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Gurdjie between 1925 and 1935

Born
George Ivanovich
Gurdjie
January 13, 1866
Alexandropol, Russian
Empire
Died
October 29, 1949
(aged 83)
Neuilly-sur-Seine,
France
Era
20th-century
Region
Western Esotericism
School
Fourth Way (the
"Gurdjie Work")
Main interests
Psychology, philosophy,
science, ancient
George Gurdjie
George Gurdjie
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
George Ivanovich Gurdjie (; January
13, 1866 October 29, 1949), also
commonly referred to as Georges
Ivanovich Gurdjie and G. I. Gurdjie,
was an inuential spiritual teacher of the
early to mid-20th century who taught that
most humans live their lives in a state of
hypnotic "waking sleep", but that it is
possible to transcend to a higher state of
consciousness and achieve full human
potential. Gurdjie developed a method
for doing so, calling his discipline "The
Work"
[1]
(connoting "work on oneself") or
"the Method".
[2]
According to his
principles and instructions,
[3]
Gurdjie's
method for awakening one's
consciousness is dierent from that of the
fakir, monk or yogi, so his discipline is
also called (originally) the "Fourth
Way".
[4]
At one point, he described his
teaching as being "esoteric
Christianity".
[5]
At dierent times in his life, Gurdjie
formed and closed various schools around
the world to teach The Work. He claimed
that the teachings he brought to the West
from his own experiences and early
travels expressed the truth found in
ancient religions and wisdom teachings
relating to self-awareness in people's daily
lives and humanity's place in the
universe.
[6]
The title of his third series of
writings, Life Is Real Only Then, When 'I
Am', expresses the essence
[citation needed]
of his teachings. His complete series of
books is entitled All and Everything.
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knowledge
Notable ideas
Fourth Way, Fourth
Way Enneagram,
Centers, Ray of
Creation,
Self-remembering
Contents
1 Biography
1.1 Early years
1.2 Seeker after truth
1.3 Businessman
1.4 In Russia
1.5 In Georgia and Turkey
1.6 Prieur at Fontainebleau
1.7 First car accident, writing
and visits to America
1.8 World War II
1.9 Final years
2 Children
3 Ideas
3.1 Self-development teachings
3.2 Methods
3.2.1 Music
3.2.2 Movements
3.2.3 Group work
3.2.4 Writings
4 Reception and inuence
4.1 Groups
4.2 Gurdjie's pupils
4.3 Responses
5 Bibliography
5.1 Books
5.2 Books about Gurdjie and
The Fourth Way
5.3 Comprehensive
biographies
5.4 Videos and DVDs about
Gurdjie and The Fourth Way
Inuenced by
Inuenced
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5.5 Interviews about Gurdjie
and The Fourth Way
5.6 Music
6 See also
7 References
8 External links
Biography
Early years
George Ivanovich Gurdjie
[7]
(Russian: , Greek:
, Armenian: ) was born to a Greek father
( ),(Georgios or Ivan Georgiades)
[8]
and Armenian mother
Tavrizovy-Bagratouni ( - ) in Alexandropol (now Gyumri,
Armenia), then part of the Russian Empire.
[9]
The name Gurdjie represents a
Russied form of the Greek "Georgiades" (Greek: ).
[7]
The exact date
of his birth remains unknown; conjectures range from 1866 to 1877. Some
authors (such as Moore) argue persuasively for 1866, others, like Patterson
(Struggle of the Magicians, pp. 27374.), for 1872. Both Olga de Hartmannthe
woman Gurdjie called "the rst friend of my inner life"and Louise Goepfert
March, Gurdjie's secretary in the early thirties, believed that Gurdjie was born
in 1872. A passport gave a birthdate of November 28, 1877, but he once stated
that he was born at the stroke of midnight at the beginning of New Year's Day
(Julian calendar). Although the dates of his birth vary, the year of 1872 is
inscribed in a plate on the grave-marker at Cimetiere d'Avon, in the Prefecture of
Paris, France.
[10]
Gurdjie spent his childhood in Kars, a city where Armenian, Russian, Turkish,
Greek, and other (he makes special mention of the Yazidis) cultures mingled.
Growing up in a multi-ethnic society, Gurdjie became uent in Russian,
Armenian, Greek, and Turkish; and later had "a working facility with several
European languages."
[9]
Early inuences on him included his father, a carpenter
and amateur ashik or bardic poet,
[11]
and the priest Dean Borsh, a family friend.
The young Gurdjie avidly read Russian-language scientic literature. Inuenced
by these writings, and having witnessed a number of phenomena he could not
explain, he formed the conviction that there existed a hidden truth not to be found
in science or in mainstream religion.
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Seeker after truth
In early adulthood, Gurdjie's curiosity led him to travel to Central Asia, Egypt,
India, Tibet and Rome, before returning to Russia for a few years in 1912. He was
always unforthcoming about the source of his teachings, but whatever it was, it
was encountered during this phase of his life. The only account of his wanderings
appears in his book Meetings with Remarkable Men. Most commentators,
[12]
however, believe it cannot be read as a straightforward autobiography, leaving his
background fairly mysterious.
[13][14]
Each chapter is named after an individual
"remarkable man", many of them members of a society of "Seekers after truth".
However, J.G.Bennet, who researched Gurdjie's sources extensively after his
death, suggested these characters were symbolic of the three types of men
Gurdjie used to refer to: men #1 centered in their physical body; men #2 center
in their emotions, and men #3 centered in their minds. Encounters with
dervishes, fakirs and Essenes are described. The book also has an overarching
quest narrative, involving a map of "pre-sand Egypt," and culminating in an
encounter with the "Sarmoung Brotherhood", an organisation which has never
been denitively identied and which historian Mark Sedgwick has described as
"overtly ctional" and "entirely imaginary."
[15]
Businessman
Gurdjie claimed to have been supporting himself during his travels with odd jobs
and trading schemes (some of them roguish, such as dyeing hedgerow birds
yellow and selling them as canaries
[16]
). On his re-appearance, as far as the
historical record is concerned, the ragged wanderer had transformed into a
well-heeled businessman. His only autobiographical writing concerning this
period is Herald of Coming Good, a work, if anything, even less reliable than
Meetings. In it, he mentions acting as hypnotherapist specialising in the cure of
addictions, and using people as guinea pigs
[17]
for his methods. It is also
speculated that during his travels he was engaged in a certain amount of political
activity, as part of the great game.
[18]
In Russia
From 1913 to 1949 the chronology appears to be based on material that can be
conrmed by primary documents, independent witnesses, cross-references and
reasonable inference.
[19]
On New Year's Day in 1912, Gurdjie arrived in Moscow
and attracted his rst students, including his cousin, the sculptor Sergey
Merkurov, and the eccentric Rachmilievitch. In the same year he married the
Polish Julia Ostrowska in Saint Petersburg. In 1914, Gurdjie advertised his
ballet, The Struggle of the Magicians, and supervised his pupils' writing of the
sketch "Glimpses of Truth." In 1915, Gurdjie accepted P. D. Ouspensky as a
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pupil, while in 1916 he accepted the composer Thomas de Hartmann and his wife
Olga as students. At this time he had about 30 pupils. Ouspensky already had a
reputation as a writer on mystical subjects and had conducted his own, ultimately
disappointing, search for wisdom in the East. The Fourth Way "system" taught
during this period was complex and metaphysical, partly expressed in scientic
terminology.
In the midst of revolutionary upheaval in Russia, Gurdjie left Petrograd in 1917
to return to his family home in Alexandropol. During the Bolshevik Revolution, he
set up temporary study communities in Essentuki in the Caucasus, then in
Tuapse, Maikop, Sochi and Poti, all on the Black Sea coast of southern Russia,
where he worked intensively with many of his Russian pupils. Gurdjie said,
"Begin in Russia, End in Russia".
In March 1918, Ouspensky separated from Gurdjie, settling in England and
teaching the Fourth Way in his own right. The two men were to have a very
ambivalent relationship for decades to come.
Four months later, Gurdjie's eldest sister and her family reached him in
Essentuki as refugees, informing him that Turks had shot his father in
Alexandropol on 15 May. As Essentuki became more and more threatened by civil
war, Gurdjie fabricated a newspaper story announcing his forthcoming
"scientic expedition" to "Mount Induc". Posing as a scientist, Gurdjie left
Essentuki with fourteen companions (excluding Gurdjie's family and Ouspensky).
They traveled by train to Maikop, where hostilities delayed them for three weeks.
In spring 1919, Gurdjie met the artist Alexandre de Salzmann and his wife
Jeanne and accepted them as pupils. Assisted by Jeanne de Salzmann, Gurdjie
gave the rst public demonstration of his Sacred Dances (Movements at the
Tbilisi Opera House, 22 June).
In Georgia and Turkey
In the autumn of 1919, Gurdjie and his closest pupils moved to Tbilisi, formerly
known as Tiis. There Gurdjie's wife, Julia Ostrowska, Mr and Mrs Stjoernval,
Mr and Mrs de Hartmann and Mr and Mrs de Salzmann, gathered the
fundamentals of his teaching. Gurdjie concentrated on his still unstaged ballet,
The Struggle of the Magicians; Thomas de Hartmann (who had made his debut
years ago, before Czar Nicholas II of Russia) worked on the music for the ballet;
and Olga Ivanovna Hinzenberg (who years later wed the American architect
Frank Lloyd Wright) practiced the ballet dances.
[20]
In 1919, Gurdjie established
his rst Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man.
In late May 1920, when political conditions in Georgia changed and the old order
was crumbling, his party travelled by foot to Batumi on the Black Sea coast and
then to Istanbul. Gurdjie rented an apartment on Koumbaradji Street in Pra,
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and later at 13 Abdullatif Yemeneci Sokak near the Galata Tower.
