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SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti

Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature


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Literary Researches











XXXI






2010

3















XXXI






2010
4



UDC (uak) 821.353.1.09(051.2)
l-681


redaqtori
maka elbaqiZe

saredaqcio kolegia

ivane amirxanaSvili
amiran arabuli
Tamaz vasaZe
mariam karbelaSvili
nona kupreiSvili
Tamar lomiZe

saredaqcio sabWo

manana kvaWantiraZe
helen kuperi (kembriji, sapatio
wevri)
gaga lomiZe
irma ratiani (Tavmjdomare)
revaz siraZe
gaga SurRaia (romi, sapatio wevri)

rusudan ColoyaSvili
rostom CxeiZe
elguja xinTibiZe

pasuxismgebeli mdivani
soso tabucaZe


literaturuli Ziebani, 31, 2010
redaqciis misamarTi: 0108, Tbilisi,
merab kostavas q. 5.
telefoni: 99-63-84
faqsi: 99-53-00
E-mail: litinst@litinstituti.ge
Editor
Maka Elbakidze

Editorial Board

Ivane Amirkhanashvili
Amiran Arabuli
Tamaz Vasadze
Mariam Karbelashvili
Nona Kupreishvili
Tamar Lomidze

Editorial Council

Manana Kvachantiradze
Helen Cooper (Cambridge, Honorary
member)
Gaga Lomidze
Irma Ratiani (Chairman)
Revaz Siradze
Gaga Shurgaia (Rome, Honorary
member)
Rusudan Cholokashvili
Rostom Chkheidze
Elguja Khintibidze

Responsible Editor
Soso Tabutsadze

Literary Researches 31, 2010
Address: 0108, Tbilisi
5, M. Kostava str.
Tel.: 99-63-84
Fax: 99-53-00
E-mail: litinst@litinstituti.ge


ISSN 0235-3776


5



sarCevi

Contents



qarTuli sasuliero-saeklesio mwerloba
Georgian Religious Literature

nana gonjilaSvili
pirveli qarTveli wmindanis
saxeli `sidonia~


9
Nana Gonjilashvili
The First Georgian Saint's Name
"Sidonia"
goCa kuWuxiZe
besikis Semoqmedebis
aRmosavlur-dasavluri
aspeqtebis
urTierTmimarTebisaTvis


29
Gocha Kuchukhidze
For the Interrelationship of Oriental-
Western Aspects in Besiki's Works

irina javaxaZe
saswaulTa saxeebi `cxovrebaTa~
Janris naTargmn agiografiaSi


44
Irina Javakhadze
Miracle Types in Translated Hagiography
of the Genre of Lives
qeTevan goderZiSvili
berZnuli `varlaam da ioasafi~ da
aristides dakarguli `apologia~



59
Ketevan Goderdzishvili
Greek Barlaam and Ioasaph and the
Lost Apology of Aristide
TamTa grigolia
RvTismSoblis saxe-simboloTa
paralelizmi qarTul
himnografiaSi


72

Tamta Grigolia
Parallelism of the Virgin's symbols in
Georgian Hymnography

rusTvelologiuri kvlevani
Rustaveli Studies

revaz siraZe
`vefxistyaosnis~ mkiTxvelis
istoriisaTvis


81
Revaz Siradze
On the History of the Vepkhistqaosani
Reading
mariam karbelaSvili
vefxistyaosnis uadresi
komentari
interteqstobrioba: rusTaveli
da JamTaaRmwereli




100
Mariam Karbelashvili
The Earliest Comment to the Knight in
Panthers Skin
Intertextuality: Rustaveli and
Zhamtaaghmtsereli





116
Yuri Stoliarov
Book-culture Related Motives in Shota
Rustaveli Creation
lia kariWaSvili
`vefxistyaosnis~
saxismetyvelebiTi perspeqtivebi
`daviTianSi



126
Lia Karichashvili
Allusions to Literary Figures of ,,The
Knight in the Panthers Skin in
,,Davitiani
Tamar xvedeliani
is diaci... `Tvalad marjve...~

138
Tamar Khvedeliani
That Woman: attractive to the eye

6


XIX saukune: epoqa da literatura
XIX Century: Epoch and Literature

konstantine bregaZe
soflisa da zesTasoflis
urTierTmimarTebis ontologia
qarTul realistur mwerlobaSi
(i. WavWavaZis poema `gandegilis~
mixedviT)





144
Konstantine Bregadze
Ontology of the Relationship between
World and Heaven in theGeorgian
Realistic Writing (according to Ilia
Chavchavadzes The Hermit)
venera kavTiaSvili
ilia WavWavaZisa da hainrix haines
Semoqmedebis tipologiisaTvis


163
Venera Kavtiashvili
On the Typology of Ilia Chavchavadzes
and Heinrich Heines Creativity

akaki wereTeli _ 170
Akaki Tsereteli _ 170

juli gaboZe
akakis `xoleras~ Tavgadasavali

175
Juli Gabodze
Adventure of Kholera by Akaki
Tsereteli

XX saukunis mwerloba
XX Century Literature

merab RaRaniZe
vasil barnovi
`rusTvelianas~ winaaRmdeg

183
Merab Ghaghanidze
Vasil Barnovi vs. Rusthveliana

miTosi. rituali. simbolo
Mythology. Ritual. Symbol

maia niniZe
realobisa da miTis mxatvruli
interpretacia `baTareka
WinWaraulSi~
(teqstologiuri da
interteqstualuri dakvirvebebi)




195
Maia Ninidze
Artistic Interpretation of Reality and Myth in
Batareka Chincharauli
(Textual and Intertextual analysis)

inga milorava
mindias miTis mxatvruli
transformacia modernistul
teqstSi



204
Inga Milorava
The Artistic Transformatrion of Mindia's
Myth in the Modernist Text
saba metreveli
beladi, rogorc mesia,
qarTul politikur lirikaSi


212
Saba Metreveli
The Leader as a Messiah in the Georgian
Political Lyrics


7


literaturuli meridianebi
Literary Meridians

maia jaliaSvili
`uZebni Svilis~ poeturi
paradigma
(besik xaranaulis axali
romanis mixedviT)




232
Maia Jaliashvili
Poetic Paradigm of Son, Who is
Unsearched
(According to the New Novel by
Besik Kharanauli)
Tamar barbaqaZe
leqsmcodneobis sakiTxebi XXI
saukunis pirveli aTwleulis
presaSi


244
Tamar Barbakadze
Georgian Versification in the Press
of the First Decade of the 21
st
Century
(2000-2009)

poetikuri kvlevani
Poetical Studies

manana kvataia
grigol robaqiZe italiaSi _
epistoluri aluziebi



255
Manana Kvataia
Grigol Robakidze in Italy Epistolary
Allusions

Teimuraz qurdovaniZe
`tragikuli xmis~ lirikosis
emigraciamdeli Ziebani
(marina cvetaevas pirveli wignis
100 wlisTavisaTvis)




265
Teimuraz kurdovanidze
Pre-emigratory Search of Tragic Voice
Lyric Poetess
(To the Centrary of Marina Tsvetaeva's
First Book)

Tamar kotrikaZe
qristine lavantis
msoflmxedveloba da poetika


277
Tamar Kotrikadze
Christine Lavant
(World-view and Poetics)


literaturis Teoriis sakiTxebi
Issues of Literary Theory

TinaTin biganiSvili
Janris Teoriis
kulturologiuri aspeqti



296
Tinatin Biganishvili
The Culturological Aspect of the Theory
of Genre

maia naWyebia
ramdenime SeniSvna
literaturuli barokos Sesaxeb


303
Maia Nachkebia
Some Notes about Baroque Literature

Tamar SarabiZe
ganaTlebis sakiTxi qarTul
literaturaSi


309
Tamar Sharabidze
The Matter of Education in Georgian
Literature



8



recenzia
Review

konstantine bregaZe
qronotopis dabadeba mxatvruli
teqstis sulidan



316
Konstantine Bregadze
The Birth of Chronotope from the Soul of
the Literary Text
qeTevan elaSvili
literatoris portreti anu
esseisturi dafiqreba
`literaturul portretebze~



321
Ketevan Elashvili
The Portrait of the Man of Litters or
Essayistic Thoughts on "Literary
Portraits"

lado minaSvili
xaTuna gafrindaSvili
`vinc moyvaresa ar eZebs...~
(pirvelad somxur enaze somexi
swavlulis avtorobiT...)



324
Lado Minashvili
Khatuna Gaprindashvili
"Who Saeks not a Friend"...
(For the First Time by the Authorship of
the Armenian Scientist)

amagdarni
Honoured

Tamaz vasaZe
Tamaz Cxenkelis xsovnas

334
Tamaz Vasadze
In Memory of Tamaz Chkhenkeli

literaturaTmcodneoba
Literary Studies _ 2010

darejan menabde
qeTevan niniZe
ada nemsaZe
2009 wlis samecniero
publikaciaTa mimoxilva




335
Darejan Menabde
Qetevan Ninidze
Ada Nemsadze
The Review of the Scientific Publications
of 2009

axali wignebi
New Books
342

SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli
literaturis institutis
samecniero publikaciebis stili

350
Style of Academic Publications in Shota
Rustaveli Institute of Georgian
Literature

9




qarTuli sasuliero-saeklesio mwerloba


nana gonjilaSvili

pirveli qarTveli wmindanis saxeli `sidonia~

(XVIII-XIX saukuneebis qarTuli kulturis ZeglTa nimuSebisa
da samecniero literaturis kvlevis mixedviT)

Jurnal `religiaSi~ (2010, 2, gv. 49-67) daibeWda Cveni naSromi _ kvarTis
mimrqmeli eliozis da da misi saxeli `sidonia~ (sakiTxis kvlevis istoria
wyaroTmcodneobiTi TvalsazrisiT). Zveli qarTuli Txzulebebis ganxilvis
Sedegad rogorc irkveva, ierusalimSi qristes jvarcmaze dasaswrebad mcxe-
Tidan wasul eliozs (zogierT TxzulebaSi longinoz karsnelsac), hyavda
da, romelmac mcxeTaSi Zmis mier Camotanili kvarTi gulSi Caikra da
aResrula; eliozma da kvarTTan erTad damarxa. arc erT Zvel qarTul
wyaroSi, IX saukunidan XVIII saukunis Sua wlebamde (`wm. ninos cxovrebis~
redaqciebSi, nikoloz gulaberisZis `sakiTxavSi~, `qarTlis cxovrebis~
mariam dedoflis variantSi, ioane batoniSvilis `kalmasobaSi~, vaxuSti
batoniSvilis `saqarTvelos istoriaSi~, anton I-is `wyobilsityvaobaSi~) da
arc ucxour wyaroebSi (IV-V saukuneebis berZnul wyaroebSi, `qarTlis
cxovrebis~ Zvel somxur TargmanSi, XVII s.-is Zvel rusul wyaroebSi)
eliozis dis saxeli moxsenebuli araa. rogorc Cans, eliozis dis `sidoniad~
saxeldeba Semdgom avtorTa TxzulebebSi unda daiZebnos.
XIX saukneSi Tbilissa da quTaisSi ibeWdeba `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ Sem-
cveli moTxrobebi. irodion elioziZis, `samedros mRudlis~, mier leqsad
Tqmuli `aRwera cxovrebisa wmidisa mociqulTa sworisa ninasi, qarTulTa
ganmanaTlebelisa~ (Tb., 1868 w.) da `cxovreba qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblis wm.
ninosi. qarTulidamve mdabiurad gadmoRebuli m. SaraZis _ mier~ (Tb., 1899)
uflis kvarTTan dakavSirebul movlenebs saerTod ar axsenebs, xolo oTx
teqstSi (`dResaswauli uflisa kvarTisa da cxovreba wmidisa ninosi, qar-
TvelT ganmanaTleblisa~, gamomcemlebi: d. lazarevi, iv. araqelovi, Tb.,
1878 w., `mcxeTis soboro da wminda nino qarTvelT ganmanaTlebeli~,
`mwyemsis~ redaqcia, quTaisi, 1887 w., `wmida nina qarTvelT ganmanaTlebeli~,
quTaisi, 1890 w. da `qarTvelT ganmanaTlebeli wminda nina~, quTaisi, 1895 w.)
eliozis da `sidoniad~ iwodeba, rogorc yvelasaTvis cnobili faqti.
sakiTxis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa freskebze asaxuli `wm.
ninos cxovrebis~ epizodebis ganxilva, kerZod, svetis aRmarTva-amaRlebis
kompoziciebze dakvirveba.
daviT garejis mravalmTis udabnos monastris mTavari eklesiis sadi-
akvnos Crdilo kedlis moxatulobaSi (IX-XII s.s) svetis amaRlebis kompozi-
ciis qveda nawili, sadac svetis Ziri da kvarTmirqmuli qali unda iyos gamo-
saxuli, Zalian dazianebulia da araferi Cans. aseTive viTarebaa anisis
eklesiisa (aigo 1215 wels) da sveticxovlis taZarSi svetis (Semkoba-moxatva
10


1678-1688 wlebs Sua) amave kompoziciis moxatulobaSi, amitom, aRniSnul
kompoziciazec warwera `sidonia~ iyo Tu _ ara, ver vigebT. samTavros mo-
nastris mcire, mayvlovanis eklesiis CrdiloeTis kedlis moxatulobaSic
(XIX s-is dasawyisi) svetis amaRlebis kompoziciaSi warwera araa Sesrulebu-
li, arc bodbis monasterSi, dasavleTis mxaris Crdilo burjze gamosaxul
RvTis nebiT saswaulebrivad aRmarTuli sveti-cxovlis kompoziciaSi (XIX
s.) kvarTis mimrqmeli qalis saxeli `sidonia~ araa aRniSnuli, warwera mxo-
lod wm. ninos gamosaxulebasTan ixilveba.
cxovelmyofeli svetis saswaulia asaxuli sadResaswaulos A-425 mini-
aturaze (XVIII s.-is dasawyisi, 1718 w.) da sadResaswauloSi A-152 (1742 wels
moskovSia gadawerili demetre ebitaSvilis mier) miniaturebze warwerebi
araa.
eliozis dis saxeldebis kvlevisaTvis sainteresoa kidev erTi sayurad-
Rebo masala da masTan dakavSirebiT _ erTi detali. T. sayvareliZe werilSi
_ `ra gadagvrCa mcxeTuri jvar-xatebidan~ _ aRniSnavs (sayvareliZe 2001),
rom XVIII s-is dasawyisSi sveticxovlis taZarSi svetTan mironis amosvlis
adgilas datovebuli Riobi sagangebo kariT ixureboda, kerZod, XVIII sauku-
nis vercxliT moWedili, kaklis xisgan damzadebuli xatiT (daculia saqar-
Tvelos xelovnebis muzeumSi). masze centraluri adgili uWiravs eliozis
dis kvarTmirqmul cxedris kompozicias, romelzec aRmarTulia cxovel-
myofeli sveti. angelozebs upyriaT svetis zeda nawili, xolo marjvniv da
marcxniv wm. ninosa da mirian mefis gamosaxulebebia moTavsebuli saTanado
warwerebiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom eliozis das aranairi warwera ar aqvs.
xatis momWedels rom scodnoda misi saxeli, aucileblad amokveTda, radgan
wm. ninosa da mirian mefis gamosaxulebebs Sesabamisi saxelebi aqvT amot-
vifruli. amdenad, zemoaRniSnuli adasturebs, rom XVII-XVIII s-Sic qarTul
sinamdvileSi cnobili araa eliozis dis saxeli `sidonia~.
masalis ganxilvidan rogorc Cans, freskebze, miniatiurebsa da xatze
warmodgenil cxovelmyofeli svetis aRmarTva-amaRlebis scenaSi, romelic
TiTqmis ucvleli saxiT gvxvdeba saukuneze meti xnis manZilze, kerZod, XVII-
XVII-XVIII s.s-Si, eliozis dis saxeli `sidonia~ arsad araa aRniSnuli.
s. barnaveli wignSi _ `saqarTvelos sabeWdavebi da sxva gliptikuri
masalebi~ _ Cveni sakvlevaZiebo sakiTxisaTvis Zalze saintereso masalas
ganixilavs da mis detalur analizs iZleva: `XVI-XVII, XVIII saukuneebisaTvis
(kaTalikosTa sabeWdavebze _ n. g.) damaxasiaTebel gamoxatulebas warmo-
adgens sveticxovlis legendis siuJeti, saxeldobr, svetis daSveba bazaze
(safiqrebelia es siuJeti iyo sakaTalikoso sabeWdavebze ufro adrec). am
siuJetis mqonea domenti II-is sabeWdavi, besarion kaTalikosis sabeWdavi
(saq. xelovnebis sax. muzeumi, tf. 21 g), (besarionis sabeWdavs warweris adgi-
las weli aqvs miTiTebuli 1732 _ n. g.) anton kaTalikosis sabeWdavi (saq.
xelovnebis sax. muzeumi, tf. 21 d). ukanaskneli sabeWdavi uwarweroa, magram
erT-erT sabuTs (xelnaw. inst. 517 Sd) am sabeWdaviT beWdavs 1746 wels
antoni kaTalikosi~ (barnaveli 1965: 142). aRniSnuli sabeWdavi msxliseburi
formisaa, amiT beWdavs anton II-c. es beWedi Cans ufro adrec, nikoloz
kaTalikosis sabuTSi. ufro adreul kaTalikosTa sabuTebSi es sabeWdavi ar
gvxvdeba. aRniSnulis safuZvelze s. barnaveli dasZens: `maSasadame mtkic-
deba, rom es sakaTalikoso sabeWdavi gadadioda erTi kaTalikosis xelidan
meoreSi XVII da XVII saukuneebSi~ (iqve, gv. 125). s. barnavelis aRwerilobiT,
`kaTalikos domenti II-is (XVII s. _ n.g) sabeWdavis qvemo zedapirze gamoxatu-
11


