − ( h / km))

-2mL

C2 = θ s

e 2mL + ( h / km )e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)

Substituting the above relations for C1 and C2 into Eq.(2.37)

θ (e -2mL − (h / km)e -2mL)

θ(x) = 2mL s e mx +

e + (h / km)e + 1 − (h / km)

2mL

e 2mL

−e -2mL

+ e 2mL ( h / km) + e -2mL ( h / km) + 1 − ( h / km)) –mx

θs e

e 2mL + ( h / km )e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)

(h / km)e m ( L− x ) - (h / km)e − m ( L− x ) + e m ( L− x ) + e − m ( L − x )

θ ( x) = θ s

e mL + e −mL + (h / km)e mL − (h / km)e −mL

The temperature distribution is:

44

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

θ ( x) = θ s 2.48

(h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL

The heat loss from the fin can be found by substituting the temperature gradient at the

root into Eq.(2.37), we get

dθ ( x ) (− m(h / km) cosh mL − ( − m sinh mL))(cosh mL + ( h / km) sinh mL) − 0

= θs

dx x=0 ((h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL) 2

dθ ( x ) (h / km) cosh mL − sinh mL)

= − mθ s

dx x=0 ( h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL

q fin = − kA = mθ s kAs

dx x =0 ( h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL

hP ( h / km) cosh mL − sinh mL )

q fin = θ s kA

kA ( h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL

( h / km) cosh mL − sinh mL )

q fin = M 2.49

( h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL

Noting that M = hPAk ⋅ θs

θ = T − T∞ θ s = θ (0) = Ts − T∞

hP hP

M = hPAk ⋅ θs m2 = m=

kA kA

P : Perimeter of the fin

A : Cross section area of fin

45

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

The heat transfer effectiveness of a fin is measured by a parameter called fin

effectiveness and the fin efficiency, which is defined as

i Fin Effectiveness ε. A ratio of the fin heat transfer rate to the heat transfer rate

that would exist without the fin.

q fin q fin

εf = = 2.52

qwithou ⋅ fin hAc (Ts − T∞ )

where Ac is the fin cross-sectional area at the base. the use of fins may rarely be

justified unless ε >= 2.

ii Fin Efficiency η

q fin

ηf = 2.53

qmax

2.54

Where Af is the surface area of the fin is

A f = 2 wLc

Rectangular

[

A f = 2 w L2 + (t / 2) ]

2 1/ 2

Triangular

[

A f = 2.o5w L + (t / 2) 2

]

2 1/ 2

Parabolic

A f = 2π (r − r 2 2

)

2c 1

Annular

Where as for a fin of rectangular cross section (length L & thickness t) and an adiabatic

end (Case 2) is

M tanh mL tanh mL

ηf = =

hPLθb mL 2.55

tanh mLc tanh h PL2 / kA

ηf = or ηf =

mLc h PL2 / kA

A fin efficiency for a circular pin fin (Diameter D & Length L) and an adiabatic end

(Case 2) is

tanh 4 L2 h / kD

ηf = 2.56

4 L2 h / kD

In Figures 2.14 and 2.15 fin efficiencies are plotted as a function of the parameter

3/ 2

Lc (h / kAp )1 / 2

inferred for the straight and the annular fins. Fin efficiencies obtained from the

figures may be used to calculate the actual fin heat transfer rate from the expression

q f = η f qmax = η f hA f θ b 2.57

46

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Figure 2.14 Efficiency of straight fins (rectangular, triangular, and parabolic profiles).

47

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.10

Consider a copper pin fin 0.25 cm in diameter k = 396 W/m K that protrudes from a wall

at 95°C into ambient air at 25°C. The heat transfer is mainly by natural convection with a

coefficient equal to 10 W/m2 K. Calculate the heat loss, assuming that :

(a) the fin is "infinitely long"

(b) the fin is 2.5 cm long and the coefficient at the end is the same as around the

circumference.

(c) how long would the fin have to be for the infinitely long solution to be correct within

5 %?