[21]
The
apartment is near the khaneqah (monastery) of the Molavieh Order of Sus
(founded by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi), where Gurdjie, Ouspensky and
Thomas de Hartmann witnessed the sema ceremony of The Whirling Dervishes. In
Istanbul, Gurdjie also met his future pupil Capt. John G. Bennett, then head of
British Military Intelligence in Constantinople, who describes his impression of
Gurdjie as follows:
It was there that I rst met Gurdjie in the autumn of 1920, and no
surroundings could have been more appropriate. In Gurdjie, East and
West do not just meet. Their dierence is annihilated in a world outlook
which knows no distinctions of race or creed. This was my rst, and has
remained one of my strongest impressions. A Greek from the Caucasus,
he spoke Turkish with an accent of unexpected purity, the accent that
one associates with those born and bred in the narrow circle of the
Imperial Court. His appearance was striking enough even in Turkey,
where one saw many unusual types. His head was shaven, immense
black moustache, eyes which at one moment seemed very pale and at
another almost black. Below average height, he gave nevertheless an
impression of great physical strength
Prieur at Fontainebleau
In August 1921 and 1922, Gurdjie travelled around western Europe, lecturing
and giving demonstrations of his work in various cities, such as Berlin and
London. He attracted the allegiance of Ouspensky's many prominent pupils
(notably the editor A. R. Orage). After an unsuccessful attempt to gain British
citizenship, Gurdjie established the Institute for the Harmonious Development of
Man south of Paris at the Prieur des Basses Loges in Fontainebleau-Avon near
the famous Chteau de Fontainebleau. This once-impressive but somewhat
crumbling mansion, set in extensive grounds, housed an entourage of several
dozen, including some of Gurdjie's remaining relatives and some White Russian
refugees.
New pupils included C. S. Nott, Ren Zuber, Margaret Anderson and her ward
Fritz Peters. The generally intellectual and middle-class types who were attracted
to Gurdjie's teaching often found the Prieur's spartan accommodation and
emphasis on hard labour in the grounds disconcerting. Gurdjie was putting into
practice his teaching that man needs to develop physically, emotionally and
intellectually, hence the mixture of lectures, music, dance, and manual work.
Older pupils noticed how the Prieur teaching diered from the complex
metaphysical "system" that had been taught in Russia.
[22]
In addition to the
physical hardships, his personal behaviour towards pupils could be ferocious:
Gurdjie was standing by his bed in a state of what seemed to me to be
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completely uncontrolled fury. He was raging at Orage, who stood
impassively, and very pale, framed in one of the windows . . . Suddenly,
in the space of an instant, Gurdjie's voice stopped, his whole
personality changed, he gave me a broad smilelooking incredibly
peaceful and inwardly quiet motioned me to leave, and then resumed
his tirade with undiminished force. This happened so quickly that I do
not believe that Mr. Orage even noticed the break in the rhythm.
[23]
During this period, Gurdjie acquired notoriety as "the man who killed Katherine
Manseld" after Katherine Manseld died there of tuberculosis under his care on
9 January 1923.
[24]
However, James Moore and Ouspensky
[25]
convincingly show
that Manseld knew she would soon die and that Gurdjie made her last days
happy and fullling.
[26]
First car accident, writing and visits to America
Starting in 1924, Gurdjie made visits to North America, where he eventually
received the pupils taught previously by A.R. Orage. In 1924, while driving alone
from Paris to Fontainebleau, he had a near-fatal car accident. Nursed by his wife
and mother, he made a slow and painful recovery against medical expectation.
Still convalescent, he formally "disbanded" his institute on 26 August (in fact he
dispersed only his "less dedicated" pupils), which he explained as an undertaking
"in the future, under the pretext of dierent worthy reasons, to remove from my
eyesight all those who by this or that make my life too comfortable."
[27]
After recovering, he began writing Beelzebub's Tales, the rst part of All and
Everything in a mixture of Russian and Armenian. The book was deliberately
convoluted and obscure, forcing the reader to "work" to nd its meaning. He also
composed it according his own principles, writing in noisy cafes to force a greater
eort of concentration.
In 1925 Gurdjie's mother died, and his wife developed cancer; she was to die in
June 1926 as a result of Gurdjie's well-intentioned but medically unsound radium
water and magnetic treatments. Ouspensky attended her funeral. According to
Fritz Peters, Gurdjie was in New York from November 1925 to the spring of
1926, when he succeeded in raising over $100,000.
[28]
In all he was to make six
or seven trips to the U.S. During them he alienated a number of people with his
brash and undisguised demands for money. Some have interpreted this in terms of
his following the Malamatiyya technique of the Sus, deliberately attracting
disapproval.
[29]
Despite his fund-raising eorts in America, the Prieur operation ran into debt
and was shut down in 1932. Gurdjie constituted a new teaching group in Paris.
Known as The Rope, it comprised only women, many of them writers, and many
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lesbians. Members included Kathryn Hulme, Jane Heap, Margaret Anderson and
Enrico Caruso's widow, Dorothy. Gurdjie became acquainted with Gertrude Stein
through Rope members, although she was never a follower of his.
[30]
In 1935 Gurdjie stopped work on All and Everything. He had completed the rst
two parts of the planned trilogy but only started on the Third Series. (It was later
published under the title Life Is Real Only Then, When 'I Am'.) In 1936, he settled
in a at at 6, Rue des Colonels-Renard in Paris, where he was to stay for the rest
of his life. In 1937, his brother Dmitry died, and The Rope disbanded.
World War II
Although the at at 6 Rue des Colonels-Renard was very small for the purpose, he
continued to teach groups of pupils throughout World War II. Visitors recalled the
pantry, stocked with an extraordinary collection of eastern delicacies, that served
as his inner sanctum, and the suppers he held with elaborate toasts to "idiots"
[31]
in vodka and cognac. Having cut a physically impressive gure for many years, he
was now distinctly paunchy. His teaching was now far removed from the original
"system", being based on proverbs, jokes and personal interaction, although
pupils were required to read, three times if possible, copies of his magnum opus
Beelzebub's Tales.
His personal business enterprises (he had intermittently been a dealer in oriental
rugs and carpets for much of his life, among other activities) enabled him to oer
charitable relief to neighbours who had been aected by the dicult
circumstances of the war, and also brought him to the attention of the authorities,
leading to a night in the cells.
Final years
After the war, Gurdjie tried to re-connect with his former pupils. Ouspensky was
reluctant, but after his death (October 1947), his widow advised his remaining
pupils to see Gurdjie in Paris. J. G. Bennett also visited from England, the rst
meeting for 25 years. Ouspensky's pupils in England had all thought that Gurdjie
was dead. They discovered he was alive only after Ouspensky's death. The latter
had not told them that Gurdjie still was living. They were overjoyed to hear this,
and numbers of Ouspensky's pupils including Rina Hands, Basil Tilley and
Catherine Murphy visited Gurdjie in Paris. Hands and Murphy worked like
Trojans on the endless typing and re-typing of the forthcoming book "All and
Everything".
Gurdjie suered a second car accident in 1948, but again made an unexpected
recovery.
"[I] was looking at a dying man. Even this is not enough to express it. It
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The body of Gurdjie, lying in
state, France. 'Every one of those
unfortunates during the process
of existence should constantly
sense and be cognizant of the
inevitability of his own death as
well as of the death of everyone
upon whom his eyes or attention
rests'.
was a dead man, a corpse, that came out of the car; and yet it walked. I
was shivering like someone who sees a ghost.
With iron-like tenacity Gurdjie managed to gain his room, where he sat
down and said: Now all organs are destroyed. Must make new. Then
he turned to Bennett, smiling: Tonight you come dinner. I must make
body work. As he spoke a great spasm of pain shook his body and blood
gushed from an ear. Bennett thought: He has a cerebral haemorrhage.
He will kill himself if he continues to force his body to move. But then
he reected: He has to do all this. If he allows his body to stop moving,
he will die. He has power over his body.
[32]
After recovering, Gurdjie nalised plans for
the ocial publication of Beelzebub's Tales and
made two trips to New York. He also visited the
famous prehistoric cave paintings at Lascaux,
giving his interpretation of their signicance to
his pupils.
Gurdjie died on October 29, 1949, at the
American Hospital in Neuilly-sur-Seine,
France. His funeral took place at the St.
Alexandre Nevsky Russian Orthodox Cathedral
at 12 Rue Daru, Paris. He is buried in the
cemetery at Fontainebleau-Avon.
[33]
Children
Gurdjie had seven known natural children:
[34]
Cynthie Sophia "Dushka" Howarth
(19242010); her mother was dancer
Jessmin Howarth.
[35][36][37]
She went on
to found the Gurdjie Heritage Foundation.
[37]
Sergei Chaverdian; his mother was Lily Galumnian Chaverdian.
[38]
Andrei, born to a mother known only as Georgii.
[38]
Eve Taylor (born 1928); the mother was one of his followers, American
socialite Edith Annesley Taylor.
[34]
Nikolai Stjernvall (19192010), whose mother was Elizaveta Grigorievna,
wife of Leonid Robertovich de Stjernvall.
[39]
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Michel de Salzmann (19232001), whose mother was Jeanne Allemand de
Salzmann; he later became head of the Gurdjie Foundation.
[40]
Svetlana Hinzenberg, daughter of Olga Ivanovna Hinzenberg and a future
stepdaughter of architect Frank Lloyd Wright.
