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Curriculum Areas: English Unit: One Small Island

*Based on the unit Save one island, save them all by Kelly Booker and Jantiena Batt This unit of work focuses on the hybrid text One Small Island by Alison Lester and Coral Tulloch, to explore the impact of human factors on the environment of Macquarie Island.

Stage: 3 Unit duration: !" #eeks $%&' hours (er #eek)

We want students to (outcomes): E*%&!+ ,ommuni,ates e--e,tively -or a variety o- audien,es and (ur(oses using in,reasingly ,hallenging to(i,s, ideas, issues and language -orms and -eatures E*%&.+ ,om(oses, edits and (resents #ell&stru,tured and ,oherent te/ts E*%& %+ uses an integrated range o- skills, strategies and kno#ledge to read, vie# and ,om(rehend a #ide range o- te/ts in di--erent media and te,hnologies E*%&0B dis,usses ho# language is used to a,hieve a #idening range o- (ur(oses -or a #idening range o- audien,es and ,onte/ts E*%&1B uses kno#ledge o- senten,e stru,ture, grammar, (un,tuation and vo,abulary to res(ond to and ,om(ose ,lear and ,ohesive te/ts in di--erent media and te,hnologies E*%&23 thinks imaginatively, ,reatively, inter(retively and ,riti,ally about in-ormation and ideas and identi-ies ,onne,tions bet#een te/ts #hen res(onding and ,om(osing te/ts E*%&45 identi-ies and ,onsiders ho# di--erent vie#(oints o- their #orld, in,luding as(e,ts o- ,ulture, are re(resented in te/ts E*%&6E re,ognises, re-le,ts on and assesses their strengths as a learner Links to Stage Statements Students #ill7 3ollaborate #ith others to share and evaluate ideas and o(inions and to develo( di--erent (oints o- vie# E/(ress #ell&develo(ed and #ell&organised ideas about literary te/ts and res(ond ,onstru,tively to di--erent o(inions Inde(endently read and vie# an e/tensive range o- ,om(le/ te/ts and visual images using a ,om(rehensive range o- skills and strategies 8es(ond to themes and issues #ithin te/ts, re,ognise (oint o- vie# and 9usti-y inter(retations by re-erring to their o#n kno#ledge, values and e/(erien,es Identi-y, ,riti,ally analyse and res(ond to te,hni:ues, literary devi,es and language -eatures used by #riters to in-luen,e readers Identi-y te/t stru,ture o- a range o- ,om(le/ te/ts and e/(lore ho# grammati,al -eatures #ork to in-luen,e an audien,e;s understanding o- #ritten, visual, media and multimodal te/ts 3reate #ell&stru,tured and #ell&(resented #ritten and multimodal imaginative, in-ormative and

What do we want our students to learn? (Deep knowledge element) Must be guided by syllabus content pages (not indicators) and foundation/ stage statements.

(ersuasive te/ts -or a #ide range o- (ur(oses and audien,es Students evaluate the e--e,tiveness o- their #riting by dra-ting, (roo-reading, editing, revie#ing and (ublishing, -o,using on grammati,al -eatures and the ,onventions o- #riting his learning matters !ecause: <he -o,us is on develo(ing the kno#ledge, skills, values and #orld vie#s ne,essary -or (eo(le to a,t in #ays that ,ontribute to more sustainable (atterns o- living, ensuring a -utures&oriented (ers(e,tive throughout this unit o- #ork <he learning has value and meaning beyond the ,lassroom <he learning addresses a (ubli, (roblem and an a,tual real&#orld situation <his unit o- #ork embeds the 3ross&,urri,ulum (riority o- Sustainability, -o,using on the a,tions undertaken to im(rove sustainability in both individual and ,olle,tive endeavours shared a,ross lo,al and global ,ommunities <he unit o- #ork (rovide students #ith o((ortunities to make ,onne,tions bet#een their kno#ledge and e/(erien,e and the substan,e o- the lesson <he unit o- #ork (rovides students #ith o((ortunities to re-le,t on their o#n learning Assessment task outline Write an historical account (Week 9 !") Wh" does this learning matter? (Signi#icance dimension) Are there clear links to prior and future learning and real world application?

