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# Foundation of Technical Education Third year

Lectures of
Heat Transfer

## Heat Transfer Rate Processes

Mode Transfer Mechanism Rate of heat transfer (W)
Diffusion of energy due to random dT
Conduction q = - kA
molecular motion dx
Diffusion of energy due to random
Convection
molecular motion plus bulk motion
q = h A(Ts-T∞)
Energy transfer by electromagnetic
waves
q = σ ε A(Ts4-Tsur4)

By
Mr. Amjed Ahmed Ali
Syllabus of Heat Transfer (English),
(2 hours/ week, Applied 2 hours /week) Hours
1.Heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation 2
3.Systems with conduction-convection 2
4. Overall heat transfer coefficient 2
5. Critical thickness of the insulator 2
6. Heat source systems 2
7. Extended Surface (Fins) 2
8. Resistance to heat contact 2
• Complete heat capacity system 2
• Limited conditions of convection 2
• Application and Hessler's diagrams 2
11. Multi-dimensions systems 2
12. Principles of heat transfer by convection 1
13. Boundary layer for laminar and turbulent flow 2
14. Thermal boundary layer for laminar and turbulent flow 2
15. Analogy between fluid friction and heat transfer 2
16. Experimental relations of heat transfer by forced convection inside pipes 2
17. Flow through cylindrical and spherical bodies 2
18. Flow through bundle of tubes 2
19. Heat exchangers 4
Scaling 1
Mean logarithmic difference of temperature 1
NTU method 2
20. Heat transfer by radiation 1
22. Body in thermal radiation 2
23. Relation between coefficient and the body 2
24. Heal exchange between non-black bodies 2
Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Chapter Oneِ
Introduction

Introduction
A consider the cooling of a hot steal rod which is place in a cold
water Thermodynamics may be used to predict the final equilibrium
temperature of the rod-water combination. It will not tell us how long it
takes to reach this equilibrium condition. Heat Transfer may be used to
predict the temperature of the rod and the water as a function of time.

## 1.1 Definition: ‫ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬

Heat: is the energy transit as a result of the temperature difference.
Heat transfer: is that science which seeks to predict the energy transfer that may take
place between material bodes as a result of a temperature difference.
Thermodynamics: is the state science of energy, the transformation of energy and the
change in the state of matter. (Thermodynamics can be able to
determination of heat and work requirements for chemical and
physical process and the equilibrium conditions).
Heat flux: heat transfer flow in the direction per unit area (q”).
Steady state: Temperature is very does not very with time (dT/dt) =0.
Unsteady state: temperature is depending on time.

## 1.2 Modes of Heat Transfer ‫أﻧﻤﺎط اﻧﺘﻘﺎل اﻟﺤﺮارة‬

The engineering area frequently referred to as thermal science includes thermodynamics
and heat transfer. The role of heat transfer is to supplement thermodynamic analyses, which
consider only systems in equilibrium, with additional laws that allow prediction of time rates
of energy transfer. These supplemental laws are based upon the three fundamental modes of
heat transfer conduction, convection, and radiation.

## 1.3 A Conduction Heat Transfer

Conduction may be viewed as the transfer of energy from the more energetic to the less
energetic particles of a substance due to interactions between the particles. A temperature
gradient within a homogeneous substance results in an energy transfer rate within the medium
which can be calculated by Fourier's law
dT
q = -kA (1.1)
dx
Where q is the heat transfer rate (W or J/s) and k thermal conductivity (W/m K) is an
experimental constant for the medium involved, and it may depend upon other properties,
such as temperature and pressure.
dT
Is the temperature gradient in the direction normal to the area A.
dx

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 1

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

dT ∆Τ Τ −Τ T1 T1> T2
= = 2 1
dx ∆χ χ 2 − χ1
T2
q

X2
X1 L
Figure 1.1 Temperature distribution for steady state conduction. Through a
plate wall

The minus sign in Fourier's Law (1.1) is required by the second law of
thermodynamics: thermal energy transfer resulting from a thermal gradient must be from a
warmer to a colder region. If the temperature profile within the medium is linear Fig. 1.1 it is
permissible to replace the temperature gradient (partial derivative) with
Τ −Τ2 (1.2)
q = kA 1
L
The quantity (L/kA) is equivalent to a thermal resistance Rk (K/W) which is equal to the
reciprocal of the conductance. As:
L Τ − Τ1 (1.3)
Rk q= 2
kA R k
Such linearity always exists in a homogeneous medium of fixed k during steady state
heat transfer occurs whenever the temperature at every point within the body, including the
surfaces, is independent of time.

T1
q
T1> T2

T2

## Figure 1.2 Association of conduction heat transfer with diffusion

of energy due to molecular activity.

dT
If the temperature changes with time , energy is either being stored in or removed
dt
from the body. This storage rate is
dT
qstored = mc p (1.4)
dt
Where m is the mass of substance and Cp is specific heat capacity.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 2

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 1.3.1 Thermal Conductivity

The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of the ability of the material to
conduct heat.
I Thermal Conductivity of Solids: In general, k for a pure metal decreases with
temperature; alloying elements tend to reverse this trend. The thermal conductivity of a metal
can usually be represented over a wide range of temperature by
k = k 0(a + bθ + cθ 2 ) (1.5)
Where θ = T − Tref and k0 is the conductivity at the reference temperature Tref
The thermal conductivity of a non homogeneous material is usually markedly dependent
upon the apparent bulk density, As a general rule, k for a no homogeneous material increases
both with increasing temperature and increasing apparent bulk density
II Thermal Conductivity of Liquids: Thermal conductivities of most liquids
decrease with increasing temperature. But insensitive to pressure the exception is water,
which exhibits increasing k up to about 150°C and decreasing k there after. Water has the
highest thermal conductivity of all common liquids except the so-called liquid metals.
III Thermal Conductivity of Gases: The thermal conductivity of a gas increases with
increasing temperature, but is essentially independent of pressure for pressures close to
atmospheric. For high pressure (i.e., pressure of the order of the critical pressure or greater),
the effect of pressure may be significant.

## 1.4 A Convection Heat Transfer

Whenever a solid body is exposed to a moving fluid having a temperature different
from that of the body, energy is carried or convected from or to the body by the fluid If the
upstream temperature of the fluid is T∞, and the surface temperature of the solid is Ts the heat
transfer per unit time is given by Newton’s Law of cooling:
q = h A(Ts - T∞ ) (1.6)
2
Where h is Convective Heat transfer coefficient (W/m K) as the constant of
proportionality relating the heat transfer
per unit time and area to the overall
temperature difference. It is important to
keep in mind that the fundamental energy
exchange at a solid-fluid boundary is by
conduction, and that this energy is then
converted away by the fluid flow.
The thermal resistance to
convection heat transfer Rc, as:
1
Rc = (1.6)
hA
T -T
q = s ∞ (1.7) Fig (1.4) Velocity and temperature distribution on flat plate
Rc

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 3

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 1.5 A Radiation Heat Transfer

The third mode of heat transmission is due to electromagnetic wave propagation, which
can occur in a total vacuum as well as in a medium. Experimental evidence indicates that
radiant heat transfer is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature, where as
conduction and convection are proportional to a linear temperature difference. The
fundamental Stefan-Boltzmann Law is
q = σ A T4 (1.8)
Where T is the absolute temperature, σ is Boltzmann constant independent of surface,
medium, and temperature; its value is 5.6697 X 10-8 W/m2.K4 ., the thermal emission from
many surfaces (gray bodies) can be well represented by
q = σ ε A(Ts4-Tsur4) (1.9)
Where ε, the emissivity of the surface, ranges (0-1). The ideal emitter or blackbody is
one, All other surfaces emit some what less than one.
Ts and Tsur The temperature of surface and surroundings respectively.
Similarly, The thermal resistance to radiation heat transfer Rr, as:
Τs − Τsur (1.11)
Rr =
σε Α( Τs − Τsur )
4 4

Ts - Tsur
q= (1.12)
Rr

## Table 1.1 Summary of heat transfer rate processes

Rate of heat transfer Thermal Resistance
Mode Transfer Mechanism
(W) (K/W)
Diffusion of energy due to dT L
Conduction q = - kA Rk =
random molecular motion dx kA
Diffusion of energy due to 1
Convection random molecular motion q = h A(Ts-T∞) Rc =
hA
plus bulk motion
Energy transfer by Τs − Τsur
Radiation electromagnetic waves q = σ ε A(Ts4-Tsur4) Rr =
σε Α( Τs 4 − Τsur 4 )

## Figure (1.5) Conduction, Convection and Radiation Heat transfer Modes

The concept of thermal resistance (analogous to electrical resistance) is introduced as an
aid to solving conduction heat transfer problems.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 4

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 1.1
Calculate the rate of heat transfer by natural convection between a shed roof of
area 20 m x 20 m and ambient air, if the roof surface temperature is 27°C, the air
temperature 3°C, and the average convection heat transfer coefficient 10 W/m2 K.

## Figure 1.7 Schematic Sketch of Shed for

Analysis of Roof Temperature.

Solution
Assume that steady state exists and the direction of
heat flow is from the air to the roof. The rate of heat
transfer by convection from the air to the roof is then
given by Eq:

Note we initially assumed that the heat transfer would be from the air to the roof. But
since the heat flow under this assumption turns out to be a negative quantity the direction of heat
flow is actually from the roof to the air.

Example 1.2 Determine the steady state rate of heat transfer per unit area through a
4.0cm thick homogeneous slab with its two faces maintained at uniform temperatures of 38I
o
C and 21 oC. The thermal conductivity of the material is 0.19 W/m K.

Example 1.3 The forced convective heat transfer coefficient for a hot fluid x1 x2
flowing over a cool surface is 225 W/m2.oC for a particular problem. The fluid temperature
upstream of the cool surface is 1200C, and the surface is held at 10 0C. Determine the heat
transfer rate per unit surface area from the fluid to the surface.

q = h A(Ts-T∞)
q/A= 225(120-10)=24750 W/m2

Example 1.4
After sunset, radiant energy can be sensed by a person standing near a brick wall. Such
walls frequently have surface temperatures around 44 oC, and typical brick emissivity values
are on the order of 0.92. What would be the radiant thermal flux per square foot from a brick
wall at this temperature?