[41]
Clarication: Svetlana Hinzenberg b. Sept. 27, 1917, d. Sept. 30, 1946 Mother:
Olga (Olgivanna) Ianovna Lazovich, Father (of Record): Valdemar Hinzenberg. "In
the winter of 1919, humoring a friend, she (Olgivanna) left her apartment to see a
visiting Armenian-born mystic, a man who was said to teach dances that could
develop the will. She was, she recalled, "looking for something beyond the limits
of my senses." Friedland & Zellman: "The Fellowship: The Untold Story of Frank
Lloyd Wright & The Taliesin Fellowship." HarperCollins, 2006. page 18, citing
OLW, Autobiography.
Ideas
Gurdjie claimed that people cannot perceive reality in their current states
because they do not possess consciousness but rather live in a state of a hypnotic
"waking sleep."
"Man lives his life in sleep, and in sleep he dies."
[42]
As a result of this condition,
each person perceives things from a completely subjective perspective. He
asserted that people in their typical state function as unconscious automatons,
but that one can "wake up" and become a dierent sort of human being
altogether.
[43]
Self-development teachings
Main article: Fourth Way
Gurdjie argued that many of the existing forms of religious and spiritual
tradition on Earth had lost connection with their original meaning and vitality and
so could no longer serve humanity in the way that had been intended at their
inception. As a result humans were failing to realize the truths of ancient
teachings and were instead becoming more and more like automatons,
susceptible to control from outside and increasingly capable of otherwise
unthinkable acts of mass psychosis such as World War I. At best, the various
surviving sects and schools could provide only a one-sided development, which
did not result in a fully integrated human being.
According to Gurdjie, only one dimension of the three dimensions of the person
namely, either the emotions, or the physical body or the mindtends to develop
in such schools and sects, and generally at the expense of the other faculties or
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centers, as Gurdjie called them. As a result these paths fail to produce a
properly balanced human being. Furthermore, anyone wishing to undertake any
of the traditional paths to spiritual knowledge (which Gurdjie reduced to three
namely the path of the fakir, the path of the monk, and the path of the yogi) were
required to renounce life in the world. Gurdjie thus developed a "Fourth Way"
[44]
which would be amenable to the requirements of modern people living modern
lives in Europe and America. Instead of developing body, mind, or emotions
separately, Gurdjie's discipline worked on all three to promote comprehensive
and balanced inner development.
In parallel with other spiritual traditions, Gurdjie taught that one must expend
considerable eort to eect the transformation that leads to awakening. The
eort that one puts into practice Gurdjie referred to as The Work or Work on
oneself.
[45]
According to Gurdjie, "...Working on oneself is not so dicult as
wishing to work, taking the decision."
[46]
Though Gurdjie never put major
signicance on the term "Fourth Way" and never used the term in his writings, his
pupil P.D. Ouspensky from 1924 to 1947 made the term and its use central to his
own teaching of Gurdjie's ideas. After Ouspensky's death, his students published
a book titled The Fourth Way based on his lectures.
Gurdjie's teaching addressed the question of humanity's place in the universe
and the importance of developing latent potentialitiesregarded as our natural
endowment as human beings but rarely brought to fruition. He taught that higher
levels of consciousness, higher bodies,
[47]
inner growth and development are real
possibilities that nonetheless require conscious work to achieve.
[48]
In his teaching Gurdjie gave a distinct meaning to various ancient texts such as
the Bible and many religious prayers. He claimed that those texts possess a very
dierent meaning than what is commonly attributed to them. "Sleep not"; "Awake,
for you know not the hour"; and "The Kingdom of Heaven is Within" are examples
of biblical statements which point to a psychological teaching whose essence has
been forgotten.
[49]
Gurdjie taught people how to increase and focus their attention and energy in
various ways and to minimize daydreaming and absentmindedness. According to
his teaching, this inner development in oneself is the beginning of a possible
further process of change, the aim of which is to transform people into what
Gurdjie believed they ought to be.
[50]
Distrusting "morality," which he describes as varying from culture to culture,
often contradictory and hypocritical, Gurdjie greatly stressed the importance of
conscience.
To provide conditions in which inner attention could be exercised more
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intensively, Gurdjie also taught his pupils "sacred dances" or "movements," later
known as the Gurdjie movements, which they performed together as a group. He
also left a body of music, inspired by what he heard in visits to remote
monasteries and other places, written for piano in collaboration with one of his
pupils, Thomas de Hartmann. Gurdjie also used various exercises, such as the
"Stop" exercise, to prompt self-observation in his students. Other shocks to help
awaken his pupils from constant daydreaming were always possible at any
moment.
Methods
The Work is in essence a training in the development of consciousness. During his
lifetime Gurdjie used a number of dierent methods and materials, including
meetings, music, movements (sacred dance), writings, lectures, and innovative
forms of group and individual work. Part of the function of these various methods
was to undermine and undo the ingrained habit patterns of the mind and bring
about moments of insight. Since each individual has dierent requirements,
Gurdjie did not have a one-size-ts-all approach, and he adapted and innovated
as circumstance required.
[51]
In Russia he was described as keeping his teaching
conned to a small circle,
[52]
whereas in Paris and North America he gave
numerous public demonstrations.
[53]
Gurdjie felt that the traditional methods of self-knowledgethose of the fakir,
monk, and yogi (acquired, respectively, through pain, devotion, and study)were
inadequate on their own and often led to various forms of stagnation and
one-sidedness. His methods were designed to augment the traditional paths with
the purpose of hastening the developmental process. He sometimes called these
methods The Way of the Sly Man
[54]
because they constituted a sort of short-cut
through a process of development that might otherwise carry on for years without
substantive results. The teacher, possessing consciousness, sees the individual
requirements of the disciple and sets tasks that he knows will result in a
transformation of consciousness in that individual. Instructive historical parallels
can be found in the annals of Zen Buddhism, where teachers employed a variety
of methods (sometimes highly unorthodox) to bring about the arising of insight in
the student.
Music
The Gurdjie music divides into three distinct periods. The rst period is the early
music, including music from the ballet Struggle of the Magicians and music for
early Movements, dating to the years around 1918.
The second period music, for which Gurdjie arguably became best known,
written in collaboration with Russian composer Thomas de Hartmann, is
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described as the Gurdjie-de Hartmann music.
[55]
Dating to the mid-1920s, it
oers a rich repertory with roots in Caucasian and Central Asian folk and
religious music, Russian Orthodox liturgical music, and other sources. This music
was often rst heard in the salon at the Prieur, where much was composed.
Since the publication of four volumes of this piano repertory by Schott, recently
completed, there has been a wealth of new recordings, including orchestral
versions of music prepared by Gurdjie and de Hartmann for the Movements
demonstrations of 192324. Solo piano versions of these works have been
recorded by Cecil Lytle
[56]
and Keith Jarrett.
[57]
The last musical period is the improvised harmonium music which often followed
the dinners Gurdjie held in his Paris apartment during the Occupation and
immediate post-war years, to his death in 1949. A virtually encyclopedic collection
of surviving recordings was recently released. A detailed booklet includes
thoughts from producer Gert-Jan Blom and a preface by Robert Fripp.
[58]
In all,
Gurdjie in collaboration with de Hartmann composed some 200 pieces.
[59]
And
most recently in May 2010, 38 minutes of unreleased solo piano music on acetate
was purchased by Neil Kempfer Stocker from the estate of his late step-daughter
Dushka Howarth.
Movements
Main article: Gurdjie movements
Movements, or sacred dances, constitute an integral part of the Gurdjie Work.
Gurdjie sometimes referred to himself as a "teacher of dancing" and gained
initial public notice for his attempts to put on a ballet in Moscow called Struggle
of the Magicians.
Films of movements demonstrations are occasionally shown for private viewing by
the Gurdjie Foundations and one is shown in a scene in the Peter Brook movie
Meetings with Remarkable Men.
Group work
Gurdjie taught that group eorts both enhance and surpass individual eorts,
preparing them to practice a new psychology of evolution. To accomplish this, he
declared that he needed to constantly innovate and create new alarm clocks to
awaken his sleeping students, "as Jesus had done 1900 years before." Students
regularly met with group leaders; both separately and in group meetings, and
came together for "work periods" where intensive conscious labor, connected with
the forms mentioned above. Work in the kitchen was a special task and sometimes
elaborate meals were prepared. This work was the lowest of the three: food, air,
and impressions. Special exercises were given for air and impressions as they
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were viewed as being more important.
According to Gurdjie, the work of schools of the Fourth Way never remains the
same for long. In some cases, this has led to a break between student and teacher
as is the case of Ouspensky and Gurdjie. The outward appearance of the School
and the group work can change according to the circumstances. He believed that
the inner individual expression, such as the practice of self-remembering with
self-observation and the non-expression of negative emotions, always remains the
same and could never change, for that is the guarantee of ultimate
self-development.
[citation needed]
A follower of Gurdjie, former American Fabrics magazine publisher William C.
Segal, tells of periods of hard labor around the clockwhich, in the Gurdjie
system, are known as "super-eorts". According to Gurdjie, only super-eorts
count in the Work.
[60]
In 1948 and 1949, Segal was sporadically in contact with
Gurdjie, who had been the teacher of avant-garde lesbian Jane Heap. In 1951, at
26, Peter Brook became a pupil of Heap in London and Segal published the
magazine Gentry.
[61]
As Segal would write in the poem "Silence Clarity", "... It is
through the body that sits here/ that I go to my true nature." A voice at the
borders of silence would conclude, "... It is through the mind that stands still/ that
I experience my true nature."