$ow will students demonstrate their deep understanding? #esign task(s) with authentic purpose$ audience and communication tools. %s student direction (content$ process or product) suitable to the task? %s there opportunity for students to demonstrate learning at an &A' le(el?

%e" outcomes #or assessment Assessment criteria ('ndicators( Content Descriptors) e*periment with te*t structures and language features and their effects in creating literary te*ts$

$ow well do we e&pect students to do it? )ow will this information be

for e*ample$ using imagery$ sentence (ariation$ metaphor and word choice reread and edit student's own work and others' work using agreed criteria and e*plaining editing choices

communicated to all students and parents?

Lesson Se)uence
=eek 3ontent Students: !
Participate in and contribute to discussions, clarifying and interpreting ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions.

Out,omes> ?earning E/(erien,e


EN3-1A communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features. EN3- 3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies. EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding and composing texts Introducing One Small Island Show the students a map of Macquarie Island and explain that the cards they are about to be given are about the island. Cut out individual cards with the words from the final sentence of the book (For if we can save one small island, perhaps we can save them all) from the Tuning in worksheet to use as a tuning in activity. The students are required to rearrange the cards to create a sentence and then offer their insights as to why the sentence could be constructed in this way. They must use all of the word cards but could add in two or three extra words to maintain meaning in their sentence. You are encouraged to not show the correct sentence until the end of the first reading. The students could change their sentence throughout the reading of the text. Map of Macquarie Island Tuning in Worksheet

8esour,es

+ssessment

Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features.

Navigate and read texts for specific purposes applying appropriate text processing strategies, for example predicting and confirming. Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including medial and digital texts. Think imaginatively when engaging with texts, using prediction, for example.

Making Predictions & Observations Show the students the front and back covers of the book and read the back cover text (blurb), then ask them the following questions: What do you think the book will be about? Why? How do you think the text and illustrations will be organised? Why? What do we know about the author and illustrator by looking at the front and back cover of this book? Using the blurb and the final sentence you have constructed, what can you infer about what type of book this might be?

Teacher observation

Use Think-Pair-Share strategy to encourage oral discussion. Activate Background Knowledge/Build Field Knowledge View a map, which shows Macquarie Island and its proximity to Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica, to establish and understand its location. Collect, record and evaluate geographical information from a range of sources (for example, observations, maps, photographs, satellite images, statistics and reports), while differentiating between primary and secondary data. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/onlineresources/flora/images/map.gif

Macquarie Islands Page on Unescos website: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/629 There are several YouTube clips about Macquarie Island, including: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pvYXm1usGe8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOQPy4ZyEZ0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TjO0bwB9Kw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JqDJR7pU2cE

Macquarie Island Webcam: http://www.antarctica.gov.au/webcams/macquarie-island

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Participate in and EN3-1A communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features.

contribute to discussions, clarifying and interpreting ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions.

EN3- 3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies. EN3-9E recognises, reflects on and assesses their strengths as a learner

Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features.

Using this online map of Macquarie Island, explain the purpose of a legend and the role it has within One Small Island. As a class, the students are encouraged to identify the different visual symbols that have been used in the legend to capture all facets of life on Macquarie Island. They then explore the map and the associated hyperlinks. Reading & Responding to the Text Read the historical account sections of the text to the students without showing them the pages. Ask them to respond to the text by folding an A4 page in half, and on one side respond to the guiding questions below and on the other side draw an image of how they feel about the text or an image that the text evokes. It is essential that the students undertake this activity prior to viewing the text and illustrations as it allows them to predict the thematic nature of the book and use the reading strategies of predicting and creating images to support their comprehension. Ask the students the following guiding questions: What is the tone or feeling of the book? What style of illustration would you expect to see in this book? How do you feel about Macquarie Island? How does the authors choice of language evoke a response from you? Is it positive, negative or indifferent?

http://www.abc.net.au/nature/island/ep1/map/default.htm

A4 Paper

Understand how texts vary in purpose, structure and topic as well as the degree of formality. Discuss the conventions of a range of complex texts. Recognise that there is a language for discussing learning experiences.

