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Chapter 14 & 15 Guided Reading 1: How does the energy crisis in Ancient Greece and Rome compare to the

oil crisis today? Explain. - They both had a similar problem. The exhaust of something. Like the exhaust of wood supply. In the crisis today, Wood peaked in 1880, coal in 1920 and now reaching the peak of oil and gas use. The decisions we make will effect energy use for generations. 2: What is work? Definition and mathematical equation. - "Work" is exerting force over a distance. The equation is force times distance. - Chemical Energy: energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds - Kinetic Energy: energy associated with movement - Heat Energy: The energy of friction slows down movement - Potential Energy: potential to move something 3: What is the first law of thermodynamics? - The 1st law says: total energy must be conserved. 4: What does it mean to have a higher quality of energy? - It means that energy is more easily converted to work. 5: What is the second law of thermodynamics? - 2nd law: Energy goes from a higher quality to a lower quality. When you use energy, you lower it's quality 6: Define: First-Law Efficiency - 1st-law efficiency is the amount of energy without consideration of the quality or availability. 7: Define: Second-Law Efficiency - The 2nd law refers to how matched the energy use is compared to the energy source. Low values show where technological improvements can be. 8: What is the fundamental energy unit in the Metric System? How is it defined? - The Joule is the energy unit. It is defined as a force of 1 Newton (N) applied over a distance of 1 m.

9: What is POWER? How is it expressed? - Power is the rate of doing work. It is expressed as work over time. 10: What is thermal efficiency? - The maximum possible efficiency of a heat engine. 11: What is electrical resistivity? What does it cause? - Electrical resistivity is the measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. It causes electric energy to convert to heat energy. 12: What percentage of the energy in the United States is derived from fossil fuels? - 90% of energy 13: What percentage of the energy use in the United States is used efficiently? - 50% of energy in the U.S. is used efficiently 14: Conservation: Using less energy and adjusting energy needs and uses to minimize energy needed. 15: Cogeneration (define and give an example): number of processes designed to capture and use waste heat. Example: Natural gas combined cycle power plant produces electricity in two ways: gas cycle and steam cycle. 16: In the United States, space heating and cooling of homes and offices, water heating, industrial processes and automobiles account for nearly ___60___% of the total energy use.

17: What is a passive solar energy system? Give examples. - They collect solar heat without moving parts. For example, Design buildings to take advantage of passive solar potential. Windows can be positioned so that they can shade windows from solar energy, keeping home cool. 18: What are some ways that older homes can be modified to be more energy efficient? - Better insulation, use of active and passive solar designs 19: U.S. Industry consumes about ____1/3___ of the energy

produced. 20: Name 3 ways that people could modify their behavior to help save energy - Use car pools, purchase hybrid car, turn off lights when leaving room. 21: What is the concept of Integrated, Sustainable Energy Management? - No single energy source, but a mixture of energy sources that are reliable, environmentally benign, and sustainable. 22: What is the concept of micropower? - The concept of using smaller, distributed, systems for production of electricity. 23: How much energy in exajoules, did the world use in 2010 and what would you project global energy use to be in 2030? - The world used 250 Exajoules in 2010. I would project the global energy use to triple in 2030, because of thegrowing population. 24: The average person emits as heat 100 watts of power. If we assume that 25% of it is emitted by the brain, how much energy does your brain emit as heat in a year? - 100 watts - .25=25 watts - 365 days=9125 watts of energy from the brain 25: Can the world supply one-third more energy by 2030 without unacceptable environmental damage? How? - No, the world cannot because we are overusing resources already. By 2030, some of the resources we are using now will be gone and we will have to go harm environments in search or for use of a new energy resource. 26: In what specific ways could energy be used more efficiently in the United States? - Pass laws to make energy be used more efficiently. Education can inform the people about the problems of energy in the United States and can change their way to living when it comes to energy. 1: What is Peak Oil? What is predicted to happen when we reach peak oil? - The time when we will have exhausted one-half of the Earths oil supply. What is predicted to happen is that we will have to change our lifestyles and economies.

2: How were fossil fuels created? - Fossil fuels were formed millions of years ago from the debris of plants. They got their energy from the sun. 3: The major fossil fuels- crude oil, natural gas and coal- are our primary energy sources; they provide approximately __90%_____ of the energy consumed worldwide. 4: Where were crude oil and natural gas deposits created? - Crude oil and natural gas deposits were created in marine or lake sediments called depositional basins. 5: Why do we not find oil and gas in geologically old rocks? - Old rocks take time to migrate to the surface, where they have vaporized or eroded away. 6: What the favorable rock structure to trap oil and gas deposits? - The favorable rock structure is anticline, an arch shaped fold or a fault, a fracture in the rock in which displacement has occurred. 7: How much oil can be recovered from wells by primary production? - 25% of oil can be recovered from wells by primary production 8: What are enhanced recovery techniques of oil and gas deposits? - Steam, water or chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir to push the oil towards the wells. This makes it easier for the oil to be collected. 9: Where are 60% of the total known reserves found? - 60% of the total known reserves are found in the Middle East 10: When will world oil production likely to peak? - The world oil production will likely to peak in the next few decades. 11: How is natural gas primarily transported? - Natural gas is primarily transported by pipelines. 12: Why is natural gas considered to be a clean fuel? - NG is considered to be clean fuel because burning this gas produces fewer pollutants than burning oil and coal and causes fewer environmental problems.