lia `sveti-cxoveli~. mis qvemoT _ miwaSi asvenia sidonia, aqeT-iqiT dganan
wm. nino da meore personaJi, romelic qals hgavs~ (iqve, gv. 138). mecnieri
fiqrobs, rom es angelozi ar unda iyos, radgan frTebi ar uCans; `svetis
zemoT RvTaebis saxea awvdili xelebiT, figurul CarCoSi. igi qmnis svetTan
erTad mesvetis cnobili kompoziciis STabeWdilebas. RvTaebis xelebis ze-
moT TiTo mTavruli asoa: R da b (iqve, gv. 138)~. aqve aRniSnulia, rom
`kompoziciis ganier oled, qvemo zedapiris formis Sesabamisad, evleba naxe-
varwred asomTavruli warwera: `q: ri: gansnaT qynsa~. snil: iyos: igi: cTa:
Sa~ (romeli gansnaT qveyanasa, snil iyos igi caTa Sina) (maTe, 16, 19)~ (iqve,
gv. 138). aRniSnul sabeWdavze personaJTa saxelebi araa aRniSnuli da arc _
`sidonia~.
s. barnaveli wignSi _ `qarTuli droSebi~ _ ganixilavs vaxtang VI-is
droSas (inaxeba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumSi, ist. gany. 663): `almis
erT mxareze mocemulia epizodi sveticxovlis aRmarTvis Tqmulebidan:
kompoziciis Sua nawili uWiravs svets, romelic zecidan eSveba. svetis
aqeT-iqidan simetriulad moTavsebulia ori angelozi. erTs marcxnidan,
meores marjvnidan SemouxveviaT svetisTvis xelebi. svetis bazis marcxniv
dgas mirian mefe, erT xelSi skiptra uWiravs. svetis bazis marjvniv wm.
ninoa, svetis zemodan Cans Suqmfeni wris nawili. svetis bazis qvemodan gan-
sazRvrul manZilze, rac niadagis sisqes unda gamoxatavdes, Cans kvarTi
uflisa. is horizontalurad mdebarea, gaSlili saxiT, frontalurad moce-
muli. mxatvars ganzraxuli hqonda eCvenebina miwaSi dafluli kvarTi, mag-
ram miriani da wm. nino kvarTis qveda kidis doneze dganan~ (barnaveli 1953:
54). s. barnaveli aqve aRniSnavs, rom kvarTi muqi wiTeli ferisaa, xolo qobis
arSia movardisfro zolebiania, Crdilebi Savi feriTaa `Sesudruli~. oleze
marcxena asomTavruli warweraa _ m.{jkj: rjkj: rjfhsb: bub: hjvkb:
b.j (q. xolo koarTi igi romeli iyo). marjvena mxareze: jrthdtk: ptbs :
ufvjmcjdbk: .jdkfl (ukervel zeiT gamoqsovil yovlad). sainteresoa
erTi garemoeba, rom vaxtang VI-is droSaze gamosaxul svetis aRmarTvis
kompoziciaze, qveda nawilSi, mxolod kvarTia gamosaxuli da eliozis da _
ara. Sesabamisad, warweraSic araferia masze Tqmuli. ver vityviT, ratom
araa aq kvarTis mimrqmeli qali warmodgenili; SesaZloa, amgvari kompozici-
is mTavar mizandasaxulebas udidesi siwmindis _ kvarTis _ gamorCeviT Cve-
neba warmoadgendes. s. barnaveli aRniSnavs, rom `sveticxovlis aRmarTvis
scena, rogorc viciT vaxtang VI-is droSis gamoxatulebidan, misi sagerbo
gamoxatulebebiani wignebidan, bagrationTa gerbTan iyo dakavSirebuli~
(iqve, gv. 138).
amdenad, XVII-XVIII s.s-is kaTalikosTa sabeWdavebze da vaxtang VI-is
droSaze eliozis dis saxeli ar gvxvdeba, isevev rogorc zemoganxilul
freskebsa da xatze.
sainteresoa, XIX-XX s.-is samecniero literaturaSi, ramdenad cnobili
da miRebulia eliozis dis saxeli `sidonia~. am mimarTebiT SeviswavleT am
epoqis qarTvel da ucxoel mecnier-mkvlevarTa naSromebi, romlebSic qar-
Tlis moqcevis sakiTxebia ganixiluli, warmoCenilia uflis kvarTis isto-
ria da masTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi. irkveva, rom mecnierTa da mwerlTa
nawili kvarTis mimrqmeli eliozis dis saxels saerTod ar axsenebs (m. brose
_ `saqarTvelos istoria or nawilad, mefeTa da mTavarTa genealogiiT da
xronologiiT~, 1855-1858 _ rusul enaze, s. RoRoberiZem qarTulad Tar-
gmna da gamosca 1895-1900 ww., gamocemuli `qarTlis cxovreba, dasabamiTgan
12


meaTcxramete saukunemdis~, s.-peterburgi, 1849 w.; n. mari _ `uflis kvarTi
somexTa, qarTvelTa da sirielTa wignur legendebSi~, s.-peterburgi, 1900w.,
`istoriuli narkvevi qarTuli eklesiisa uZvelesi droidan~, 1907w.; d. baq-
raZe werilSi `mirian mefe da wminda nino~, Tb., 1880 w. da `istoria saqarTve-
losi (uZvelesi droidam me-10 s. aRsasrulamde~, tf.,1889 w.; e. TayaiSvilis
_ `sami istoriuli qronika~, tf., 1890 w.; p. ioseliani _ `qarTuli eklesiis
mokle istoria~, peterburgi, 1843 w.; `qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesiis
mier didebiT Semosil wmindanTa cxovrebis aRwera~, tf., 1850 w. da `saqar-
Tvelo _ istoriuli mimoxilva~, tf., 1871 w.; s. kakabaZe _ `wm. nino da misi
mniSvneloba saqarTvelos istoriaSi~, Tb., 1912 w.; `saistorio Ziebani~, Tb.,
1924 w.; `Ziebani qarTvelTa IV-VII saukunis istoriis Sesaxeb~, 1928 w. da we-
rili _ `qal. armazi _ qal. mcxeTa~; a. xaxanaSvili _ `wyaroebi saqarTve-
loSi qristianobis SemoRebis Sesaxeb~, moskovi, 1893 w.; `narkvevebi qarTuli
sityvierebis istoriis mixedviT~, tf., 1897 w.; arqimandriti ambrosi _
`WeliSis varianti `qarTlis moqcevisa~, tf., 1909 w.; kirion II _ `iveriis
kulturuli roli ruseTis istoriaSi~ da `saqarTvelos samociqulo mar-
Tlmadidebeli eklesiis avtokefaliisaTvis~; ev. nikolaZe _ `saqarTvelos
eklesiis istoria~, quTaisi, 1918 w.; s. baraTaSvili _ `saqarTvelos isto-
ria~, quTaisi, 1895 w.; m. TamaraSvili _ `qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan dRem-
de~, romi, 1912 w.; iv. javaxiSvili _ `andria mociqulis da wm. ninos moR-
vaweoba saqarTveloSi~, 1900 w.; `Zveli qarTuli saistorio mwerloba (V-XVIII
s.s)~, Tb., 1920 w.; `qarTveli eris istoria~, Tb., 1979 w.; i. gogebaSvili _ `bu-
nebis kari~, Tb., 1912 w.; i. WavWavaZe _ publicisturi werilebi: `wminda ninos
dResaswauli~ da `qarTveli eri da Rvawli wminda ninosi~, a. wereTeli _ _
`qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli mociqulTa swori wmida nino~, Tb., 1906 w.;
episkoposi leonide _ `wm. ninos dReoba da misi mniSvneloba~, tf., 1912w.;
g.baramiZe _ `werilobiTi wyaroebi uflis xelTuqmneli kvarTis Sesaxeb da
turinis mosasxami~) da sxv.
mecnierTa nawili ki eliozis das `sidonias~ uwodebs, rogorc yvelasaT-
vis cnobil faqts (m. selezniovi _ `saxelmZRvanelo kavkasiis Sesamecneb-
lad~, s.-peterburgi, 1847 w.; a. muraviovi _ `saqarTvelo da somxeTi~, s.-
peterburgi, 1848 w.; m. janaSvili _ `saqarTvelos saeklesio istoria~, Tb.,
1886 w.: `saqarTvelos istoria uZveles droiTgan 985 wl. qr. S.~, Tb., 1906 w.;
T. Jordania _ `qronikebi~, tf., 1892 w.; p. xuroSvilis werili _ `sveti-
cxovlis taZari~, 1898 w.; a. natroevi wignSi _ `mcxeTa da misi taZari sveti-
cxoveli~, tf., 1900 w.; z. WiWinaZe wignSi _ `qarTveli ebraelebi saqarTve-
loSi~, Tf., 1904; k. kekeliZis werili _ `moqceva qarTlisa~-s Sedgenilo-
ba, wyaroebida erovnuli tendenciebi~; t. ruxaZe _ `qarTul-rusuli
literaturis urTierTobis istoriidan (XV-XVIII s.s)~, Tb., 1960 w. da sxv.).
aRsaniSnavia erTi garemoeba, m. brosem da n. marma ician saxeli `sidonia~,
magram Tavad ar axseneben, imowmeben T. Jordanias sqolios citirebis gziT.
yovelive zemoaRniSnulis safuZvelze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom XIX-XX s.s-Si
qarTveli da ucxoeli mecnier-mkvlevarni, romlebic saqarTvelos isto-
rias da qarTlis moqcevis sakiTxebs ganixilaven, uflis kvarTis istorias
warmoaCenen da masTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze msjeloben, kvarTis mim-
rqmeli eliozis dis saxels an saerTod ar axseneben, an `sidonias~ uwodeben,
rogorc yvelasaTvis cnobil faqts. yovel SemTxvevaSi, am periodSi ar dain-
teresebulan eliozis dis saxelis `sidonias~ warmoSobis kvleviT, miuxeda-
13


vad imisa, rom yvela mecnieri (rus mecnierTa nawils Tu ar CavTvliT) kar-
gad icnobs `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ Tu yvela redaqcias ara, nawils _ mainc.
Cven sagangebod Tavis adgilas ar ganvixileT Teimuraz batoniSvilis
Txzuleba _ `istoria dawyebiTgan iveriisa, ese igi giorgiisa, romel ars
sruliad saqarTvelosa~. TxzulebaSi calke Tavad Setanilia `wm. ninos
cxovreba~, romelic TiTqmis ucvleladaa gadmotanili `qarTlis cxovrebi-
dan~. magram sainteresoa erTi garemoeba _ Teimuraz batoniSvili Tavisi
`istoriis~ dasawyisSi, rodesac `meaTerTmete~ mefis, aderkis, mefobis peri-
odze saubrobs, swored iq urTavs Txrobas Semdegi SesavliT:
`oinaTve moswavebisaTvis sruliad bveriis (ese igi sruliad zemosa da
qvemosa saqarTvelosa) moqcevisaTs kerpT-msaxurebisagan mristes sar-
wmunoebasa zeda saqarTvelosa saekklesiosa moTxrobaTagan, Tu romlisa
saxiTa motanil iqmna bveriad qalaqsa mcxeTas kvarTi igi, romelica emosa
ufalsa Cvensa beso mristessa, romelsa zedaca jriaTa ganigdes wili jvar-
cmis misisa Jamsa~ (gv. 136).

swored aq aris pirvelad TavCenili eliozis dis


saxeli `sidonia~. Teimuraz batoniSvilma, rogorc Cans, mirianis mefobis
gadmocemisas leonti mrovelis `wm. ninos~ cxovrebis redaqcia (TiTqmis
zedmiwevniT) gadaitana, magram aderkis mefobis aRwerisas uflis kvarTis
istoriasTan dakavSirebuli ambebis iseTi varianti SemogvTavaza, romelic
zemoganxiluli Zveli qarTuli Txzulebebisagan sakmaod gansxvavdeba. masSi
ZiriTadi epizodebi daculia, magram Teimurazi maTi gadmocemisas ar
ifargleba aRniSnuliT da sxvadasxva axali pasaJebiT avrcobs Txrobas. aqve
damowmebulia wyaro _ `saRmrToni werilni saqarTvelosa ekklesiisani
mouTxroben esreT~ (gv. 136), magram konkretulad romelimes ar asaxelebs.
misi gadmocema sainteresoa im TvalsazrisiT, rom masSi bevri siaxlea war-
moCenili. amdenad, dawvrilebiT ganvixilavT teqsts.
ierusalimidan uflis jvarcmaze dasaswrebad mcxeTis ebraelTa mowo-
debis Sesaxeb aq sakmaod didi monakveTia warmodgenili, maSin, rodesac `wm.
ninos cxovrebis~ redaqciebi ramdenime winadadebiT gadmogvcemen am pasaJs.
mcxeTis ebraelTa ierusalimSi wasvlis Sesaxeb aq vkiTxulobT: `maSin aRer-
Civnes mcxeTas mcxovrebTa jriaTaganni romelTa Tavni iyvnes da winamZR-
varni: tlioz mRvdeli jriaTa vcxeTeli da konginaz mwignobari rarsneli
da warhyves maT sxvanica jriani muneburni da warvides berusalimad~ (gv.
136). aRniSnulidan Cans, rom Teimurazi eliozsa da longinozs winamZRvre-
bad moixsenebs, romelTagan erTi mRvdelia, meore _ mwignobari. Teimurazi
pirveli avtoria, vinc eliozis das `sidonias~ uwodebs da rac ufro gasak-
viria, eliozis dedis saxelsac imowmebs: `xolo deda ama tlioz uriisa
sarra da da tliozisa qalwuli sidonia...~ (gv. 136). unda aRiniSnos, rom
CvenTvis Tu ucxo ar aris eliozis dis saxeli `sidonia~, sruliad moulod-
nelia eliozis dedis saxeli `sarra~, romelic araTu Zvel wyaroebSi, XIX-XX
saukuneTa samecniero literaturaSi (erTis gamoklebiT) ar Segvxvedria,
qarTvelebisTvis igi ucnobia. Teimurazi kidev ufro scildeba `wm. ninos
cxovrebis~ redaqciaTa Txrobas da eliozis dedis _ sarasa da dis _
sidonias, Tavisebur saxe-xasiaTebs xatavs, rom isini saRvTo werilis mcod-
neni, RvTismsaxurni da uflis gzaze `simarTliT mavalni~ iyvnen, kiTxulob-