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 5

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 1.5
In the summer, parked automobile surfaces frequently average 40-50 oC. Assuming 45
o
C and surface emissivity of 0.9, determine the radiant thermal flux emitted by a car roof

Example 1.6
The air inside an electronics package housing has a temperature of 50°C. A "chip" in
this housing has internal thermal power generation (heating) rate of 3 X 10-3 W. This chip is
subjected to an air flow resulting in a convective coefficient h of 9 W/m2.oC over its two main
surfaces which are 0.5 cm X 1.0 cm. Determine the chip surface temperature neglecting
radiation and heat transfer from the edges

Example 1.7
Calculate the thermal resistance and the rate of heat transfer through a pane of window
glass (k = 0.78 W/m K) 1 m high, 0.5 m wide, and 0.5 cm thick, if the outer-surface temperature
is 24°C and the inner-surface temperature is 24.5°C

24 °C
Figure 1.5 heat transfer by conduction through a window pane.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 6

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Solution
Assume that steady state exists and that the temperature is uniform over the inner and outer
surfaces. The thermal resistance to conduction Rk is from Eq
L 0.005m K
Rk = = = 0.0128
kA 0.78w / mk × 1m × 0.5m W

The rate of heat loss from the interior to the exterior surface is
∆T 24.5 - 24
q= = = 39.1 W
Rk 0.0128

Example 1.8
A long, cylindrical electrically heated rod, 2 cm in diameter, is installed in a vacuum
furnace as shown in Fig.1.8. The surface of the heating rod has an emissivity of 0.9 and is
maintained at 1000 K, while the interior walls of the furnace are black and are at 800 K. Calculate
the net rate at which heat is lost from the rod per unit length and the radiation heat transfer
coefficient.

## Figure 1.8 Schematic Diagram of Vacuum Furnace with Heating Rod

Solution
Assume that steady state has been reached. Moreover, note that since the walls of the
furnace completely enclose the heating rod, all the radiant energy emitted by the surface of the
rod is intercepted by the furnace walls. Thus, for a black enclosure, Eq. (1.9) applies and the net
heat loss from the rod of surface A1 is

Note that in order for steady state to exist, the heating rod must dissipate electrical energy
at the rate of 1893 W and the rate of heat loss through the furnace walls must equal the rate of
electric input to the system, that is, to the rod.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 7

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 1.9
An instrument used to study the Ozone depletion near the poles is placed on a large
2-cm-thick duralumin plate. To simplify this analysis the instrument can be thought of
as a stainless steel plate 1 cm tall with a 10 cm x 10 cm square base, as shown in Fig. 1.6.
The interface roughness of the steel and the duralumin is between 20 and 30 rms (µm) the
contact resistance is 0.05 k/w. Four screws at the corners. The top and sides of the
instrument are thermally insulated. An integrated circuit placed between the insulation
and the upper surface of the stainless steel plate generates heat. If this heat is to be
transferred to the lower surface of the duralumin, estimated to be at a temperature of
0°C, determine the maximum allowable dissipation rate from the circuit if its temperature
is not to exceed 40°C.

## Figure 1.6 Schematic Sketch of Instrument for Ozone Measurement.

Solution
Since the top and the sides of the instrument are insulated, all the heat generated
by the circuit must flow downward. The thermal circuit will have three resistances the
stainless steel, the contact, and the duralumin. Using thermal conductivities kss = 14.4
W/m K, kM = 164 W/m K the thermal resistances of the metal plates are calculated from
Equations:

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 8

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## 1.6 The Energy Balance

In this special case the control surface includes no mass or volume and
appears as shown in Figure 1.8.Accordingly, the generation and storage terms of
the Energy expression,
Ein –Eout -Est + Eg= 0
Consequently, there can be no generation and storage. The conservation
requirement then becomes
Ein –Eout = 0
In Figure 1.8 three heat transfer terms are shown for the control surface. On a unit area
basis they are conduction from the medium to the control surface q"cond convection from the
surface to a fluid q"conv, and net radiation exchange from the surface to the surroundings q"rad.
The energy balance then takes the Form and we
can express each of the terms according to the
appropriate rate equations.

## 1.7 Combined heat transfer systems

Summarizes the basic relations for the rate equation of each of the three basic heat
transfer mechanisms to aid in setting up the thermal circuits for solving combined heat
transfer problems.

## 1.7.1 Plane Walls in Series

In Fig. 1.15 for a three-layer system, the temperature gradients in the layers are
different. The rate of heat conduction through each layer is qk, and from Eq. (1.1) we get

the form

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 9

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## where T1 is the outer-surface temperature of layer 1 and TN+1 is the outer-surface

temperature of layer N. and ∆T is the overall temperature difference, often called the
temperature potential.

## Figure 1.9 Conduction Through a Three-Layer System in Series.

Example 1.6 Calculate the rate of heat loss from a furnace wall per unit area. The
wall is constructed from an inner layer of 0.5 cm thick steel (k : 40 W/m K) and an outer
layer of 10 cm zirconium brick (k = 2.5 W/m K) as shown in Fig. The inner-surface
temperature is 900 K and the outside surface temperature is 460 K. What is the temperature
at the interface?

## Figure 1.10 Schematic Diagram of Furnace Wall.

Solution
Assumptions:
• Assume that steady state exists,
• neglect effects at the corners and edges of the wall,
• the surface temperatures are uniform.
The rate of heat loss per unit area can be calculated from Eq:

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 10

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

q T1 − T2
=
A R1
Solving for T2 gives

Note that the temperature drop across the steel interior wall is only 1.4 K because the
thermal resistance of the wall is small compared to the resistance of the brick.

Example 1.7
Two large aluminum plates (k = 240 W/m K), each 1 cm thick, with 10 µm surface
roughness the contact resistance Ri = 2.75 x 10-4 m2 K/W. The temperatures at the outside
surfaces are 395°C and 405°C. Calculate (a) the heat flux (b) the temperature drop due to the
contact resistance.

## Figure 1.11 Schematic Diagram of Interface Between Plates.

Solution
(a) The rate of heat flow per unit area, q'' through the sandwich wall is

## the two resistances is equal to

(L/k) = (0.01 m)/(240 W/m K) = 4.17 x 10-5 m2 K/W
Hence, the heat flux is

(b) The temperature drop in each section. The fraction of the contact resistance is

Hence 7.67°C of the total temperature drop of 10°C is the result of the contact
resistance.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 11

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## 1.7.2 Plane Walls in Parallel

Conduction can occur in a section with two different materials in parallel between the
same potential. Fig. 1.18 shows a slab with two different materials of areas AA and AB in
parallel. If the temperatures over the left and right faces are uniform at T1 and T2, the total rate of
heat flow is the sum of the flows through AA and AB:

Figure 1.12 Heat Conduction Through a Wall Section with Two Paths in Parallel.

Note that the total heat transfer area is the sum of AA and AB and that the total resistance
equals the product of the individual resistances divided by their sum, as in any parallel circuit.
A more complex application of the thermal network approach is illustrated in Fig. 1.19,
where heat is transferred through a composite structure involving thermal resistances in series
and in parallel. For this system the resistance of the middle layer, R2 becomes and the rate of
heat flow is

## Where N is number of layers in series

Rn : Thermal resistance of nth layer
∆Toverall : temperature difference
across two outer surfaces

## Figure 1.13 Conduction Through a Wall

Consisting of Series and Parallel Thermal Paths.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 12

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 1.8
A layer of 2 in thick firebrick (kb = 1.0 Btu/hr ft °F) is placed between two ¼ in.-thick
steel plates (ks = 30 Btu/hr ft °F). The faces of the brick adjacent to the plates are rough,
having solid-to-solid contact over only 30 % of the total area, with the average height of
asperities being L2=1/32 in. If the surface temperatures of the steel plates are 200° and
800°F, respectively. the conductivity of air ka is 0.02 Btu/hr ft °F, determine the rate of heat
flow per unit area.

Figure 1.14 Thermal Circuit for the Parallel-Series Composite Wall. L1 = 1 in.;
L2 = 1/32 in.; L3 = 1/4 in.; T1 is at the center.

Solution
The overall unit conductance for half the composite wall is then, from an inspection of the
thermal circuit

Since the air is trapped in very small compartments, the effects of convection are small
and it will be assumed that heat flows through the air by conduction. At a temperature of
300°F. Then R5 the thermal resistance of the air trapped between the asperities, is, on the basis
of a unit area, equal to

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 13

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

The factors 0.3 and 0.7 in R4 and R5, respectively, represent the percent of the total area
for the two separate heat flow paths. The total thermal resistance for the two paths, R4 and R5
in parallel, is

The thermal resistance of half of the solid brick, Rl is and the overall unit conductance is

Inspection of the values for the various thermal resistances shows that the steel offers a
negligible resistance

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 14

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## 1.5.2 Convection and Conduction in Series

Figure (1.15) shows a situation in which heat is transferred between two fluids
separated by a wall, the rate of heat transfer from the hot fluid at temperature Thot to the
cold fluid at temperature Tcold is

## Figure 1.15 Thermal Circuit with Conduction and Convection in Series.

Example 1.8 A 0.1 m thick brick wall (k = 0.7 W/m K) is exposed to a cold wind at 270 K
through a convection heat transfer coefficient of 40 W/m2 K. On the other side is air at 330 K,
with a natural convection heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2 K. Calculate the rate of heat
transfer per unit area.

Solution
The three resistances are the rate of heat transfer per unit area is :

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 15

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## 1.5.3 Convection and Radiation in Parallel

In many engineering problems a surface loses or receives thermal energy by convection
and radiation simultaneously. Figure 1.23 illustrates the co current heat transfer from a surface
to its surroundings by convection and radiation.
q= qc + qr
q = hcA(T1 - T2)+ hrA (T1 - T2)
q =(hc+ hr)A (T1 - T2)
where hc is the average convection heat transfer coefficient between area A1 and the
surroundings air at T2, the radiation heat transfer coefficient

## The combined heat transfer coefficient is

h = hc + hr

Example 1.5
Air at 20C blow over a hot plate 50 x 75 cm and thick 2 cm maintained at 250 oC. the
convection heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2 C. calculate the inside plate temperature if it is
mode of carbon steel and that 300 W is lost from the plate surface by radiation. Where
thermal conductivity is 43 w/m C.

Solution
qconv = h A(Ts-T∞)
qconv = 25 (0.5 *0.75) (250 - 20)
qconv =2.156 KW
qcond = 2.156 +0. 3=2.456 kW
Τ1 − Τ 2
qcond = kA
L
Τ1 − 250
2.456 = 43 (0.5 × 0.75)
0.02
T1 = 253.05 oC

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 16

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 1.9
A 0.5 m diameter pipe (ε = 0.9) carrying steam has a surface temperature of 500 K. The
pipe is located in a room at 300 K, and the convection heat transfer coefficient between the pipe
surface and the air in the room is 20 W/m2 K. Calculate the combined heat transfer coefficient
and the rate of heat loss per meter of pipe length.