Solution

(a) A heat loss for the "Infinitely long" fin is

( )

q fin = − kA − mθ (0 )e (− m )0 = hPAk θ s T= 25 C

q= [(10 W/m K) л(0.0025 m)(396 W/m K) (л /4(0.0025 m)2 ]0.5 (95-25)°C

2

q = 0.865 W

(b) The equation for the heat loss from the finite fin is case 4:

sinh mL + (h / mk ) cosh mL

q fin = hPAkθ s = 0.140 W

cosh mL + ( h / mk ) sinh mL

sinh mL + ( h / mk ) cosh mL

>= 0.95

cosh mL + (h / mk ) sinh mL

This condition is satisfied when mL > 1.8 or L > 28.3 cm.

Example 2.11

To increase the heat dissipation from a 2.5 cm OD tube, circumferential fins made of

aluminum (k = 200 W/m K) are soldered to the outer surface. The fins are 0.1 cm thick and

have an outer diameter of 5.5 cm. If the tube temperature is 100°C, the environmental

temperature is 25°C, and the heat transfer coefficient between the fin and the environment is

65 W/m2 K, calculate the rate of heat loss from two fins.

Solution

a parameters required to obtain the fin efficiency curve in Fig. 2.15 are

48

Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.12

The cylinder barrel of a motorcycle is constructed of 2024-T6 aluminum alloy (k = 186

W/m K) and is of height H = 0.15 m and OD = 50 mm. Under typical operating conditions the

outer surface of the cylinder is at a temperature of 500 K and is exposed to ambient air at 300

K, with a convection coefficient of 50 W/m2 K. Annular fins of rectangular profile are

typically added to increase heat transfer to the surroundings. Assume that five (N=5) such

fins, which are of thickness t = 6 mm, length L = 20 mm and equally spaced, are added. What

is the increase in heat transfer due to addition of the fins?

Solution

Assumptions:

1. Steady-state conditions.

2. One-dimensional radial conduction in fins.

3. Constant properties.

4. No internal heat generation.

5. Negligible radiation exchange with surroundings.

6. Uniform convection coefficient over outer surface (with or without fins).

q f = N η f q max = N η f hA f θ b

( )

q f = Nη f h 2π r22c − r12 (Tb − T∞ )

q = hAb (Tb − T∞ ) Ab = ( H − Nt ) 2π r1

Hence

( )

q = Nη f h 2π r22c − r12 (Tb − T∞ ) + h( H − Nt )2πr (Tb − T∞ )

The fin efficiency may be obtained from Figure 2.19 with

Hence

q = 5 (100.22) + 188.5 = 690 W

Without the fins, the heat transfer rate is

q f = hAwo (Tb − T∞ ) Awo = H ( 2πr1 )

Hence

qwo = 50 W/m2 K (0.15 x л x 0.025) m2 (200 K) = 236 W

49

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Chapter Three

Unsteady State Conduction

3.1 Introduction

To determine the time dependence of the temperature distribution within a solid during a

transient process,. One such approach may be used under conditions for which temperature

gradients within the solid are small. It is termed the lumped capacitance method.

The lumped capacitance method is the assumption that the temperature of the solid is

spatially uniform at any instant during the transient process.(The temperature gradients

within the solid are negligible). From Fourier's law, heat conduction in the absence of a

temperature gradient implies the existence of infinite thermal conductivity

Ein + Eg − Eout = Est

− Eout = E st

dT

− hAs (T − T∞ ) = ρVC p

dt

Assume θ = (T − T∞ ) dθ / dt = dT / dt

dθ

− hAsθ = ρVC p

dt

Separating variables and integrating equation, we then obtain

t

ρVC p θ dθ

− ∫ dt =

0

hAs θ∫i θ

ρVC p θ i ρLc C p Ti − T∞

t= ln or t= ln 3.1

hAs θ h T − T∞

This equation used to determine the time required for the solid to reach some

temperature

θ hAs T − T∞ h

= exp ( − )t or = exp ( − )t 3.2

θi ρVC p Ti − T∞ ρLc C p

This Equation used to compute the temperature reached by the solid at some time

Where θ i = (Ti − T∞ ) and exponent group is

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

hAs h h k Lc hL k t k

t= t= t = ( c )( )( 2 ) = Biα = BiFo 3.3

ρVC p ρC p Lc ρC p Lc k Lc k ρC p Lc ρC p

Where Lc is the characteristic length as the ratio of the solid's volume to surface area

Lc=V/As .