Teimuraz batoniSvili, `istoria dawyebiTgan iveriisa, ese igi giorgiisa, romel ars sru-
liad saqarTvelosa~, sanktpeterburgi: gamomcemloba samecn. akad. stamba, 1848. Semdgom-
Si citatebs davimowmebT amave redaqciidan.
14


dnen winaswarmetyvelTa wignebs da ieso qristes saswaulTa aRsrulebis
Setyobis Semdeg, irwmunes ufali, mesia da sityva RvTisa: `... iyvnes mecnier
werilsa, RuTis-msaxurni da yovlisa samarTliTa mavalni gzasa jflisa
Cvenisa beso mristesni, rwmenaT maT, romel TT igi ars, romelica sTqves
winaswar-metyvelTa vesia WeSmariti qmerTi da cityva quTisa, momavali
xsnad soflisa cxovrebad da moZiebad warwymendilTa~ (gv. 136). Teimuraz
batoniSvili amiT ar ifargleba da raTa meti damajereblobiT warmoaCinos
eliozis dedisa da dis RvTismosaoba, qristianuli sarwmunoebisadmi maTi
daucxromeli swrafva, dasZens: `xolo igini evedrnen qmerTsa mravlisa mar-
xviTa, moRvawebiTa da locviTa, raTa gamoucxados maT qmerTman, ukueTu
igi ars TT vesia mxsneli kacTa, mosruli soflad~ (gv. 136). marTlac,
eCvena maT qriste, `arwmuna vesia yofa Tsi~ da eliozis ojaxis am wevrebmac
RmerTi irwmunes.
Teimuraz batoniSvili, rogorc vxedavT, Zveli wyaroebisTvis ucnob,
axal ambavs gadmogvcems, Tumca wyaros ar asaxelebs. TxzulebaSi gadmoce-
mulia ierusalimSi mimavali eliozis dedisagan dalocva, dedisa da dis
Txovna _ `ara Tanaziar eqmnnes Seuracxis myofelTa mristesTa~ (gv. 137) da
ixilos ufali da misgan ikurTxos. sara da sidonia eliozisgan `raime win-
dis~ Camotanas iTxoven. aqve moyvanilia eliozis dedis rCeva-darigeba Svi-
lisadmi, rom ufali aris maTi mxsneli, irwmunos misi da `daimarxos~ dedis
mcnebuli. eliozma dedas aRuTqva `mcnebisa misisa aRsruleba~ (gv. 137).
aRniSnuli monakveTi kvlavac warmoaCens Teimurazis Txrobis maneras _
sadac ki teqsti iZleva saSualebas, avtori alamazebs da ganavrcobs
epizodebs. amas Teimurazi ise warmoadgens, rom Txrobis mTavar xazs xSirad
ar scildeba. misi naambobi mkiTxvelzea gaTvlili, mis dasaintereseblad,
misi Tvalsawiers gasafarToveblad aris Sesrulebuli; Txrobisas detale-
bis gamokveTa da zedmiwevniTi sizuste WeSmaritebis aRweris principis Seq-
mnisTvisaa gamiznuli, TiTqos Tavad yofiliyos im ambebis Semswre, per-
sonaJTa dialogebis msmeneli. amgvari meTodis gamoyenebiT igi mkiTxvelsac
movlenebis Tanadamswred aqcevs da ara marto msmenlis, mayureblis rolsac
sTavazobs.
Teimuraz batoniSvili gadmogvcems eliozis ierusalimSi Casvlas,
filipesa da andriasTan Sexvedras, Semdeg ki mociqulTa iesosTan misvlas
maTi survilis sacnobeblad.
aqve Teimurazi miuTiTebs: `sxolio (TumcaTa wmidasa saxarebasa Sina
cxadad werili ars, romel ixilao igini ieso, magram Zali gulis-xmis yofisa
asaCinoebs, romel ixiles maT ieso~). rogorc vxedavT, Teimurazi `gulis-
xmis yofiT~ Wvrets, `asaCinoebs~, rom es ase moxda, miuxedavad imisa, rom
saxarebaSi es araa aRniSnuli. sqolioSi moyvanilia uflis mimarTva Tavisi
mowafeebisadmi, rasac mosdevs sityvebi: `ese Tqva sikvdilisa da daflvisa
misisaTvis da aRdgomisa da mismier nayofisa gamoReba ese igi ars wesirebasa
Sina moyvana warmarTTaca da maTganca cnoba gzisa WeSmaritebisa da
mravalTagan erTica nayofi ese iyo, romelica kvarTisa sauflosa misisa
mier iqmna mizezi pirveli Cven iverielTa, romelnica viyveniT sibnelesa
Sina eSmakisa mier mZlavrebulni, gamogvixsna kerpTa monebisagan da sakuTar
Sl Tssa gvyvna wmidiTa naTlis-RebiTa TsiTa~ (gv. 137).
Teimurazi, rogorc vxedavT, warmoaCens kvarTis mniSvnelovnebas iveri-
elTaTvis. am SemTxvevaSi (eliozis mociqulebTan Sexvedris epizodi)
Teimurazi imowmebs wyaros _ `esreT hswers saeklesiosa Cvenisa momTxro-
15


beli da moZRvari...~ (gv. 137). vfiqrobT, aq arsen beris `wm. ninos cxovrebis~
redaqciaze unda iyos saubari, radgan aRniSnuli epizodi (eliozis
filipesa da andria mociqulebTan Sexvedra) mxolod am redaqciaSia daculi
da Sesabamisad _ mis perifrazSi. amasve mowmobs Semdgomi Txroba _ eliozi
da longinozi ar gaxdnen ebraelTa Tanaziarni uflis jvarcmaSi: `[olo
odes Seipyres beso berusalims, SempyrobelTa misTa arca tlioz da arca
konginoz Tana ziar eqmnnes jriaTa; aramed gangebiTa quTisaTa, odes igi
jriani, jvaris-mcmelni qristesni ganiyofdes samoselsa mristessa, STaag-
do wili Tsi maT Soris tliozman da xvda mas kvarTi igi besosi (romeli iyo
ukervel zeT gamoqsovil yovlad). aRiRo igi sixaruliT tlioz da dascva~
(gv. 138).
Teimurazis monaTxrobSi kvlavac bevri gansxvavebuli pasaJi warmoCin-
deba, Tumca igi wyaros aqac zogadad asaxelebs: `ekklesiisa Cvenisa momTx-
robelni kvarTisa sauflosaTvis sweren kvalad~ (gv.138). TxzulebaSi gad-
mocemulia jvarcmis dros mcxeTaSi uecrad gardacvlili eliozis dedis
ambavi, romelic, marTlac, didad ar gansxvavdeba Zveli wyaroebisgan: `de-
da eliozisi carra vcxeTas myofi ilocvida ra moukleblad da friad
mglovare iyo ugunurebaTa Ts jriaTasa, vinadgan ara rwmenaT misi. odes
jvarsa SemsWvales jfali Cveni masve Jamsa euwya CvenebiT dedasa tliozisasa
da odes Jamsa mas jvarcmisasa dahkvrides xelTa misTa lusmarsa, xma lus-
marsa zeda kverisa dakvrisa esma mun carras saRmrToTa gangebulebiTa da
myis RaRadhyo miTa maRliTa da sTqva: `mSvidobiT mefobao jriaTao, rame-
Tu ganarisxeT dRes qmerTi, mosruli xsnad soflisa, iqmeneniT moZRvar
sicruisa da msajul usamarTloebisa, mohkalT marTali ege, cxovrebisa
momniWebeli dasamxobelad da aRfxvrad naTesaobaTa TqvenTa~. daasrula ra
sityvani ese, daeca myisve qveyanasa da mokvda da suli Tsi elTa uflisaTa
Sevedra~ (gv. 138). am ambis gadmocemis Semdeg Teimurazi kvlavac gansxvave-
bul cnobas gvawvdis _ sara iglova sidoniam, romelic eloda Zmas da mesiis
raime niSans, misTvis ZRvnad wamoRebuls: `bxila sakvirveleba ese daman
tliozisaman cidonia da mswrafl gardacvaleba dedisa Tsisa, gankrTa sak-
virvelebiTa, iglova mwared da da Tsi Sesabamierad da moeloda Zmisa
Tssa sasoebiT, romel moiRebs rasme niSansa vesiassa niWad misTvis~ (gv.
138). Teimurazi am SemTxvevaSic warmosaxviT Txrobas gvTavazobs, aRwers
ise, rogorc SesaZloa rom yofiliyo, maSin rodesac `wm. ninos cxovrebis~
uZvelesi redaqciebi mxolod oriod winadadebiT Semoifarglebian. igi
avsebs Txrobas sxvadasxva detaliT, riTac, unda aRiniSnos, Txroba ar mZim-
deba. Tu Zveli teqstebi mkiTxvels utovebs warmosaxvis SesaZleblobas,
Teimurazi am warmosaxvas gaacxadebs da mkiTxvels TiTqos ajaWvebs Txro-
bas, amosunTqvis saSualebas ar aZlevs, CaZiravs gadmocemis Sina-arsSi, aty-
vevebs mis warmosaxvas.
TxzulebaSi Txroba grZeldeba mcxeTaSi Casuli eliozisa da sidonias
Sexvedris aRweriT da aqac Teimurazi sruliad ucnob ambavs hyveba: `xolo
gza igi, sada miegeboda sidonia ganvlida saSual samoTxisa (ese igi wal-
kotisa) mefisa; xolo saSual baRsa mis xidsa mas gamovida ra tlioz SeemTxva
mun wina cidonia da moexvia qedsa missa da etyoda cremliT mizezsa siku-
dilisa dedisa maTisasa da hkiTxvida, Tu ra moiRo niSani mristesi niWad
missa~ (gv. 139).
rogorc Cans, Teimuraz batoniSvili miuTiTebs im gzas, romelic gaiara
sidoniam ZmasTan Sesaxvedrad da es gza mefis `samoTxe~-walkotze gadioda.
16


safiqrebelia, rom Teimurazma am gzis aRniSvniT, erTgvarad, winaswar
gamokveTa mefis samoTxis mniSvnelovneba, romelzedac Semdgom RvTaebrivi
madli gadmovidoda da saswauli aResruleboda. am mizniT daukavSira man
erTmaneTs kvarTi _ sidonia _ `samoTxe~.
Teimuraz batoniSvili TxzulebaSi kidev erT CanarTs gvTavazobs, ker-
Zod, mas Semdeg rac eliozma uflis kvarTi, romelic hqonda daculi `tavar-
juxsa Sina~, gadasca das da sidoniam mklavebi moxvia da Seitkbo, Zmas ase
mimarTa: `i sayvarelo Zmao, kma ars niWi ese Cemda qveynisaca amisTs, vina-
Tgan saTno iCina jfalman xsna erisa amis elisagan eSmakisa da amiT snil-
Ta TsTa moaniWebs cxovrebasa saukunesa~ (gv. 139). eliozis dis es mimarTva
arcerT sxva Zvel wyaroSi araa moyvanili. Teimurazi am epizodiT kidev
erTxel warmoaCens mcxeTis, meore ierusalimis, momaval didebasa da pativs.
Txroba grZeldeba da kvarTiT xelSi gardacvlili sidonia didi gode-
biT daitira eliozma. am epizodsac Teimuraz batoniSvili axali cnobebiT
avsebs, kerZod, eliozs surda uflis kvarTis gamoReba `gulisagan disa
Tsisa~, magram verc Tavad SeZlo da verc sxvaTa daxmarebiT. eliozs surda,
saxlSi gadaesvenebina gardacvlili dis cxedari. am SemTxvevaSic `eris
simravlem~ `mkvdari~ mcirediTac ki ver daZra adgilidan (esec gansxvavebu-
li pasaJia da aq gvaxsendeba wm. ninos cxedris adgilidan verSeZvris epizo-
di). es sakvirveleba acnobes ra mefe aderks, manac isurva kvarTis xelT gde-
ba, magram _ amaod, yoveli cda uSedegod damTavrda. `wm. ninos cxovrebis~
redaqciaTagan gansxvavebiT, aderki mefesTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnulia, rom
man iesos qveynad mosvla RmrTis gangebad miiCnia da kvarTis sakvirvelebac
mas daukavSira: `beso ars erTi, romelime RmerTTagani da gangebiTa RmerT-
TaTa mosrul ars soflad da sakrveleba ese mismieri ars da vgoneb friad
keTilars ese qveyanisa amas CvenisaTs da mefobisaTsca Cemisa, romel niWi
ese moivlina adgilsa amas, Soris samoTxisa amis Cemisa~ (gv. 139-140). mefem
gadawyvita, rom daetovebinaT is adgili da dalodebodnen RvTis nebas, mxo-
lod ramdenime mcveli da eliozi moyvasiTurT datova, raTa euwyebinaT mis-
Tvis, Tu rame moxdeboda. eliozi da misi moyvasni mxurvaled loculobdnen
RvTis mimarT, raTa ufals `windi ese~ (kvarTi), rogorc misi gangebulebis
saxsovari, daecva igi saunjed qarTlis erisaTvis da isini borotisagan
daexsna, `raTa iqmnen esenica monad Senda, aRmsaareblad, moqmed nebisa da
brZanebisa Senisa~ (gv. 140). rogorc vxedavT, Teimurazi cdilobs, mcxeTis
mkvidrT gulsa da gonebaSi ganamzados uflis kvarTis savane, winaswar Seag-
rZnobinos qarTvelT uflis kvarTis saswaulebrivi Zala, viTarca momavali
xsnis RvTaebrivi wanamZRvari, qveynisaTvis misi miRebis didi pativi.
Teimuraz batoniSvilis Semdgomi Txroba kvarTTan dakavSirebul saswa-
uls exeba: eliozisa da mis moyvasTa locvis dasrulebisTanave moxda didi
Zvra, `ganipo adgili igi, sada idva qalwuli igi cidonia kvarTiTurT ufli-
sa da Seiwynara Soris gulsa Tssa miwaman da wamsve Sina Tvalisasa dahfara
da Sekra piri miwaman da iqmna egreTve viTarca iyo pirvel, romel arcaRaTu
mciredi sCnda adgilsa mis ganpebulini mciredica brZl~ (gv. 140). mefe
aderki, romelsac auwyes momxdari saswauli, mivida da Tavad ixila is adgi-
li, mcvelni miuCina da brZana, rom `samoTxis~ am adgils aranairi biwiereba
(arc adamiani, arc cxoveli da arc rame `Seginebuli~ nivTi) ar miaxleboda
da Sexeboda.
Teimuraz batoniSvili dasasruls dasZens, rom Semdgomad amisa im adgi-
las kviparozis xe aRmocenda, romlis rtoebi da furclebi sneulT kurnav-
17