Reflection Students share their responses, both written and illustrative. Remind

students of their initial predictions and discuss. Thinking About How the Book Might Be Read Re-read the historical account section of the book, this time showing the students the pages. Ask them how they interpreted the additional information text on the pages. Read this part of the text to the students. Discuss how they would read the book (for example, the historical account first and then the information text, or read all the text on one page before turning the page). How do the narrative (historical account) text and the information texts complement each other? What are the author and illustrator trying to do here? Use a discussion strategy, such as think-pair-share to allow the students to talk in small groups a out this efore having a whole class discussion! EN3-1A communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features. EN3- 3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies. EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts. EN3-9E recognises, reflects on and assesses their strengths as a learner What is the impact of the narrative voice in this text? The text offers two different types of narrative voice. The first is in the third person, suggesting an objective and omniscient narrator. The second is a first person narrative that is evident through the use of multiple historical accounts and journals throughout the text. Discuss with the students how the different voices present different views and in some instances lead to different interpretations. For example, the third person voice may suggest a completely factual account of an event while the first person voice retelling may be dependent on the representation of that character and the readers acceptance of their attributes. Pose questions such as:

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Use metalanguage to describe the effects of ideas, text structures and language features on particular audiences. Use appropriate metalanguage to identify and describe relationships between and among texts. Understand and appreciate the way texts are shaped through exploring a range of language forms and features.

Analyse how text structures and features work together to meet the purpose of a text. Identify the impact of first person and thirdperson narration on the reader/viewer. Identify and explain characteristic text structures and language features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text. Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers. Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias.

Does a first person narrative voice lead to a favourable perception of the character and the characters group? Why has the author chosen two forms of voice within this one text? What effects have been created through the device of using two voices?

Discuss the use of subjective and objective language. What effect does this have on the reader? Use Think-Pair-Share strategy to encourage oral discussion. Look at Other Hybrid Texts The concept of the narrative and the informational texts complementing each other can be further explored by gathering a selection of other titles that have two or more types of text on one page or have two or more story lines happening at once. Examples of this kind of text include: One Tiny Turtle by Nicola Davies and Jane Chapman Come Away from the Water, Shirley by John Burningham (the images tell a different story from the text) Black and White by David Macaulay. Other books with two or more story lines occurring at the same time Davies, Nicola and Chapman, Jane (illustrator) (2005) One Tiny Turtle, Candlewick Press, Somerville, Massachusetts Burningham, John (1992) Come Away from the Water, Shirley, Red Fox/Random House, UK (the images tell a different story to the text) Macaulay, David (2005) Black and White, Sandpiper, UK.

The students can also share other texts they have read that have a hybrid structure. Make the collection available for students to read during independent reading sessions. Whole Class Reflection Facilitate a whole class discussion about the impact of having the information and narration being on the one page and how they constructed meaning from this layout. Ask the students to tell you how they would choose to read the book.

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Recognise that there is a language for discussing learning experiences. Use

metalanguage to describe the effects of ideas, text structures and language features on particular audiences. Understand and appreciate the way texts are shaped through exploring a range of language forms and features. Analyse how text structures and features work together to meet the purpose of a text. Identify the impact of first person and thirdperson narration on the reader/viewer. Identify and explain characteristic text structures and language features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text. Analyse

EN3-1A communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features. EN3- 3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies. EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts. EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding and composing texts.

Analysing a Historical Account As a class, the students will analyse the historical account in journal format that appears in the book One Small Island by Alison Lester and Coral Tulloch, identifying the organisational framework and language features of a written journal. In Sequence 5, they will be asked to write a journal entry as their first assessment task. This sequence deconstructs what a journal is and the language and organisational features generally found in historical accounts such as journals. If it is possible to have multiple copies of the book available, students can read the book during independent reading sessions, revisiting the rich examples provided within the text. Introduction Discuss the nature of journal or diary writing. Ask if any students keep a diary themselves. The students might also recall other diaries they know of (for example, the Diary of Anne Frank). Photocopy and enlarge one of the early journal entries from One Small Island (for example, 1816 on page 8) or display it on an interactive whiteboard. Before beginning the sequence, allow time for the students to read the text in guided or independent reading sessions. They might then volunteer to read sections to the class. Alternatively, you can read the text during a modelled reading session. Fact Sheet & Source Scenarios Photocopied journal

strategies authors use to influence readers. Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias.