Lc = L/2 for a plane wall of thickness 2L.

Lc = r/2 for a long cylinder (end edge are negligible)

Lc = r/3 for a sphere

Lc = ro-ri for a long annular cylinder(end edge are negligible).

kα

FO = is termed the Fourier number It is a dimensionless time and substituting

ρC p

equation 3.3 into 3.2, we obtain

θi T − T∞

= = exp ( − BiFo) 3.4

θ Ti − T∞

The difference between the solid and fluid temperatures must decay exponentially to

zero as approaches infinity time.

The quantity ρVCp/hAs may be interpreted as a thermal time constant. as

1

τt = ( )( ρVC p ) = Rt Ct 3.5

hAs

where Rt is the resistance to convection heat transfer

Ct is the lumped thermal capacitance of the solid.

Any increase in Rt or Ct, will cause a solid to respond more slowly to changes in its

thermal environment and will increase the time required to reach thermal equilibrium (θ = 0).

response of lumped capacitance solids

To determine the total energy transfer Q occurring up to some time t

t t t

Q = ∫ qdt = hAs ∫ (T − Ts )dt = hAs ∫ θdt

0 0 0

t

hAs

Q = hAs ∫ θi exp ( − )t dt

0

ρVC p

hAs

Q = ρVC pθ i (1 − exp ( − )t )

ρVC p

1

Q = ρVC pθ i (1 − exp(− t )) 3.6

τ

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Applying energy balance to the surface under steady state

Ein=Eout

kA

hA(Ts 2 − T∞ ) = (Ts1 − Ts 2 )

L

Ts1 − Ts 2 L / kA hL

= =

Ts 2 − T∞ 1 / hA k

hL

Where is dimensionless group Biot number (Bi).

k

hL R

Bi = c = cond

k Rconv

Figure 3.3 Transient temperature distribution for different Biot No. in a plane wall

cooled by convection.

When confronted with transient conduction problems, the very first thing that one

should do is calculate the Biot number. If the following condition is satisfied

hL

Bi = c ≤ 0.1

k

the error associated with using the lumped capacitance method is small.

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 3.1

A thermocouple junction, which may be approximated as a sphere, is to be used for

temperature measurement in a gas stream. The convection coefficient between the junction

surface and the gas is known to be h = 400 W/m2 K, and the junction properties are k = 20

W/m K, Cp = 400 J/kg K, and ρ = 8500 kg/m3. Determine the junction diameter needed for the

thermocouple to have a time constant of 1 s. If the junction is at 25°C and is placed in a gas

stream that is at 200°C, how long will it take for the junction to reach 199°C?

Solution

Assumptions:

1. Temperature of junction is uniform at any instant.

2. Radiation exchange with the surroundings is negligible.

3. Losses by conduction through the leads are negligible.

4. Constant properties.

5. Using the lumped capacitance method.

As = лD2 and V = лD3/6 for a sphere

1 1 ρπD 3

τt = ( )( ρVC p ) = Cp

hAs hDπ 2 6

6hτ

D= = 7.07 × 10 −4 m = 0.71mm

ρC p

Lc=r/3 = Bi = = 0.000235

k 3 × 20

the lumped capacitance method may be used to an excellent approximation.

ρLc C p Ti − T∞

t= ln

h T − T∞

8500 × 7.06 × 10 −4 × 400 25 − 200

t= ln = 5.2 s

6 × 400 199 − 200

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

If a thermal change is suddenly imposed at this surface, a one-dimensional temperature

wave will be propagated by conduction within the solid. The appropriate equation is

∂ 2T 1 ∂T

= 0≤ x≤L

∂x 2 α ∂t

To solve this equation we must specify two boundary conditions and the initial

temperature distribution. For the initial condition we shall specify that the temperature inside

the solid is uniform at Ti, that is,

B.C.1 T(x, 0) = Ti.