[62]
Writings
Gurdjie wrote and approved for publication three volumes of his written work
under the title All and Everything. The rst volume, Beelzebub's Tales to His
Grandson, is a lengthy allegorical work that recounts the explanations of
Beelzebub to his grandson concerning the beings of the planet Earth. There are
two English translations of this work, one carried out under his supervision and
the other posthumously published in 1991. Gurdjie was said to have deliberately
tried to increase the eort needed to read and understand the book. As a result,
the book is perhaps not the best introduction to Gurdjie's ideas since part of the
book's intention is "to frustrate and usurp the normal patterns of thought."
[citation needed]
The second volume, Meetings with Remarkable Men, is written in
an accessible manner, and purports to be an autobiography of his early years, but
also contains many allegorical statements. His nal volume, left unnished (Life Is
Real Only Then, When 'I Am') contains a fragment of an autobiographical
description of later years, as well as transcripts of some of his lectures.
Gurdjie's own writings are generally not considered the best introduction to his
thought. His own writings do not present any sort of systematisation that clearly
existed in his private teachings. Several of Gurdjie's students kept records of
these teachings and published their own accounts. The most highly regarded of
these accounts are considered to be those of P D Ouspensky .
[citation needed]
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As Gurdjie explained to Ouspensky ... "for exact understanding exact language is
necessary."
[63]
In his rst series of writings, Gurdjie explains how dicult it is to
choose an ordinary language to convey his thoughts exactly. He continues..."the
Russian language is like the English...both these languages are like the dish
which is called in Moscow 'Solianka', and into which everything goes except you
and me..."
[64]
In spite of the diculties, he goes on to develop a special
vocabulary of a new language, all of it his own. He uses these new words
particularly in the rst series of his writings. However, in The Herald of Coming
Good, he uses one particular word for the rst time: "Tzvarnoharno", allegedly
coined by King Solomon.
[65]
Reception and inuence
Opinions on Gurdjie's writings and activities are divided. Sympathizers regard
him as a charismatic master who brought new knowledge into Western culture, a
psychology and cosmology that enable insights beyond those provided by
established science.
[48]
On the other hand, some critics assert he was a charlatan
with a large ego and a constant need for self-glorication.
[66]
Gurdjie is said to
have had a strong inuence on many modern mystics, artists, writers, and
thinkers, including Walter Inglis Anderson, Raymond Armin, Kevin Ayers, Peter
Brook, Kate Bush, Carlos Castaneda, Abdullah Isa Neil Dougan, Muriel Draper,
Robert Fripp, Keith Jarrett, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Timothy Leary, Dennis Lewis,
James Moore, Jacob Needleman, Osho (Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh), Louis Pauwels,
Robert S de Ropp, George Russell (composer), John Shirley, Jean Toomer, Jeremy
Lane (writer), P. L. Travers, Alan Watts, Robert Anton Wilson and Frank Lloyd
Wright.
[67]
Gurdjie's notable personal students include Jeanne de Salzmann, Willem Nyland,
Lord Pentland (Henry John Sinclair), P. D. Ouspensky, Olga de Hartmann, Thomas
de Hartmann, Jane Heap, John G. Bennett, Alfred Richard Orage, Maurice Nicoll,
Lanza del Vasto, George and Helen Adie, Rene Daumal and Katherine Manseld.
The Italian composer and singer Franco Battiato was sometime inspired by
Gurdjie's work, for example in his song "Centro di gravit permanente"one of
most popular modern Italian pop songs. Aleister Crowley visited his Institute at
least once and privately praised Gurdjie's work, though with some
reservations.
[68]
During WWI, Algernon Blackwood took up spying while reporting
to John Buchan, author of The Thirty Nine Steps. After the war, during the
Roaring Twenties, Blackwood studied with Gurdjie and Ouspensky.
[69]
Gurdjie gave new life and practical form to ancient teachings of both East and
West. For example, the Socratic and Platonic emphasis on "the examined life"
recurs in Gurdjie's teaching as the practice of self-observation. His teachings
about self-discipline and restraint reect Stoic teachings. The Hindu and Buddhist
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Fourth Way Enneagram
notion of attachment recurs in Gurdjie's teaching as the concept of
identication. His descriptions of the "three being-foods" matches that of
Ayurveda, and his statement that "time is breath" echoes jyotish, the Vedic system
of astrology. Similarly, his cosmology can be "read" against ancient and esoteric
sources, respectively Neoplatonic and in such sources as Robert Fludd's
treatment of macrocosmic musical structures.
An aspect of Gurdjie's teachings which has come
into prominence in recent decades is the
enneagram geometric gure. For many students of
the Gurdjie tradition, the enneagram remains a
koan, challenging and never fully explained. There
have been many attempts to trace the origins of
this version of the enneagram; some similarities to
other gures have been found, but it seems that
Gurdjie was the rst person to make the
enneagram gure publicly known and that only he
knew its true source.
[citation needed]
Others have
used the enneagram gure in connection with
personality analysis, principally in the Enneagram
of Personality as developed by Oscar Ichazo,
Claudio Naranjo, Helen Palmer and others. Most
aspects of this application are not directly connected to Gurdjie's teaching or to
his explanations of the enneagram.
The science-ction and horror novelist John Shirley has written an introductory
work on Gurdjie for Penguin/Tarcher, Gurdjie: An Introduction to His Life and
Ideas.
Groups
Main article: Gurdjie Foundation
Gurdjie inspired the formation of many groups after his death, all of which still
function today and follow his ideas.
[70]
The Gurdjie Foundation, the largest
organization directly inuenced by the ideas of Gurdjie, was organized by Jeanne
de Salzmann during the early 1950s, and led by her in cooperation with other
pupils of his.
Various pupils of Gurdjie and his direct students have formed other groups.
Willem Nyland, one of Gurdjie's closest students and an original founder and
trustee of The Gurdjie Foundation of New York, left to form his own groups in
the early 1960s. Jane Heap was sent to London by Gurdjie, where she led groups
until her death in 1964. Louise Goepfert March, who became a pupil of Gurdjie's
in 1929, started her own groups in 1957 and founded the Rochester Folk Art
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Guild in the Finger Lakes region of New York State; her eorts were closely
linked to the Gurdjie Foundation of New York. Independent groups were formed
and led by John G. Bennett and Mrs. Staveley.
Gurdjie student Lord Pentland connects the Gurdjie group-work with the later
rise of encounter groups. Groups also often meet to prepare for demonstrations or
performances to which the public is invited.
Gurdjie's pupils
Gurdjie's notable pupils include:
[71]
Jeanne de Salzmann, originally a teacher of dance, recognized as his deputy by
many of Gurdjie's other pupils. She was responsible for transmitting the
movements and teachings of Gurdjie through the Gurdjie Foundation of New
York, the Gurdjie Institute of Paris, and other groups.
Willem Nyland was considered by some to be Gurdjie's closest pupil, after
Jeanne de Salzmann; he was appointed for an undisclosed special task by
Gurdjie in the USA. At present, Mr. Nyland's groups exist in small
concentrations across the United States, most notably at two locations, one
termed "The Barn" in rural New York, and another termed "The Land" in Northern
California. These groups are thought to be unique amongst recognized Gurdjie
groups, in that they are the only groups to have recorded their original meetings,
resulting in an audio library in excess of many thousands of hours, featuring
almost exclusively talks by a rst-hand student of Gurdjie. Many of these tapes
have also been transcribed and indexed according to subject matter, but neither
the tapes nor transcriptions are available to the general public.
Henry John Sinclair, 2nd Baron Pentland was a pupil of Ouspensky for many years
during the 1930s and 1940s. He began to study intensely with Gurdjie in 1948.
He was appointed by Gurdjie as his representative to publish Beelzebub's Tales,
and then to lead the Work in North America. He became president of the Gurdjie
Foundation when it was established in New York in 1953, and remained in that
position until his death in 1984.
Jane Heap, an American publisher, met Gurdjie during his 1924 visit to New
York, and set up a Gurdjie study group at her apartment in Greenwich Village. In
1925, she moved to Paris to study at Gurdjies Institute, and in 1935 to London
to set up a new study group.
Peter D. Ouspensky, a Russian esoteric philosopher, met Gurdjie in 1916 and
spent the next few years studying with him, later forming his own independent
groups which also focused on the Fourth Way. He wrote In Search of the
Miraculous about his experiences with Gurdjie.
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Thomas de Hartmann, a Russian composer and prominent student and
collaborator of Gurdjie, rst met Gurdjie in 1916 in Saint Petersburg. From
1917 to 1929 he was a pupil and condant of Gurdjie. During that time, at
Gurdjie's Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man near Paris, de
Hartmann transcribed and co-wrote much of the music that Gurdjie collected
and used for his Movements exercises, as well as additional music not intended to
accompany Movements. Olga de Hartmann was Gurdjie's personal secretary for
many years, and collected many of Gurdjie's early talks in the book Views from
the Real World (1973).
In 1924, Alfred Richard Orage, a British intellectual, the editor of the magazine,
The New Age, was appointed by Gurdjie as the assistant of another old follower
of Gurdjie to lead study groups in America, but due to Gurdjies nearly fatal
automobile accident, the one who was supposed to lead the groups never went to
US and Orage decided to lead the groups on his own initiation.
Maurice Nicoll became a pupil of Gurdjie in 1922. A year later, when Gurdjie
closed his Institute, Nicoll joined Ouspensky's group. In 1931, he followed
Ouspensky's advice and started his own groups in England. He is perhaps best
known as the author of the ve volume series of texts on the teachings of
Gurdjie and Ouspensky: Psychological Commentaries on the Teaching of
Gurdjie and Ouspensky (Boston: Shambhala, 1996, and Samuel Weiser Inc.,
1996).
John G. Bennett, a British technologist, industrial research director, and author
best known for his many books on psychology and spirituality, and particularly the
teachings of G.I. Gurdjie, whom Bennett met in Istanbul in 1921.