Teaching Primary and Secondary Sources Teach students how to identify and differentiate between primary and secondary sources. Introduce students to the concept of primary and secondary sources. Brainstorm examples of primary and secondary sources. Analyse scenarios and records to demonstrate their ability to differentiate between primary and secondary sources. Whole class discussion about analysing sources. Key Questions that may be useful when analysing a visual/written source: What is the source? What sort of information is in the source? Who wrote it, drew it, took the photo? When was it produced? Is there any significance to the date? Why was the source created? Who was the intended audience? What language, images and tone are used? Is the source biased, reasonable, exaggerated, emotional, propagandist? Is the source supported by other sources?

http://www.georgewbushlibrary.smu.edu/Teachers/ClassroomResources/~/media/28B922F0D31D4953A1B6E9F990789A8D.ashx

AC History Units is a great resource: http://www.achistoryunits.edu.au/teaching-history/keyconcepts/teachhist-concepts.html

Recognise and compare how composers use a range of language features, including connectives, topic sentences and active and passive voice, to achieve their purpose. Recognise the techniques used by writers to position a reader and influence their point of view. Consider and develop sustained arguments and discussions supported by evidence. Think critically about aspects of texts such as ideas and events.

Use metalanguage to

EN3-1A communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and

describe the effects of ideas, text structures and language features on particular audiences. Understand and appreciate the way texts are shaped through exploring a range of language forms and features. Analyse how text structures and features work together to meet the purpose of a text. Identify the impact of first person and thirdperson narration on the reader/viewer. Identify and explain characteristic text structures and language features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text. Analyse strategies authors

language forms and features. EN3- 3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies. EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts. EN3-6B uses knowledge of sentence structure, grammar, punctuation and vocabulary to respond to and compose clear and cohesive texts in different media and technologies. EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding and composing texts. EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in texts. Analysing the historical account Re-read the journal entry. To analyse the text, the students are asked to identify its organisational framework and language features. Use sticky notes to record the students ideas, placing the organisational framework on the left side and the language features on the right side of the enlarged text. This is a whole class experience, with targeted questioning addressing the different capabilities in the group. This approach allows a chart to be jointly constructed and used as a scaffold for further tasks and generates the success criteria for this learning task. It can be further crafted into a rubric for future assessment. General questions to the students could include: What text form is this writing? What is the purpose of this writing? Who is the audience for this writing? What evidence can you find in the text for your answers? Enlarged copy of journal entry. Sticky notes.

Specific student questions related to text include:

use to influence readers. Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias. Recognise and compare how composers use a range of language features, including connectives, topic sentences and active and passive voice, to achieve their purpose. Recognise the techniques used by writers to position a reader and influence their point of view. Consider and develop sustained arguments and discussions supported by evidence. Think critically about aspects of texts such as ideas and events. Identify and explain how choices in language,

Is this example indirect or direct recounting? Was the author able to directly recount an experience they were involved in? Is this a primary or secondary source of information? What is the role of the illustrations in this part of the text? What is the purpose of the orientation? (Sets the time period, but other details are not included, implying an assumed knowledge due to the episodic nature of journals.) What is the purpose of important events being arranged in chronological order and then being elaborated upon? What do you notice about the nouns and pronouns? (They refer to specific participants.) What tense is this text written in? (Three tenses are evident: simple past tense, present perfect and past perfect. If it is appropriate to student needs, discuss changes in tense and why the author has used this range of tenses.) What types of verbs and verb groups are used (action, relating and sensing) and how do these help build meanings? What words are used to show the time and sequence? What is the role of the prepositions? (To indicate time and place.) Is there reported or direct speech? What literary devices are used by the author(s)? (Inclusion of details so the reader can visualise the experience. Choice of language is descriptive. Flashback is presented through characters narration.) What themes or main ideas can you identify in this text? (Environment, change, interconnectedness and sustainability.) Whose views are being represented in this text? Are any views not represented?