## Figure 1.17 Schematic Diagram of Steam Pipe

Solution

hr = 13.9 W/m2 K
The combined heat transfer coefficient is
h = hc + hr = 20 + 13.9 = 33.9 W/m2 K
and the rate of heat loss per meter is

## 1.5.4 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

We noted previously that a common heat transfer problem is to determine the
rate of heat flow between two fluids, gaseous or liquid, separated by a wall. If the wall is
plane and heat is transferred only by convection on both sides, the rate of heat transfer
in terms of the two fluid temperatures is given by:

the rate of heat flow is expressed only in terms of an overall temperature potential
and the heat transfer characteristics of individual sections in the heat flow path., the
overall transmittance, or the overall coefficient of heat transfer U
Writing Eq. (1.29) in terms of an overall coefficient gives

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 17

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 1.10
In the design of a heat exchanger for aircraft application, the maximum wall
temperature in steady state is not to exceed 800 k. For the conditions tabulated below,
determine the maximum permissible unit thermal resistance per square meter of the
metal wall that separates the hot gas Tgh = 1300 K from the cold gas Tgc = 300 K.
Combined heat transfer coefficient on hot side h 1 = 200 W/m2 K
Combined heat transfer coefficient on cold side h3 = 400 W/m2 K

## Figure 1.18 Physical System and Thermal Circuit.

Solution
In the steady state we can write

## Solving for R2 gives

R2 = 0.0025 m2 K/W

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 18

Ch 1: Introdaction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 1.11
The door for an industrial gas furnace is 2 m x 4 m in surface area and is to be insulated
to reduce heat loss to no more than 1200 W/m2. The interior surface is a 3/8-in.-thick Inconel
600 sheet (K= 25 W/m K), and the outer surface is a l/4 in.-thick sheet of Stainless steel 316.
Between these metal sheets a suitable thickness of insulators material is to be placed. The
effective gas temperature inside the furnace is 1200°C, and the overall heat transfer
coefficient between the gas and the door is Ui = 20 W/m2 K. The heat transfer coefficient
between the outer surface of the door and the surroundings at 20°C is hc= 5 W/m2 K. calculate
the thickness of insulated should be use

## Figure 1.19 Cross section of composite wall of gas furnace door

Solution
The thermal resistance of the two metal sheets are approximately 25 W/m K the thermal
resistance of the two metal sheets are approximately:
L1+L2=0.25+0.375=0.625 in

These resistances are negligible compared to the other three resistances shown in the
simplified thermal circuit below;

The temperature drop between the gas and the interior surface of the door at the
specified heat flux is:
Q=AU ∆T

## Hence, the temperature of the Inconel will be about (1200-60)=1140°C. This is

acceptable since no appreciable load is applied. The temperature drop at the outer surface is

X (1140-240 )

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 19

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Chapter Two
Heat Conduction
2.1 Introduction
A major objective in a conduction analysis is to determine the temperature field in a
medium (Temperature Distribution), which represents how temperature varies with position
in the medium. knowledge of the temperature distribution:
• Determination of thermal stresses, It could be used to ascertain structural integrity
through
• To determine the optimize thickness of an insulating material
• To determine the compatibility of special coatings or adhesives used with the material.

## 2.2 Conservation of Energy

Applying energy conservation to the control volume. At an instant, these include the rate
at which thermal and mechanical energy enter Ein and leave Eout. through the control surface,
Is additional to the rate of change of energy generation Eg and stored Est. A general form of
the energy conservation requirement may then be expressed on rate basis as:
Eg
Ein + Eg − Eout = Est 2.1 Ein Eout
Est

## 2.3 The Conduction Equation of Rectangular Coordinate

Consider the energy processes that are relevant to this control volume. If there are
temperature gradients, conduction heat transfer will occur across each of the control surfaces
at the x, y, and z coordinate. The conduction heat rates at the opposite surfaces can then be
expressed as a Taylor series expansion where, neglecting higher order terms,

## Figure 2.1 Differential control volume, dx dy dz.

dq x dq x
q x+ dx = q x + dx Slope =
dx dx
dq y
q y + dy = qy + dy
dy
dq
q z + dz = q z + z dz
dz

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 20

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## The rate of change of energy generation Eg and stored Est

E g = q&V = q&dxdydz
dT dT dT
Est = mC p = ρVC p = ρ (dxdydz)C p
dt dt dt
where q& is the rate at which energy is generated per unit volume (W/m3) and to express
conservation of energy using the foregoing rate equation
Ein + E g − Eout = E st
and, substituting equations, we obtain
dq dq y dq dT
q x + q y + q z − (q x + x dx) − (q y + dy ) − (q z + z dz ) + q&dxdydz = ρdxdydzC p 2.2
dx dy dz dt
The conduction heat rates may be evaluated from Fourier's law,
dT dT
q x = − kA = − kdzdy
dx dx
dT dT
q y = − kA = − kdzdx 2.3
dy dy
dT dT
q z = − kA = − kdzdx
dz dz
Substituting Equations 2.3 into Equation 2.2 and dividing out the dimensions of the
control volume (dx dy dz), we obtain
∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂T
(k ) + (k ) + (k ) + q& = ρC p
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂t 2.4
It is often possible to work with simplified versions of Heat Equation (k=Const)is
∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T q& 1 ∂T
+ + + =
∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 k α ∂t 2.5
where α = k/ρCp (m2/s) is the thermal diffusivity.

## 2.3.1 One Dimension Steady State Conduction

A plane wall separates two fluids of different
temperatures. Heat transfer occurs by convection from the
hot fluid at T∞ ,1 to one surface of the wall at Ts1, by
conduction through the wall, and by convection from the
other surface of the wall at Ts2 to the cold fluid at T∞ , 2

## Figure 2.2 Heat transfer through a plane wall.

If the heat transfer one dimensional and under steady-state conditions (there can be no
change in the amount of energy storage and generation; hence Heat Equation reduces to
∂ ∂T
(k )=0
∂x ∂x 2.6
If the thermal conductivity is assumed to be constant (k=Const), the equation may be
integrated twice to obtain the general solution
T(x)=C1 x+C2

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 21

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## To obtain the constants of integration, C1 and C2 boundary conditions must be

introduced. Applying the conditions
B.C.1 x=0 at T=Ts1 C2=Ts1
B.C.2 x=L at T=Ts2
T − Ts1
Ts2=C1L+C2 = C1L+Ts1 C1 = s 2
L
Substituting into the general solution, the Temperature Distribution is then
x
T(x) = (TS 2 -TS 1 ) + Ts1 Linearly equation. 2.7
L

## 2.3.2 Contact Resistance

The existence of a finite contact resistance is due principally to surface roughness
effects. Contact spots are interspersed with gaps that are, in most instances, air filled. Heat
transfer is therefore due to conduction across the actual contact area and to conduction and/or
radiation across the gaps. The contact resistance may be viewed as two parallel resistances:
that due to :
(1)the contact spots
(2) that due to the gaps (the major contribution to the resistance).
The resistance is defined as

T A − TB
Rtc′′ =
q ′x′

TB
TA

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 22

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.1
The temperature distribution across a wall 1 m thick at a certain instant of time is given as
(T(x) = a+ bx + cx2 ) where T is in degrees Celsius and x is in meters, while a = 900° C, b = -
300°C/m, and c= -50°C/m2. A uniform heat generation q=1000 W/m3, is present in the wall of
area 10 m2 having the properties ρ = 1600 kg/m3, k = 40 W/m K, and Cp = 4 kJ/kg K.
1. Determine the rate of heat transfer entering (x = 0) and leaving the wall (x = 1 m).
2. Determine the rate of change of energy storage in the wall.
3. Determine the time rate of temperature change at x = 0, 0.25 and 0.5 m.

Solution
Assumptions:
1. One-dimensional conduction in the x direction.
2. Homogeneous medium with constant properties.
3. Uniform internal heat generation, q (W/m3).

1.

## 2. Ein + Eg − Eout = Est 2.1

3. The time rate of change of the temperature at any point in the medium may be
determined from the heat equation, Equation 2.15, as

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 23

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.2
The diagram shows a conical section from pyroceram (k = 3.46 W/m K). It is of circular
cross section with the diameter D = ax. The small end is at x1 = 50 mm and the large end at x2
= 250 mm. The end temperatures are T1 = 400 K and T2 = 600 K, while the lateral surface is
well insulated and a=0.25.
1. Derive an expression for the temperature distribution T(x) in symbolic form,
assuming one-dimensional conditions.
2. Sketch the temperature distribution.
3. Calculate the heat rate through the cone.

Solution
Assumptions:
2. One-dimensional conduction in the x direction.
3. No internal heat generation.
4. Constant properties.
dT
q x = − kA
dx
With A=лD2/4= лa2x2/4 and separating variables
4q x dx
= − kdT
πa 2 x 2
Integrating from x1 to any x within the, it follows that
x T
4q x dx
πa 2 x∫1 x 2
= − k ∫ dT (k = const )
T1
Hence
4q x 1 1
( − + ) = − k (T − T1 )
πa 2
x x1
and solving for q
πa 2 k (T1 − T )
qx =
4[((1 / x1 ) − (1 / x))]
or solving for T
4q x 1 1
T ( x ) = T1 − (− + )
πa k x x1
2

## B.C.2 T=Ts2 at x=x2

πa 2 k (T1 − T2 )
qx =
4[((1 / x1 ) − (1 / x 2 ))]
4q x (T1 − T2 )
=
πa k [((1 / x1 ) − (1 / x 2 ))]
2

Substituting for q into the expression for T(x), the temperature distribution becomes
⎡ (1 / x) − (1 / x1 )) ⎤
T ( x ) = T1 + (T1 − T2 ) ⎢ ⎥
⎣ (1 / x1 ) − (1 / x2 ) ⎦
Substituting numerical values into the foregoing result for the heat transfer rate

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 24

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 2.4 The Conduction Equation of Cylindrical Coordinate

A common example is the hollow cylinder, whose inner and outer surfaces are exposed
to fluids at different temperatures.