da, masze Semsxdari daWrili frinvelebi ki simrTeles iRebdnen. uflis
kvarTis Semdgomi saswaulebi, Teimuraz batoniSvilis uwyebiT, sruliad
saqarTvelos moqcevis mauwyebel saeklesio moTxrobebSia moxsenebuli. al-
baT, Teimuraz batoniSvili `moqceva qarTlisas~, `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ re-
daqciebsa da nikoloz gulaberisZis `sakiTxavs~ gulisxmobs.
unda aRiniSnos, rom Teimuraz batoniSvilis mier `wm. ninos cxovrebis~
redaqciebis zemomoxmobil gansxvavebul epizodebSi _ gardacvlili sido-
nias mkerdidan kvarTis vergamoRebasa da aderki mefis qmedebebSi (romlis
wyarosac igi ar asaxelebs), sayuradReboa erTi garemoeba. aRniSnuli epizo-
debis Tanamimdevroba da zogadi sqema aseTia _ eliozis, mefisa da mraval-
ricxovani eris mier kvarTCakruli sidonias cxedris adgilidan (romelic
mefis samoTxeSi iyo) `ver daZvra~, mefisa da eris mier im adgilis datoveba
da palat-saxlad dabruneba, gulzed kvarTmikruli sidonias cxedarTan
eliozisa da mis moyvasTa darCena, maTi gulmxurvale locva RvTisadmi,
locvis dasrulebisTanave miwis SeZvra da saswauli _ miwis gapoba da
sidonias kvarTiTurT Sig Catana, miwis piris myisve Sekvra da im adgilis
pirvelsave mdgomareobaSi dabruneba _ `iqmna egreTve viTarca iyo pirvel~,
TiTqos araferi momxdara; Semdgom mefisTvis saswaulis uwyeba da misgan im
adgilis xilva, mefis brZaneba _ aravin biwieri Sexeboda im adgils. Tu da-
vakvirdebiT, advilad SevniSnavT am epizodebis msgavsebas `wm. ninos cxovre-
bis~ redaqciebSi sveti-cxovlis aRmarTvasTan dakavSirebiT moTxrobil am-
bebs Soris; kerZod, eklesiis asagebad mefis samoTxeSi sveti-cxovlis mokve-
Ta, mefisa da eris mcdelobiTa da veranairi `manqanebiTa~ misi `ver-aRmar-
Teba~, mefisa da eris SeSfoTeba, wuxili da palatad-saxlad dabruneba:
`...mefe friad zargandil iqmna da dabrkolda suetisa mis ver aRmarTebasa,
da didiTa mwuxarebiTa aRsavse warvida palatad da gulklebuli igi da misi
eri friad~ (`moqceva qarTlisa~ 1963: f 138). adgilidan `ver SeZrul~
svetTan (eklesiisTvis momzadebuli safuZvlis adgilas) wm. ninosa da Tor-
met dedaTa darCena, gulmxurvale locva-vedreba, svetis aRmarTebisaTvis
Semweobis Txovna, wm. ninosa da dedebze movlenili 2 xilva (I xilva miwis
SeZvriTa da mTaTa rRveviT...), maTi dasrulebis Semdeg pirvandeli mdgoma-
reobis dabruneba _ `da meyseulad dascxres mani igi, da iyo arara~ (iqve, I
xilva, 46, f 139) da `da meyseulad uCino iqmna yoveli igi simravl erisa da
iqmna dayudeba did~ (iqve, II xilva, 46, f 140); naTelmosili Wabukis Cveneba
da svetis saswaulebrivi `aRdgoma~, wm. ninos mier mefisa da erisaTvis saswa-
ulis xareba, mefis mier aRmarTuli sveti-cxovlis xilva da RvTis dideba,
sveti-cxovlis saswaulebrivi kurnebani, mirian mefis zrunva sveti-cxov-
lis siwmindesa da uvneblobaze; sveti-cxovelTan, viTarca RvTis Zalis
gamoxatulebasTan (`viTarca Zalsa RmrTisasa~) dakavSirebiT mirian mefis
anderZi revisadmi: `da Tavi Seni Sehvedre suetsa mas zegardamo didebulsa
da juarsa patiosansa...~ (iqve, , 163); dedofali da `dedani igi mTavarni~ ar
ganeSorebian sveti-cxovelsa da patiosan jvars: `xolo dedofali da sxuani
igi mTavarni dedani arasada ganeSorebodes eklesiasa suetisa mis cxoveli-
sasa da naTlisasa, rameTu xedvides saswaulTa da kurnebaTa miuTxrobelTa~
(iqve, ,152). Teimuraz batoniSvilis mier aRwerilo movlenebi: eliozis,
`eris simravlisa~ da mefe aderkis mier gardacvlili eliozis disTvis
uflis kvarTis gamoRebis uSedego mcdelobani, Semdgom kvarTmirqmuli qa-
lis adgilidan SeuZvreloba da masze aRsrulebuli saswauli _ kidev ufro
18


metad usvams xazs `moqceva qarTlisas~ zemoaRniSnul movlena-saswaulTa
gamaerTianebel RvTaebriv sulierebas.
Cven ar viciT, Teimuraz batoniSvils konkretulad, saidan moaqvs
eliozis dedisa da dis saxelebi, an `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ redaqciebidan is
gansxvavebuli epizodebi, erTi SexedviT, zRapruli Txrobis xasiaTs rom
atareben. Teimurazi Tavisi naSromis winasityvaobaSi aRniSnavs: `uZvelesTa
istoriisaTvis CvenTa, e. i. iverielTa moTxrobisaTvis, raica SevuZle pov-
nad ZvelTa da uZvelesTa Sina gamoZiebaTa sruliad Semovkriben igini da ara
dauteven igini arca erTi: aramed movuTxrobde maT Tvis, romelnica romel-
Taganme momTxrobelTa Sewynarebulca arian~ (gv. 1-2). amasTanave, Teimuraz
batoniSvilis pasuxismgebloba `saqarTvelos istoriis~ mimarT kargadaa
warmoCenili misi werilebidan mari brosesadmi, romelsac hpirdeba, rom
pirvel nawils gaugzavnis, raTa sruli warmodgena SeeqmnaT saqarTvelosa
da misi eris Sesaxeb uZvelesi Jamidan mis dromde. mis erT-erT werilSi
brosesadmi vkiTxulobT: `me didaT mouclelaTa var amisaTvis, rac Sen Se-
momikveTe, imasa vswer, Tumca pirvels SemTxveulobaSi SemoklebiT gike-
TebT, magram naxav Sen RvTis mowyalebiT Tu rogori iqmneba. RmerTs er-
wmune, CemTvis aseTi Sroma aris ese, rom asamdis sxvadasxvas wignSi gamo-
veZieb. am dRiT wignebi garemo mayria da ise vkreb. CemTvis da Cemis saxelis
wodebisaTvis sircxvili ars, egreTve Senc cuds razedme rogor migaRebino
Sroma... me mravali materia maqvs amisTvis, romelic, didis gamoZiebiT, ra
me Sen gagican, masukan viwyev Sekreba da aseTi ram unda warmovadgino mag di-
debuls sazogadoobaSi (`saazio sazogadoeba~, daarsada parizSi 1821 wels
_ n. g.), rom Seuracxad ar Seiqmnes Cemi Rvawli. aseTi saqme aris cxovrebis
aRwera, rom arc erTs sxvis elovnebas ara hgavs da amazed didi sifrTxile
unda istoriis damwersa... es wigni, RmerTs erwmune, Rame da dRe elSi
miWiravs, Cemis eliTa vwer. ar SeiZleba rom sxvas davawerino, wamixdenen
rogorc rom gaTavdeba, es pirveli Semoklebuli qristesSobas Tvis gas-
vlamdis da Tu meores Tvemdis, maSinve gamogigzavni~ (yubaneiSvili 1964: 62).
rogorc werilidan Cans, Teimuraz batoniSvilisaTvis udidesi tvirTi, mo-
valeoba da pasuxismgeblobaa saqarTvelos istoriis aRwera, romelic sif-
rTxiles, sifxizles, keTilsindisierebas moiTxovs, imdenad, rom Teimurazi
mis gadaweras `waxdenis~ SiSiT sxvas ar andobs. zemoaRniSnuli werili imde-
nad gulwrfelobiTaa dawerili da masSi imxela moqalaqeobrivi pasuxis-
mgebloba, sindisiereba vlindeba, Znelia ar verwmunoT. Teimurazi naSroms
`istoria dawyebiTgan iveriisa~ oci wlis manZilze werda (avadmyofobis
gamo garkveuli droiT SeaCera masze muSaoba). sicocxleSi igi ver moeswro
Tavisi naSromis gamocemas (gardaicvala 1846 wels). Tavad Teimurazi
`iveriis istoriaze~ muSaobis procesTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnavs, rom `asam-
de wignSi eZiebda~, `mravali materia hqonda amisaTvis~, `wignebi garemo eyara
da ise krebda~, mas xeli miuwvdeboda bevr wyaroze, SesaZloa, CvenTvis uc-
nobzec da iq moiZia manamde ucnobi detalebi. `iveriis istoriis winasity-
veobis~ SeniSvnaSi igi wers: `Zvels qarTlis cxovrebidam gamowerili, me
TviT gamovwere kaTalikozis antonis Sekrebulis moTxrobaebidan, romeli-
ca mravalTa werilTagan gamoekriba da nebavda Turme istoriisa srulisa
aRwera da aRar dascalda da is gamowerilebi ise uqmad darCa da me uwminde-
siiman kaTalikozman mamis Zmaman Cemman, vinadgan miyvarda me istoria mra-
vali ram saistorio saqarTvelosaTvis gamomawerina Tavis wignebidam.
antoni kaTalikozi, biZa Cemi (e. i. meore antoni _ n. g.) sankt peterburgs
19


brZandeboda welsa 1820 da Semdgoms weliwadebSiaca da maSin gamovwere~ (gv.
177-178). SesaZloa, swored anton II-is `moTxrobaebidam~ aqvs Teimurazs
`gamowerili~ eliozis dedisa da dis saxelebi, sara da sidonia, da sxva cno-
bebi. ramdenad sandoa es wyaro, ver vityviT.
g. SaraZe Teimuraz bagrationis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis Seswavlis
safuZvelze aRniSnavs: `rogorc Teimuraz bagratinis wignTsacavis kata-
logSi gadarCenili cnobebidan Cans, Teimurazis biblioTekas safuZvlad
dasdebia saqarTvelos samefo biblioTekis (ufro zustad, kaxeTis bagrati-
onTa) wignebi... aseve, etyoba, mravlad hqonia mas misi papis mamis _ Teimuraz
II da papis _ erekle II naqoni wignebi; zogierTi maTganis Sesaxeb `katalogSi~
damowmebulia dokumenturi cnoba~ (SaraZe 1974: 3). g. SaraZe varaudobs, rom
Teimurazs biblioTeka Seuvsia meuRlis, elene amilaxvris, mziTevSi moyo-
lili wignebiTac da, savaraudod, Tavisi Zmis, daviT batoniSvilis, mdidari
biblioTekis wignebis nawiliT (daviTis gardacvalebis Semdeg). Teimurazi
Tavadac iZenda xelnawerebs da Tu romelimes fasis gamo ver yidulobda,
gadaawerinebda xolme. amisaTvis specialurad daqiravebuli gadamwerebi
hyavda. amasTan erTad, isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom Teimurazi, rogorc
Tavisi naSromis winasityvaobaSi SeniSnavs, wyarod iyenebda `romelnime
zepirica smenilni~, `zRapar sityvaobanica~, radgan yovelive es, misi TqmiT
_ `ara ugulebels vyven aRwerad nivTTa gamravlebisaTvis ambavTa Sina~ (gv.
1-2). marTlac, rogorc uflis kvarTis istoriis Semcveli zemoganxiluli
moTxroba mowmobs, Teimuraz batoniSvili `zepirad smenils~ da `zRapar
sityvaobasac~ xSirad iyenebs, SesaZloa, eliozis dedisa da dis saxelebi am-
gvari gziT iyos gaCenilic, danamdvilebiT verafers vityviT. saxeli `sido-
nias~ wyaros dasadgenad, upirveles yovelisa, aucilebelia Teimuraz bato-
niSvilis arqivis sagangebod Seswavla, rac momavali kvleva-Ziebis saqmea.
yovel SemTxvevaSi, Teimuraz batoniSvilis TxzulebaSi _ `istoria dawye-
biTgan iveriisa...~ _ Tvrameti saukunis manZilze pirvelad vxvdebiT kvar-
Tis mimrqmeli eliozis dis saxels _ `sidonias~. aRniSnuli garemoeba sa-
mecniero literaturaSi dRemde ar iyo fiqsirebuli.
S. mesxia wignSi _ `Teimuraz batoniSvili~ (1982 w.) _ ganixilavs
Teimuraz batoniSvilis cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebas. mecnieri didad afa-
sebs Teimurazis SemoqmedebiT moRvaweobas, mis mravlismomcvel ganaTle-
bas, mecnierul alRosa da keTilsindisierebas, misTvis wyaroebis, qarTuli
Tu ucxouri samecniero literaturisadmi xelmisawvdomobas, amasTanave
ganixilavs, ramdenad sando da WeSmaritebis aRmnusxavia istoriulobis
TvalsazrisiT Teimuraz batoniSvilis Txzuleba. S. mesxia aRniSnavs, rom
Teimurazi pirvelwyaroebisadmi (`qarTlis cxovreba~ da vaxuSti batoniS-
vilis `saqarTvelos istoria~) samgvar damokidebulebas iCens: `a) ZiriTadad
endoba maT da ucvlelad mohyavs maTgan adgilebi Tavis `istoriaSi~, b) as-
worebs maT sxvadasxva wyaroebze dayrdnobiT da moTxrobas afarToebs, g) ak-
ritikebs zogjer mniSvnelovan, zogjer kidev wvrilman sakiTxebSi~ (mesxia
1982: 36). S. mesxia SeniSnavs, rom Teimurazs `saeWvo sabuTebi moyvanili aqvs
Tavis ZiriTad istoriaSic, romlisTvisac... sicocxlis TiTqmis erTi mesame-
di Seuwiravs~ (iqve, gv. 34). zogjer Teimurazi cvlis wyaroTa monacemebs,
magaliTad, mas miaCnia, rom qarTvelni Targamosisagan warmoSobilni arian,
rac bibliis Teorias ewinaaRmdegeba. iSveliebs ra leonti mrovelisa da
vaxtang VI-is `istoriebs~, odnav SesworebiT mogviTxrobs qarTvelTa gene-
alogias. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT, `ganuyo Targamos queyana da naTe-
20