Record the students responses to the questions under the following headings: Text purpose, Grammatical features and Literary resources. This list can be used by students to scaffold their writing. Reflection Review the features the students listed and ask them to identify them in other journal entries later if they choose to read the book during silent reading time .You can display the analysed text on the wall where all work for this unit is displayed so the students can refer

influence personal response to different texts. Understand that choices in grammar, punctuation and vocabulary contribute to the effectiveness of texts. Understand how ideas can be expanded and sharpened through careful choice of verbs, elaborated tenses and a range of adverb groups/phrases.

back to it at any stage.

Use metalanguage to describe the effects of ideas, text structures and language features on particular audiences. Understand and appreciate the way texts are shaped through exploring a range of language forms and features. Analyse how text structures and

EN3-1A communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features. EN3- 3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies. EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts. EN3-6B uses knowledge of sentence structure, grammar, punctuation and vocabulary to respond to and compose clear and cohesive texts in different media and technologies. EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding and composing texts. EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in texts.

features work together to meet the purpose of a text. Identify the impact of first person and thirdperson narration on the reader/viewer. Identify and explain characteristic text structures and language features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text. Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers. Recognise and compare how composers use a range of language features, including connectives, topic sentences and active and passive voice, to achieve their purpose. Recognise the techniques used by writers to

Analysing multiple journals and creating a timeline Modelled experience: Select two journal entries from One Small Island to analyse in a modelled experience. Ensure that the list created in Sequence 2 (the responses recorded under the headings Text purpose, Grammatical features and Literary resources) is in a location where all students can see it (either enlarged on paper or displayed on an interactive whiteboard). Read the first journal entry and then model how to complete the checklist (ticking each item) by unpacking the organisational framework and language features listed. Repeat the process for the second sample, ensuring that a blank list is displayed ready to be completed. The students then rank the two samples as more or less effective based on the criteria in the list. Discuss why one sample was stronger or, if they have received equal weighting, what the author could have used to further improve the text. Shared experience: Select a further two journal entries to analyse in a shared experience. Again there should be a blank list displayed. Read the text to the class and then ask the students to identify whether the features listed on the list are apparent in the samples. The students are required to justify their decisions with evidence from the text. They rank the two samples in terms of effectiveness and share their justifications with the class. Independent group experience: Form the students into several small heterogeneous groups to allow them to analyse a further selection of journal entries. Each group is given three or four different samples and asked to complete a list for each sample. They rank the samples, justify their rankings and record their reasoning for the rankings. Each group then relays this information to the class. The four samples deemed to be most effective based on their organisational framework and language features should be displayed for all students to view, along with the completed lists. (This could include the samples used in the modelled and shared experiences.) The students then complete a list of rules or success criteria within their small groups. The groups then share their work and generate a class agreement. This should be displayed in the classroom, with refinements and replacements made throughout the learning sequences as the students develop and deepen their understanding of this text form. Each small group of students will need to be able to view a complete set of the 16 journal entries in One Small Island

Checklist of the language features and organisational framework Two enlarged journal entries

Copies of journal entries

position a reader and influence their point of view. Consider and develop sustained arguments and discussions supported by evidence. Think critically about aspects of texts such as ideas and events. Identify and explain how choices in language, influence personal response to different texts. Understand that choices in grammar, punctuation and vocabulary contribute to the effectiveness of texts. Understand how to move beyond making bare assertions and take account differing perspectives and points of view.

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EN3-1A communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and

language forms and features. Understand the difference between main and subordinate clauses and that a complex sentence involves at least one subordinate clause. Interprets events, situations and characters in texts. EN3-2A composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts.