## Figure 2.4 Hollow cylinder with convective surface conditions.

For a general transient three-dimensional in the cylindrical coordinates T= T(r, φ ,z, t),
the general form of the conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates becomes
1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ 2T ∂ 2T q& 1 ∂T
(r )+ 2 + + = 2.8
r ∂r ∂r r ∂φ 2 ∂z 2 k α ∂t

If the heat flow in a cylindrical shape is only in the radial direction and for steady-state
conditions with no heat generation, the conduction equation reduces to
1 ∂ ∂T
(r )=0
r ∂r ∂r
Integrating once with respect to radius gives
∂T ∂T C1
r = C1 and =
∂r ∂r r
A second integration gives T = C1 ln r + C2. 2.9
To obtain the constants (C1 and C2), we introduce the following boundary conditions
B.C.1 T=Ti at r=ri Ti = C1 ln ri+ C2.
B.C.2 T=To at r=ro To = C1 ln ro + C2.
Solving for C1 and C2 and substituting into the general solution, we then obtain
r
To − Ti = C1 ln o
ri
T − Ti T − Ti
C1 = o C2 = To − o ln ro
ln(ro / ri ) ln(ro / ri )
T − Ti r
T (r ) = o ln( ) + Ti 2.10
ln(ro / ri ) ri
we obtain the following expression for the heat transfer rate
dT C 2πLk (Ti − To )
qr = − kA = −(2πrLk ) 1 = 2.11
dr r ln(ro / ri )
(T − To ) ln(ro / ri )
qr = i R= 2.12
R 2πLk

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 25

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 2.4.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

A hot fluid flows through a tube that is covered by an insulating material. The system
loses heat to the surrounding air through an average heat transfer coefficient hc,o. the thermal
resistance of the two cylinders at the inside of the tube and the outside of the insulation gives
the thermal network shown below the physical system
where Th∞ hot fluid temperature and
Tc,∞
the environmental air temperature

2.13

## it is often convenient to define an overall heat transfer coefficient by the equation

q = UAo (Thot-Tcold)
The area varies with radial distance. Thus, the numerical value of U will depend on the
area selected. Since the outermost diameter is the easiest to measure in practice, Ao= 2л r3L is
usually chosen as the base area. Comparing between above Equations. we see that

Note that
UA=UiAi=UoAo 2.14
Ao = 2πro L and the overall coefficient becomes
3

2.15

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 26

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.3
Compare the heat loss from an insulated and an un-insulated copper pipe (k = 400
W/m K) has an internal diameter of 10 cm and an external diameter of 12 cm. Saturated steam
flows inside the pipe at 110°C ( hci = 10,000 W/m2 K). The pipe is located in a space at 30°C
and the heat transfer coefficient on its outer surface is estimated to be 15 W/m2 K. The
insulation available to reduce heat losses is 5 cm thick and its thermal conductivity is 0.20
W/m K
Solution

## Figure 2.5 Schematic Diagram and Thermal Circuit for

a Hollow Cylinder with Convection Surface Conditions
The heat loss per unit length is
q Ts − T∞
=
L R1 + R2 + R3
Hence we get

## Since R1 and R2 are negligibly small compared to R3

For the un-insulated pipe.
q/L = 80/0.177 = 452 W/m

For the insulated pipe, we must add a fourth resistance between r1 and r3.
ln(ri / ro ) ln(11 / 6)
R4 = = = 0.482mK / W
2πk 2π (0.2W / mK )
Also, the outer convection resistance changes to
1
Ro = = 0.096mK / W
2π (0.11 × 15)
The total thermal resistance per meter length (RTotal=R4+Ro= 0.578 m K/W)

## q/L = 80/0.578 = 138 W/m.

Adding insulation will reduce the heat loss from the steam by 70%.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 27

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.4
A hot fluid at an average temperature of 200oC flows through a plastic pipe of 4 cm OD
and 3 cm ID. The thermal conductivity of the plastic is 0.5 W/m K, and the heat transfer
coefficient at the inside is 300 W/m2 K. The pipe is located in a room at 30°C, and the heat
transfer coefficient at the outer surface is 10 W/m2 K, Calculate the overall heat transfer
coefficient and the heat loss per unit length of pipe.
Solution
The overall heat transfer coefficient is based on the outside area of the pipe

## 2.4.2 Critical Radius of Insulation

Although the conduction resistance increases with the addition of insulation, the
convection resistance decreases due to increasing outer surface area. Hence there may exist an
insulation thickness that minimizes heat loss by maximizing the total resistance to heat
transfer.
Air
T∞

ln( r / ri ) 1
RTotal =+
2π k 2π rh
An optimum insulation thickness would be associated with the value of r that minimized
qr or maximized RTotal. Such a value could be obtained from the requirement that
dq
=0 at r=r Critical
drc
dq r − 2πL(Ti − To )((1 / Krc ) − (1 / hrc ))
2

= 2
=0
drc ⎡ ln(rc / ri ) 1 ⎤
⎢ + ⎥
⎣ k rh ⎦
1 1 k
− 2 =0 rc = 2.16
krc rc h h
For spherical shape:
2k
rc =
h

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 28

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.5
Calculate the total thermal resistance per unit length of tube for a 10 mm diameter tube
having the following insulation thicknesses: 0, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mm. The insulation is
composed of Cellular Glass (k=0.055 w/m K), and the outer surface convection coefficient is
5 W/m2 K.
k 0.055
Solution rc = = = 0.011m
h 5

Hence rc > r, and heat transfer will increase with the addition of insulation up to a
thickness of rc-ri =(0.011-0.005)=0.006m
The thermal resistances corresponding to the prescribed insulation thicknesses may be
calculated and are summarized as follows.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 29

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 2.5 The Conduction Equation of Spherical Coordinate

For spherical coordinates, the temperature is a function of the three space coordinates
T(r ,θ , φ , t). The general form of the conduction equation is then

2.17

## Figure 2.6 Spherical Coordinate System

For a hollow sphere with uniform temperatures at the inner and outer surfaces, the
temperature distribution without heat generation in the steady state can be obtained by
simplifying Eq 2.17. Under these boundary conditions the temperature is only a function of
the radius r, and the conduction equation is
1 ∂ 2 ∂T
(r )=0
r 2 ∂r ∂r
∂T C1
r2 = C1 ∂T = ∂r
∂r r2
C
T (r ) = C 2 − 1
r
B.C.1 T=Ti at r=ri C1
Ti = C 2 −
ri
B.C.2 T=To at r=ro C
To = C 2 − 1
ro
Ti − To Ti − To 1
C1 = C 2 = To + ( )
1 1 ((1 / ro ) − (1 / r i )) ro
( )−( )
ro ri
The temperature distribution is
Ti − To 1 1 2.18
T (r ) = ( )( − ) + Ti
1 1 r ro

ri ro
The rate of heat transfer through the spherical shell is
dT dT
qr = −kA = − k (4πr 2 ) A=4πr2 ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬
dr dr
may be expressed in the integral form A=πD2 ‫اﻟﻜﺮة‬
V=4πr2/3 ‫ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﻜﺮة‬
ro To
1 qr dr
4π ∫ri r 2
= − ∫ kdT
Ti

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 30

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 4πkro ri (Ti − To ) (ro − ri )

qr = R= (2.19)(2.20)
ro − ri 4πkro ri

Example 2.6
The spherical, thin-walled metallic container is used to store liquid nitrogen at 77 K. The
container has a diameter of 0.5 and is covered with an evacuated insulation system composed
of silica powder (k = 0.0017 W/m K). The insulation is 25 mm thick, and its outer surface is
exposed to ambient air at 300 K. The latent heat of vaporization hfg of liquid nitrogen is 2 ×
105 J/kg. If the convection coefficient is 20 W/m2 K over the outer surface,
1. Determine the rate of liquid boil-off of nitrogen per hour?
2. Show expiration of critical radius of insulation? Ans: rc= 2h/k

Solution
1. The rate of heat transfer from the ambient air to the nitrogen in the container can be
obtained from the thermal circuit. We can neglect the thermal resistances of the metal wall
and between the boiling nitrogen and the inner wall because that heat transfer coefficient is
large. Hence

## To determine the rate of boil-off we perform an energy balance

Ein=Eout m& h fg = q
Solving for m gives
q (13.06 J/s)(3600 s/hr)
m& = = = 0.235kg / hr
h fg 2 x 105 J/kg

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 31

Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## 2.6 Heat Generation

A common thermal energy generation process involves
• The conversion from electrical to thermal energy in a current-carrying medium Eg=I2R.
• The deceleration and absorption of neutrons in the fuel element of a nuclear reactor
• Exothermic chemical reactions occurring within a medium. Endothermic reactions
would, of course, have the inverse effect
• A conversion from electromagnetic to thermal energy may occur due to the absorption

## 2.6.1 Plane Wall with Heat Generation

(a) Asymmetrical plane wall (b)Symmetrical plane wall (c) Adiabatic surface at midline
Figure 2.8 Conduction in a with uniform heat generation

Assumptions
• Uniform heat generation per unit volume q =Const.
• For constant thermal conductivity k=Const.
• One dimension and steady state heat transfer.

## The appropriate form of the heat equation, is

∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T q& 1 ∂T
+ + + =
∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 k α ∂t 2.5
the equation may be integrated twice to obtain the general solution
q& 2
T(x) = - x + C1 x + C 2 2.21
2k
To obtain the constants of integration, C1 and C2 boundary conditions must be
introduced.
q& 2
B.C.1 T=Ts1 at x=L Ts1 = - L + C1 L + C2
2k
q& 2
B.C.2 T=Ts2 at x= -L Ts 2 = − L − C1 L + C 2
2k
T − Ts 2 q&L2 Ts1 + Ts 2
C1 = s1 C2 = +
2L 2k 2
In which case the Temperature distribution is
q&L2 x2 T − Ts1 x Ts1 + Ts 2
T ( x) = (1 − 2 ) + s 2 + 2.22
2k L 2 L 2

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## The Symmetrical Plane Wall

when both surfaces are maintained at a common temperature, Ts1= Ts2= Ts. The
temperature distribution is given by
q&L2 x2
T(x) = ( 1 − 2 ) + Ts 2.23
2k L
The maximum temperature (T=To) exists at the midline (x=0).
q&L2 q&L2
To = + Ts or To − Ts = 2.24
2k 2k
which case the temperature distribution, after substitution eq 2.24 into eq 2.23
T ( x) − Ts x2
= 1− 2 2.25
To − Ts L
Consider the surface at x = L for (Fig. 2.8b) or the insulated plane wall (Fig. 2.8c).
The energy balance given by
E g = Eout
q&V = Ah(Ts − T∞ ) Neglecting radiation
q&AL = Ah(Ts − T∞ )
The surface temperature is
q&L
Ts = T∞ + 2.26
h

## Note :A heat generation cannot be represented by a thermal circuit element

Example 2.7
A long electrical heating element made of iron has a cross section of 10 cm x 1.0 cm. It
is immersed in a heat transfer oil at 80°C. If heat is generated uniformly at a rate of 106 W/m3
by an electric current, determine the heat transfer coefficient necessary to keep the
temperature of the heater below 200°C. The thermal conductivity for iron is 64 W/m K.