Olgivanna Lazovich who later became Mrs. Olgivanna Lloyd Wright when she
married the architect, Frank Lloyd Wright, was a student of Gurdjie, as was their
daughter, Iovanna Lloyd Wright. After returning to Taliesin, Iovanna instituted
classes in Gurdjiean Dance Movements, which apprentices were required to
participate in and learn. On Wednesday afternoons, Mr. Wright would read to his
pupils and discuss Gurdjie's ideas expressed in All and Everything, and in
Ouspensky's book, In Search of the Miraculous.
Fritz (Arthur H) Peters. An American who rst encountered Gurdjie at the age of
11. He arrived at the Prieur under the care of his mother's sister, Margaret
Anderson, where he took on the role of Gurdjie's personal assistant and
errand-boy, also receiving an hour of personal tuition each week. Peters returned
to the US, but was to have a string of meetings with Gurdjie in subsequent
years. He wrote a reminiscence of his time with Gurdjie
[72]
(as well as the novel
Finistere), but was never a central gure in the US Work groups.
[73]
Maurice Desselle was with Gurdjie during and after WW2 in Paris. He became a
'group leader' in France and also visited London where he was respected and
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loved by the pupils. He continued to visit until old age made it impossible. A
saying of his, often quoted, in speaking about Work on oneself, was, "I said it is
simple; I did not say it is easy." A feature of M. Desselle was his directness and
lack endless explanation leading nowhere.
Kenneth Macfarlane Walker (18821966) was a British author and urologist.
Among many other books he wrote The Log of the Ark with Georey Boumphrey
in 1923, Life's Long Journey and A Study of Gurdjie's Teaching. Walker also
published the book "Meaning and Purpose" - An analysis of the main scientic
theories of the last hundred years and their impact upon religious thought and
belief, in 1944, aimed at questioning the completeness of "Charles Darwin's"
theory of natural selection and evolution, as well as evaluating the most relevant
scientic discoveries at the time of publication and their eect on the general
population.
Responses
Louis Pauwels, among others,
[74]
criticizes Gurdjie for his insistence on
considering people as "asleep" in a state closely resembling "hypnotic sleep."
Gurdjie said, even specically at times, that a pious, good, and moral man was
no more "spiritually developed" than any other person; they are all equally
"asleep."
[75]
Henry Miller approved of Gurdjie's not considering himself holy but, after
writing a brief introduction to Fritz Peters' book Boyhood with Gurdjie, Miller
wrote that man is not meant to lead a "harmonious life," as Gurdjie claimed in
naming his institute.
[76]
Critics note that Gurdjie gives no value to most of the elements that comprise
the life of an average man. According to Gurdjie, everything an "average man"
possesses, accomplishes, does, and feels is completely accidental and without any
initiative. A common everyday ordinary man is born a machine and dies a machine
without any chance of being anything else.
[77]
This belief seems to run counter to
the Judeo-Christian tradition that man is a living soul. Gurdjie believed that the
possession of a soul (a state of psychological unity which he equated with being
"awake") was a "luxury" that a disciple could attain only by the most painstaking
work of over a long period of time. The majorityin whom the true meaning of
the gospel failed to take root
[78]
went the "broad way" that "led to
destruction."
[79]
In Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson (see bibliography), Gurdjie expresses his
reverence for the founders of the mainstream religions of East and West and his
contempt (by and large) for what successive generations of believers have made
of those religious teachings. His discussions of "orthodoxhydooraki" and
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"heterodoxhydooraki"orthodox fools and heterodox fools, from the Russian word
durak (fool)position him as a critic of religious distortion and, in turn, as a
target for criticism from some within those traditions. Gurdjie has been
interpreted by some, Ouspensky among others, to have had a total disregard for
the value of mainstream religion, philanthropic work and the value of doing right
or wrong in general.
[80]
Gurdjie's former students who have criticized him argue that, despite his
seeming total lack of pretension to any kind of "guru holiness," in many anecdotes
his behavior displays the unsavory and impure character of a man who was a
cynical manipulator of his followers.
[81]
Gurdjie's own pupils wrestled to
understand him. For example, in a written exchange between Luc Dietrich and
Henri Tracol dating to 1943: "L.D.: How do you know that Gurdjie wishes you
well? H.T.: I feel sometimes how little I interest himand how strongly he takes
an interest in me. By that I measure the strength of an intentional feeling."
[82]
Louis Pauwels wrote Monsieur Gurdjie (rst edition published in Paris, France in
1954 by Editions du Seuil).
[83]
In an interview, Pauwels said of the Gurdjie work:
"... After two years of exercises which both enlightened and burned me, I found
myself in a hospital bed with a thrombosed central vein in my left eye and
weighing ninety-nine pounds...Horrible anguish and abysses opened up for me.
But it was my fault."
[84]
Pauwels claims Karl Haushofer, the father of geopolitics whose protegee was
Deputy Reich Fhrer Rudolf Hess, as one of the real "seekers after truth"
described by Gurdjie. According to Rom Landau, a journalist in the 1930s, as
reported to him by Achmed Abdullah: at the beginning of the 20th century,
Gurdjie was a Russian secret agent in Tibet who went by the name of "Hambro
Akuan Dorzhie" (i.e. Agvan Dorjiev), chief tutor to the Dalai Lama.
[85]
However,
reports have it that Dorzhie went to live in the Buddhist temple erected in St.
Petersburg and after the revolution, he was imprisoned by Stalin. James Webb
conjectures that Gurdjie may have been Dorzhie's assistant Ushe Narzuno
(i.e. Ovshe Norzunov) but this is untenable.
[86]
Colin Wilson writes about "...Gurdjie's reputation for seducing his female
students. (In Providence, Rhode Island, in 1960, a man was pointed out to me as
one of Gurdjie's illegitimate children. The professor who told me this also
assured me that Gurdjie had left many children around America)."
[87]
In the early 1930s Gurdjie publicly ridiculed one of his pupils, Alfred Richard
Orage. In response, his wife Jessie Dwight wrote the following poem about
Gurdjie:
He call himself, deluded man,
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The Tiger of The Turkestan.
And greater he than God or Devil
Eschewing good and preaching evil.
His followers whom he does glut on
Are for him naught but wool and mutton,
And still they come and sit agape
With Tiger's rage and Tiger's rape.
Why not, they say, The man's a god;
We have it on the sacred word.
His book will set the world on re.
He says socan God be a liar?
But what is woman, says Gurdjie,
Just nothing but man's handkerchief.
I need a new one every day,
Let others for the washing pay.
In The Oragean Version, C. Daly King surmised that the problem that Gurdjie
had with Orage's teachings was that the "Oragean Version", Orage himself, was
not emotional enough in Gurdjie's estimation and had not enough "incredulity"
and faith. King wrote that Gurdjie did not state it as clearly and specically as
this, but was quick to add that to him, nothing Gurdjie said was specic or clear.
[citation needed]
According to Osho, the Gurdjie system is incomplete, drawing from Dervish
sources inimical to Kundalini. Some Su orders, such as the Naqshbandi, draw
from and are amenable to Kundalini.
[88]
Bibliography
Gurdjie's views have arguably become best known through the published works
of his pupils. His one-time student P. D. Ouspensky wrote In Search of the
Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching, which some, Rodney Collins
among others, regard as a crucial introduction to the teaching. Others refer to
Gurdjie's own books (detailed below) as the primary texts.
Published accounts of time spent with Gurdjie have appeared written by A. R.
Orage, Charles Stanley Nott, Thomas and Olga de Hartmann, Fritz Peters, Ren
Daumal, John G. Bennett, Maurice Nicoll, Margaret Anderson and Louis Pauwels,
among others. Many others found themselves drawn to his "ideas table": Frank
Lloyd Wright,
[89]
Kathryn Hulme, P. L. Travers, Katherine Manseld, Jeremy Lane
(writer), Jean Toomer and Ethel Merston.
Three books by Gurdjie were published in the English language in the United
States after his death: Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson published in 1950 by E.
P. Dutton & Co. Inc., Meetings with Remarkable Men, published in 1963 by E. P.
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Dutton & Co. Inc., and Life is Real Only Then, When 'I Am', printed privately by E.
P. Dutton & Co. and published in 1978 by Triangle Editions Inc. for private
distribution only. This trilogy is Gurdjie's legominism, known collectively as All
and Everything. A legominism is, according to Gurdjie, "one of the means of
transmitting information about certain events of long-past ages through initiates".
A book of his early talks was also collected by his student and personal secretary,
Olga de Hartmann, and published in 1973 as Views from the Real World: Early
Talks in Moscow, Essentuki, Tiis, Berlin, London, Paris, New York, and Chicago,
as recollected by his pupils.
The feature lm Meetings with Remarkable Men (1979), based on Gurdjie's book
by the same name, depicts rare performances of the sacred dances taught to
serious students of his work, known simply as the movements. Jeanne de
Salzmann and Peter Brook wrote the lm, Brook directed, and Dragan
Maksimovic and Terence Stamp star, as does South African playwright and actor,
Athol Fugard.
[90]
Books
The Herald of Coming Good by G. I. Gurdjie (1933, 1971, 1988)
All and Everything trilogy:
Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson by G. I. Gurdjie (1950)
Meetings with Remarkable Men by G. I. Gurdjie (1963)
Life is Real Only Then, When 'I Am' by G. I. Gurdjie (1974)
Views from the Real World gathered talks of G. I. Gurdjie by his pupil Olga
de Hartmann(1973)
[91]
Books about Gurdjie and The Fourth Way
In Search of the Miraculous, by P. D. Ouspensky exposition of Gurdjie's
ideas, and account of Ouspensky's years with him in Russia. Paul H.