Assumptions:

1. One Dimensional

2. Extended body to infantry

Transient Conduction in a Semi-Infinite Solid.

Closed-form solutions have been obtained for Three Cases of changes in surface

conditions, instantaneously applied at t = 0: These three cases are

Case 1 Change in surface temperature: a sudden change in surface temperature

T (0, t ) = Ts

T ( x, t ) − Ts ⎛ x ⎞

= erf ⎜ m ⎟ 3.8

Ti − Ts ⎝ 2 αt ⎠

3.9

Case 2 Constant surface heat flux: a sudden application of a specified heat flux q''s =q''o

as, for example, exposing the surface to radiation

3.10

Case 3. Surface convection a sudden exposure of the surface to a fluid at a different

temperature through a uniform and constant heat transfer coefficient h

3.11

3.12

the specific temperature histories computed from Eq. (3.12) are plotted in next Fig.

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

B.C. 1

B.C. 2

engineering and is defined as

3.13

Values of this function are tabulated in the appendix. The complementary error

function, erfc(w), is defined as

erfc(w)=1-erf(w)

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

x erf(x) x erf(x) x erf(x)

0.00 0.00000 0.76 0.71754 1.52 0.96841

0.02 0.02256 0.78 0.73001 1.54 0.97059

0.04 0.04511 0.80 0.74210 1.56 0.97263

0.06 0.06762 0.82 0.75381 1.58 0.97455

0.08 0.09008 0.84 0.76514 1.60 0.97635

0.10 0.11246 0.86 0.77610 1.62 0.97804

0.12 0.13476 0.88 0.78669 1.64 0.97962

0.14 0.15695 0.90 0.79691 1.66 0.98110

0.16 0.17901 0.92 0.80677 1.68 0.98249

0.18 0.20094 0.94 0.81627 1.70 0.98379

0.20 0.22270 0.96 0.82542 1.72 0.98500

0.22 0.24430 0.98 0.83423 1.74 0.98613

0.24 0.26570 1.00 0.84270 1.76 0.98719

0.26 0.28690 1.02 0.85084 1.78 0.98817

0.28 0.30788 1.04 0.85865 1.80 0.98909

0.30 0.32863 1.06 0.86614 1.82 0.98994

0.32 0.34913 1.08 0.87333 1.84 0.99074

0.34 0.36936 1.10 0.88020 1.86 0.99147

0.36 0.38933 1.12 0.88679 1.88 0.99216

0.38 0.40901 1.14 0.89308 1.90 0.99279

0.40 0.42839 1.16 0.89910 1.92 0.99338

0.42 0.44749 1.18 0.90484 1.94 0.99392

0.44 0.46622 1.20 0.91031 1.96 0.99443

0.46 0.48466 1.22 0.91553 1.98 0.99489

0.48 0.50275 1.24 0.92050 2.00 0.99532

0.50 0.52050 1.26 0.92524 2.10 0.997020

0.52 0.53790 1.28 0.92973 2.20 0.998137

0.54 0.55494 1.30 0.93401 2.30 0.998857

0.56 0.57162 1.32 0.93806 2.40 0.999311

0.58 0.58792 1.34 0.94191 2.50 0.999593

0.60 0.60386 1.36 0.94556 2.60 0.999764

0.62 0.61941 1.38 0.94902 2.70 0.999866

0.64 0.63459 1.40 0.95228 2.80 0.999925

0.66 0.64938 1.42 0.95538 2.90 0.999959

0.68 0.66378 1.44 0.95830 3.00 0.999978

0.70 0.67780 1.46 0.96105 3.20 0.999994

0.72 0.69143 1.48 0.96365 3.40 0.999998

0.74 0.70468 1.50 0.96610 3.60 1.000000

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 3.2

Estimate the minimum depth xm at which one must place a water main below the surface

to avoid freezing. The soil is initially at a uniform temperature of 20°C. Assume that under

the worst conditions anticipated it is subjected to a surface temperature of -15°C for a period

of 60 days. Use the following properties for soil (300 K):