EN3- 3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies. EN3-6B uses knowledge of sentence structure, grammar, punctuation and vocabulary to respond to and compose clear and cohesive texts in different media and technologies. EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding and composing texts. Timeline In small groups, the students construct a timeline using the journal entries. Ensure the lists the students used in the last activity are attached to each of the journal entries so they are able to compare samples. Key events on Macquarie Island should also be included on the timeline (for example, The sealers killed more than one hundred thousand fur seals, and after ten years there were none left, page 8). This will enable the students to link the literary and informational texts. Reflection The students should be encouraged to share their timelines with the whole class. Facilitate a discussion about the changes in the journal entries over time (for example, language use and visual aspects such as font and paper). The timelines can now be displayed for future reference. Function of Complex Sentences Before undertaking this activity it may be necessary to revise the types of sentences simple, compound and complex and their purposes and structures. Using the journal samples from One Small Island (and displayed in the class timeline), the students will recognise that complex sentences make connections between ideas.

The functions of complex sentences include: to provide a reason to state a purpose to express a condition to make a concession to link two ideas in terms of various time relations.

Using the journal entries on the timeline, the students are asked to highlight complex sentences and use a sticky note to annotate their function. For example: Dearest Father entry July 1820 (page 8): Several have exhausted their provisions, as the ships have not returned. dependent clause expressing a cause Sealers Journal 1892 (page 12): This means nothing to Hatch, who keeps us on the island to hunt them and take all the penguins we can. dependent (non-finite) clause expressing a reason

Reflection Encourage all of the groups to share the complex sentences they found in the journal entries and to identify what additional information is given in the dependent clauses. Sentences can be added to the timelines and displayed.

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Identify and explore underlying themes and central storylines in imaginative texts. Understand, interpret and experiment with sound devices

EN3-2A composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts. EN3- 3A uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies. EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts. EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding and composing texts. EN3-8D identifies and considers how different viewpoints of their world, including aspects of culture, are represented in texts. Descriptive Language

and imagery, including simile, metaphor and personification. Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources. Identify the ways in which language use in imaginative texts, including figurative language, character development, events and setting, creates interest for the reader or viewer. Compose more complex texts using a variety o forms appropriate to purpose and audience. Identify, describe and discuss similarities and differences between texts. Analyse and evaluate similarities and

Students will identify the thematic links between the fictional story presented in Tanglewood by Margaret Wild and Vivienne Goodman and the historical account of One Small Island. Analysis of the figurative language within the texts will support the students in crafting their radio broadcast and their written journal. Identifying Similar Themes Read Tanglewood to the class in a modelled reading session. The students then engage in class discussion identifying the themes within Tanglewood that are also present in One Small Island. Model the way the Dot to dot connections worksheet is used. Select a range of themes or main messages that are present in One Small Island, as well as other key concepts that will encourage critical and creative thinking (for example, sustainability, freedom, perspective, growth and love), then draw in lines of connection (thereby joining the dots). Explain the connection along each connection line. For example, the words isolated and environment may have a connecting line with the words both Tanglewood and Macquarie Island were originally uninhabited by humans written on it. This activity could also be done on an interactive whiteboard for whole class modelling and joint construction. The students are now required to complete their own Dot to dot connections worksheet. The template could be modified to suit themes identified in earlier sequences or to record different key concepts, depending on student needs. Alternatively, a blank organiser could be used with themes or main messages being drawn out of a hat so that all students have different concepts to make connections between. Thinking About Literary Devices Explain that the author has chosen the literary devices of personification and metaphor to express difficult ideas more clearly. Define personification (giving human qualities to animals, nonhuman beings or inanimate objects and abstract ideas) and record this on an anchor chart or on the interactive whiteboard. Ask the students to identify what human quality or idea is the focus of this sentence from the text: Then one day a seagull fell into the heart of Tanglewood. (page 10) This is an example of personification, with the author giving the tree a human organ and the associated feelings. This is also an example of

Copy of Tanglewood by Margaret Wild and Vivienne Goodman.