Crompton Ltd. London, 2004 ISBN 9781874250760
The Reality of Being, by Jeanne de Salzmann, 2010, Shambhala Publications,
ISBN 978-1-59030-928-5
The Teachers of Gurdjie, by Rafael Lefort, 1966, Victor Gollancz, ISBN
0-87728-213-7
The Unknowable Gurdjie, Margaret Anderson, Routledge & Kegan Paul,
London, 1962, ISBN 0-7100-7656-8
Gurdjie: A Very Great Enigma by J. G. Bennett, 1969
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Gurdjie: Making a New World by J. G. Bennett 1973, ISBN 0-06-090474-7
Idiots in Paris by J. G. Bennett and E. Bennett, 1980
Becoming Conscious with G.I. Gurdjie, Solanges Claustres, Eureka Editions,
2005
Mount Analogue by Ren Daumal 1st edition in French, 1952; English, 1974
The Fellowship: The Untold Story of Frank Lloyd Wright and the Taliesin
Fellowship by Roger Friedland and Harold Zellman, 2006, (includes
especially extensive documentation on "the strong inuence the occultist
Georgi Gurdjie had on Wright and especially his wife Oglivanna."
[92]
)
Gurdjie Unveiled by Seymour Ginsburg, 2005
Our Life with Mr. Gurdjie by Thomas and Olga de Hartmann, 1964, Revised
1983 and 1992
IT'S UP TO OURSELVES, A Mother, A Daughter and Gurdjie, a Shared
Memoir and Family Photoalbum by Jessmin and Dushka Howarth, Gurdjie
Heritage Society, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9791926-0-9
Undiscovered Country by Kathryn Hulme, 1966
The Oragean Version by C. Daly King, 1951
The Gurdjie Years 19291949: Recollections of Louise March by Annabeth
McCorkle
Psychological Commentaries on the Teachings of Gurdjie and Ouspensky by
Maurice Nicoll, 1952, 1955, 1972, 1980, (6 volumes)
Teachings of Gurdjie : A Pupil's Journal : An Account of Some Years With
G.I. Gurdjie and A.R. Orage in New York and at Fontainbleau-Avon by C. S.
Nott, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1961
On Love by A. R. Orage, 1974
Psychological Exercises by A. R. Orage 1976
In Search of the Miraculous by P. D. Ouspensky, 1949 (numerous editions)
The Fourth Way by P. D. Ouspensky, 1957
The Psychology of Man's Possible Evolution by P. D. Ouspensky, 1978
Eating The "I": An Account of The Fourth Way: The Way of Transformation in
Ordinary Life, William Patrick Patterson, 1992
Ladies of the Rope: Gurdjie's Special Left Bank Women's Group, William
Patrick Patterson 1999
Struggle of the Magicians: Exploring the Teacher-Student Relationship,
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
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William Patrick Patterson 1996
Taking with the Left Hand: Enneagram Craze, The Fellowship of Friends, and
the Mouravie Phenomenon, William Patrick Patterson, 1998
Voices in the Dark: Esoteric, Occult & Secular Voices in Nazi-Occupied Paris
194044, William Patrick Patterson, 2001
The Life & Teachings of Carlos Castaneda, William Patrick Patterson, 2008
Spiritual Survival in a Radically Changing World-Time, William Patrick
Patterson, 2009
Georgi Ivanovitch Gurdjie The Man, The Teaching, His Mission, William
Patrick Patterson, 2014
Boyhood with Gurdjie by Fritz Peters, 1964
Gurdjie Remembered by Fritz Peters, 1965
The Gurdjie Work by Kathleen Speeth ISBN 0-87477-492-6
Gurdjie: An Introduction To His Life and Ideas by John Shirley, 2004, ISBN
1-58542-287-8
Gurdjie: A Master in Life, Tcheslaw Tchekhovitch, Dolmen Meadow
Editions, Toronto, 2006
Toward Awakening by Jean Vaysse, 1980
Gurdjie: An Approach to his Ideas, Michel Waldberg, 1981, ISBN
0-7100-0811-2
A Study of Gurdjie's Teaching, Kenneth Walker, 1957
Gurdjie: The Key Concepts, Sophia Wellbeloved, Routledge, London and
N.Y., 2003, ISBN 0-415-24898-1
Gurdjie, Astrology and Beelzebub's Tales, Sophia Wellbeloved, Solar Bound
Press, N.Y., 2002
The War Against Sleep: The Philosophy of Gurdjie, Colin Wilson, 1980
Who Are You Monsieur Gurdjie?, Ren Zuber 1980
Monsieur Gurdjie, Louis Pauwels, France, 1954.
[93]
"Ouspensky, Gurdjie et les Fragments d'un Enseignement inconnu", by
Boris Mouravie, in Revue Mensuelle Internationale "Synthses", N138,
Bruxelles, novembre 1957.
"Ecrits sur Ouspensky, Gurdjie et sur la Tradition sotrique chrtienne",
Indit, Dervy Poche, Paris, September 2008.
Gurdjie Seeker of the Truth, Kathleen Speeth, Ira Friedlander, 1980, ISBN
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
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0-06-090693-6
The Self and I: Identity and the question "Who am I" in the Gurdjie Work,
Dimitri Peretzi, 2011, ISBN 978-960-99708-1-5
Gurdjie and Hypnosis: A Hermeneutic Study, by Mohammad H. Tamdgidi,
foreword by J. Walter Driscoll, Palgrave/Macmillan, 2009 (HC)/2012 (PB),
ISBN 978-0230615076 (HC), ISBN 978-1137282439 (PB)
The Shadows of the Masters, Leonardo Vittorio Arena, ebook, 2013.
Comprehensive biographies
Gurdjie: Making a New World posthumous work by John G. Bennett, 1973,
Harper, ISBN 0-06-060778-5
The Harmonious Circle: The Lives and Work of G. I. Gurdjie, P. D.
Ouspensky, and Their Followers by James Webb, 1980, Putnam Publishing.
ISBN 0-399-11465-3
Gurdjie: The anatomy of a Myth by James Moore, 1991, ISBN
1-86204-606-9
Gurdjie's America: Mediating the Miraculous by Paul Beekman Taylor,
2004, Lighthouse Editions, ISBN 1-904998-00-3. Reissued as Gurdjie's
Invention of America 2007, Eureka Editions.
G. I. Gurdjie: A New Life by Paul Beekman Taylor, 2008, Eureka Editions,
ISBN 978-90-72395-57-3
Videos and DVDs about Gurdjie and The Fourth Way
Gurdjie's Legacy: Establishing The Teaching in the West, 19241949 Part III
(http://gurdjieegacy.net/)
Gurdjie's Mission: Introducing The Teaching to the West, 19121924 Part II
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z23tl6l_AB8) on YouTube
Gurdjie in Egypt: The Origin of Esoteric Knowledge Part I
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8OKVVag24io) on YouTube
Introduction To Gurdjie's Fourth Way: From Selves To Individual Self To The
Self (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BItI9Fho99I) on YouTube
Meetings with Remarkable Men, Peter Brook, 1979
Tribute to G. I. Gurdjie (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LFfa8Ae1Qog)
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
25 of 34 2014-05-05 22:42
on YouTube
Rare restored lm of G I Gurdjie c. 1947-1949 (https://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=MI0LxEhFuRg)
Interviews about Gurdjie and The Fourth Way
Radio 3Fourteen Interview with William Patrick Patterson: G.I. Gurdjie &
The Fourth Way Teaching (http://www.redicecreations.com/radio3fourteen
/2013/R314-130918.php)
Music
G.I. Gurdjie Sacred Hymns, by Keith Jarrett, ECM, 1980
Seekers of the Truth: The Complete Piano Music of Georges I. Gurdjie and
Thomas de Hartmann, Volume One, by Cecil Lytle, Celestial Harmonies, 1992
Reading of a Sacred Book: The Complete Piano Music of Georges I. Gurdjie
and Thomas de Hartmann, Volume Two, by Cecil Lytle, Celestial Harmonies,
1992
Words for a Hymn to the Sun: The Complete Piano Music of Georges I.
Gurdjie and Thomas de Hartmann, Volume Three, by Cecil Lytle, Celestial
Harmonies, 1992
Gurdjie/deHartmann, piano music pianist Elsa Denzey, GFT (record label),
1998
Gurdjie's Music for the Movements, by Wim van Dullemen, Channel
Classics, 1999
Thomas de Hartmann: Music for Gurdjie's '39 Series' , by Wim van
Dullemen, Channel Classics, 2001
Chants, Hymns and Dances, by Anja Lechner and Vassilis Tsabropoulos,
ECM, 2004
Melos, by Anja Lechner, Vassilis Tsabropoulos and U.T. Gandhi, ECM, 2008
The Way of the Sly Man, by Dave Morgan, Being Time, 2010
Music of Georges I. Gurdjie, by Gurdjie Folk Instruments Ensemble, ECM,
2011
See also
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
26 of 34 2014-05-05 22:42
Vipassan (similar to self remembering)
Dhyana (similar to self remembering)
Dhyana_in_Hinduism (similar to self remembering)
Simran (Self Remembering)
Sakshi
Jiddu_Krishnamurti
Osho
References
^ Ouspensky, P. D. (1977). In Search of
the Miraculous. pp. 312313.
ISBN 0-15-644508-5. "Schools of the
fourth way exist for the needs of the
work... But no matter what the
fundamental aim of the work is... When
the work is done the schools close."
1.
^ Nott, C.S. (1961). Teachings of
Gurdjie : A Pupil's Journal : An
Account of some Years with G.I.
Gurdjie and A.R. Orage in New York
and at Fontainbleau-Avon. Routledge
and Kegan Paul, London and Henley.
p. x. ISBN 0-7100-8937-6.