ρ = 2050 kg/m3

k = 0.52 W/m K

Cp= 1840 J/kg K

α =0.138 x 10-6 m2/s

1. Conduction is one-dimensional

2. The soil is a semi-infinite medium

3. The soil has uniform and constant properties.

the soil is

T ( x, t ) − Ts ⎛ x ⎞

= erf ⎜ m ⎟

Ti − Ts ⎝ 2 αt ⎠

0 − (−15) ⎛ x ⎞

= 0.43 = erf ⎜⎜ m ⎟⎟

20 − (−15) ⎝ 2 αt ⎠

From Table 43 we find by interpolation that when xm / 2 αt = 0.4

to satisfy the above relation. Thus

xm = 0.4 × 2 αt = 0.68m

Another Solution:

To use Fig. 2.35, first calculate

T ( x, t ) − Ts 0 − 20

= = 0.57 and h αt / k = ∞

T∞ − Ts − 15 − 20

Then enter the curve Fig.(3.5) obtain xm / 2 αt = 0.4, the same result as above.

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

The temperature distribution and the heat flow have been calculated and the results are

available in the form of charts. we shall illustrate the application of some of these charts to

typical problems of transient heat conduction in solids (One-Dimensional) having a Bi > 0.1.

Three simple geometries for which results have been prepared in graphic form are:

1. An infinite plate of width 2L (see Fig. 3.7)

a) Calculate T(0, t) from Figure 3.7-a :(Midplate temperature vs time for an

infinite plate)

b) After that, calculate surface temperature T(x, t) from Figure 3.7-b

c) Calculate total heat transfer Q at any time from Figure 3.7-c , note that:

Qo≡ρC V(Ti-T∞)= ρC Vθi

3. A sphere of radius ro (see Fig. 3.9)

One boundary condition for all three geometries are similar requires that the

temperature gradient at the midplane of the plate, the axis of the cylinder, and the center of the

sphere be equal to zero. Physically, this corresponds to no heat flow at these locations.

The other boundary condition requires that the heat conducted to or from the surface be

transferred by convection to or from a fluid at temperature through a uniform and constant

heat transfer coefficient

dT

hA(Ts − T∞ ) = kA

dx

The calculations for the Heisler charts were performed by truncating the infinite series

solutions for the problems into a few terms. This restricts the applicable the charts to values of

the Fourier number greater than 0.2.

kα

FO = > 0.2

ρC p

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.7 Dimensionless Transient Temperatures and Heat Flow in an Infinite Plate of Width 2L

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.8 Dimensionless Transient Temperatures and Heat Flow for a Long Cylinder.

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.9 Dimensionless transient temperatures and heat flow for a sphere.

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 3.3

In a fabrication process, steel components are formed hot and then quenched in water.

Consider a 2.0 m long, 0.2 m diameter steel cylinder (k = 40 W/m K, α = 1.0 x10-5 m2/s),

initially at 400°C, that is suddenly quenched in water at 50°C. If the heat transfer coefficient

is 200 W/m2 K, calculate the following 20 min after immersion:

1. the center temperature

2. the surface temperature

3. the heat transferred to the water during the initial 20 min

Solution

Since the cylinder has a length 10 times the diameter, we can neglect end effects. we

calculate first the Biot number

hr 200 × 0.1

Bi = o = = 0.5 > 0.1

k 40

1. we cannot use the lumped-capacitance method. To use the chart solution we calculate

the appropriate dimensionless parameters:

αt

Fo = 2 = 1.2 and Bi2 FO = (0.52)(1.2) = 0.3

ro

The dimensionless centerline temperature for 1/Bi = 2.0 and Fo = 1.2 from Fig. 2.38(a) is

T ( 0 , t ) − T∞ T (0, t ) − 50

= 0 . 35 = 0.35

Ti − T∞ 400 − 50

T(0,t) = 172.5 C

2. The surface temperature at r/ro =1.0 and t = 1200 s is obtained from Fig. 3.8(b) in

terms of the centerline temperature:

