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ENGL 1102 Annotated Bibliography RD-Final Morriah Striplin 4/27/14 Davis, Tonya; Durand, Shannon; Fuentes, Lissa; Dacus,

Sharon; Blenden, Kara. The Effects of a School Bases Functional Analysis on Subsequent Classroom Behavior. Education and Treatment of Children 37:95-100. Academic Search Complete. Web. 15 March 2014.

This article is a study focusing on Functional Analysis within a classroom setting and whether or not students participation in the FA have and change in classroom behavior. The experiment is taking ten elementary students with special needs and introducing them to a learning environment with emphasis on proper behavior and teacher-student interaction. The author describes the general discontent of school officials to use the FA process for various reasons. The articles experiment on behavior of the students before, during, and after the FA shows that no discernable negative effects are observed. I found the article overall to be rather scientific in its observations with the focus being disproving that negative effects are the reason FA is not more commonly instituted in public schools. The conciseness of the thesis had given me insight on what my ethnography requires. I was able to use the basic principles of this article to further refine how teacher-students interactions greatly influence the classs dynamics. While I initially read this article to grasp how changes to classroom behaviors could be observed the group studied was that of young children with disabilities in opposition to my group of college students. What I was able to take from this article is that person to person interactions do have a positive effect on student attentiveness. While in the article group this lead to less negative behavior, for mature subjects I believe this would lead towards greater participation with the class material. A similar correlation was observed in the Organic 2 class where the students were few in number but very participatory in the class. ______________________________________________________________________________ Karabenick, Stuart; Sharma, Rajeev. Perceived Teacher Support of Student Questioning in the College Classroom: Its Relation to Student Characteristics and Role in the Classroom Questioning Process. Journal of Educational Psychology 86. (90-103). PsycINFO .Web. 24 March 2014.

This article focuses on Student-teacher interactions within a classroom and how those interactions effect student participation and work ethic in class. Teachers who encourage questions and student interaction during lecture are better able to grasp the material. This article includes several surveys for classes of multiple sizes to see if student population plays a role in student teacher interactions. The conclusion of the article is that small and medium sized classes find their teachers very supportive of student questioning, and the majority of student-teacher interactions for medium to large classes is from the first few rows. I found this article overall to be very useful and its experiment being in direct correlation to many of my classroom observations concerning student and teacher questioning. The article uses the mindset that A form of academic help seeking, asking questions can be a proactive learning strategy that signifies student involvement and self-regulation rather than dependency. I find this to be in parallel with my observations and in agreement with my own research, as in my observations the higher level classroom students asked almost three times the number of questions as the lower class. Also the teacher answered all the questions regardless of which class it was. I believe this hypothesis can go further as students and class groups that ask more questions are more proactive in their learning than a class with less questions. This articles hypothesis is further studied in three separate studies in order to minimize inconsistencies due to too small a research pool. A minor hypothesis of the article is that teachers will likewise be responsive to students who seek help by asking questions appropriately in the classroom. While I believe this hypothesis is I found little evidence in my own classroom observations. Whether this was because of the teacher or the lack of haphazard questions in the observed students is unknown. Regardless my own observations show that the teacher answered all the during class questions with the same enthusiasm. Overall I found this article to be very insightful and in line with my own research and observations. ______________________________________________________________________________ SLIKOVI, Ana; MASLI SERI, Darja. Work Stress among University Teachers: Gender and Position Differences. Archives of Industrial Hygiene & Toxicology / Arhiv za Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju 62.4 (2011) 299-307. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 March 2014.