2.
^ De Penaeu, Bruno (1997).
Needleman, Jacob; Baker, George, eds.
Gurdjie (http://books.google.com
/books?id=3R9vGrR5IEUC&
pg=PA214&
dq=Gurdjie+the+work#v=onepage&
q=Gurdjie%20the%20work&f=false).
Continuum International Publishing
Group. p. 214. ISBN 1-4411-1084-4. "If
I were to cease working... all these
worlds would perish."
3.
^ Gregory M. Loy. "Gurdjie
International Review"
(http://www.gurdjie.org/).
Gurdjie.org. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
4.
^ An Anthology of Quotations on The
Fourth Way and Esoteric Christianity
(http://www.bardic-press.com/thomas
/fourthway.htm) Bardic-press.com
5.
^ P. D. Ouspensky (1949). In Search of
the Miraculous
6.
^
a b
Shirley, John (2004). Gurdjie: An
Introduction to His Life and Ideas.
New York: J.P. Tarcher/Penguin. p. 44.
ISBN 9781585422876.
7.
^ Taylor, Paul Beekman (1969).
Gurdjie and Orage. York Beach, ME:
Weiser Books. p. x.
ISBN 1-57863-128-9.
8.
^
a b
Challenger, Anna T. (2002).
Philosophy and Art in Gurdjie's
Beelzebub: A Modern Su Odyssey.
Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 1.
ISBN 9789042014893.
9.
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
27 of 34 2014-05-05 22:42
^ "Georges Ivanovich Gurdjie (1866 -
1949) - Find A Grave Memorial"
(http://www.ndagrave.com/cgi-bin
/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=21999632).
Findagrave.com. Retrieved
2014-03-02.
10.
^ Meetings with Remarkable Men,
Chapter II. Gurdjie uses the spelling
"ashok
11.
^ J.G.Bennet 'Gurdjie - Making a New
World'
12.
^ S. Wellbeloved, Gurdjie, Astrology
and Beelzebub's Tales, pp. 913
13.
^ "T. W. Owens, Commentary on
Meetings with Remarkable Men"
(http://www.gurdjie.org/owens2.htm).
Gurdjie.org. 2000-04-01. Retrieved
2014-03-02.
14.
^ Mark Sedgwick, "European Neo-Su
Movements in the Inter-war Period
(http://books.google.ca
/books?id=7cjFFgvUdDUC&
pg=PA208)" in Islam in Inter-War
Europe, ed. by Natalie Clayer and Eric
Germain. Columbia Univ. Press, 2008
p. 208. ISBN 978-0-231-70100-6
15.
^ Gurdjie, G.I: "The Material
Question", published as an addendum
to Meetings with Remarkable Men
16.
^ Gurdjie, G.I.: Herald of Coming
Good, p22
17.
^ Moore, pp 36-7 18.
^ "James Moore, Chronology of
Gurdjie's Life"
(http://www.gurdjie.org.uk/gs9.htm).
Gurdjie.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
19.
^ Moore, James (1999). Gurdjie.
Element Books Ltd. p. 132.
ISBN 1-86204-606-9. "What name
would you give such an Institute?"
20.
^ "In Gurdjies wake in Istanbul"
(http://www.gurdjie-movements.net
/newsletter/2003-03
/06_gurdjie_istanbul.htm), Gurdjie
Movements, March 2003.
21.
^ "R. Lipsey: ''Gurdjie Observed''"
(http://www.gurdjie.org/lipsey1.htm).
Gurdjie.org. 1999-10-01. Retrieved
2014-03-02.
22.
^ Fritz Peters, Boyhood with Gurdjie. 23.
^ Moore, James (1980). Gurdjie and
Manseld. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
p. 3. ISBN 0-7100-0488-5. "In
numerous accounts Gurdjie is dened
with stark simplicity as "the man who
killed Katherine Manseld.""
24.
^ Ouspensky, In search of the
Miraculous, chapter XVIII, p. 392
25.
^ Fraser, Ross. "Gabrielle Hope
19161962" (http://www.art-
newzealand.com/Issues21to30
/hope.htm). Art New Zealand (Art New
Zealand) 30 (Winter).
26.
^ Life is Only Real then, when 'I Am' 27.
^ Taylor, Paul Beekman (2004).
Gurdjie's America
(http://books.google.com
/books?id=50w1tPTV0EEC&
pg=PA103). Lighthouse Editions Ltd.
p. 103. ISBN 978-1-904998-00-6.
"What Gurdjie was doing during the
winter of 19251926..."
28.
^ http://gurdjiefourthway.org
/pdf/roles.pdf
29.
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
28 of 34 2014-05-05 22:42
^ Rob Baker, "No Harem: Gurdjie
and the Women of The Rope
(http://www.gurdjie.org/rope.htm)",
2000. Accessed 10 March 2013.
30.
^ "J. G. and E. Bennett ''Idiots in
Paris''" (http://www.amazon.co.uk
/Idiots-Paris-Diaries-Bennett-Elizabeth
/dp/0877287244). Amazon.co.uk.
Retrieved 2014-03-02.
31.
^ Perry, Whitall: Gurdjie in the Light
of tradiiton, quoting J. G. Bennett.
32.
^ James Moore (1993). Gurdjie A
Biography: The Anatomy of a Myth.
33.
^
a b
Paul Beekman Taylor, Shadows of
Heaven: Gurdjie and Toomer (Red
Wheel, 1998), page 3
34.
^ Roger Friedland and Harold
Zellman, The Fellowship: The Untold
Story of Frank Lloyd Wright and the
Taliesin Fellowship (Harper Collins,
2007), page 424
35.
^ Jessmin Howarth and Dushka
Howarth, It's Up to Ourselves: A
Mother, a Daughter, and Gurdjie
(1998)
36.
^
a b
"Paid Notice - Deaths HOWARTH,
DUSHKA - Paid Death Notice -
NYTimes.com"
(http://query.nytimes.com
/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A06EFDE163
AF937A25757C0A9669D8B63). New
York Times. 2010-04-14. Retrieved
2014-03-02.
37.
^
a b
Paul Beekman Taylor, Shadows of
Heaven: Gurdjie and Toomer (Red
Wheel, 1998), page xv
38.
^ "In Memoriam Nikolai Stjernvall -
Taylor, Paul Beekman"
(http://www.gurdjie-internet.com
/article_details.php?ID=340&W=63).
Gurdjie-internet.com. Retrieved
2014-03-02.
39.
^ Paul Beekman Taylor, Gurdjie's
America: Mediating the Miraculous
(Lighthouse Editions, 2005), page 211
40.
^ That Svetlana is considered to be a
daughter of Gurdjie by all his other
identied children is cited in Paul
Beekman Taylor, Shadows of Heaven:
Gurdjie and Toomer (Red Wheel,
1998), page 3
41.
^ P.D. Ouspensky (1949), In Search of
the Miraculous
42.
^ Jacob Needleman, G. I. Gurdjie and
His School
(http://www.bmrc.berkeley.edu/people
/misc/School.html)
43.
^ P.D. Ouspensky (1949), In Search of
the Miraculous, Chapter 2
44.
^ Gregory M. Loy. "Gurdjie
International Review"
(http://www.gurdjie.org
/index.en.htm). Gurdjie.org. Retrieved
2014-03-02.
45.
^ Gurdjie, George. Views from the
real world. E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
p. 214. ISBN 0-525-47408-0.
46.
^ P. D. Ouspensky (1949). In Search of
the Miraculous Chapter 2
47.
^
a b
P. D. Ouspensky (1971). The
Fourth Way, Chapter 1
48.
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
29 of 34 2014-05-05 22:42
^ Wellbeloved, Sophia (2003).
Gurdjie: the key concepts
(http://books.google.com
/books?id=efukKaH6JO4C&
pg=PA109&
dq=Gurdjie+psychological+teaching
#v=onepage&
q=Gurdjie%20psychological%20teac
hing&f=false). Routledge. p. 109.
ISBN 0-415-24897-3. "...dierent
psychological terms in which the
teaching of the Institute was
presented..."
49.
^ P. D. Ouspensky (1949). In Search of
the Miraculous, Chapter 9
50.
^ "Gurdjie's teachings were
transmitted through special conditions
and through special forms leading to
consciousness: Group Work, physical
labor, crafts, ideas exchanges, arts,
music, movement, dance, adventures
in nature..., enabled the unrealized
individual to transcend the
mechanical, acted-upon self and
ascend from mere personality to
self-actualizing
essence."Seekerbooks.com
(http://www.seekerbooks.com
/book/9780835608404.htm), Book
review of Gary Lachman. In Search of
the miraculles: Genius in the Shadow
of Gurdjie.
51.
^ P. D. Ouspensky (1949). In Search of
the Miraculousm Chapter 1,
52.
^ G.I. Gurdjie (1963) Meetings with
Remarkable Men, Chapter 11
53.
^ See In Search of the Miraculous 54.
^ Nielsen Business Media, Inc. (18
December 1999). Billboard
(http://books.google.com
/books?id=iggEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA60).
Nielsen Business Media, Inc. pp. 60.
ISSN 0006-2510
(https://www.worldcat.org
/issn/0006-2510). Retrieved 14 April
2011.
55.
^ Lytle, Cecil. "Cecil Lytle List of
Recordings" (http://provost.ucsd.edu
/marshall/lytle/home/list.html).
Retrieved 30 May 2011.
56.
^ Jazz Discography Project. "Keith
Jarrett Discography"
(http://www.jazzdisco.org/keith-jarrett
/discography/). Retrieved 30 May
2011.
57.