Solution
q&L2 10 6 × (0.01) 2
Tmax − T1 = = = 0.2o C
8k 8 × 64
L
q&V = Ah(Ts − T∞ ) q&A = Ah(Ts − T∞ )
2
q&L
h= = 42W / m 2 K
2(Ts − T∞ )

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 2.8
A plane wall is a composite of two materials, A and B. The wall of material A (k = 75
W/m K) has uniform heat generation 1.5 X 106 W/m3, and thickness 50 mm. The wall material
B has no generation with (k = 150 W/m K) and thickness 20 mm. The inner surface of
material A is well insulated, while the outer surface of material B is cooled by a water stream
with 30°C and heat transfer coefficient 1000 W/m2 K.
1. Sketch the temperature distribution that exists in the composite under steady-state
conditions.
2. Determine the maximum temperature To of the insulated surface and the temperature
of the cooled surface Ts.

Solution
Assumptions:
2. One-dimensional conduction in x direction.
3. Negligible contact resistance between walls.
4. Inner surface of A adiabatic.
5. Constant properties for materials A and B.
q&L
T2 = T∞ + A 2.26
h
1.5 × 10 6 × 0.05
T2 = 30 + = 105o C
1000

T1 − T∞
q′′ =
′′ + Rconv
Rcond ′′
′′ + Rconv
T1 = T∞ + ( Rcond ′′ )q′′
q′′
q& =
ALA
where the resistances for a unit surface area are

Hence

T1 =115oC
From Equation 2.24 the temperature at the insulated surface is
q&L2 A
To = T1 +
2k A
1.5 × 10 6 (0.05) 2
To = 115 + = 140 o C
2 × 75

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## 2.6.2 Radial Shapes with Heat Generation

To determine the temperature distribution in the cylinder, we begin with the appropriate
form of the heat equation. For constant thermal conductivity is

1 ∂ ∂T q&
(r )+ =0
r ∂r ∂r k
∂T q& 2
r =− r + C1
∂r 2k
q& 2
T (r ) = − r + C1 ln r + C 2
4k
A Solid Cylinder
To obtain the constants (C1 & C2), we introduce the following boundary conditions
B.C.1 dT/dr=0 at r=0 C1=0
q& 2
B.C.2 T=Ts at r=ro C2 = ro + Ts
4k
Solving for C1 and C2 and substituting into the general solution, we then obtain
2
q&ro r2
T (r ) = − (1 − 2 ) + Ts 2.28
4k ro
The maximum temperature T=To at r=0
2 2
q&r q&ro
To = − o + Ts = To − Ts 2.29
4k 4k
2
q&ro
substitution replace group in equation 2.28
4k
T (r ) − Ts r2
= 1− 2 2.30
To − Ts ro
The energy balance given by
E g = Eout
q&V = Ah(Ts − T∞ )
q&πro L = 2πro hL(Ts − T∞ )
2

q&ro
Ts = T∞ + 2.31
2h

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

## B For Hollow Cylinder

q& 2
T (r ) = − r + C1 ln r + C 2
4k
To obtain the constants (C1 and C2), we introduce the following boundary conditions
q& 2
B.C.1 T=Ti at r=ri Ti = − ri + C1 ln ri + C2
4k
q& 2
B.C.2 T=To at r=ro To = − ro + C1 ln ro + C2
4k
Solving for C1 and C2 and substituting into the general solution, we then obtain
2 2
(T − To ) + q& (ri − ro ) / 4k
C1 = i
ln(ri / ro )
2 2
q& 2 (Ti − To ) + q& (ri − ro ) / 4k
C2 = To + ro − × ln ro
4k ln(ri / ro )
In which case the Temperature distribution is
2 2
q& (ri − ro ) ln(r / ro ) ⎡ q& 2 ⎤
T (r ) = To + + ⎢ (ro − ri 2 ) + (To − Ti )⎥ 2.32
4k ln(ro / ri ) ⎣ 4k ⎦
The energy balance given by
E g = E out
q&V = Ah (Ts − T∞ )
q&π (ro − ri ) L = 2πro hL (Ts − T∞ )
2 2

## The surface temperature is

2 2
q& (ro − ri )
Ts = T∞ + 2.33
2hro

:‫اﺷﺘﻘﺎﻗﺎت ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬
‫ اﺷﺘﻖ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻟﻼﺳﻄﻮاﻧﻪ اﻟﺤﻠﻘﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺠﻮﻓﺔ؟‬
‫ اﺷﺘﻖ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻟﻼﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺔ اﻟﺤﻠﻘﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺠﻮﻓﺔ اذا آﺎن اﻟﺴﻄﺢ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ ﻣﻌﺰول؟‬
‫ اﺷﺘﻖ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻟﻠﻜﺮة؟‬

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

36
Ch 2: Heat Conduction 3rd Year College Of Technical

Example 2.9
A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor. Heat is generated uniformly in uranium rods of
0.05 m diameter at the rate of 7.5 x 107 W/m3. These rods are jacketed by an annulus in
which water at an average temperature of 120°C is circulated. The water cools the rods and
the average convection heat transfer coefficient is estimated to be 55,000 W/m2 K. If the
thermal conductivity of uranium is 29.5 W/m K, determine the center temperature of the
uranium fuel rods.

## Figure 2.9 Nuclear Reactor.

Solution
The rate of heat flow by conduction at the outer surface equals the rate of heat flow by
convection from the surface to the water:
q& ro
T s = T∞ +
2h
7 . 5 × 10 7 × 0 . 025
T s = 120 + = 137 o C
2 × 55000
The maximum temperature from equation 2.29
2
q&r 7.5 × 10 7 × (0.025) 2
To = o + Ts = + 137 = 534 o C
4k 4 × 29.5

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

37
Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

## 2.7 Heat Transfer In Extended Surfaces

Extended surfaces have wide industrial application as fins attached to the walls of heat
transfer equipment in order to increase the rate of heating or cooling q = h As (Ts- T∞). Fins
come in many shapes and forms, some of which are shown in Fig 2.11.

## (a) Bare surface (b) Finned surface

Figure 2.10 Use of fins to enhance heat transfer from a plane wall.

## Figure 2.11 uniform Fin configurations

(a) Rectangular Fin, (b)& (c)Pin Fin

The selection of fins is made on the basis of thermal performance and cost. the fins is
stronger when the fluid is a gas rather than a liquid. The selection of suitable fin geometry
requires a compromise among:
• A cost and weight are available space
• Pressure drop of the heat transfer fluid
• Heat transfer characteristics of the extended surface.

## Figure 2.12 non-uniform Fin configurations

(a) Parabolic (b) Triangular (c) Annular fin (d) Pin fin.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

38
Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Consider a pin fin having the shape of a rod whose base is attached to a wall at surface
temperature Ts. The fin is cooled along its surface by a fluid at temperature T∞
To derive an equation for temperature distribution, we make a heat balance for a small
element of the fin. Heat flows by conduction into the left face of the element, while heat flows
out of the element by conduction through the right face and by convection from the surface.

Assumptions
1. The fin has a uniform cross-sectional area
2. The fin is made of a material having uniform conductivity (k = constant)
3. The heat transfer coefficient between the fin and the fluid is constant (h=constant).
4. One dimensional steady state condition only.
5. Non heat generation(q=0).

## Figure 2.12 Schematic Diagram of a Pin Fin Protruding from a Wall

Ein = Eout
qx = qx+dx +qconv
dq
q x +dx = q x + x dx
dx
In symbolic form, this equation becomes
dT ( x ) dT (x )
− kA = − kA + hc dAs (T ( x) − T∞ ) 2.34
dx x dx x + dx
dAs= Pdx

## Where P is the perimeter of the fin

Pdx is the fin surface area between x and x+dx.
A Cross section area of fin

## If k and h are uniform, Eq. 2.34 simplifies to the form

d 2T ( x ) hP
− [T ( x) − T∞ ] = 0 2.35
dx 2 kA

It will be convenient to define an excess temperature of the fin above the environment,
θ(x) = [T(x) - T∞], and transform Eq. 2.35 into the form
d 2θ (x )
− m 2θ = 0
dx 2 2.36
Where m2= hP/kA.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

## Last equation is a linear, homogeneous, second-order differential equation whose

general solution is of the form

## To evaluate the constants C1 and C2 it is necessary to specify appropriate boundary

conditions.
B.C.1 θ(0) = (Ts – T∞) at x=0
θs = C1 + C2 2.38

A second boundary condition depends on the physical condition at the end of the fin.
we will treat the following Four Cases:

Case1: The fin is very long and the temperature at the end approaches the fluid
temperature:
θ(∞) = (T∞ – T∞) = 0 at x=∞

## Case2: The end of the fin is insulated:

dθ ( x )
=0 at x=L
dx
Case3: The temperature at the end of the fin is fixed:
θ(L) = (TL – T∞) at x=L

## Case4: The tip loses heat by convection

dθ ( x )
−k = hθ (L ) at x=L
dx x= L

Case 2

X L X L

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Case 1
The second boundary condition is:
B.C.2 θ(∞) = (T∞ – T∞) = 0 at x=∞
m∞ –m ∞
0= C1 e + C2 e C1=0
B.C.1 θ(0) = (Ts – T∞) at x=0
θs = C1 + C2 C2= θs

## θ(x)= θs e-mx 2.39

Differentiating
∂θ
= −mθ s e −mx 2.40
∂x
Since the heat conducted across the root of the fin must equal the heat transferred by
convection from the surface of the rod to the fluid,
dT
q fin = − kA = h P(T(x) − T∞ )dx 2.41
dx x =0

## The rate of heat flow can be obtained by Two different methods.

Method 1. By left term in equation 2.41 substituting Eq. 2.40 for x= 0 yields

q fin = − kA = − kA[− mθ (0 )e (−m )0 ] 2.42
dx x =0
⎡ hP ⎤
q fin = kA[mθs ] = kA⎢ θs ⎥
⎢⎣ kA ⎥⎦
q fin = h PAk ⋅ θ s

## Method 2 . By right term in equation 2.41

q fin = hP (T(x) − T∞ )dx = hP ∫ θ s e −mx dx
0
− mx ∞
e
q fin = h Pθ s = h PAk ⋅ θ s 2.43
m 0

Case 2
The second boundary condition is :
B.C. 1 θ s = C1 + C2
dT
B.C.2 =0 at x=L
dx
θ(x) = C1 e mx + C2 e –mx
dθ ( x )
= mC1e mL − mC2 e −mL = 0
dx x= L
mC1e mL = mC 2 e − mL C1 = C2e −2 mL
Substituting in B.C.1
θs
θ s = C2 e −2 mL + C2 Î C2 =
1 + e −2 mL

