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Why is it

Often times teachers are faced with
difficult challenge of teaching
students that have limited English
proficiency or speak no English at all.
It is necessary for the teachers of
these students to approach
education with as much patience,
competence, and knowledge
possible. It is important for teachers
of these students to have faith in the
students ability to interoperate and
study the English language. The task
of learning a new language in an
unfamiliar environment may make a
student feel uncomfortable and
anxious. It is important for the
teacher and the student to work as a
team to ensure a safe environment
for learning and success in the
English language.
Educating English
Language Learners
Shannon OGorman
University of Scranton
7. Use Your Resources
If an ESL teacher or other professional
is present in the school, utilize them!
Your student will benefit greatly from
extra assistance and instruction.
Professionals such as this will help
you to create methods for success
with your ELL student in terms of
linguistic, educational, and social
8. Testing Modifications
Testing modifications can be
beneficial for all students that require
additional needs. Some of these
modifications may include:
Native dictionary or
Various testing locations
Provide additional time
Opportunity to have tests read
aloud to the student
Shortened tests
Tests with additional visual
Highlighted content

8 Areas of Expertise
There exist 8 distinct areas of expertise that every teacher of an ELL student must embody in order to achieve levels
of student success.
1. Terminology
It is important for educators to be aware of the
terminology that correlates with an English
Language Learner (ELL) student. Some of these
terms include:
LEP: Limited English Proficiency
ESL: English as a Second Language
Any student that speaks another language at
home other than English has to take a
proficiency test. This test will determine their
abilities in the English language. ESL is used to
describe the services that are available to LEP
2. World-Class Instructional
Design and Assessment
This organization offers the most recent
advances in academic language
development and achievement for
linguistically diverse students through high
quality standards, assessments, research,
and professional development for
educators. Their philosophy is to bring to
light the assets, contributions, and
potential of linguistically diverse students.
This resource is essential for teachers of ELL
students because it provides the most
recent research and appropriate solutions
for both students and educators. This
organization emphasizes the importance of
teaching towards proficiency in the areas of
Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing
at every grade level.

3. Stages of Language
Stage 1: Pre-production
Silent period in which students listen
attentively and respond best to visual aids.
Stage 2: Early production
Students develop an active vocabulary of one
or two word phrases.
Stage 3: Speech emergence
Students have a vocabulary of about 3000
words and can communicate via simple
phrases and sentences.
Stage 4: Intermediate fluency
Students have a vocabulary of about 6000
active words and communicate via complex
spoken and written sentences.
Stage 5: Advanced Fluency
Students have a near-native linguistic ability to
preform in content area learning and
4. BICS vs. CALP
BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication
Language skills needed in daily
situations to interact with others at
recess, lunch, etc.
CALP: Cognitive Academic Language
Formal academic learning
demonstrated through listening,
speaking, reading, and writing about
5. Welcoming Classroom
Creating a friendly classroom for all students is
a factor in a teachers success. Many of the
strategies used to create an ELL friendly
classroom will assist in the success of other
students as well.
Pronounce the students name
Encourage a conference with the
parents of the student
Label useful objects throughout the
Use words and phrases from the
students native language
Develop a school-family relationship
between teacher and students
6. Methods and Modifications
The way teachers approach teaching ELL
students should incorporate many research-
based strategies. Some suggests would
Speaking slowly
Pair ELL new and stronger students
together occasionally. Avoid doing
this all of the time to prevent
creating a crutch
Follow a consistent classroom
Use important vocabulary for the
student to acquire
Provide visual representations:
pictures, video, graphic organizers,