T (ro , t ) − T∞

= 0.8

T (0, t ) − T∞

T (ro , t ) − 50

= 0.8

172.5 − 50

and the surface temperature after 20 min is: T(ro, t) = 148°C

3. The initial amount of internal energy stored in the cylinder per unit length is

Qi = C pπro (Ti − T∞ ) = (kα / Fo )πro (Ti − T∞ ) = 4.4 × 10 7 W / m

2 2

Then the amount of heat transferred from the steel rod to the water can be obtained from

Fig. 3.8(c). Since Q(t)/Qi = 0.61

2m × 4.4 × 10 7 W ⋅ s / m

Q(t ) = 0.61 × = 14.9kW ⋅ hr

3600hr

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 3.4

A large concrete wall 50 cm thick is initially at 60°C. One side of the wall is insulated.

The other side is suddenly exposed to hot combustion gases at 900°C through a heat transfer

coefficient of 25 W/m2 K. Determine

(a) the time required for the insulated surface to reach 600°C.

(b) the temperature distribution in the wall at that instant

(c) the heat transferred during the process.

The following average physical properties are given:

k = 1.25 W/m K , Cp=837 J/kg K , ρ = 500 kg/m3 , α =0.30 x 10-5 m2/s

Solution

(a). that the wall thickness is equal to L since the insulated surface corresponds to the

center plane of a slab of thickness 2L when both surfaces experience a thermal change. The

temperature ratio for the insulated face at the time sought is

Ts (t ) − T∞ 600 − 900

= = 0.357

Ts (0) − T∞ x =0 60 − 900

1 αt

Bi=10 , = 0.1 and Fo = 2 = 0.7

Bi L

From Fig. 2.37(a) we find that

0.7 × 0.52

t= = 58333s = 16.2hr

0.3 × 10 −5

(b). The temperature distribution in the wall 16 hr after the transient was initiated can be

obtained from Fig. 2.37(b) for various values of x/L, as shown below:

Assume of positions

From the above dimensionless data we can obtain the temperature distribution as a

function of distance from the insulated surface:

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

Temeratue Distrbution

861 900

850

777 800

708 750

T(x)

651 700

612 600 650

600

550

500

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

x

(c). The heat transferred to the wall per square meter of surface area during the transient

can be obtained from Fig. 3.7(c). for Bi = 10 and Bi2 Fo = 70 is

Q(t)/Qi=0.70.

Q(t) = C p ρL(Ti - T∞ )837 × 500 × 0.5 × (-840 ) = -1.758 × 108 J/m 2

The minus sign indicates that the heat was transferred into the wall and the internal

energy increased during the process.

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

Start

Input h, k, ρ, T∞, Ts

Cp, V, As

hLc

Calculate Bi = and α = k

k ρC p

No Yes

Bi<0.1

Calculate FO =

kα

ρC p

Processing

No Yes

Fo>0.2 The Lumped

Capacitance Method

Body Heisler Charts

ρLc C p Ti − T∞

t= ln

h T − T∞

h=Const T(0,t)=Ts T − T∞ h

= exp ( − )t

Eq. 3.11 Eq. 3.8 Ti − T∞ ρLc C p

Eq. 3.12 Eq. 3.9

Q = ρVC pθ i (1 − exp(−t / τ ))

Eq. 3.10 Fig. 2.39 wall Cylinder

Fig. 2.37 Fig. 2.38

Output T, t, Q

End

Figure 3.10 Flow Chart for the solution of Unsteady state conduction problem.