Dot to Dot connections worksheet: http://e4ac.edu.au/units/year-5/pop-s4-01.html

differences in texts on similar topics, themes or plots. Identify aspects of literary texts that convey details or information about particular social, cultural and historical contexts. Discuss and explore moral, ethical and social dilemmas encountered in texts.

a sustained metaphor, with the heart of the tree being a metaphor for the love Tanglewood provided to the seagull. Now model the construction of a sentence that uses the structure of where, when, what and includes personification and a metaphor related to Macquarie Island (for example, On the lonely, brutal shore, as the sun set, its hide a blackened shroud, lay the seal lonely, brutal shore is an example of personification; its hide a blackened shroud is an example of a metaphor). This activity also reinforces previous work on writing complex sentences. Ask the students to identify an object or animal that could be found on Macquarie Island, either now or in the past. They then craft a sentence that uses the where, when, what structure and includes personification. Remind them that the when and where clauses can be moved around in the sentence, depending on what the writer wishes to emphasise. Now model how metaphors can further enhance and evoke emotional responses. Model the construction of a sentence to the class. For example, On the lonely, brutal shore, as the sun set, its hide a blackened shroud, lay the seal. Greed is alive. The students can then develop a further sentence to include a metaphor or add a metaphor to their current sentence. Volunteer students may read their sentences to the group with other class members being encouraged to visualise the scene being described. Reflection Facilitate a whole group discussion around the literary devices that have been used and whether or not they have been successful in creating images and expressing difficult ideas clearly. The students could be encouraged to find other examples from texts they are reading in independent reading sessions and to share these with the class. Caring For the Land (Optional Activity) Before conducting this optional activity, consult with local elders or Indigenous groups who may be able to provide advice and add a local perspective. Read Bob Randall and Melanie Hogans book Nyuntu Ninti (What You Should Know) to the students. This is an opportunity to discuss how Indigenous people have looked after the land and continue to do so. Key questions for the students could Nyuntu Ninti (What You Should Know)

include: In what ways is the life of the people in the book similar to or different from how we live in our area? How is the land sustainable for the people in the book? How do they live off the land? What messages does the book give us about caring for our land?

Students7
Compose imaginative and informative texts that show evidence of developed ideas. Experiment with text structures and language features and their effects in creating literary texts, for example using imagery, sentence variation, metaphor and world choice. Reread and edit students on work using agreed criteria. Compose more complex texts using a variety of forms appropriate to purpose and audience.

The students could write a descriptive piece about the land depicted in the book or a comparative descriptive piece about the land described in the book and the land they live on. EN3-2A composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts. EN3-5B discusses how language is used to achieve a widening range of purposes for a widening range of audiences and contexts. EN3-6B uses knowledge of sentence structure, grammar, punctuation and vocabulary to respond to and compose clear and cohesive texts in different media and technologies. EN3-7C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding and composing texts. EN3-9E recognises, reflects on and assesses their strengths as a learner Assessment Task Writing an Historical Account This assessment task allows you to capture and monitor what students have learnt to date about Macquarie Island (for example, its location, weather conditions and history). It assesses what the students have learnt about the organisational framework and language features of writing that recounts events in history. In previous lessons the students analysed historical accounts as a whole class and in small groups. They identified the organisational framework and language features of this text form and compared journal entries using these features as a checklist. The students have discussed the themes, use of voice, literary devices and functions of complex sentences and are encouraged to include this learning in their writing. They have also read the text Tanglewood, and have discussed the descriptive language in the book. Introduction Introduce the assessment task to the students, explaining that they will be creating a historical account for a specific time period from Historical Recount

Example Checklist

Critically reflect on the effectiveness of their own and others writing, seeking and responding to feedback.

the perspective of a sealer, shipmate, captain, surgeon, or any other stakeholder who was present on the island up until 1938. The students are to choose a time period from the timeline and write a journal entry from Macquarie Island that incorporates language reflective of that time and makes reference to the state of the environment and particular events in that time period. Construct a checklist with the students, identifying the criteria that will be used to assess their writing. See example.

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Students work on their assessment tasks and publish their final draft. These could be bound into a class book. Give students time to reflect on their learning in this unit of work.

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