savi Tsi rvaTa amaT gmirTa... naxevari da umjobesi qveynisa misisa misca
haoss~, Teimurazi wers: `misca Zesa Tssa qarTloss Targamos mamaman maTman
sxvani Zeni Tsni, Zmani qarTlosiani uflebasa da mTavrobasa queSe misisa da
gardaasaxla yovelTa dedawulobiT da eriTurT maTiT adgilad sruliad
iveriisaTa...~ (iqve, gv. 28). S. mesxia SeniSnavs, rom Tu `qarTlis cxovrebis~
mixedviT Targamosi anawilebs adgilebs Svilebs Soris, Teimurazis mixed-
viT, saqarTvelos mTliani teritoria eZleva Targamosisagan qarTloss da
igi anawilebs Tavis Zmebs Soris mas... agreTve ZmaTa Soris `q. cxovrebiT~
`iyo ganmgebel da ufal haos da ese yovelni iyvnes morCil haosisa~.
TeimuraziT: `maT yovelTa zeda ufal da mTavar iyo qarTlos~ an kidev:
`hflobda maT yovelTa zeda qarTlos da Zmani misni morCilni iyvnes missa~.
amgvari SesworebisaTvis Teimurazs cxadia araviTari wyaro ar gaaCnda gar-
da sakuTari, Cvenis azriT, nacionalisturi mosazrebisa...~ (iqve, gv. 37-38).
S. mesxias TqmiT, Teimurazi xSirad ucvlelad imeorebs wyaroTa Txrobas.
mas, rogorc mecnieri SeniSnavs, sityvasityviT aqvs `qarTlis cxovrebidan~
gadawerili mirianis mefoba da wm. ninos mier qarTvelTa moqceva. Cvenda
gasakvirad, S. mesxia arafers ambobs mefe aderkis mefobasTan dakavSirebiT
Teimurazis Txrobas uflis kvarTis zemoganxilul istoriasTan dakavSire-
biT. amasTanave, viziarebT S. mesxias azrs imis Taobaze, rom Teimurazi mi-
marTavs xolme `ubralo ganvrcobas yovelgvari wyaroebis dasaxelebis ga-
reSe, mxolod vrclad da mWermetyvelurad moTxrobisaTvis, Sinaarsis
TvalsazrisiT ki ar scildeba qarTlis cxovrebas~ (iqve, gv. 39). da ara mar-
to `qarTlis cxovrebas~. S. mesxia asabuTebs, rom Teimurazi `qarTlis cxov-
rebis~ da vaxuSti batoniSvilis Sromebis garda iyenebda anton kaTalikosis
Canawerebs (romlis Sromadqceva mas ar dascalda) da maTSi moTavsebul
arsen kaTalikosis Sromidan amonawerebs, kerZod ki `wm. ninos cxovrebis~
fragmentebs. amdenad, Teimuraz batoniSvils eliozis dedisa da dis
saxelebi SesaZloa, anton II kaTalikosis Canawerebidan amoeRo.
Teimuraz batoniSvilis Txzulebis ganxilvis Sedegad irkveva, rom
uflis kvarTTan dakavSirebul TxrobaSi igi srulad iyenebs `wm ninos
cxovrebis~ redaqciebs (SesaZloa, yvelas _ ara), nikoloz gulaberisZisa da
vaxuSti batoniSvilis Txzulebebs (garkveul SemTxvevebSi, roca Txroba
Seesatyviseba Zvel qarTul wrilobiT wyaroebs, imowmebs kidec zogadi
fraziT _ `moTxrobaTa Sina saeklesioTa~ da `hsweren romelnime momTx-
robelni Cvenisa saqarTvelosa ekklesiisani~), amavdroulad, wyaroebis da-
usaxeleblad, axal epizodebsa da cnobebs urTavs TxrobaSi (ris saSualeba-
sac Zveli wyaroebi iZleva) da ganavrcobs aRweril ambebs, albaT, sarwmuno
faqtebis detaluri warmoCenisTvis, kidev ufro meti damajereblobisa da
mkiTxvelTa meti dainteresebisaTvis. marTalia, Teimuraz batoniSvilise-
uli yvela cnoba Semdegdroindel mxatvrul Tu samecniero literaturaSi
didad ar warmoCenila (magaliTad, eliozis dedis saxeli _ `sara~, eliozis
dis gardacvalebis Semdgom miwisZvris da napralSi cxedris kvarTianad
STanTqmisa da sxv.), magram eliozis dis saxeli `sidonia~, eliozis, xalxisa
da mefis mowadineba gardacvlili eliozis dis adgilidan verSeZvris uSe-
dego mcdelobani qarTvelTa cnobierebaSi dRemde mtkicedaa gamjdari da
tradiciul cnobadaa aRiarebuli, Tumc ki TiTqmis aravin icis, rom es
Teimuraz batoniSvilis damsaxurebaa da ara `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ uZvelesi
redaqciebis mowmoba.
21


T. batoniSvilis Txzulebis msgavsad, aseve bolos movitoveT m. sabini-
nis TxzulebaTa ganxilva. upirveles yovlisa, maTi Seswavla cxadad war-
moaCens m. sabininis mier T. batoniSvilis `iveriis istoriis~ umTavres wya-
rod gamoyenebis faqts da masze aRbeWdil did gavlenas. amasTanave, m. sabi-
ninis am naSromebidan da, zogadad, misi naRvawidan, Cveni azriT, sagulisxmo
ram warmoCindeba, rasac qvemoT SevityobT.
m. sabinini wignSi _ `iveriis (qarTuli) eklesia VI saukunis dasasrulam-
de~ _ saubrobs qarTlSi damkviderebul ebraelebze, maTTvis ierusalimi-
dan miRebul Setyobinebebze (ukanasknelad _ mowodebaze jvarcmaze dasas-
wrebad). m. sabinini gadmogvcems eliozis gamgzavrebas ierusalimSi da am
faqtTan dakavSirebul realiebs: `eliozis deda, saxeliT sara _ mRvdel-
mTavar elias STamomavali, sakmaod RvTismorwmune qali, romelic Tavisi
RvTismosavi winaprebis swavlebas mkacrad icavda da romelmac kargad ico-
da saRvTo werili, elodeboda mxsnelis mosvlas. man RvTiuri sulis meSve-
obiT gaafrTxila Svili, ubiwos sisxlSi ar mieRo monawileoba; `radgan igi~,
_ ambobda is, `warmarTTa imedi da israelis naTelia~. misi (eliozis dedis
_ n. g.) xma da swavleba TiTqos ebrauli Temis saerTo xma iyo, anas werilis
gziT xedavda ra RmerTkacis pirovnebaze kanonisa da winaswarmetyvelTa
aRsrulebas~ (sabinini 1877: 6). teqstidan vigebT, rom eliozi, kaci mxsnelis
rwmenaSi srulyofili da WeSmariti RmerTisadmi msaxurebiT mcxovrebi,
qarTveli ebraelebis mTavari rabinis misiiT da didi amaliT (romelTa
Soris iyvnen qarTveli uJikebi, dRevandeli osebi, _ aRniSnavs m. sabinini)
da qarTvel ebraelTa Soris saxelganTqmuli longinoz karsnelis dacvis
qveS wavida ierusalimSi.
aqve unda aRiSnos, rom m. sabinini am ambebis gadmocemisas sqolioSi
ramdenime ganmartebas akeTebs da Tavis mosazrebebs gamoTqvams. erT-erTi
ganmartebis wyarod Teimuraz batoniSvils asaxelebs, romelic qarTuli
saeklesio istorikosTa gadmocemas emyareba, kerZod, TiTqos eliozi ic-
nobda filipe mociquls da misi meSveobiT surda iesos xilva. filipes
eliozis survili andriasaTvis ucnobebia, orives ki _ uflisaTvis. aravin
icis, Sexvda Tu ara eliozi ufals, magram ufalma amasTan dakavSirebiT
Tavisi mowafeebisadmi gulisSemZvreli sityva warmoTqva. erTi sqolio
longinoz karsnelis pirovnebis Sesaxeb m. sabininis varauds gvamcnobs _
longinozi xom ar iyo jvarcmis dros myofi erTi meomarTagani da meomar-
Tagan wilisyris dros mas xom ar ergo kvarTi, romelic Semdgom eliozs
gadasca.
m. sabininis monaTxrobis mixedviT, romelic, misive TqmiT, qarTuli ek-
lesiis gadmocemas, ufliswuli Teimurazis `istorias~, `qarTlis cxovre-
bas~, mcxeTis taZris Zvel svinaqsars da sxva mraval SesaniSnav xelnawerebs
emyareba, `eliozis dam, RvTismoSiSma qalwulma sidoniam, mcxeTaSi ZmasTan
damSvidobebisas, sTxova, moepovebina da misTvis wamoeRo raime kuTvnileba
im pirisa, romelsac gasamarTlebas upirebdnen. uyvarda ra Tavisi da,
eliozma mas sityva misca, rom Txovnas Seusrulebda. da ai qarTvelma ebra-
elebma winaswarmetyveluri WvretiT miiRes ra Seufasebeli cis saunje _
wminda kvarTi da cxovrobdnen ra am qalaqSi didi xnis manZilze, TviT-
mxilveli mowmeebi iyvnen mxsnelis yvela saswaulisa...~ (sabinini 1877: 8). maT
mcxeTaSi mohqondaT qristes kvarTi da RvTis Svilis mkvdreTiT aRdgomis
sasixarulo cnoba. aq Semodis Txroba eliozis dasTan dakavSirebiT:
`eliozi imave mxleblebTan erTad dabrunda ra mcxeTaSi, mas Tavisi da
22


sidonia, qalwuli, dedis wyalobiT qristes mosvlis morwmune, Seegeba gzaze
or Robes Soris samefo baRisa, romelsac sakmaod didi mTis wyaro Wrida da
rwyavda baRs xidTan. igi (da _ n. g.) sixaruliT mivarda mas da xvevniT da
tiriliT gamoucxada dedis sikvdili, romelic aRsrulda aRdgomis win
paraskevs, dRis eqvs saaTze. saram, romelic sruliad janmrTeli iyo, xse-
nebuli dRisa da saaTis periodSi mkerdSi Zlieri dartyma igrZno da gan-
gmiruli, usulod daeca Semdegi sityvebiT: `mSvidobiT mefobao israeli-
sao, romelTac sikvdils mieciT Tqveni mxsneli, amieridan Semoqmedisa da
sakuTari RmerTis sisxlSi damnaSave iqnebi; mwuxareba me, romelsac ar me-
Rirsa sikvdili am dromde, raTa am saSinel SemTxvevas (dartymas) avcdenodi
da Rirsi gavxdebodi, menaxa warmarTebze gamocxadebuli naTeli da ebra-
elTa mSvidoba. gaigo ra garemoebaTa ucnauri SeTavseba _ uflis sikvdili
da sakuTari dedis sikvdili erTsa da imave dros, eliozi raRac gamouT-
qmel gaugebrobaSi Cavarda da ar icoda, msgavsi garemoeba, ras niSnavda.
dedis dakargvis gamo warmoudgenel mwuxarebaSi myofi sidonia, kocnida ra
Tavis Zmas, axsenebda Tavis Txovnas. eliozma myisve yuTidan amoiRo sisxli-
ani uflis kvarTi da misca das, romelic mouTmenlad eloda. RvTismorwmu-
ne da uflis erTgulma netarma sidoniam, xelebSi miiRo ra uflis sisxliani
kvarTi, sixaruliT SesZaxa: `Zvirfaso Zmao, CemTvis da mTeli qveynisaTvis
sakmarisia es saunje; RmerTma ineba es xalxi eSmakisagan daexsna (romlis
niSanas es kvarTi warmoadgens) da igi maT maradiul xsnas Cuqnis~. Semdeg
mouTmenlad Tavis mklavebSi Caikra igi (uflis kvarTi _ n. g.) da usulod
daeca, gangmiruli mxsnelis sikvdilisa da zecis mociqulis sikvdilSi misi
Zmis monawileobis cnobis gamo. axalma moulodnelobam ufro metad dazaf-
ra eliozi; irgvliv myofTa veraviTarma mcdelobam, gamoeglijaT wm. qal-
wulis mklavebidan uflis kvarTi, Sedegi ar gamoiRo, _ is TiTqos mis
sxeuls Seezarda~ (sabinini 1877: 9). Semdgom moTxrobilia, rom im adgilas
aderki mefe mivida, misi mcdelobac (kvarTis gamotacebisa) uSedego iyo. man
kvarTmirqmul cxedars dauyena mcvelebi. eliozma keTilmorwmune moxuceb-
Tan erTad daiwyo locva, romlis drosac didi miwisZvra moxda, qalwulis
wminda sxeulis qveS warmoiqmna didi naprali, romelmac samudamod STanTqa
misi cxedari uflis uxrwnel kvarTTan erTad. miwa xelaxla SeerTda da ara-
viTari kvali ar datova. RvTis gangebam TvalTagan samudamod dafara wm.
kvarTi da amis mowmeni iyvnen eliozi, moxucebi da mefis mcvelebi. meore
dRes aderki cxedris sanaxavad mivida, iq myofTagan Seityo momxdari da
brZana, is adgili wabilwvisagan daecvaT. ramdenime xnis Semdeg wmindanis
saflavze amovida kedari, romelic Semdgom saqarTveloSi qristianobis wya-
rod da sawyisad iqca (aq sqolioSi damowmebulia giorgi XIII-is Svilis,
Teimurazis `saqarTvelos istoria~, gv. 131-141). xalxma ar icoda qalwulis
sikvdilis mizezi da eliozi iZulebuli gaxda, moeTxro yvelaferi iesos
Sesaxeb, rac ierusalimSi moxda. xalxma mexsierebaSi Seinaxa eliozis mona-
Txrobi da misgan Seqmna gadmocema, romelsac Taobidan Taobas gadascemda
da romelmac Cvens dromde moaRwia, _ ambobs m. sabinini da dasZens, rom am
gadmocemas aZlierebda saidumlo niSani, romelic kedridan modioda. naT-
qvamis dasadastureblad mas II s-is dasawyisis mematianis SeniSvnebi mohyavs,
romlis mixedviT, mcxeTis mefe amazaeli an armazeli (103 qr. w. aR.) xedavda
sxvadasxva saswaulebs, romelic kedarTan xdeboda. man kvarTis Zebna da-
iwyo, magram ver miakvlia. amas sxva mefeebic cdilobdnen, _ aRniSnavs m. sa-
binini. Semdeg saubaria eklesiis asagebad kedris mokveTaze da masTan dakav-
23


Sirebul movlenebze. sqolioSi m. sabinini SeniSnavs, rom ucnauria da
gaugebari istoriisaTvis, rodis da vis dros amoiRes wm. kvarTi wm. sidonias
saflavidan, vin Seexo eklesiisaTvis wminda nawilebs da rogor mdgomare-
obaSi Seinaxa igi mcxeTis taZarSi.
saerTod unda aRiniSnos, rom m. sabinini Zalian xSirad, TiTqmis yo-
velTvis, Teimuraz batoniSvils eyrdnoba. mxolod zemomoxmobili teqstis
farglebSi igi samjer imowmebs Teimuraz batoniSvilis Txzulebas. m. sabini-
nis TxrobaSi moxmobili pasaJebi, romlebic yvela wyarosagan gansxvavebu-
lia, Teimurazis `saqarTvelos istorias~ Tanxvdeba; kerZod, eliozis dedi-
sa da dis saxelebi, maTi rwmena da didi RvTismoSiSoba, sidonias didi gan-
cdebi eliozis Camosvlamde da mis Semdeg, ZmasTan Sexvedris adgili,
eliozis didi mwuxareba dedisa da dis gardacvalebis gamo, mefe aderkis
brZaneba sidonias cxedris dacvis Sesaxeb, eliozisa da xanSiSesulTa im
adgilas darCena da locva, sidonias aRsrulebis Semdgom miwisZvris saswa-
uli da kvarTiani cxedris miwis wiaRSi aseve saswaulebrivi STanTqma. amas-
Tanave m. sabinini erTgvar siaxleebsac gvawvdis (eliozisa da misi dis Sex-
vedris adgilisa da drois Sesaxeb) da Taviseburad, odnav asxvaferebs
teqsts. miuxedavad amisa, misTvis uflis kvarTTan dakavSirebuli istoriis
gadmosacemad upirvelesi wyaro Teimuraz batoniSvilis Txzulebaa.
m. sabininis `saqarTvelos samoTxe~ 1882 wels gamoica peterburgSi. wig-
nSi dabeWdil nikoloz gulaberisZis `sakiTxavSi~ yuradReba miiqcia erTma
garemoebam. CvenTvis sayuradRebo TavSi _ `moTxroba abiaTar mRdelisagan
kuarTisaTs sauflosa, Tu viTar mogueniWa~ _ rodesac moTxrobilia
eliozis dedisa da dis Sesaxeb, winadadeba Semdegnairad ikiTxeba _ `... esua
mas deda tomisagan eli mRudlisa da kualad erTi da (sidonia)~ (sabinini
1882: 76). rogorc vxedavT, m. sabinins teqstis am adgilas, erTgvari ganmar-
tebis mizniT, frCxilebSi mouTavsebia nikoloz gulaberisZisTvis ucnobi,
magram misi droisaTvis cnobili eliozis dis saxeli `sidonia~. es rom m. sabi-
ninis mier Camatebuli faqtia, amas mowmobs nikoloz gulaberisZis `sakiTxa-
vis~ ramdenime xelnaweris safuZvelze dadgenili teqsti (sulava 2008), sa-
dac imave winadadebasTan saxeli `sidonia~ ar ikiTxeba. amasTanave, m. sabini-
nis gamocemul am `sakiTxavSi~ eliozis dasTan dakavSirebul TxrobaSi ar-
sad ar aris pirdapir naxsenebi `sidonia~. amdenad, m. sabininisTvis, rogorc
Cans, cnobilia kvarTis mimrqmeli eliozis dis saxeli `sidonia~, Tumca is
wyaros ar asaxelebs, es wyaro ki danamdvilebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom `wm.
ninos cxovrebis~ redaqciebi araa.
m. sabininis TaosnobiT da misi uSualo monawileobiT 1889 wels Seiqmna
xati `saqarTvelos eklesiis dideba~ (liTografiuli wesiT damzadda laif-
cigSi, manamde Tavad da ramdenime piris daxmarebiT gaakeTa Canaxatebi),
romelic qarTvelTaTvis erT-erTi mniSvelovani da Zvirfasi saunjea. xatis
centraluri kompoziciaa gardacvlili eliozis dis kvarTmirqmuli cxeda-
ri da masze aRmarTuli sveti-cxoveli. eliozis dis cxedarTan gakeTebulia
warwera _ `sidonia~.
m. sabinini werilSi _ `axsna suraTisa _ `saqarTvelos wminda marTlma-
didebeli eklesiis dideba~, eliozis dis saxelTan _`sidoniasTan~ _ erTad
asaxelebs eliozis dedis saxels _ `saras~: eliozis ierusalimSi gamgzavre-
bamde `damSvidobebisas dedamisma saram daabara ar mieRo monawileoba mesias
gasamarTlebaSi, xolo misi da (erTaderTi) sidonia _ cremlebiT emudare-
boda, Camoetana misTvis raime samaxsovro kuTvnili nivTebidan im pirisa,
24