- Mechanical Vibration solved examplesTransféré parParas Thakur
- Heat Conduction Lab ReportTransféré parJohnConor
- Heat Exchanger Lab ReportTransféré parJohnConor
- 34449024 Sample Heat Transfer Problems With SolutionsTransféré parLakshman Naik
- Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (Solutions Manual)Transféré parmariocontigo
- Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics 7th Edition (Solutions Manual)Transféré parjoe_grn
- Mass Transfer Part (2)Transféré paroctoviancletus
- Heat Exchanger Lab ReportTransféré parRam Krishna Singh
- Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering - Solutions ManualTransféré parmickey_54db
- Solution Manual-Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics - Smith Van NessTransféré parSurya Budi Widagdo
- Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat , and Mass Transfer 5th Edition Welty Solutions manualTransféré parDylan Johnson
- Heat transfer lectures 2 (convection)Transféré parHaider
- 122357866 Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles Solutions ManualTransféré paramalinaishah
- Mills - Basic Heat and Mass Transfer - 2nd Ed - Solutions ManualTransféré parEmily Hoffmann
- HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER NOTESTransféré parBALAMUGUNDAN
- ME3122E - Tutorial Solution 5Transféré parLinShaodun
- MODULE 2: Worked-Out ProblemsTransféré parcaptainhass
- Heat and Mass Transfer notesTransféré parvgbharath
- Heat and Mass transfer(NPTEL).pdfTransféré parArnab Midya
- Solution Manual chemical process safety 3rd editionTransféré parAmirul Abu
- Momentum, Heat, And Mass Transfer FundamentalsTransféré parandresh985
- Radiation- R.K.RajputTransféré parBALAMUGUNDAN
- Solution Manual - Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (4th Edition)Transféré parMaría José Miranda Medina
- [Solutions Manual] Fundamental Os Heat and Mass Transfer [Frank p. Incropera - David p.dewitt]Transféré parCharles Ost
- solved problems in heat transferTransféré parfarshidian
- Cengel Thermodynamics Heat Transfer 2nd TxtbkTransféré paricething
- Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer-Incropera-6th-BookTransféré parRyan Harris
- Heat Transfer CalculationsTransféré parSaiful Bahri
- Heat Transfer 1Transféré parsunitbhaumik
- Principles of Heat Transfer Solutions ManualTransféré parjoeydolim

- 8694_ch01Transféré parDarwin Mar
- MIT22_51F12_Ch11Transféré parUtkarsh Verma
- ME200-Fluid mechanics and Machinery.pdfTransféré parpremquilon
- Adv Soil Mech PreperationTransféré parSanko Kosan
- Design of Roof Joist-trussTransféré pargmkmal
- Shear Key- 44.5m.xlsxTransféré parPrashant Jha
- 245759.pdfTransféré parAbhiA
- ficha tecnica polietileno de baja densidadTransféré parclaudia
- cryogenicsTransféré parmech1212
- A Review of Masonry Buckling CharacteristicsTransféré parAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- A Study on the Variation of Strength Properties OfTransféré park v g m sreeram
- AE2254-QBTransféré parMahesh J Rao
- Shape memory polymers in biomedical engineeringTransféré parDebirupa Mitra
- Blue-green Luminescence in Spray Pyrolysed ZnOTransféré parAntonio Coyopol
- Simulation Analysis and Application of Hot Rolled Large Size H-beamsTransféré parSEP-Publisher
- lancer university paperTransféré parGaurav Binaykiya
- Fat CrystallisationTransféré parSartika Mutiarasani
- 3.IJMPERDAUG20183Transféré parTJPRC Publications
- S355J2WTransféré parmedepalli sai madhu
- AISC Design Example 1Transféré parvibishnan
- Studies of Znse and Indium Tin Oxide Based Thin Film Schottky Barriers and Hetero Junctions for Their Electrical and Optical PropertiesTransféré parSumbitchaliha
- Lecture 19 Oct Part-II.docTransféré parSheikh Ubaid
- Ciprotec - PIB - 1. Auflage - Engl.Transféré parStelian Constantinescu
- Chp03.pdfTransféré parR.a. Niar Nauri Ningsih
- Zeus Focus on PEEK.pdfTransféré parAnish Kumar
- Fusion Cladding Prevents Pipeline Wear and CorrosionTransféré parmp87_ing
- UHPdc -7 - Strength and Durability. UHPCTransféré parparthi
- ak.pdfTransféré parbonat07
- InsulationTransféré parBaDa Lee
- Effect of the Printing Bed Temperature on the Adhesion of Parts Produced by Fused Filament FabricationTransféré parjorge.eu

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.