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Oral Medications Medications Meglitinides Repaglinide(Prandin) Nateglinide (Starlix) Sulfonylureas Glipizide (Glucotrol) Glimepride (Amaryl) Glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase)

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors Saxagliptin (Onglyza) Sitagliptin ( Januvia) Linagliptin (Tradjenta) Biguanides Metformin ( Fortamet, Glucophage and others)

Action Stimulate the release of insulin Stimulate the release of insulin

Advantages Work quickly

Work quickly

Possible side-effects Hypoglycemia, weight gain, nausea, back pain, headache Hypoglycemia, weight gain, nausea, skin rash

Stimulate the release of insulin, inhibit the release of glucose from liver Inhibit the release of glucose from liver, improve sensitivity to insulin Improve sensitivity to insulin, inhibit the release of glucose from liver Slows the breakdown of starches and some sugars

Do not cause weight gain

Upper respiratory tract infection, sore throat, headache, inflammation of pancreas (sitagliptin) Nausea, diarrhoea, rarely the harmful buildup of lactic acid ( lactic acidosis) Heart failure, heart attack, stroke, liver disease Stomach pain, gas, diarrhoea

Thiazolidinediones Rosiglitazone ( Avandia) Pioglitazone ( Actos) Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Acarbose (Precose) Miglitol (Glyset)

May promote modest weight loss and modest decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or bad cholesterol May slightly increase high density lipoprotein (HDL), or good cholestrol Do not cause weight gain

Injectable Medications Medications Amylin mimetics Pramlintide (Symlin)

Actions Stimulate release of insulin, used with insulin injection Stimulate release of insulin, used with Metformin and Sulfonyl ureas

Advantages May suppress hunger, may promote modest weight loss May suppress hunger, may promote modest weight loss

Incretin mimetics Exenatide (Byetta) Liraglutide ( Victoza)

Possible side-effects Hypoglycemia, nausea or vomiting, headache, redness and irritation at injection site Nausea or vomiting, headache, dizziness, kidney damage or failure