romelis ukanonod gasamarTleba gadawyvites~ (sabinini 1899: 2). aqve aRniS-
nulia, rom RvTaebrivi Canafiqris mixedviT, uflis cxovelmyofeli sis-
xliT gaJRenTili kvarTi wilad xvdaT eliozis meomrebs, romlebmac igi Ta-
vis batons gadasces, icodnen ra misi survili da misi dis sidonias Txovna~
(iqve, 2).
m. sabininis werilSi kvlavac grZeldeba Txroba kvarTis Semdgom isto-
riasTan dakavSirebiT _ mcxeTaSi dabrunebul eliozs gzaze Seegeba Tavisi
usayvarlesi da, sidonia. m. sabinini akonkretebs maTi Sexvedris adgils: `or
Robes Soris samefo baRisa, romelsac sakmaod didi mTis nakaduli kveTda,
romelic rwyavda baRs xidTan~ (iqve, 2-3). sidoniam Zmas Seaxsena Tavisi Txov-
na da eliozmac dauyovnebliv misca gasisxlianebuli ukerveli uflis kvar-
Ti. Semdeg moTxrobilia sidonias aRsasruli, da mefe aderkis daintereseba
kvarTiTa da masTan dakavSirebuli saswauliT, ris gamoc mefem darajebi
dauyena mcvelad gardacvlil qals. im adgilas salocavad eliozi da misi
axloblebi darCnen. RamiT moxda miwisZvra, eliozis dis cxedris qveS gaCnda
didi naprali da gardacvlili qali kvarTTan erTad miwam STanTqa. is
adgili SemoRobes. Semdeg aq amovida kedari. rogorc vxedavT, es epizodic
gansxvavdeba `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ redaqciebisagan. am gansxvavebebis wyarod
mxolod erTaderTi Txzuleba moipoveba _ Teimuraz batoniSvilis `isto-
ria dawyebiTgan iveriisa...~.
rogorc aRvniSneT, eliozis dis saxels, `sidonias~, ar icnobs Zveli
qarTuli Txzulebebi, Tumca XIX saukuneSi kvarTis mimrqmeli eliozis dis
saxeli TiTqmis yvelganaa damowmebuli. aqve unda iTqvas isic, rom eliozis
dedis saxeli `sara~ samecniero literaturaSi TiTqmis arsad gvxvdeba. mxo-
lod erTi naSromia am saxelis `Semnaxavi~ _ m. sabininis wigni da misive
werili. miuxedavad imisa, rom Teimurazisagan m. sabininma icis eliozis
dedis saxeli `sara~ da `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ teqstebidan eliozis dedis
qristesaTvis aRsrulebis faqti, `saqarTvelos eklesiis didebaSi~ eliozis
dedas ar ganaTavsebs. Cveni azriT, swored am garemoebam ganapiroba is, rom
saqarTveloSi eliozis dedis saxeli ar gavrcelda da damkvidrda (TiTqmis
aravin icis).
Cveni azriT, m. sabininis `saqarTvelos samoTxeSi~ moTavsebul nikoloz
gulaberiZis `sakiTxavSi~ eliozis dis saxelTan frCxilebSi moTavsebulma
`sidoniam~, agreTve `saqarTvelos wminda marTlmadidebeli eklesiis dide-
baSi~ eliozis dis saxelis aRniSvnam udidesi roli iTamaSa eliozis dis
`sidonias~ saxelis popularizaciasa da damkvidrebaSi. imxanad imdenad mniS-
vnelovani iyo am ori saunjis arseboba da sidiade qarTvelebisaTvis, rom
arcaa gasakviri zemoaRniSnuli cnobebis damkvidrebaSi maT gadamwyveti ro-
li eTamaSaT.
m. sabininis am or qmnilebaze imitom vakeTebT aseT aqcents `sidonias~
saxelis damkvidrebaSi, rom zemodasaxelebul mecnier-mkvlevarTa Soris
TiTze CamosaTvlelia is adamianebi, romelnic eyrdnobian an imowmeben
Teimuraz batoniSvilis Txzulebas. erTi aseTi mecnieri (Tu ar vcdebiT,
erTaderTi) gaxlavT m. janaSvili. mis mier `saqarTvelos istoriaSi~ (1894 w.)
uflis kvarTis miwaSi CanTqmis aRniSvna mihyveba Teimurazis Txzulebas,
sxva naSromSi _ `saqarTvelos istoria uZveles droiTgan 985 wl. qr. S.~ _
wyarod Teimuraz batoniSvilis Txzulebas imowmebs, Txrobasac mis
kvalobaze warmarTavs.
25


saqarTvelos eklesia, rogorc cnobilia, aRiarebs gviandel tradicias
da eliozis das saxeliT `sidonia~ moixsenebs. amasTanave uflis kvarTis
mimrqmeli sidonia eklesiis mier qarTvelTa pirvel wmindanadaa miCneuli.
Cveni naSromis sakiTxis SerCevis, wyaroTa daZebna-mopovebis, winare
epoqis samecniero literaturis Seswavlis procesSi mogvianebiT mivakvli-
eT e. mamisTvaliSvilis wigns _ `qristes kvarTis istoria~, sadac erTi qve-
Tavi swored eliozis dis saxelis garkvevas eTmoba. unda aRiniSnos, rom
Cvens xelT arsebul samecniero literaturaSi, Tu ar vcdebiT, e. mamisTva-
liSvilis mier pirveladaa dasmuli es sakiTxi. Tumca isic unda aRiniSnos,
rom am (daaxloebiT, erTfurclian) gamokvlevaSi zogadi daskvnebi Camoya-
libebulia, Tumca umravles SemTxvevaSi wyaroebi ar aris moxmobili (teq-
stiT damowmebuli) da mxolod zogadad aRniSnulia kvlevis Sedegebi. albaT
es gamowveulia imiT, rom aRniSnuli sakiTxi ar iyo mecnieris umTavresi
Ziebis sagani, radgan wignSi uflis kvarTTan dakavSirebiT bevri sxva prob-
lemaa dasmul-Sefasebuli. yovel SemTxvevaSi, mTavaria is, rom aq daisva
eliozis dis saxelis warmoSobis sakiTxi da erTgvari daskvnac gakeTda _
`Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis Zeglebi ar gvamcnoben im qalwulis saxels,
visTanac erTad kvarTi daikrZala. dRes ki, TiTqmis yvelam icis, rom mas
sidonia erqva. ase icodnen ukve XIX saukunidan. darwmunebiT SeiZleba iT-
qvas, rom XVII saukuneSi misi saxeli cnobili jer ar iyo~ (mamisTvaliSvili
2003: 32). aqve aRniSnulia, rom arc nikoloz gulaberisZem, arc XVII s-is ber-
Zenma ioanikem (ramdenjerme moinaxula sveticxoveli), arc vaxuSti bato-
niSvilma ar icodnen eliozis dis saxeli.
e. mamisTvaliSvils, rogorc Cans, aRniSnuli sakiTxis kvlevisas mxedve-
lobidan gamorCa Teimuraz batoniSvilis Txzuleba _ `istoria dawyebiTgan
iveriisa... ~. albaT swored am wyaros gamouyeneblobis Sedegia im kiTxvis
dasma, rasac e. mamisTvaliSvilis aRniSnul narkvevSi vxdebiT: `eliozis
deda yofila `tomisagan elia mRdelisa~. arc erTma qarTulma werilobiTma
wyarom an Txzulebam ar icis eliozis dedis saxeli. mxolod m. sabinini wers,
rom mas sara erqva...~ (mamisTvaliSvili 2003: 26). eliozis dis saxelis isto-
riis mokle mimoxilvaSi e. mamisTvaliSvili dasZens: `ramdenadac CemTvis
cnobilia pirvelad mis saxels gvamcnobs XIX saukunis rusi mkvlevari m.
selezniovi. savaraudoa, rom man erTmaneTSi auria I da IV saukuneebis pirov-
nebebi: IV saukuneSi moRvawe ebraeli abiaTari mRvdlis asuli, wm. ninos mowa-
fe, Tanamzraxveli, TanamebrZoli, misi `cxovrebis erT-erTi avtori, erT-
erTi pirveli qristianTagani _ sidonia, I saukuneSi kvarTTan erTad dak-
rZalul eliozis dad moixsenia~ (iqve, gv. 32). naSromis weris periodSi Cvenc
gagviCnda msgavsi mosazreba, magram ara m. selezniovTan dakavSirebiT; kvle-
va-Ziebam sxva Sedegamde migviyvana. T. batoniSvilis mier `sidonias~ saxel-
debam yovelgvari gaugebroba gafanta. m. selezniovsac (misi naSromi gamo-
qveynda 1847 wels), albaT, Teimurazisgan aqvs aRebuli eliozis dis saxeli.
Teimuraz batoniSvilis Txzuleba misi gardacvalebidan ori wlis Semdeg,
1848 wels, daibeWda. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom Tavisi cxovrebis didi
nawili Teimurazma peterburgSi gaatara (iq Cavida 1911 wels; amave wels
imperatorma aleqsandre I-ma Teimurazi wm. anas pirveli xarisxis ordeniT
daajildova), rom 1814 wels igi a. golicinma (ruseTis sinodis ober-proku-
rori, bibliuri sazogadoebis Tavmjdomare) ruseTis bibliuri sazogado-
ebis wevrad Caricxa, rom igi 1831 wels `saazio sazogadoebis~ wevria, xolo
1837 wels _ peterburgis saimperatoro mecnierebaTa akademiis sapatio
26


wevri. amdenad, gasakviri araa, m. selezniovs Teimurazisagan rom scodnoda
eliozis dis saxeli `sidonia~. amgvari varaudi sarwmunod gveCveneba, miT
ufro, rom, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, arc Zvel qarTul da arc rusul wyaroeb-
Si saxeli `sidonia~ ar gvxvdeba.
Zvel qarTul wyaroebSi eliozis dis saxelis `sidonias~ mouxseneblobis
mizezad Cven misi tabuirebis faqtoric vivaraudeT, rasac TxzulebebSi
uflis kvarTis adgilmdebareobis gasaidumloebis warmomaCeneli epizode-
bis arseboba gvafiqrebinebs. kerZod, rodesac mefem qvis eklesiis Seneba
daiwyo da Seityo, rom eruSeTsa da mangliss `dautevnes~ siwmindeebi,
Sewuxda, damSvidda maSin, roca mTavarepiskoposisma amcno, rom ebraelebma
mcxeTaSi `dafares~ uflis kvarTi, `da aw Svilni maTni arian, vin uwyis, Tu
adgilica icoden. xolo Jami misi merme ars, odes gamoCndes didebiT qu-
eyanasa zeda... da aRivso sixaruliTa mefe da myis moxadna yovelTa huriaTa
da hkiTxa, Tu: `namdlve?~ da maT auares marTali da ara uar-yves. da Tques,
viTarmed: aqeT warvides elioz mcxeTeli da longinoz kaniseli da Talenav
da misael~. da kuarTisa mis Tques wiliT xuedreba amaTi, xolo adgili igi
uar-yves~ (`moqceva qarTlisa~ 1963: , 87); wm. ninos dvineli `dedaberi~,
niafori mouTxrobs kvarTis mcxeTel ebraelTaTvis wilxvedris ambavs da
kvarTis qarTlSi waRebis faqts: `... da maT wariRes da dahkrZales. da vervin
SemZlebel ars xilvad da verca SeZvra missa, vidremdis ara TT ufalsa
undes~ (iqve, , 112); an kidev, eliozis mier kvarTCakruli dis damarxvasTan
dakavSirebiT sidonias monaTxrobSi aRniSnulia: `xolo elioz dahmarxa da
igi Tsi, da elTa misTa aqunda samoseli igi. da ars adgili igi, romeli
RmerTman icis, da icis dedaman Cemman nino da ara itys, rameTu ara jer-ars
sityuad aw. aramed ese xolo kma-iyavn ninos mowafeTaTs da qrists mor-
wmuneTa, rameTu maxlobel ars adgili igi naZusa mas libaniT mosrulsa da
mcxeTas danergulsa~ (iqve, f 129-130); aqve vkiTxulobT: `da aw ese samoseli
iesusi aqa ars uTqumelad vidre Jamadmde missa, rameTu mravalgzis maS-
roma dedaman Cemman nino mamisa Cemisa mimarT, raTamca gamovswulile adgi-
li igi samoslisa mis WeSmaritad, xolo man guliTad ese oden dadva Cuen
Tana: `ars adgili igi wmida samarxo misi, romelsa zeda enani angelozTa da
kacTani ara dadumden galobad RmrTisa mimarT, mas zeda xolo ars adgili
igi, viTarca adgili igi iakobisi kibed xiluli zecad mimarT aRwevnulad
amieriTgan ukunisamde, amen~ (iqve, , 130). amdenad, uflis kvarTis adgilsam-
yoflis aseTi gasaidumloeba eliozis dis saxelis gasaidumloebis safuZ-
vels qmnis, romelic ar gamJRavndeboda (kvarTis adgilis gamoaSkaravebis
msgavsad), `vidremdis ara TT ufalsa undes~ (iqve, , 112). meore mxriv, am-
gvari varaudis sisworeSi daeWvebis safuZveli gagviCina Teimuraz batoniS-
vilis mier `sidonias~ dasaxelebam, radgan Tu es saxeli tabuirebuli iyo,
bagrationTa gvaris warmomadgeneli (daviT winaswarmetyvelis Stodan, ro-
melTa gerbze uflis kvarTia gamosaxuli) am saidumlos ar gaacxadebda.
amasTanave isicaa gasaTvaliswinebeli, rom Teimurazma raRac wyarodan icis
es saxeli da albaT _ ara marto Teimurazma; SesaZloa, im epoqaSi damdgaria
`sidonias~ gacxadebis Jami. yovel SemTxvevaSi, XVIII s-is CaTvliT am saxelTan
dakavSirebiT Zveli qarTuli Txzulebebis dumili amgvar fiqrsac wamoWris.
yovelive zemoaRniSnulis mixedviT, albaT gamarTlebulia, rom Cven mi-
er eliozis dis saxelis warmoSobis istoriis calke sakiTxad gamoyofa da
Seswavla moxda. wyaroebis damowmebam da samecniero literaturis monace-
mebis safuZvelze misma dawvrilebiTma ganxilvam, garkveulwilad, Tvalna-
27


