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Author: Olivia Hager Subject: Biology 1,2 Topic: Diffusion Grade: 10th Context: The students recently took

a test on the four major types of macromolecules. We have now moved into a new, but related, topicdiffusion and osmosis. Prior to this lesson, the students will have read in their textbooks about diffusion and osmosis. However, this will be their first encounter with an inquiry style activity on the topic (and in the class in general). This activity will give them first-hand experience seeing diffusion and osmosis in process. California Content Standards: Cell Biology 1.a Students know cells are enclosed in semipermeable membranes that regulate their interactions with their surroundings Objectives: Students will be able to Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis Describe the process of passive transport

Rationale: Students will have heard the terms diffusion and osmosis from their textbooks and we might discuss it a little prior to this lesson. Therefore, there has been some direct instruction on the topic before this. However, I want to expand the students understanding of how molecules move across the membrane through a hands-on inquiry activity that will allow them to question and experiment. This will hopefully introduce students to real-world applications of science and help them better comprehend why diffusion and osmosis is important. Inquiry lesson plans are written in the 5E lesson plan format, discussed in the literature review. This style lesson plan indicates that the students will be working through a lesson that requires them to utilize inquiry skills, such as laid out in the 5Es: engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate.

Procedure: Activity (time allotted) Anticipated Student Response Story Read the story Starter starter. Try to hypothesize an answer to the problem posed in the story. Experiment Students will engage in whole class discussion, developing a methodology to address Sallys question. Discussion Participate in discussion Activity Teachers Response Take attendance, answer questions. Discuss the story starter with the students. Go through materials that the class has access to; write down the methods as the students develop them. Facilitate discussion, ensuring students understood the outcome of the experiment Ensure students are staying on task and answer questions Materials Needed Story starter for each student

Engagement (10 minutes)

Exploration (25 minutes)

Different types of bags, beakers, starch solution, iodine

Explanation (5 minutes)

Conclusion Elaboration (5)

Evaluation (5 minutes)

Exit Slip

The students will write a conclusion to their lab in the form of a letter to Sally to explain what they found. Fill out the exit slip

Collect slips

Exit slips

Engagement: The students will begin by reading the story starter will I take attendance. Afterwards, we will go through it together to ensure that all students understand what Sally needs their help with. We will break down the story line by line in order to ensure we all understand what Sallys problem is and how she can find a solution. Because she buys the cheapest bags, the students will experiment with what the cheapest bags are that Sally can buy that will still protect her lab equipment. In doing so, the students will be learning math and how to take a budget into account when working in a lab. This furthers their education on what a real scientist has to think about when doing research.

Exploration: Students will work in groups of 3 or 4 to determine their hypothesis to the question posed in the story: How can Sally determine which type of bag to use to protect her lab materials? A group of students might hypothesize that Sally will need to buy the most expensive bags because they are going to be the most impermeable to diffusion. Another group might hypothesize that Sally can use the intermediately priced bags because they are also impermeable to diffusion and cost less than the most expensive. Afterwards, students will have to set up their methods. All of the students will have the same basic methodsput a bag of cornstarch in a beaker filled with iodine and water, let it sit for a while, and determine if iodine leaked into the bag (cornstarch turns black). Once all of the groups have gotten this far, we can come back together as a class and determine the exact step-by-step procedure, such as how much water, iodine, and cornstarch is needed for each set up. In this way, students have the same basic procedure but might be testing different bags or have a different hypothesis that they are starting with. The inquiry in this experiment arises from the question that students are trying to answer. I have not given them step-by-step procedure for this experiment. Students need to develop their own hypothesis and work together to create the procedure. In this way, the students have to truly understand what they are working towards in order to accomplish their goal. They must think critically and work together to determine what methods they will take to answer the question (described above). Anderson et al (2002) said that part of inquiry is the process students take to design their own activities. In creating their own procedure, this is exactly what the students will be doing. The guidance of guided inquiry is in the whole class discussion we will have after the students have talked in their groups. We will talk through what each group has decided and then work together to create the actual step-by-step procedures. I will lead this discussion to ensure students are all together and that they all agree on the procedure they decide on. Through this process, students will begin to understand what a scientist thinks about when trying to answer a question. I have also given the students the question they are working towards finding an answer to. The students will have to take into account the extra factor of cost to truly understand that Sally is working on a budget and cannot just buy the most expensive bags. She needs to determine what the cheapest bags she can buy are while still protecting her materials. By finding an answer for Sally, the students are gaining skills in money and science through the process of inquiry. Explanation: The class will share their results when they are done carrying out their methods. Because students might have taken different approaches through their different hypotheses, they will have the opportunity to share with the class what they found. Some groups might have focus more on finding out which of the two most expensive bags will work better. Other groups might find another way they want to test the bags, focusing on different independent variables. Elaboration:

Students will have to show that they understood what they did by writing a conclusion in the form of a letter to Sally. The students will learn how to properly convey what they did to find their answer, including whether or not their hypothesis was supported or refuted and how they could determine this. They will also have to include which bags they found to be the most cost effective to help Sally keep the cost of lab materials to a minimum, yet still protect her supplies. Evaluation: The exit slip will act as an evaluation for this lesson. While I still have the conclusions to look at, the evaluation will ask students the same questions and give me something to compare and contrast across the class. In doing so, I will be able to gain a better understanding of what the students overall understand and what they are still confused with. The exit slip questions will be: Explain the difference between osmosis and diffusion. In a complete sentence, briefly describe why we set up the experiment in the manner that we did.

Differentiation: a) English language learners: Several of the students in each class section are English language learners. Therefore, my master teacher and I try to build in structure for these students to ensure that they understand what is going on. These scaffolds are built into the lessons, rather than having these students do something differently. The scaffolds are useful for all students. In this lesson, I will write anything that we discuss on the Promethean Board to help give the students a visual for what they will be doing for the methods and to obtain the data that other groups obtained. Also, the students will be working in partners to do the inquiry activity. Therefore, students will have extra help from their partners if needed. b) Students who finish early: If any groups finish early, they will record their data on the data table in front of the classroom. They will then be able to work on extra credit coloring until the rest of the class has finished their experiments. c) Students who do not finish: If students do not finish writing their conclusion, they will be able to take it home and finish it at home. If we run out of time to discuss the data as a class, we will finish the lesson during the next class meeting and students will have time to write their conclusions then.

STORY STARTER Sally, a scientist, was working in her lab when she accidentally spilled a solution of iodine and water on her sandwich bag of starch. She was in the middle of a very important step of her experiment. Instead of stopping and cleaning up her mess, she continued to work. After she finished her experiment, she went back to clean up the spill and found that the starch in the bag had turned black. Sally realized that she might need to start using better bags in case of accidents again. Sally chose to use these bags because they were the cheapest ones she could buy. In order to determine what type of bag she should use in her lab, she has called on you to help her. How can you help Sally figure out what type of bag she should use in her lab to keep her equipment safe? Keep in mind that Sally is working with a small budget and needs the most cost effective bags.

Hypothesis: Work with a partner to create a hypothesis that you will test to help Sally determine which bags she should use in her lab.

Methods: Independent Variable:

Dependent Variable:

Controlled Variables:

Procedure:

Results:

Conclusion: You have figured out which bags Sally should use. Now you need to let her know. In at least 5 sentences, write a letter to Sally with the following information: a. b. c. d. What you hypothesized Whether you supported or rejected your hypothesis Explain your data and why it happened What were some sources of error in your experiment

Dear Sally,

Sincerely,

___________________________