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

θs θs
C1 = − 2 mL
e −2 mL Î C1 =
1+ e 1 + e 2 mL
Substituting the above relations for C1 and C2 into Eq.(2.37)
θs θs
θ ( x) = e mx
+ e -mx
1+ e 2 mL
1+ e − 2 mL

θs ⎛ e -mL ⎞ θs ⎛e mL

θ ( x) = e mx
⎜⎜ ⎟+
-mL ⎟
e -mx ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
1+ e 2 mL
⎝ e ⎠ 1+ e − 2 mL
⎝e
mL

θs θs
θ ( x) = e mx e -mL + e -mx e mL
e -mL
+e mL
+e e mL − mL

⎛ e -m(L- x)
e ⎞ m(L- x)
θ ( x) = θ s ⎜⎜ -mL mL + mL − mL ⎟⎟
⎝e +e e +e ⎠
⎛e -m(L- x)
+e m(L- x)
⎞ ⎛ (e -m(L-x) + e m(L-x) ) / 2 ⎞
θ ( x) = θ s ⎜⎜ ⎟
⎟ = θ ⎜ (e -mL + e mL ) / 2 ⎟⎟
s⎜
⎝ e +e
-mL mL
⎠ ⎝ ⎠
e mL − e − mL e mL + e − mL
Noting that Sinh(mL) = Cosh(mL) =
2 2
The temperature distribution is:
⎛ cosh m( L − x) ⎞
θ ( x) = θ s ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2.44
⎝ cosh(mL) ⎠

The heat loss from the fin can be found by substituting the temperature gradient at the
root into Eq.(2.37), we get
dθ ( x ) − m sinh m( L − x)
= θs
dx cosh( mL)
dθ ( x ) − m sinh mL
= θs = −θ s m tan mL
dx x=0 cosh mL

q fin = − kA
dx x =0

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Case 3
The second boundary condition is :
B.C. 1 θ s = C1 + C 2 C 2 = θ s − C1
B.C.2 θ(x)= θL at x=L
Substituting in B.C.2
θ(x) = C1 e mx + C2 e –mx 2.37
θ(L) = C1 e mL + C2 e –mL
θ(L) =C1 e mL +( θs –C1) e –mL
θ ( L ) − θ s ⋅ e − mL
C1 =
e mL − e −mL
θ ( L ) − θ s ⋅ e − mL θ s (e mL − e − mL ) − θ ( L ) + θ s ⋅ e − mL
C2 = θ s − =
e mL − e −mL e mL − e −mL
θ s ⋅ e mL − θ ( L )
C 2 = mL
e − e −mL
Substituting the above relations for C1 and C2 into Eq.(2.37)
θ ( L ) − θ s ⋅ e − mL mx θ s ⋅ e mL − θ ( L ) –mx
θ(x) = e + mL − mL e
e mL − e −mL e −e
⎡ (θ ( L ) / θ s )(e − e ) + e m ( L − x ) − e − m ( L− x ) ⎤
mx − mx

θ(x) = θ s ⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ e mL − e −mL ⎦⎥
⎡ θ ( L ) e mx − e − mx e m ( L− x ) − e − m ( L− x ) ⎤
⎢ ( θ )( )+( )⎥
⎢ 2 2 ⎥
θ(x) = θ s s
⎢ e mL − e −mL ⎥
⎢ 2 ⎥
⎣ ⎦
The temperature distribution is:
⎡ (θ ( L ) / θ s ) sinh mx + sinh m( L − x) ⎤
θ(x) = θ s ⎢ ⎥ 2.46
⎣ sinh mL ⎦
The heat loss from the fin can be found by substituting the temperature gradient at the
root into Eq.(2.37), we get
dθ ( x ) ⎡ {(θ / θ )m ⋅ cosh mx + ( − m) cosh m( L − x)}(sinh mL ) − 0 ⎤
= θ s ⎢ ( L) s ⎥
dx x=0 ⎣ (sinh mL )2 ⎦
dθ ( x ) ⎡ {(θ / θ )m ⋅ − m cosh mL}(sinh mL )⎤
= θ s ⎢ ( L) s ⎥
dx x=0 ⎣ (sinh mL )2 ⎦
dθ ( x ) ⎡ (θ / θ ) − cosh mL ⎤
= mθ s ⎢ ( L ) s ⎥
dx x=0 ⎣ sinh mL ⎦
dθ ⎡ − (θ ( L ) / θ s ) + cosh mL ⎤
q fin = − kA = − mθ s kA⎢ ⎥
dx x =0 ⎣ sinh mL ⎦
hP ⎡ cosh mL − (θ ( L ) / θ s ) ⎤
q fin = θ s kA⎢ ⎥
kA ⎣ sinh mL ⎦

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

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Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

⎡ cosh mL − (θ ( L ) / θ s ) ⎤
q fin = M ⎢ ⎥ 2.47
⎣ sinh mL ⎦
Noting that M = hPAk ⋅ θ s

Case 4
The second boundary condition is:
B.C. 1 θ s = C1 + C 2 C 2 = θ s − C1
dθ ( x )
B.C.2 −k = hθ (L )
dx x = L

## θ(x) = C1 e mx + C2 e –mx (2.37)

θ(L) = C1 e mL + C2 e –mL
dθ ( x )
= mC1e mL − mC 2 e −mL
dx x= L
Substituting above equations in B.C.2
− k ( mC1e mL − mC 2 e − mL ) = h(C1 e mL + C 2 e -mL )
Substituting B.C.2
− k ( mC1e mL − m(θ s − C1 )e − mL ) = h (C1 e mL + (θ s − C1 ) e -mL
)
θ s (e − e -2mL ( h / km))
-2mL
C1 =
e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL − (h / km ) + 1
θ s (e − ( h / km )e -2mL )
-2mL
C1 =
e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)
θ s (e − ( h / km )e -2mL )
-2mL
C1 =
e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)

θ s e -2mL (1 − (h / km ))
C2 = θ s −
e 2mL
+ ( h / km)e 2mL
+ 1 − ( h / km)
θ s (e 2mL
+ ( h / km )e 2mL
+ 1 − ( h / km )) − θ s e -2mL (1 − ( h / km))
C2 =
e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − (h / km )
e 2mL
+ ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km ) − e -2mL + e -2mL ( h / km))
C2 = θ s
e 2mL + ( h / km)e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)
e 2mL
−e
+ e 2mL (h / km ) + e -2mL ( h / km) + 1 − ( h / km))
-2mL
C2 = θ s
e 2mL + ( h / km )e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)
Substituting the above relations for C1 and C2 into Eq.(2.37)
θ (e -2mL − (h / km)e -2mL)
θ(x) = 2mL s e mx +
e + (h / km)e + 1 − (h / km)
2mL

e 2mL
−e -2mL
+ e 2mL ( h / km) + e -2mL ( h / km) + 1 − ( h / km)) –mx
θs e
e 2mL + ( h / km )e 2mL + 1 − ( h / km)

(h / km)e m ( L− x ) - (h / km)e − m ( L− x ) + e m ( L− x ) + e − m ( L − x )
θ ( x) = θ s
e mL + e −mL + (h / km)e mL − (h / km)e −mL
The temperature distribution is:

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

44
Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

## (h / km) sinh m( L − x) + coshm( L − x)

θ ( x) = θ s 2.48
(h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL

The heat loss from the fin can be found by substituting the temperature gradient at the
root into Eq.(2.37), we get
dθ ( x ) (− m(h / km) cosh mL − ( − m sinh mL))(cosh mL + ( h / km) sinh mL) − 0
= θs
dx x=0 ((h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL) 2
dθ ( x ) (h / km) cosh mL − sinh mL)
= − mθ s
dx x=0 ( h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL

## dθ ( h / km) cosh mL − sinh mL )

q fin = − kA = mθ s kAs
dx x =0 ( h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL
hP ( h / km) cosh mL − sinh mL )
q fin = θ s kA
kA ( h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL
( h / km) cosh mL − sinh mL )
q fin = M 2.49
( h / km) sinh mL + cosh mL
Noting that M = hPAk ⋅ θs

## Table 1 Temperature distribution and rate of heat transfer for fins

θ = T − T∞ θ s = θ (0) = Ts − T∞
hP hP
M = hPAk ⋅ θs m2 = m=
kA kA
P : Perimeter of the fin
A : Cross section area of fin

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

45
Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

## 2.7.1 Fin Performance

The heat transfer effectiveness of a fin is measured by a parameter called fin
effectiveness and the fin efficiency, which is defined as

i Fin Effectiveness ε. A ratio of the fin heat transfer rate to the heat transfer rate
that would exist without the fin.
q fin q fin
εf = = 2.52
qwithou ⋅ fin hAc (Ts − T∞ )

where Ac is the fin cross-sectional area at the base. the use of fins may rarely be
justified unless ε >= 2.

ii Fin Efficiency η
q fin
ηf = 2.53
qmax

## qmax = hA f (Tb − T∞ ) = hPLθ b

2.54
Where Af is the surface area of the fin is
A f = 2 wLc
Rectangular
[
A f = 2 w L2 + (t / 2) ]
2 1/ 2
Triangular
[
A f = 2.o5w L + (t / 2) 2
]
2 1/ 2
Parabolic
A f = 2π (r − r 2 2
)
2c 1
Annular

Where as for a fin of rectangular cross section (length L & thickness t) and an adiabatic
end (Case 2) is
M tanh mL tanh mL
ηf = =
hPLθb mL 2.55

## a corrected fin length of the form Lc = L + (t/2).

tanh mLc tanh h PL2 / kA
ηf = or ηf =
mLc h PL2 / kA
A fin efficiency for a circular pin fin (Diameter D & Length L) and an adiabatic end
(Case 2) is
tanh 4 L2 h / kD
ηf = 2.56
4 L2 h / kD
In Figures 2.14 and 2.15 fin efficiencies are plotted as a function of the parameter
3/ 2
Lc (h / kAp )1 / 2
inferred for the straight and the annular fins. Fin efficiencies obtained from the
figures may be used to calculate the actual fin heat transfer rate from the expression

q f = η f qmax = η f hA f θ b 2.57

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

46
Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Figure 2.14 Efficiency of straight fins (rectangular, triangular, and parabolic profiles).