Teli gaxada eliozis dis saxelTan dakavSirebuli problematika da mis
Sesaxeb arsebuli azris ganviTarebis istoria. rasakvirvelia, Cveni naSromi
naklovanebebisagan dazRveuli araa, SesaZloa, rame wyaro an samecniero
naSromi gamogvrCa, isicaa SesaZlebeli, rom axlo momavalSi gamovlindes
istoriuli dokumenti, romelic naSromSi miRebuli daskvnebis gadaxedvas
moiTxovdes.


damowmebani:

barnaveli 1965: barnaveli s. saqarTvelos sabeWdavebi da sxva gliptikuri
masalebi. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1965.
barnaveli 1953: barnaveli s. qarTuli droSebi. Tbilisi: saq. ssr. mecn.
akademiis gamomcemloba, 1953
mamisTvaliSvili 2003: mamisTvaliSvili e. qristes kvarTis istoria. gori:
goris sax. niversitetis gamomcemloba, 2003
mesxia 1982: mesxia S. Teimuraz batonoSvili. Tbilisi: gamomcemloba `sabWoTa
saqarTvelo~, 1982
`moqceva qarTlisa~ 1963: `moqceva qarTlisa~. _ Zveli qarTuli
agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi. t. I, red. il. abulaZe. Tb.: saq.ssr mecn.
akademiis gamomcemloba, 1963.
sabinini 1882: sabinini m. saqarTvelos samoTxe. `sruli aRwera RuawlTa da
vnebaTa saqarTulos wmidaTa~. Cypb, peterburgi: 1882.
sabinini 1899: sabinini m. axsna suraTisa _ `saqarTvelos wminda
marTlmadidebeli eklesiis dideba. sanktpeterburgi: 1899 (rusul enaze).
sabinini 1877: sabinini m. iveriis (qarTuli) eklesia VI saukunis dasasrulamde.
sanktpeterburgi: 1877 (rusul enaze).
sayvareliZe 2001: sayvareliZe T. ra gadagvrCa mcxeTuri jvar-xatebidan.
`saqarTvelos sapatriarqo~, 4, 2001.
sulava 2008: sulava n. gulaberisZe nikoloz. Txzulebani. gamosacemad
moamzada, gamokvleva, leqsikoni da saZieblebi daurTo n. sulavam. mcxeTa: 2008.
yubaneiSvili 1964: yubaneiSvili s. Teimuraz bagrationis werilebi akad. m.
brosesadmi. teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, winasityvaoba, SeniSvnebi da
saZieblebi daurTo s. yubaneiSvilma. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1964.
SaraZe 1974: SaraZe g. Teimuraz bagrationi. bibliografi da koleqcioneri.
Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1974.


28


Nana Gonjilashvili

The First Georgian Saint's Name "Sidonia"

Summary

As a result of the study of old Georgian texts it becomes clear that in the Sinai
manuscript of The Life of St. Nino (N/Sin-50 9
th
-10
th
cc.), Shatberdi-Chelishi (10
th-
12
th

cc.) redaction, redactions of Leonti Mroveli (11
th
c.), Arsen the Monk (12
th
c.) and an
anonymous author (13
th
c.) the person embracing the tunic is the sister of Elioz, who is
referred to sometimes as a woman or the dead woman (after her death). Arsen the
Monk, who extends the text in accordance with metaphrastic translation, pronouncedly
calls Eliozs sister a maiden, adorned with virtue and piety. Obviously, her name is
unknown to the authors, as she is not referred to as Sidonia in any of these redactions. It
turns out that from the 9
th
c. to the middle of the 18
th
c. the name of Eliozs sister Sidonia is
not mentioned in any Georgian source. In stories of The Life of St. Nino, published in the
19
th
c., the sister of Elioz is mostly referred to as Sidonia, which is deemed as fact
generally known to all the Georgians.
On the basis of the considered material it may be concluded that the name of Eliozs
sister, Sidonia, taking the Lords tunic in her arms and folding it to her breast, appears in
the 19
th
c, and thus, the further research will continue by the study of fiction and scholarly
literature of that period.
Georgian and foreign scientists investigators in XX-XIX centuries, which consider
issues of Kartli act and promote Lords tunic history, they mention the name of Elioz
sister who embracing the tunic or in generally not mention or they call Sidonia, as the fact
which is known for everyone, but they do not name the source .
In work of Teimuraz Batonishvili History from the initial Iberia eighteen centuries
from the first time we meet the name of Elioz sister who embracing the tunic- Sidonia
and the name of Elioz mother Sara. Teimuraz Batonishvili adds new episodes and
information with Lords tunic narrated in the related without named of sources. The name
of Elioz sister Sidonia and some of it related to the passage in Georgians consciousness
acknowledged as a traditional note .Almost nobody knows that this is the merit of
Teimuraz Batonishvili and not The life of saint Nino editions of ancient data.
During the rendering narratives of M. Sabinini Lords tunic based on work of
Teimuraz Batonishvili. Mark the name of Elioz sister In Georgian Paradise presented
In reading of Nikoloz Gulaberidze by M. Sabinini, Sidonia the name of Elioz sister
which was bracketed, also In Fame of Georgian saint orthodox church played the
greatest role in the popularization and establishment of the name Sidonia who is
Eliozs sister.







29


goCa kuWuxiZe

besikis Semoqmedebis aRmosavlur-dasavluri
aspeqtebis urTiermimarTebisaTvis

erT-erTi umTavresi niSani, rac besarion gabaSvilisaTvis aris damaxasi-
aTebeli, es misi mravalmxrivoba, stilis mravalferovnebaa. masTan moCans
aRmosavluri poeziisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli leqsika, metaforebi, Sedare-
bebi; amavdroulad, besikis poeziaSi igrZnoba suli romantikuli, daucxro-
meli adamianisa, romelic `aRmosavlur CarCoebSi ver Cerdeba~ da axali sam-
yaroebis, axlis Sesacnobad aris mzad. Tumc, iqneb aRzrdis, iqneb _ garemos
gamo, masSi jer ar xdeba am CarCoebisgan srulyofili gaTavisufleba da,
vTqvaT, romantikosad igi jer ver yalibdeba. besiki erTgvari Sualeduri
rolis ganmasaxierebelia warsulsa da momavals, aRmosavleTsa da dasav-
leTs Soris.
satrfialo leqsebis umetesobaSi moCans romantikuli suli kacisa, ro-
melic aRmosavluri poeturi tradiciebisagan gaTavisuflebisaTvis Sinaga-
nad ukve mzad aris. zogierT leqsze dakvirveba aSkaras xdis, rom poeti-
saTvis aRmosavluri tropebi mxolod erTgvari fandia, romelic leqsSi re-
aluri garemosa da pirovnebebis gasaidumloebisaTvis aris saWiro. cno-
bilia, rom besiki moxerxebulad malavs leqsebSi moxseniebul mSvenier
asulTa vinaobas. `vard-bulbulianis Tema~ amisaTvis mSvenieri saSualeba
gamodga. `vard-bulbulianis TemasTan~ miaxloeba besikisaTvis TviTmizani
ar aris, _ aseTi stilis leqsebSi moCans suli, romelic iSviaTad erToba
sityvaTa TviTmiznuri urTierTgariTmviT. CvenSi Taviseburi, _ namdvili
aRmosavluri poeziisagan gansxvavebuli saxiT Semosuli aRmosavluri
leqsi besikis SemoqmedebaSi nel-nela ukan iwyebs daxevas.
leqsSi `sevdis baRi~ riTmebi da, saerTod, leqsis formaluri mxare
kargad aris mowesrigebuli, magram formaze metad axalgazrda kacis da-
uokebeli gzneba da siyvarulisagan tanjva aris TvalSi mosaxvedri;
poetisaTvis sruliad ucxoa zedmetad Senelebuli ritmi, sruli auCqareb-
loba, garTobis, erTgvari `sizarmacis~ ganwyobilebac ki:

sevdis baRs Sevel SenaRonebi:
mokrefad msurda vardis konebi.
vardman Semrisxa Tavmomwonebi,
isari mtyorcna dasamonebi.

besikTan erT asuls vardi hqvia, meores ia, mesames nargizi. `vardTan~
miaxlebul besiks Zalze mrisxaned eqceva misi dedofali; poeti `vardis~
megobrebs sTxovs daxmarebas: `nazi ia~ sayvedurobs: `Cven dagvTmeo da sxvas
emonebi~; igic uwyreba besiks; `nargizi~ ufro TanaugrZnobs...
al. baramiZis azriT, leqsSi moxseniebuli `ia~, _ es igive yularaRasis
qali _ maiaa, romelsac metsaxelad ias eZaxdnen (besiki 1932: 049). miCneulia,
rom `ia~ erT-erTi satrfo iyo poetisa... Tumc, leqsSi sityvebi: `Cven dag-
vTme~, SesaZloa, sulac ar niSnavdes imas, rom Tavis Tavsac besikis satrfod
miiCnevda `ia~, _ ufro iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom, am SemTxvevaSi, ro-
gorc `dedoflis~ megobari, misi mesaidumle, ise laparakobs `ia~. `vardis~
30


garda, sxva qalTanac uZebnia poets siyvaruli da amitom aRar Rebuloben
`baRSi~.
sxva leqsSi (`bulbuli modis mwuxarebiT~) poets urCeven, datovos es
`baRi:

bulbulo, gadi am baRidam Senis nebiTa,
Torem krazana Sen dagCagravs yovlis gzebiTa.

Tu pirveli mrCeveli wasvlas urCevs, meores miaCnia, mgosanma patieba
unda sTxovos, Cans, Zalze enamware `krazanas~, Tanac urCeven dasaxmareblad
`nargizs~ mimarTos:

wadi, bulbulo, Sen mebaRes Sehfice sjuli,
krazans evedre, mogiteos danaSauli;
nargisTan kaci gaagzavne: srul hqnan aRTqmuli,
mebaResTanac dagexmaros vardis eniTa.

mesame mrCevlis azriT, Tu `mebaRe~ `wyromiT~ naxa, sjobs, poetma `baRis
karTan~ Tavi moiklas, Semdeg isic urCevs _ `nargizi naxos~...
besikma icis, rom rCevebi veRaras uSvelis (Zalze dramatul sasiyvaru-
lo intrigebSi Cans gaxlarTuli sasaxlis karze) da sakuTari TavisaTvis
mZime ganaCeni gamoaqvs:

sikvdilo, modi, miibare bulbulis suli:
mebaRem daswyla da dahkoda bulbulis guli!
mkvdari besiki, modi mnaxe, Camidgi suli,
Tu gind miwasac mimabare moyvris eniTa!

xom sevdiania es leqsebi da xom sayovelTaod cnobilia besikis sevda,
magram aq Tbili, siyvaruliT savse iumoric igrZnoba (Rimilis momgvrelia
am idumalebiT mosili, Cans, Zalian didi gavlenis mqone qalbatonis, _
`nargizis~ xsenebac, _ araerTgzis urCeven masTan misvlas, raTa Seabralos
`vards~ besiki). aq Cans axalgazrda kacis dauokebeli Jini, rac iSviaTia
xolme sparsuli poeziiT gatacebuli zogierTi misi winamorbedi qarTveli
poetis SemoqmedebaSi (Tumc, rogorc ukve iTqva, sparsuli motivebiT gata-
cebul qarTvel poetebTan aRmosavluri poeziis siyvaruli moCans da ara _
marTla aRmosavluri, _ umSvenieresi leqsis specifika... xSir SemTxvevaSi
asea besikTanac. am sakiTxs qvemoT mivubrundebiT), aq moCans suli kacisa,
romelic sityvaTa urTierTgariTmviT ki ar erToba, aramed xalas siyva-
ruls aRugznia, mousvenaria da sevdasTan erTad Tbil iumors amJRavnebs.
besikis poezia, misi sevda ar aris egzaltirebuli cremliT, moTqma-gode-
biT nazavi, _ sevdis miRma iumori aSkarad igrZnoba mis araerT leqsSi da
moCans suli, romelic Sinaganad mzad aris, rom sparsuli majamebis weras
Tavi daanebos da romantizms mimarTos.
zogierT leqsSi TiTqos Zveli da axali formebi ebrZvis erTmaneTs.
xSirad igrZnoba, rom Zvels TiTqos xarks uxdis poeti, magram axali
suliereba mainc cdilobs gzis gakafvas. amisi magaliTia leqsi _ `dedo-
fals anazed~. leqsi dasawyisSi aRmosavlursa da imdoisaTvis ukve Zvelebu-
ri stilisas gvagonebs:


31


var ucxo vinme yaribi
ama sityvisa mxmobeli,
ama muxTlisa soflisa
maginebeli, mgmobeli:
mona var misi mudamJam
da misi Semamkobeli, _
igia Cemi xelmwife
da Cemi damadnobeli!

Semdeg soflis mdurvis motivi ukan ixevs da nel-nela axleburi, ufro
gaxalxurebuli, _ qarTul esTetikasTan axlos myofi intonaciebi
Semodis:

vfucav, me arvin mixilavs,
rom ars SvenebiT anao!
mTvaresa ezraxeboda:
`Sen ver xar CemisTanao!~
varskvlavni misda samonod
gars udgen TanisTanao!
mxilvelno, damemowmeniT:
kargi yofila ganao?

am strofSi riTma, `ana~-ze gakeTebuli aliteracia ukve sruliad araxe-
lovnur saxes Rebulobs. aq ver vxedavT sxva leqsebSi araerTgzis gamov-
lenil simZimes enisa, `maRal Stils~, aRmosavlur frazeologias rom erwy-
mis xolme. TiTqos qarTuli xalxuri zRapris samyaro Semosula leqsSi,
zRapari `sizmara~ gvaxsendeba, _ sizmara xedavs, Tu rogor wamosdgomian
TavTiT varskvlavebi da TiTqos zeciur wyals apkureben... gulis siRrmidan
modis, bavSvuri sulis mqoned aRqmuli gogonasadmi udidesi siyvaruliT
gamTbari sityvebi igrZnoba... Semdeg es qarTuli xalxuri intonaciebi kle-
bulobs, isev aRmosavluri frazeologiis moWarbeba iwyeba. magram, am Sem-
TxvevaSi, besiki ufro im evropel poets emsgavseba, romelic romantikuli
TvalTaxedviT uyurebs aRmosavlur leqss da aRmosavlur frazeologias
erTgvari `TamaS-TamaSiT~ mimarTavs:

cnoba mimiRo da guli,
xedviT SemzRuda anaman;
kvlav momkla misman cialman
da welTa mimotanaman;
kokobsa vardsa nargizman
apkura cremli, anama.
da jobs rom ar hyavdes mijnuri,
an moklas amisTanaman!

Semdgom strofebSi ritmi icvleba, matulobs alegoriebi; satrfo So-
ridan ucinis, izidavs poets, magram axlos misuls guls ukodavs; erTgvarad
celqobis ganwyobileba Semodis leqsSi.

iagundi mocinarobs:
`margaritno, giaxelTo!~
saTis tbidan isars isvris:
vin gauvlis axlos velTo?
32


dalaxvravs da mZimed dahkods,
vels ganabnevs dia xelTo!
da netar, Tavo, gaqvndes gzao!
uvicadi giaxelTo!