This article was originally made in Croatia and was translated into English. The article focuses on college professor stress and how such stress varies between gender and position differences. After a series of analysis the article comes to the conclusion that women have more stress then me, for most teacher positions the brunt of stress comes from technical conditions of work and work organization, and lastly and surprisingly for me full professors suffer from the least amount of stress out of all the teaching positions. I found this article, while having little to do with my observations, to be very helpful in answering one of my minor questions about teaching: Do teachers suffer from stress? And does stress correlate with teachers positions? This article directly addresses these questions, namely the correlation question. The article concludes that: Assistant professors, associate professors, and full professors reported greater stress related to material and technical conditions of work

and work organization than assistants. I can agree with this conclusion because I have seen that the Assistant and associate professors are generally the ones who teach the majority of the classes, usually several different classes at a time. As well as teaching they also manage classes such as labs and other things primarily taught by TAs. Additionally the article states that Full professors, reported lower exposure to stress at work than associate professors, assistant professors, and assistants. I find this to be an interesting statement, as one would expect the full time workers to have more work. Research into UNCCs teaching has shown that the there is very little difference in the earnings of associate and assistant professors. Also notable is that professors who focus more on research tend to be paid more than professors focused on teaching. Also payment is linked to the educational level of the professor more than their teaching ability. ______________________________________________________________________________ Stumpf, Stephen; Freedman, Richard. Expected Grade Conversation with Student Rating of Instruction: Individual versus Class Effect. Journal of Educational Phycology 71. (1979): 292302. PsycINFO.Web. 20 March 2014.

The focus of this paper is on the patterns of teacher evaluations in both a classroom group and individual evaluations. The article uses data from previous research articles, as well as its own, to test the hypothesis that individual and group student ratings are closely tied to their expected grades. This pattern is present in both group and individual analysis with both graduate students and undergraduates. The core focus of this article was to show how student perception of how well they are doing within a class greatly effects how they perceive the class in terms of hard or easy, fair or unfair. The backlash of pore student perception (where even the A students think they are failing) is most strongly felt by the professor. I found this article to be very helpful in tying student expectations into student work ethic. Some explanations for student behavior within this article are particularly interesting Stumpf states classes of students may be more influenced by differences in their instructors expected grading policies than individual expected grades (300). This statement is something I can agree with as courses with too strict of a grading policy or micro-grading tendencies make hardworking students expend energy learning how to achieve the grade rather than learn the material. Micro-grading has a negative effect on the moral of the A and B students, which in turn effects the evaluation of the class. As stated by Powell: Evaluations of both the instructors performance and the course decreased as the stringency of the grading criteria increased (300). While none of my observations directly supported this student evaluations were hinted when comparing the students of the different level classes. Another point of interest in this article is how they approached their research: as individual vs classes analysis. The article show how classes have a substantial effect on analysis and more stable data in comparison to individual effects which become minimal. This data correlates into the stability of class personality and how class dynamics change as the group processes to higher courses. For instance basic classes have unstable class personalities

particularly in larger classes, while smaller classes do not. The proximity of the teacher to the students greatly effects student behavior and attention to material. ______________________________________________________________________________ Venezia, Andrea. Transitions from high school to college. The Future of Children 23.1 (2013). 117-136. PsycINFO. Web. 1 April 2014.

This article focuses on the readiness of high school students for the college workload. The author also goes into variables such as high school quality and other noncircular variables such as parental expectations. Despite the broad baseline due to these variables the article shows through data from other sources that the majority of students are not prepared for the college curriculum. The article then discusses several systems designed to help transition highs cool students and their effectiveness. I found this article overall to be very informative. I agreed with the articles claim that most high school students are unready for college. I have seen through the early classes into the higher courses that the majority of the students do not proceed to the next level of education, and I myself recall having a lot of trouble adapting to the college workload and expectations. These difficulties would be one of the leading reasons for class sizes to diminish as a group progresses into the higher level classes. It would also be relevant for the shaping of class dynamics thought the semester. I was not able to see this in my observations because my observations happened after midterms, when the students who would drop did. I do have some disagreements with this article, particularly on how effective the systematic programs can be. While the author does admit to the fact that studies have shown mixed results in this regard I believe that programs such as dual-enrollment have their own issues that corrupts effectiveness. I propose that a flaw in the argument is that they take students as a whole, rather than separated into their letter grades. While all students will face difficulties adjusting I am curious about how the mentality of the A and B students about college compare to the C students.