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# Botkin & Keller: Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet 8th Edition Guided Reading Assignment: Energy Unit-

Chapters 14-15 Chapter #14- Energy: Some Basics 1: How does the energy crisis in Ancient Greece and Rome compare to the oil crisis today? Explain. The crisis in Ancient Greece and Rome foreshadow the events today since we are also using up our valuable wood for inefficient coal. We can look to them at their examples of becoming smarter and efficient. Energy Basics 2: What is work? Definition and mathematical equation. It is the product of a force times a distance. Define the following: * Chemical Energy: energy * Kinetic Energy: energy that is motion * Heat Energy: energy from random motion of atoms and molecules * Potential Energy: stored energy 3: What is the first law of thermodynamics? Energy cannot be created or destroyed. 4: What does it mean to have a higher quality of energy? To go into a more usable form. 5: What is the second law of thermodynamics? Energy moves from form to form. Energy Efficiency 6: Define: First-Law Efficiency- deals with the amont of energy without any consideration of the quality or availability 7: Define: Second-Law Efficiency- how well matched the energy end use with the quality of the energy source Energy Units 8: What is the fundamental energy unit in the Metric System? How is it defined? Joule. 9: What is POWER? How is it expressed? POWER energy divided time. 10: What is thermal efficiency? Maximum possible efficiency of a heat engine. 11: What is electrical resistivity? What does it cause? Wires that transport electricity have natural resistance to electrical flow. It causes heat energy radiated into environment. Energy Sources and Consumption 12: What percentage of the energy in the United States is derived from fossil fuels? 90%. 13: What percentage of the energy use in the United States is used efficiently? 10%. Energy Conservation, Increased Efficiency and Cogeneration Define the following: 14: Conservation: using less energy 15: Cogeneration (define and give an example): capture and use waste heat, Naural gas combined cycle power plant. 16: In the United States, space heating and cooling of homes and offices, water heating, industrial processes and automobiles account for nearly 60% of the total energy use Building Design 17: What is a passive solar energy system? Give examples. Collects solar energy without moving parts. 18: What are some ways that older homes can be modified to be more energy efficient? Installing solar panels and green roofs.

Industrial Energy 19: U.S. Industry consumes about 1/3 of the energy produced. Values, Choices and Energy Conservation 20: Name 3 ways that people could modify their behavior to help save energy. They can modify their behavior by carpooling, hybrid cars, and purchasing energy efficient appliances. 21: What is the concept of Integrated, Sustainable Energy Management? It recognizes that no single energy source can provide all the energy required by various countries around the world. Micropower 22: What is the concept of micropower? It uses smaller, distributed systems of production of electricity. Critical Thinking Issue: Use of Energy Today and in 2030 23: How much energy in exajoules, did the world use in 2010 and what would you project global energy use to be in 2030? In 2010 250 exajoules. I would project it into 55 billion exajoules. 24: The average person emits as heat 100 watts of power. If we assume that 25% of it is emitted by the brain, how much energy does your brain emit as heat in a year? 25 watts. 25: Can the world supply one-third more energy by 2030 without unacceptable environmental damage? How? It would not be possible without environmental damage due to large amounts of fossil fuels being burned causing climate change. 26: In what specific ways could energy be used more efficiently in the United States? Lights can be turned off when not in rooms and limiting energy usage per household. Chapter #15: Fossil Fuels and the Environment 1: What is Peak Oil? What is predicted to happen when we reach peak oil? The time when onehalf of Earths oil has been exploited. Fossil Fuels 2: How were fossil fuels created? They are forms of stored solar energy. 3: The major fossil fuels- crude oil, natural gas and coal- are our primary energy sources; they provide approximately 90% of the energy consumed worldwide. Crude Oil and Natural Gas 4: Where were crude oil and natural gas deposits created? In the tectonic plates. 5: Why do we not find oil and gas in geologically old rocks? Their forms are fine-grained before formation of rocks. 6: What the favorable rock structure to trap oil and gas deposits? Source rock. Petroleum Production 7: How much oil can be recovered from wells by primary production? 25% of the petroleum. 8: What are enhanced recovery techniques of oil and gas deposits? They include injections into oil reserve to pump out more fluid. 9: Where are 60% of the total known reserves found? Middle East. 10: When will world oil production likely to peak? It will peak during 2020 to 2050. Natural Gas 11: How is natural gas primarily transported? Transported through pipelines. 12: Why is natural gas considered to be a clean fuel? It burns less emissions. Coal-Bed Methane

13: What is coal-bed methane and how much is estimated to exist? (How many years does this represent?) It is methane in the formation of coal. It exists 5 years for the US. 14: What are the PROS and CONS of drilling for and using coal-bed methane? Cons: disposal of water when methane recovered, migration of methane. Pros: alternative fuel compared to fossil fuels. Black Shale Natural Gas 15: What are some of the concerns of hydrologic fracturing for black shale natural gas? Contamination of groundwater. Methane Hydrates 16: What are methane hydrates composed of? How were they formed? Made of methane gas in frozen water. Formed by microbial digestion of organic matter in seafloor. 17: Where do methane hydrates form? Forms in the oceans. The Environmental Effects of Oil and Natural Gas 18: What are some of the environmental effects of recovery of oil and gas? Use of land for wells, pipelines, etc; pollution of surface/ground water; and release of air pollutants. 19: What are some of the environmental effects of refining of oil and gas? Oil seepage in to sea, release of drilling muds, and aesthetic degradation. 20: What are some of the environmental effects of delivery and use of oil and gas? The pipelines can be damaged by earthquakes or other punctures that can lead to spills. 21: What are some arguments FOR and AGAINST drilling in the ANWR (Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge)? For: jobs and money for Alaska, exploration tools, new drilling practices. Against: oil exploration will impact ANWR, scarring of land, disruption of wildlife. Coal 22: What is COAL? How is it created? Coal is created from carbonaceous rock. The buried vegetation is transformed into coal. 23: Which type of coal has the greatest energy content? Which type has the lowest? Anthracite has the greatest energy content. Bituminious has the lowest. Coal Mining and the Environment 24: What is strip mining? The mining of the surface over the layer of soil and rock to reach coal. 25: What are some of the environmental impacts of strip mining? Acid mine drainage and contamination of ground water. Mountaintop Removal 26: What are some of the environmental impacts of mountaintop removal? Coal sludge spills and coal dust traveling into towns and cities. 27: What does the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 require? It requires that mined lad needs to be restored to support its mining usage. Underground Mining 28: Underground Mining accounts for approximately 40% of the coal mined in the United States 29: What are the dangers to miners in underground mining? Collapses, explosions, and fires. 30: What are the environmental impacts of underground mining? Acid mine drainage and waste piles. Transporting Coal

31: How is most of the coal transported in the United States? Freight trains and pipelines transfer coal. The Future of Coal 32: The burning of coal produces nearly 50% of the electricity used and about 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States today 33: How much air emissions are created using coal to create electricity in the U.S.? They emit sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon dioxide. 34: What did the Clean Air Amendment of 1990 mandate? Sulfur dioxide emissions from coalburning plants be cut by 70 to 90%. 35: What is allowance trading? Managing coal resources and reduce pollution. Oil Shale and Tar Sands 36: What is oil shale? How is it created and where is it found? A fine-grained sedminetary rock containing kerogen. Found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. 37: What are the environmental impacts of developing oil shale? Surface mining scars land used for mining, and waste disposal. Tar Sands 38: Why cant petroleum be recovered from tar sands from conventional methods? The oil is too thick to flow easily. 39: How are tar sands processed? Processed by mining large open-pit mines.