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

47
Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.10
Consider a copper pin fin 0.25 cm in diameter k = 396 W/m K that protrudes from a wall
at 95°C into ambient air at 25°C. The heat transfer is mainly by natural convection with a
coefficient equal to 10 W/m2 K. Calculate the heat loss, assuming that :
(a) the fin is "infinitely long"
(b) the fin is 2.5 cm long and the coefficient at the end is the same as around the
circumference.
(c) how long would the fin have to be for the infinitely long solution to be correct within
5 %?

Solution
(a) A heat loss for the "Infinitely long" fin is
( )
q fin = − kA − mθ (0 )e (− m )0 = hPAk θ s T= 25 C
q= [(10 W/m K) л(0.0025 m)(396 W/m K) (л /4(0.0025 m)2 ]0.5 (95-25)°C
2

q = 0.865 W
(b) The equation for the heat loss from the finite fin is case 4:
sinh mL + (h / mk ) cosh mL
q fin = hPAkθ s = 0.140 W
cosh mL + ( h / mk ) sinh mL

## (c) For the two solutions to be within 5%, it is necessary that

sinh mL + ( h / mk ) cosh mL
>= 0.95
cosh mL + (h / mk ) sinh mL
This condition is satisfied when mL > 1.8 or L > 28.3 cm.

Example 2.11
To increase the heat dissipation from a 2.5 cm OD tube, circumferential fins made of
aluminum (k = 200 W/m K) are soldered to the outer surface. The fins are 0.1 cm thick and
have an outer diameter of 5.5 cm. If the tube temperature is 100°C, the environmental
temperature is 25°C, and the heat transfer coefficient between the fin and the environment is
65 W/m2 K, calculate the rate of heat loss from two fins.

Solution
a parameters required to obtain the fin efficiency curve in Fig. 2.15 are

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

48
Ch 2: Extended Surfaces 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 2.12
The cylinder barrel of a motorcycle is constructed of 2024-T6 aluminum alloy (k = 186
W/m K) and is of height H = 0.15 m and OD = 50 mm. Under typical operating conditions the
outer surface of the cylinder is at a temperature of 500 K and is exposed to ambient air at 300
K, with a convection coefficient of 50 W/m2 K. Annular fins of rectangular profile are
typically added to increase heat transfer to the surroundings. Assume that five (N=5) such
fins, which are of thickness t = 6 mm, length L = 20 mm and equally spaced, are added. What
is the increase in heat transfer due to addition of the fins?

Solution

Assumptions:
2. One-dimensional radial conduction in fins.
3. Constant properties.
4. No internal heat generation.
5. Negligible radiation exchange with surroundings.
6. Uniform convection coefficient over outer surface (with or without fins).

## With the fins in place, the heat transfer rate is q=qf+qb

q f = N η f q max = N η f hA f θ b
( )
q f = Nη f h 2π r22c − r12 (Tb − T∞ )

## Heat. transfer from the exposed cylinder surface is

q = hAb (Tb − T∞ ) Ab = ( H − Nt ) 2π r1
Hence
( )
q = Nη f h 2π r22c − r12 (Tb − T∞ ) + h( H − Nt )2πr (Tb − T∞ )
The fin efficiency may be obtained from Figure 2.19 with

Hence
q = 5 (100.22) + 188.5 = 690 W
Without the fins, the heat transfer rate is
q f = hAwo (Tb − T∞ ) Awo = H ( 2πr1 )
Hence
qwo = 50 W/m2 K (0.15 x л x 0.025) m2 (200 K) = 236 W

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed

49
Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Chapter Three

3.1 Introduction
To determine the time dependence of the temperature distribution within a solid during a
transient process,. One such approach may be used under conditions for which temperature
gradients within the solid are small. It is termed the lumped capacitance method.

## 3.2 The Lumped Capacitance Method

The lumped capacitance method is the assumption that the temperature of the solid is
spatially uniform at any instant during the transient process.(The temperature gradients
within the solid are negligible). From Fourier's law, heat conduction in the absence of a
temperature gradient implies the existence of infinite thermal conductivity

## Applying energy conservation to the control volume. the energy terms

Ein + Eg − Eout = Est
− Eout = E st
dT
− hAs (T − T∞ ) = ρVC p
dt
Assume θ = (T − T∞ ) dθ / dt = dT / dt

− hAsθ = ρVC p
dt
Separating variables and integrating equation, we then obtain
t
ρVC p θ dθ
− ∫ dt =
0
hAs θ∫i θ
ρVC p θ i ρLc C p Ti − T∞
t= ln or t= ln 3.1
hAs θ h T − T∞
This equation used to determine the time required for the solid to reach some
temperature
θ hAs T − T∞ h
= exp ( − )t or = exp ( − )t 3.2
θi ρVC p Ti − T∞ ρLc C p
This Equation used to compute the temperature reached by the solid at some time
Where θ i = (Ti − T∞ ) and exponent group is

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 50

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

hAs h h k Lc hL k t k
t= t= t = ( c )( )( 2 ) = Biα = BiFo 3.3
ρVC p ρC p Lc ρC p Lc k Lc k ρC p Lc ρC p

Where Lc is the characteristic length as the ratio of the solid's volume to surface area
Lc=V/As .
Lc = L/2 for a plane wall of thickness 2L.
Lc = r/2 for a long cylinder (end edge are negligible)
Lc = r/3 for a sphere
Lc = ro-ri for a long annular cylinder(end edge are negligible).

FO = is termed the Fourier number It is a dimensionless time and substituting
ρC p
equation 3.3 into 3.2, we obtain
θi T − T∞
= = exp ( − BiFo) 3.4
θ Ti − T∞
The difference between the solid and fluid temperatures must decay exponentially to
zero as approaches infinity time.
The quantity ρVCp/hAs may be interpreted as a thermal time constant. as
1
τt = ( )( ρVC p ) = Rt Ct 3.5
hAs
where Rt is the resistance to convection heat transfer
Ct is the lumped thermal capacitance of the solid.
Any increase in Rt or Ct, will cause a solid to respond more slowly to changes in its
thermal environment and will increase the time required to reach thermal equilibrium (θ = 0).

## Figure 3.2 Transient temperature

response of lumped capacitance solids

## 3.2.1 Energy Transfer between a Solid and Surrounding

To determine the total energy transfer Q occurring up to some time t
t t t
Q = ∫ qdt = hAs ∫ (T − Ts )dt = hAs ∫ θdt
0 0 0

## Substitution equation 3.2

t
hAs
Q = hAs ∫ θi exp ( − )t dt
0
ρVC p
hAs
Q = ρVC pθ i (1 − exp ( − )t )
ρVC p
1
Q = ρVC pθ i (1 − exp(− t )) 3.6
τ

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 51

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 3.2.2 A dimensionless group Biot number :

Applying energy balance to the surface under steady state
Ein=Eout
kA
hA(Ts 2 − T∞ ) = (Ts1 − Ts 2 )
L
Ts1 − Ts 2 L / kA hL
= =
Ts 2 − T∞ 1 / hA k
hL
Where is dimensionless group Biot number (Bi).
k
hL R
Bi = c = cond
k Rconv

Figure 3.3 Transient temperature distribution for different Biot No. in a plane wall
cooled by convection.

## Applicability of Lumped Capacity Analysis

When confronted with transient conduction problems, the very first thing that one
should do is calculate the Biot number. If the following condition is satisfied
hL
Bi = c ≤ 0.1
k
the error associated with using the lumped capacitance method is small.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 52

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 3.1
A thermocouple junction, which may be approximated as a sphere, is to be used for
temperature measurement in a gas stream. The convection coefficient between the junction
surface and the gas is known to be h = 400 W/m2 K, and the junction properties are k = 20
W/m K, Cp = 400 J/kg K, and ρ = 8500 kg/m3. Determine the junction diameter needed for the
thermocouple to have a time constant of 1 s. If the junction is at 25°C and is placed in a gas
stream that is at 200°C, how long will it take for the junction to reach 199°C?

Solution

Assumptions:
1. Temperature of junction is uniform at any instant.
2. Radiation exchange with the surroundings is negligible.
3. Losses by conduction through the leads are negligible.
4. Constant properties.
5. Using the lumped capacitance method.
As = лD2 and V = лD3/6 for a sphere
1 1 ρπD 3
τt = ( )( ρVC p ) = Cp
hAs hDπ 2 6
6hτ
D= = 7.07 × 10 −4 m = 0.71mm
ρC p

## hLc 400 × 0.000353

Lc=r/3 = Bi = = 0.000235
k 3 × 20
the lumped capacitance method may be used to an excellent approximation.

## 2. The time required for the junction to reach T = 199°C is

ρLc C p Ti − T∞
t= ln
h T − T∞
8500 × 7.06 × 10 −4 × 400 25 − 200
t= ln = 5.2 s
6 × 400 199 − 200

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 53

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 3.3 Transient Heat flow in a Semi-Infinite Solid

If a thermal change is suddenly imposed at this surface, a one-dimensional temperature
wave will be propagated by conduction within the solid. The appropriate equation is
∂ 2T 1 ∂T
= 0≤ x≤L
∂x 2 α ∂t
To solve this equation we must specify two boundary conditions and the initial
temperature distribution. For the initial condition we shall specify that the temperature inside
the solid is uniform at Ti, that is,
B.C.1 T(x, 0) = Ti.

Assumptions:
1. One Dimensional
2. Extended body to infantry

## Figure 3.4 Schematic Diagram and Nomenclature for

Transient Conduction in a Semi-Infinite Solid.