13: What is coal-bed methane and how much is estimated to exist? (How many years does this represent?) - Coal-bed methane is methane that is stored on the surfaces of organic matter in coal. 20 trillion cubic meters is estimated to exist, representing 5 years. 14: What are the PROS and CONS of drilling for and using coal-bed methane? - PROS- Need to be drilled in shallow depths, promising energy source, combustion produces less methane - CONS- Funds not sufficient to cover damage resulting from producing the gas, methane might migrate away from well sites 15: What are some of the concerns of hydrologic fracturing for black shale natural gas? - Water pollution and contamination of drinking water. 16: What are methane hydrates composed of? How were they formed? - Methane hydrates are composed of ice like compounds made of methane gas. They were formed as a result of microbial digestion of organic matter in the sediments of the seafloor. 17: Where do methane hydrates form? - They form in the ocean where deep, cold seawater provides high pressure and low temperatures. 18: What are some of the environmental effects of recovery of oil and gas? - Use of land to construct pads for wells, pipelines and storage tanks to build a network of roads, pollution of surface and groundwater, accidental release of pollutants in the air. 19: What are some of the environmental effects of refining of oil and gas? - Accidental spills and slow leaks of gasoline. Industrial processes involved in producing chemicals have potential to release variety of pollutants. 20: What are some of the environmental effects of delivery and use of oil and gas? - Danger of oil spills, strong earthquakes which cause a problem for pipelines which in then spill oil. 21: What are some arguments FOR and AGAINST drilling in the ANWR (Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge)?

- FOR-U.S needs more oil, new facilities will bring jobs, new exploration tools - AGAINST-Advances in technology are irrelevant, oil exploration will impact the ANWR, heavy vehicles in exploration scar the ground. 22: What is COAL? How is it created? - Coal is a brittle, solid, carbonaceous rock. It is created when decomposed vegetation is buried in a sedimentary environment. 23: Which type of coal has the greatest energy content? Which type has the lowest? - The greatest energy content is in anthracite and the lowest is in lignite. 24: What is strip mining? - Strip mining is a surface mining process in which the overlaying layer of soil and rock is stripped off to reach the coal. 25: What are some of the environmental impacts of strip mining? - Acid mine drainage leading to acid rain. The acid drainage can cut the abundance of coal and pyrite. Potential to pollute or damage water, land and biological resources. 26: What are some of the environmental impacts of mountaintop removal? - Production of coal dust, exacerbating lung diseases like asthma. Mountaintops get destroyed, valleys are filled with waste rock and flood hazard increases. 27: What does the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 require? - The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act requires that mined land be restored to support the pre mining use. 28: Underground Mining accounts for approximately ___40__% of the coal mined in the United States 29: What are the dangers to miners in underground mining? - Mine shaft collapses, explosions, fires and respiratory illnesses. (Black Lung) 30: What are the environmental impacts of underground mining? - Acid mine drainage, land subsidence and coal fires.

31: How is most of the coal transported in the United States? - Most of the coal transported in the United States is by train. 32: The burning of coal produces nearly __50__% of the electricity used and about _25___% of the total energy consumed in the United States today 33: How much air emissions are created using coal to create electricity in the U.S.? - 70% of the total emissions of sulfur dioxide, 30% of nitrogen and 35% of carbon dioxide are created usingcoal. 34: What did the Clean Air Amendment of 1990 mandate? - It mandated that sulfur dioxide emissions from coal burning power plants eventually be cut 70%-90%. 35: What is allowance trading? - Allowance trading is an approach to managing U.S coal resources and reducing pollution. 36: What is oil shale? How is it created and where is it found? - Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock. It is created by synfuels and is found in the United States Green River formation and the Middle East. 37: What are the environmental impacts of developing oil shale? - Waste disposal is a major problem. Both methods require that oil shale be processed at surface. Volume of waste will exceed original volume of shale mined. 38: Why cant petroleum be recovered from tar sands from conventional methods? - The oil is too thick to flow easily. 39: How are tar sands processed? - Oil in tar sands is recovered by mining the sands then you wash the oil out with water. It takes two tons of tar sand to produce one barrel of oil.