^ "Gurdjie Harmonic Development"
(http://www.bastamusic.com
/productDetails.aspx?IDProduct=57&
ArtistName=Gurdjie). Retrieved 30
May 2011.
58.
^ Gurdjie.org
(http://www.gurdjie.org.uk/gs6.htm)
59.
^ Segal, William (2003). A Voice at the
Borders of Silence. Overlook Press.
ISBN 1-58567-442-7.
60.
^ "Peter Brook Candid Camera"
(http://www.experimentaltheatre.org
/peter_brook_candid_camera_!.htm).
Experimentaltheatre.org. Retrieved
2014-03-02.
61.
^ Bees of the Invisible World
(http://www.math.bualo.edu
/~sww/0Gurdjie
/beesoftheinvisibleworld_vol1.pdf) vol.
1, p. 24 #20
62.
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
30 of 34 2014-05-05 22:42
^ Ouspensky, P. D. In Search of the
Miraculous, p. 70, Harourt Brace &
Co. 1949, ISBN 0-15-644508-5
63.
^ MacDiarmid, Hugh (1998). The
raucle tongue: hitherto uncollected
prose. Carcanet. p. 137.
ISBN 1-85754-378-5.
64.
^ Henderson, John (2007). Hidden
meanings and picture-form language in
the writings of G. I. Gurdjie:
excavations of the buried dog.
AuthorHouse. p. 155.
ISBN 1-4343-0659-3. "...What this
mysterious Izvarnoharno may be is no
longer our primary interest."
65.
^ Michael Waldberg (1990). Gurdjie
An Approach to his Ideas, Chapter 1
66.
^ Friedland and Zellman, The
Fellowship, pp. 33135
67.
^ Lawrence Sutin, Do what thou wilt:
A life of Aleister Crowley, 2002, p.
317-318.
68.
^ Dirda, Michael (2005). Bound to
please (http://books.google.com
/books?id=wMMPyF98dcIC&
pg=PA222&
dq=Gurdjie+Henry+Miller#v=onepa
ge&q=Gurdjie%20Henry%20Miller&
f=false). W.W. Norton & Co. p. 222.
ISBN 0-393-05757-7. "... he studied
with the mystics..."
69.
^ Seymour B. Ginsburg Gurdjie
Unveiled, pp. 717, Lighthouse
Editions Ltd., 2005 ISBN
978-1-904998-01-3
70.
^ http://www.gurdjie.org/ (click "His
Pupils" on the left side)
71.
^ "F Peters: ''Byhood with Gurdjie"
(http://www.amazon.com/Boyhood-
With-Gurdjie-Fritz-Peters
/dp/088496146X). Amazon.com.
Retrieved 2014-03-02.
72.
^ Journal The Gurdjie (2009-11-28).
"Fritz Peters"
(http://gurdjieegacy.wordpress.com
/article/gurdjie-fritz-peters-part-i-
rwersjeofjp9-7/).
Gurdjieegacy.wordpress.com.
Retrieved 2014-03-02.
73.
^ Lachman, Gary (2003). Turn o your
mind (http://books.google.com
/books?id=8jfptmqzTzkC&pg=PA13&
dq=critics+of+Gurdjie+work#v=one
page&q=&f=false). The
Disinformation Co. p. 13.
ISBN 0-9713942-3-7. "... a hostile book
on... Gurdjie."
74.
^ Taylor, Paul Beekman (2001).
Gurdjie and Orage
(http://books.googld.com
/books?id=QjetCc6ktOgC&
pg=PA110&dq=Gurdjie+insanity&
lr=#v=onepage&
q=Gurdjie%20insanity&f=false).
Samuel Weiser. p. 110.
ISBN 978-1-609-25311-0. "...Orage
revealed Gurdjie's views of drugs and
alcohol as conducive to 'insanity'"
75.
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
31 of 34 2014-05-05 22:42
^ Miller, Henry (1984). From Your
Capricorn Friend
(http://books.google.com/books?id=LY-
zJmKDzKUC&pg=PA42&
dq=Gurdjie+Henry+Miller#v=onepa
ge&q=&f=fasle). New Directions
Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 0-8112-0891-5.
"What I intended to say..."
76.
^ Ginsburg, Seymour (2005). Gurdjie
unveiled. Lighthouse Editions Ltd. p. 6.
ISBN 1-904998-01-1. "Without any
doubt the human psyche and thinking
are becoming more and more
automatic."
77.
^ See The Parable of the Sower 78.
^ Enter ye in at the strait gate: for
wide is the gate, and broad is the way,
that leadeth to destruction, and many
there be which go in thereat: Because
strait is the gate, and narrow is the
way, which leadeth unto life, and few
there be that nd it. Matthew 7, 1314.
79.
^ Ouspensky, P. D. (1977). In Search of
the Miraculous. Harcourt Brace & Co.
pp. 299302. ISBN 0-15-644508-5. "G.
invariably began by emphasizing the
fact that there is something very
wrong at the basis of our usual
attitude towards problems of religion."
80.
^ Cafes.net (http://www.cafes.net/ditch
/motm1.htm)
81.
^ Henry Tracol, The Taste For Things
That Are True, p. 84, Element Books:
Shaftesbury, 1994
82.
^ Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke Black Sun,
p. 323, NYU Press, 2003 ISBN
978-0-8147-3155-0
83.
^ Bruno de Panaeu/Jacob
Needleman/George Baker/Mary Stein
Gurdjie: Essays and Reections on
the Man and His Teachings, p. 166,
Continuum, 1997 ISBN
978-0-8264-1049-8
84.
^ Gary Lachmann Turn O Your Mind,
pp. 3233, Disinformation Co., 2003
ISBN 978-0-9713942-3-0
85.
^ Gary Lachman Politics and the
Occult, p. 124, Quest Books, 2004
ISBN 978-0-8356-0857-2
86.
^ Colin Wilson G. I. Gurdjie/P.D.
Ouspensky, ch. 6, Maurice Bassett,
2007 Kindle Edition ASIN
B0010K7P5M
87.
^ Osho, Kundalini Yoga: In Search of
the Miraculous, volume I, p. 208,
Sterling Publisher Ltd., 1997 ISBN
81-207-1953-0
88.
^ Friedland and Zellman, The
Fellowship, pp. 33135
89.
^ Panaeu, Bruno De; Needleman,
Jacob; Baker, George (September
1997). Gurdjie
(http://books.google.com
/books?id=GV0dhZxB91EC&
pg=PA28). Continuum International
Publishing Group. pp. 28.
ISBN 978-0-8264-1049-8. Retrieved 14
April 2011. "A brief glimpse of the
dances appears at the very end of the
motion picture about Gurdjie,
Meetings with Remarkable Men,
produced and directed in 1978 by
Peter Brook, with a screenplay by
Peter Brook and Jeanne de Salzmann"
90.
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
32 of 34 2014-05-05 22:42
^ nimbus:the creation story according
to mr. g. 1dhhb, inc.-doneve designs.
1978. p. 182. ISBN 0-89556-008-9.
91.
^ Roger Friedland. "Review of the
Fellowship" (http://www.amazon.com
/review/R2WJUXQ31FOMQX/).
Amazon.com. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
92.
^ "Amazon.fr" (http://www.amazon.fr
/dp/2226081968). Amazon.fr.
2009-09-09. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
93.
External links
International Association of Gurdjie Foundations (http://www.institut-
gurdjie.com/iagf/)
Gurdjie entry in Dictionary of Gnosis and Western Esotericism
(http://www.gurdjie.org.uk/GurdjieBrill.htm)
Gurdjie Movements studies (http://www.gurdjie-movements.org)
G. I. Gurdjie and His School (http://www.bmrc.berkeley.edu/people
/misc/School.html) by Jacob Needleman, Professor of Philosophy, San
Francisco State University
Gurdjie Reading Guide compiled by J. Walter Driscoll (http://www.Gurdjie-
Bibliography.com/). Fifty-two articles which provide an independent survey of
the literature by or about George Ivanovitch Gurdjie and oer a wide range
of informed opinion (admiring, critical, and contradictory) about him, his
activities, writings, philosophy, and inuence.
Gurdjie International Review (http://www.gurdjie.org) Informed essays
and commentary on the history, writings, and teachings of George Ivanovitch
Gurdjie.
Writings on Gurdjie's teachings in the Elizabeth Jenks Clark Collection of
Margaret Anderson Papers (http://hdl.handle.net/10079
/fa/beinecke.andersonm) at Yale University Beinecke Rare Book and
Manuscript Library
Gurdjie Work Denition by Wilhem Nyland (http://www.archive.org/details
/GurdjieWorkDenition) Gurdjie Work Denition by Wilhem Nyland
The rst published account in English about Gurdjie
(http://www.gurdjie.org/roberts2.htm), from In Denikins Russia and the
Caucasus, 19191920, by C. E. Bechhofer [Roberts] (W. Collins Sons, 1921).
George Gurdjie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg...
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talks with gurdjie (http://gigurdjie.blogspot.com)
Gurdjie: articles and links (http://www.kheper.net/topics/Gurdjie/)
The Shadows of Ideas: A Distant Glimpse of Gurdjie by John Shirley
(http://www.darkecho.com/JohnShirley/jsgurd.html)
Gurdjie's methods (http://ggurdjie.com) - contemporary FoFer
practitioners of the Fourth Way discuss Gurdjie's methods
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Gurdjie&
oldid=606271143"
Categories: 1866 births 1949 deaths People from Gyumri
People from Erivan Governorate Fourth Way Armenian philosophers
Armenian religious leaders Russian philosophers Russian spiritual writers
Mystics Greek Armenians Spiritual teachers New Age predecessors
Armenian writers Burials in le-de-France
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