Closed-form solutions have been obtained for Three Cases of changes in surface
conditions, instantaneously applied at t = 0: These three cases are
Case 1 Change in surface temperature: a sudden change in surface temperature
T (0, t ) = Ts

T ( x, t ) − Ts ⎛ x ⎞
= erf ⎜ m ⎟ 3.8
Ti − Ts ⎝ 2 αt ⎠

3.9
Case 2 Constant surface heat flux: a sudden application of a specified heat flux q''s =q''o
as, for example, exposing the surface to radiation

3.10
Case 3. Surface convection a sudden exposure of the surface to a fluid at a different
temperature through a uniform and constant heat transfer coefficient h
3.11

3.12

the specific temperature histories computed from Eq. (3.12) are plotted in next Fig.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 54

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

B.C. 1
B.C. 2

## where erf is the Gaussian error function, which is encountered frequently in

engineering and is defined as

3.13
Values of this function are tabulated in the appendix. The complementary error
function, erfc(w), is defined as
erfc(w)=1-erf(w)

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 55

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

## Table 3.1 The Error Function

x erf(x) x erf(x) x erf(x)
0.00 0.00000 0.76 0.71754 1.52 0.96841
0.02 0.02256 0.78 0.73001 1.54 0.97059
0.04 0.04511 0.80 0.74210 1.56 0.97263
0.06 0.06762 0.82 0.75381 1.58 0.97455
0.08 0.09008 0.84 0.76514 1.60 0.97635
0.10 0.11246 0.86 0.77610 1.62 0.97804
0.12 0.13476 0.88 0.78669 1.64 0.97962
0.14 0.15695 0.90 0.79691 1.66 0.98110
0.16 0.17901 0.92 0.80677 1.68 0.98249
0.18 0.20094 0.94 0.81627 1.70 0.98379
0.20 0.22270 0.96 0.82542 1.72 0.98500
0.22 0.24430 0.98 0.83423 1.74 0.98613
0.24 0.26570 1.00 0.84270 1.76 0.98719
0.26 0.28690 1.02 0.85084 1.78 0.98817
0.28 0.30788 1.04 0.85865 1.80 0.98909
0.30 0.32863 1.06 0.86614 1.82 0.98994
0.32 0.34913 1.08 0.87333 1.84 0.99074
0.34 0.36936 1.10 0.88020 1.86 0.99147
0.36 0.38933 1.12 0.88679 1.88 0.99216
0.38 0.40901 1.14 0.89308 1.90 0.99279
0.40 0.42839 1.16 0.89910 1.92 0.99338
0.42 0.44749 1.18 0.90484 1.94 0.99392
0.44 0.46622 1.20 0.91031 1.96 0.99443
0.46 0.48466 1.22 0.91553 1.98 0.99489
0.48 0.50275 1.24 0.92050 2.00 0.99532
0.50 0.52050 1.26 0.92524 2.10 0.997020
0.52 0.53790 1.28 0.92973 2.20 0.998137
0.54 0.55494 1.30 0.93401 2.30 0.998857
0.56 0.57162 1.32 0.93806 2.40 0.999311
0.58 0.58792 1.34 0.94191 2.50 0.999593
0.60 0.60386 1.36 0.94556 2.60 0.999764
0.62 0.61941 1.38 0.94902 2.70 0.999866
0.64 0.63459 1.40 0.95228 2.80 0.999925
0.66 0.64938 1.42 0.95538 2.90 0.999959
0.68 0.66378 1.44 0.95830 3.00 0.999978
0.70 0.67780 1.46 0.96105 3.20 0.999994
0.72 0.69143 1.48 0.96365 3.40 0.999998
0.74 0.70468 1.50 0.96610 3.60 1.000000

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 56

Ch 3: Unsteady State Conduction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 3.2
Estimate the minimum depth xm at which one must place a water main below the surface
to avoid freezing. The soil is initially at a uniform temperature of 20°C. Assume that under
the worst conditions anticipated it is subjected to a surface temperature of -15°C for a period
of 60 days. Use the following properties for soil (300 K):
ρ = 2050 kg/m3
k = 0.52 W/m K
Cp= 1840 J/kg K
α =0.138 x 10-6 m2/s

## Solution To simplify the problem assume that

1. Conduction is one-dimensional
2. The soil is a semi-infinite medium
3. The soil has uniform and constant properties.

## The prescribed conditions correspond to those of Case 1, the temperature distribution in

the soil is
T ( x, t ) − Ts ⎛ x ⎞
= erf ⎜ m ⎟
Ti − Ts ⎝ 2 αt ⎠
0 − (−15) ⎛ x ⎞
= 0.43 = erf ⎜⎜ m ⎟⎟
20 − (−15) ⎝ 2 αt ⎠
From Table 43 we find by interpolation that when xm / 2 αt = 0.4
to satisfy the above relation. Thus
xm = 0.4 × 2 αt = 0.68m

Another Solution:
To use Fig. 2.35, first calculate
T ( x, t ) − Ts 0 − 20
= = 0.57 and h αt / k = ∞
T∞ − Ts − 15 − 20
Then enter the curve Fig.(3.5) obtain xm / 2 αt = 0.4, the same result as above.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 57

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

## 3.4 Heisler Charts For Transient Heat Conduction

The temperature distribution and the heat flow have been calculated and the results are
available in the form of charts. we shall illustrate the application of some of these charts to
typical problems of transient heat conduction in solids (One-Dimensional) having a Bi > 0.1.
Three simple geometries for which results have been prepared in graphic form are:
1. An infinite plate of width 2L (see Fig. 3.7)
a) Calculate T(0, t) from Figure 3.7-a :(Midplate temperature vs time for an
infinite plate)
b) After that, calculate surface temperature T(x, t) from Figure 3.7-b
c) Calculate total heat transfer Q at any time from Figure 3.7-c , note that:
Qo≡ρC V(Ti-T∞)= ρC Vθi

## 2. An infinitely long cylinder of radius ro (see Fig. 3.8)

3. A sphere of radius ro (see Fig. 3.9)
One boundary condition for all three geometries are similar requires that the
temperature gradient at the midplane of the plate, the axis of the cylinder, and the center of the
sphere be equal to zero. Physically, this corresponds to no heat flow at these locations.
The other boundary condition requires that the heat conducted to or from the surface be
transferred by convection to or from a fluid at temperature through a uniform and constant
heat transfer coefficient
dT
hA(Ts − T∞ ) = kA
dx

## Applicability of the Heisler Charts

The calculations for the Heisler charts were performed by truncating the infinite series
solutions for the problems into a few terms. This restricts the applicable the charts to values of
the Fourier number greater than 0.2.

FO = > 0.2
ρC p

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 58

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.7 Dimensionless Transient Temperatures and Heat Flow in an Infinite Plate of Width 2L

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 59

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.8 Dimensionless Transient Temperatures and Heat Flow for a Long Cylinder.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 60

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.9 Dimensionless transient temperatures and heat flow for a sphere.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 61

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 3.3
In a fabrication process, steel components are formed hot and then quenched in water.
Consider a 2.0 m long, 0.2 m diameter steel cylinder (k = 40 W/m K, α = 1.0 x10-5 m2/s),
initially at 400°C, that is suddenly quenched in water at 50°C. If the heat transfer coefficient
is 200 W/m2 K, calculate the following 20 min after immersion:
1. the center temperature
2. the surface temperature
3. the heat transferred to the water during the initial 20 min

Solution
Since the cylinder has a length 10 times the diameter, we can neglect end effects. we
calculate first the Biot number
hr 200 × 0.1
Bi = o = = 0.5 > 0.1
k 40
1. we cannot use the lumped-capacitance method. To use the chart solution we calculate
the appropriate dimensionless parameters:
αt
Fo = 2 = 1.2 and Bi2 FO = (0.52)(1.2) = 0.3
ro
The dimensionless centerline temperature for 1/Bi = 2.0 and Fo = 1.2 from Fig. 2.38(a) is
T ( 0 , t ) − T∞ T (0, t ) − 50
= 0 . 35 = 0.35
Ti − T∞ 400 − 50
T(0,t) = 172.5 C

2. The surface temperature at r/ro =1.0 and t = 1200 s is obtained from Fig. 3.8(b) in
terms of the centerline temperature:
T (ro , t ) − T∞
= 0.8
T (0, t ) − T∞
T (ro , t ) − 50
= 0.8
172.5 − 50
and the surface temperature after 20 min is: T(ro, t) = 148°C

3. The initial amount of internal energy stored in the cylinder per unit length is
Qi = C pπro (Ti − T∞ ) = (kα / Fo )πro (Ti − T∞ ) = 4.4 × 10 7 W / m
2 2

Then the amount of heat transferred from the steel rod to the water can be obtained from
Fig. 3.8(c). Since Q(t)/Qi = 0.61
2m × 4.4 × 10 7 W ⋅ s / m
Q(t ) = 0.61 × = 14.9kW ⋅ hr
3600hr

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 62

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

Example 3.4
A large concrete wall 50 cm thick is initially at 60°C. One side of the wall is insulated.
The other side is suddenly exposed to hot combustion gases at 900°C through a heat transfer
coefficient of 25 W/m2 K. Determine
(a) the time required for the insulated surface to reach 600°C.
(b) the temperature distribution in the wall at that instant
(c) the heat transferred during the process.
The following average physical properties are given:
k = 1.25 W/m K , Cp=837 J/kg K , ρ = 500 kg/m3 , α =0.30 x 10-5 m2/s

Solution
(a). that the wall thickness is equal to L since the insulated surface corresponds to the
center plane of a slab of thickness 2L when both surfaces experience a thermal change. The
temperature ratio for the insulated face at the time sought is
Ts (t ) − T∞ 600 − 900
= = 0.357
Ts (0) − T∞ x =0 60 − 900
1 αt
Bi=10 , = 0.1 and Fo = 2 = 0.7
Bi L
From Fig. 2.37(a) we find that
0.7 × 0.52
t= = 58333s = 16.2hr
0.3 × 10 −5
(b). The temperature distribution in the wall 16 hr after the transient was initiated can be
obtained from Fig. 2.37(b) for various values of x/L, as shown below:

Assume of positions

From the above dimensionless data we can obtain the temperature distribution as a
function of distance from the insulated surface:

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 63

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

Temeratue Distrbution
861 900
850
777 800
708 750

T(x)
651 700
612 600 650
600
550
500
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
x

(c). The heat transferred to the wall per square meter of surface area during the transient
can be obtained from Fig. 3.7(c). for Bi = 10 and Bi2 Fo = 70 is
Q(t)/Qi=0.70.
Q(t) = C p ρL(Ti - T∞ )837 × 500 × 0.5 × (-840 ) = -1.758 × 108 J/m 2

The minus sign indicates that the heat was transferred into the wall and the internal
energy increased during the process.

## Mr. Amjed Ahmed 64

Ch 3: Unsteady State Condiction 3rd Year College of Technical

Start

Input h, k, ρ, T∞, Ts
Cp, V, As

hLc
Calculate Bi = and α = k
k ρC p

No Yes
Bi<0.1

Calculate FO =

ρC p
Processing

No Yes
Fo>0.2 The Lumped
Capacitance Method

## Sem-Infinite The Infinite Body

Body Heisler Charts
ρLc C p Ti − T∞
t= ln
h T − T∞
h=Const T(0,t)=Ts T − T∞ h
= exp ( − )t
Eq. 3.11 Eq. 3.8 Ti − T∞ ρLc C p
Eq. 3.12 Eq. 3.9
Q = ρVC pθ i (1 − exp(−t / τ ))

## qo=Const A sphere A plate A long

Eq. 3.10 Fig. 2.39 wall Cylinder
Fig. 2.37 Fig. 2.38

Output T, t, Q

End

Figure 3.10 Flow Chart for the solution of Unsteady state conduction problem.