Semdeg vxedavT, rom sityvaTa SenacvlebiT leqsis mesame nawilis dasa-
wyisi meordeba, ritmi icvleba. TiTqos am yaribis gza miaxlebia satrfos:

mimiRo cnoba _
ar ZalmiZms mkoba _
Cemman xelmqmnelma, lamazman aman!
emosa xeli,
iTno saxeli
misman guanman pawawinaman;
alxina guli,
wylul-dadaguli,
wyalobianman misman Sanaman.
da Tqmulia Zvelad,
`vinc iyos xelad,
etrfe da mogklas amisTanaman!

iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom anasadmi miZRvnili, sxvadasxva dros, sxvada-
sxvagvari ganwyobilebiT dawerili leqsebi Semdeg aris gaerTianebuli...
am leqsSi, rogorc vnaxeT, aris aRmosavluri metaforebi da aRmosavlu-
ri leqsisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli leqsika (`yaribi~, `ama muxTlisa soflisa
mgmobeli~...), aRmosavluri metaforebi (`iagundi~, `margariti~...), magram
zemoTac iTqva, rom besikTan evropeli poetebisaTvis xSir SemTxvevaSi dama-
xasiaTebeli, _ aRmosavluri metaforebis gamoyenebis survili ufro ig-
rZnoba, vidre _ tipiuri aRmosavluri specifikiT werisa...
aRmosavlurobasTan mimarTebaSi sainteresoa besikis cnobili leqsi
`tano tatano~, romelic gadatvirTulia aRmosavluri metaforebiT. am
leqsSi `miwieri mSveniereba antikuri qandakebis sisavsiT feTqavs~ (qarTu-
li mwerloba 1984: 52):

tano tatano, gulwamtano, ucxod marebo!
zilfo-kavebo, momklavebo, versakarebo!
warb-wamwam-Tvalno, misaTvalno, Semazarebo!
Zow-lal-bageo, damdageo, sulT wamarebo!
piro mTvareo, momigone, mzisa darebo!

`tano tatano~ zogjer besikiseuli erotikis tipiur gamovlinebad miaC-
niaT (besiki 1932: 056)... `aRmosavluri Jinuwyveteli erotika besikis soci-
alur gznebebs emTxveva~ (besiki 1932: 057)... erTi SexedviT, leqsSi marTlac
Zalian Zlierad vlindeba besikis `aRmosavluroba~. am azrs metaforaTa
siuxvec aZlierebs. saerTod, yuradRebas iqcevs, rom amden metaforasa da
SedarebaSi satrfos pirovneba, misi xasiaTis niSani, oriode sityvaSi gamok-
rTeba mxolod, roca besiki mas uwodebs `kekela mardos~, sxvagan ki asulis
pirovnebas, mis suls, saerTod verc vxedavT; amden metaforaSi arc misi kon-
kretuli garegnoba Cans, _ viciT, rom besiki Zalian lamaz asuls mimarTavs,
romelsac aqvs `tani tatani~, `zilfi kavebi~, `piri mTvare~, magram ufro da-
zustebulad ver vxedavT mas. TiTqos sadRac Sors bundovnad ilandeba
umSvenieresi asuli, magram erTi konkretuli asulis garegnobas ki ver vxedavT:
33


alvao, gesxnes orni norCni mosarxevelni,
mklavni momklavni, TiTni Tlilni mosaxvevelni,
zarifsa welsa daekvirvnes qveyanad mvlelni;
odes gnaxvidi, Sevimatni aTasni welni.
aw damlevian yovlni dReni, ucxod varebo!

am leqsSi igrZnoba, rom aRmosavluri tradiciebis wabaZviT weras
qarTvelTaTvis sakuTari Tavi amouwuravs da didi ganaxlebis dro
moaxloebula.
magram es leqsi popularuli iyo saqarTveloSi da mizezi is aris, rom
udidesi niWierebiTa da STagonebiT aris dawerili, gulis didi siRrmeebi-
dan modis igi (besikis `poetur metyvelebas uSualo grZnobebi iwvevs~... _
al. baramiZe, _ besiki 1932: 056). aRar icis poetma, vis Seadaros es asuli,
rogor miealersos; uamrav Sedarebasa da metaforas xmarobs, TiTqos uCve-
nebs, rom, ra Sedarebasac ar unda mimarTos, es mSveniereba sityviT mainc ver
aRiwereba. `bage mdumriad gialerseb, bageo vardo~... ara da, _ Soridan, war-
mosaxviT ealerseba satrfos. TiTqos sadRac, Sors, eniT auwereli silamaze
sufevs, magram verc poeti da verc Cven Tvals ver vawvdenT mas. poeti
ambobs: `TvalTa hsurian xilva Seni~... sargis caiSvilis TqmiT (igi leqss Zve-
li qarTuli lirikis Sedevrs uwodebs), am leqsSi `TiTqos erTi amosunTqvi-
Taa miwyobili erTmaneTze Zvirfasi qvebi da moulodneli saxeebi da, rac
mTavaria, miuxedavad ferTa siWarbisa, arsad ar ilaxeba natifi poeturi
qsovili~ (caiSvili 1962: 664). leqsis bolos poeti amasRa RaRadebs:

Senma gonebam mimamsgavsa mileuls mTvares:
sicocxlis nacvlad movinatri sikvdilsa mwares!
modiT, mijnurno, SemibraleT, movleT Cems ares,
mkvdari mijnuri damitireT, damfalT samares!
va, sicocxleo ukuRmarTo, danacarebo!

da am `aRmosavluri erotikis~ samyaroSi vxedavT, rom TiTqos rusTve-
lisdroindel tradiciasac exmaureba besiki maSin, roca gamijnurebul
adamianebs mouxmobs (mijnurma mijnurs unda gaugos).
da, rac ar unda moulodneli mogveCvenos, bolo taepebSi bundovnad,
Zalian bundovnad, is intonaciebic ukve krTis, SemdgomSi baraTaSvilTan
rom gamomJRavnda (`nu davimarxo Cemsa mamulSi~... `Savi yorani gamiTxris
saflavs~...), _ satrfosagan orive dautirebeli, erTi mijnurTagan, meore
Savi yoranis mier gaTxril samarxSi daemarxeba rogorc am qveynidan gaqce-
uli ucxo yaribi... da SeiZleba iTqvas, rom besikis es leqsic aRmosavleTi-
dan dasavleTisaken eZiebs gzas...
am mimarTebiT gavixsenoT besikis erTi leqsi (`vaSa mas dRes~). pirvel
strofSi ukve igrZnoba romantizmis sunTqva:

vaSa mas dRes, ros ganmeRo cis kari!
gankvirveba mWvretT sasurvod ismoda!
naTelsa sTovs afroditi ciskari,
elvarobiT topazis taxts ismoda!



34


magram ukve meore strofidan isev Zveleburi aRmosavluri suliereba
Semodis leqsSi, TiTqos qarTuli leqsisaTvis arabunebrivi aRmosavluri
majamebi ar aZleven suls zecisaken aRmafrenisa da Tavisuflad ganavarde-
bis saSualebas:

mzed turfaobs SvenebiTa is are,
melnis tbani nargizTagan isare;
satrfosaTvis zro taniTa isare,
kekluc-nazad erxeoda, ismoda.
.........................................................
brolsa da Zows TanxmobiTa agebsa,
vin mcbierobs, ena misTvis agebsa;
nuRar sWmunav qufrad bindsa agebsa?
qveynisaTvis nelsacxeblad ismoda!

roca mkiTxveli gaecnoba besikis leqss: `anze siT moxval~, dainaxavs,
rom am SemTxvevaSi poets izidavs sityvaTa xelovnuri misadagebiT erTgvari
TamaSi, rac sparsofiluri tendenciebis mqone zogierT poets xSir SemTx-
vevaSi axasiaTebda, Tumca, besiki am leqsiT `vefxistyaosnis~ samyarosTan
cdilobs miaxloebas da ar hgavs aRmosavluri majamebis zmaSi garTul po-
ets, romelic, dinjad damjdara xaliCaze fexmorTxmiT da sityvaTa
`tkbilxmovanebiT~ msmenelis `datkbobas~ cdilobs; _ igi, `aTinas gazrdi-
li~, TiTqos stumrad swvevia azias:

aTinad brZenTa gazrdili aziad vmgzavrob aresa,
amirbars veyme avTandil amod ra lmobiaresa!
alvisa mSvildi SemSvenda israd aryisa mxmaresa;
arwivs afskasa Sevagen hair mofrinva-mkmaresa.

am zmebsa da `anbanTqebebs~ Taviseburi xiblic aqvs, ris Sesaxebac qvemoT
gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas.
gavixsenoT besikis erTi leqsi _ `bulbulis Sursa~:

mRimaris piriT wamepare, damidgi maxe,
ase megona, SemrCeboda eg Seni saxe:
anTebuls cecxlsa Sesawvelad xeli Segaxe.
damwvari mainc Semibrale, besiki naxe!
va Seni brali, Cemo Tavo, Rrubels Saxveli!

TiTqos RvTaeba, zeciuri angelozi uxilavs poets da axla, roca `gapa-
rula~ misgan es RvTaeba, aRarc ki sjera, rom marTla unaxavs igi. `umzeod~
aris darCenili. es strofi formalurad sufistur poeziasTan amJRavnebs
siaxloves (formalurad sufisturs waagavs, magaliTad, es striqonebic:
`Tqmulia Zvelad: `vinc iyos xelad, /etrfe da mogklas amisTanaman!~ _ `de-
dofals anazed~), magram, besiki sufizmisgan Sors dgas da arc mistikosi ar
aris (al. baramiZis aRniSvniT, `besikis poezia ar icnobs mistikas, arc ganye-
nebul alegorizmsaa Cveuli~ _ besiki 1932: 054) da, Tu zogjer sufisturi
poeziisaTvis damaxasiaTebel striqonebsac vxedavT besikTan, misi poeziis
saerTo konteqstis fonze sruliad cxadi xdeba, rom satrfosTan xorciel
siaxloveze meocnebe poetTan amgvari striqonebi sufisturi Sinaarsisagan
sruliad daclilia. besikTan RvTaeba-cecxlTan miaxloebis saSiSroebaze,
35


RvTaebriv sulierebaSi pirovnuli `me~-s dakargvis safrTxeze, arasodes ar
aris laparaki. erTianad gamijnurebulma poetma satrfoze SeiZleba Tqvas
`etrfe da mogklas amisTanaman~ da, vfiqrobT, sruliad cxadia, aq sufis-
turi winadadeba absoluturad sxva Sinaarss iZens, poeti didi siyvarulis
gamoxatvas sxva veRarafriT axerxebs da satrfos eubneba _ Tu gind,
momkalio...
zogjer miaCniaT, rom besiki erT-erTi winamorbedi da ganmamtkicebelia
`aSuRuri poeziisa~ (i. bagrationi, al. xaxanaSvili, g. gareli, k. kekeliZe, s.
gorgaZe, t. tabiZe, ak. gawerelia, p. muradiani... _ ix. SayulaSvili 1995).
SesaZloa, es asec iyos. magaliTad, sityvebi: `damwvari mainc Semibrale,
besiki naxe~ marTlac muxambazur-aSuRuri intonaciis Semcvels hgavs; SesaZ-
loa, Tavisdauneburad besikic iyos muxambazuri tradiciebis ganmtkicebis
erT-erTi xelSemwyobi, magram, vfiqrobT, rom TviTon besikisaTvis sruliad
ucxoa tipiuri muxambazuri leqsi. besikTan sityva `damwvari~ odnav gan-
sxvavebul emocias aRZravs, TiTqos xumrobiT eubneba satrfos _ cecxls
xeli Segaxe, daviwvi da mnaxeo (`anTebuls cecxlsa Sesawvelad xeli Segaxe,
damwvari mainc Semibrale~... sufistur winadadebas Taviseburad gardaqmnis,
_ TiTqosda marTla xelis dawvaze laparakobdes da siyvaruliT dawvis
aSuRuri motivic Zalian sustad JRers mis leqsSi). aSuRur poeziaSi ki
sityva `dawva~ xSiri xmarebis Semdeg besikisebur JReradobas mTlianad kar-
gavs da muxambazuri kilos warmoSobis SesaniSnav safuZvels qmnis... aSuRur
poeziaSi aseTi sityvebi zogjer banaluri xdeba da vulgarul saxesac
Rebulobs (cxadia, ara _ yovelTvis). besikiseuli im sityvebis xSirad game-
orebam, romlebic cecxlSi dawvasa Tu satrfosadmi Sebralebis Txovnas Se-
exeba, SemdgomSi, SesaZloa, gansxvavebuli Sinaarsi SeiZina da, vfiqrobT,
amgvarad iqca besiki aSuRuri poeziis aRmocenebis erT-erT winamorbedad
da ganmamtkiceblad (besikis mravalmxrivoba am mimarTebiTac aris sainte-
reso, igi aSuRuri poeziis konteqstSic ganixileba), SesaZloa, besikisgan
sazomebic gadaiRes aSuRebma, zogier SemTxvevaSi besikTanac gvxvdeba aSu-
Ruri intonacia, magram, vimeorebT, besikisaTvis aSuRuri leqsis specifika
ucxoa. prof. giorgi SayulaSvili aRniSnavs, rom aSuRuri da, saerTod,
aRmosavluri poeziisaTvis umetes SemTxvevaSi niSandoblivia: 1. satrfos
Seucvleloba; 2. metrfesa da satrfos Soris vasaluri damokidebuleba; 3.
satrfos gulcivoba; 4. metrfes Tavdadebuloba; 5. metrfesagan sapasuxo
siyvarulis armoTxovna; 6. satrfos moRalateoba (SayulaSvili 1995);
mkvlevari besikis or leqsze msjelobisas (`sevdis baRs Sevel~, `bulbulis
Sursa~) wers, rom `pirvel leqsSi gadalaxulia aRmosavluri literaturis
mniSvnelovani Teoriuli faqtura _ pirobiTi ganzomileba, gonismieri
Wvreta, irealuri gaazreba satrfialo obieqtisa. trfialis obieqti mrav-
lobiTSia warmodgenili (alegoriulad vardi, ia, nargizi), rac TavisTavad
xsnis aRmosavluri lirikis kuTvnil pirobiT-irealur gaazrebas~ (SayulaS-
vili 1984). mkvlevari aq aRmosavluri poeziis ZiriTad tendenciebze lapa-
rakobs, _ amgvari kriteriumebi, cxadia, yvela aRmosavleli poetisaTvis ar
aris miRebuli... giorgi SayulaSvili cxadyofs, rom es ZiriTadi ten-
denciebi ar aris damaxasiaTebeli besarion gabaSvilisaTvis. amdenad, vime-
orebT, Tu aSuRurma poeziam besiki Tavis erT-erT winamorbedad gaixada, es
ar niSnavs imas, rom igi aSuR poetad miviCnioT; SeiZleba iTqvas, _ besik
gabaSvili im erTgvar Suamavlad gvesaxeba, romelic qarTuli aSuRuri
poeziis Camoyalibebas ise aZlevs stimuls, rom TviTon ar aris aSuRi...
36


aSuRi ar aris da, saerTod, aRmosavluri poeturi tradiciac, sxva qarT-
velTa msgavsad, rogorc iTqva, mxolod formaa misTvis, rac poetis Semoq-
medebas ufro mravalferovans xdis... am mravalmxriv poetSi ukve Zalumad
igrZnoba swrafva dasavleTisken...
leqsSi `cremlTa isxarni~ (zogierT xelnawerSi _ `isarni~) besiki Tavis
gaZevebaze Civis, samSobloSi darCenil megobrebs ase mimarTavs:

ros gvagondebiT, SevRondebiT, lomno yma-Zmano,
Tanzrdilno sworno, ganaSorno, sayvarlad kmano!
va kideganTa, esden TqmaTa glovisa xmano,
atadis kalos, savalalos, sada xarT, Tqmano!
dagvberna qarman dauwynarman, zRvad vifareniT.

marTla gamwarebuli, samSoblodan mimavali poeti TiTqos mefes gamos-
Zaxis, cdilobs auxsnas, rom misi erTgulia, sxva patroni ar unda:

sxvamca patroni, anu droni, verRa davsaxeT,
yaribTa bani, gzis sabani, ekliT SevsCmaxeT!

besiki ver eRirsa ereklesagan Sendobas.
satrfialo leqsebidan Cven kargad vxedavT besikis mousvenarsa da mu-
dam maZiebar, albaT, Secdomebis Camden, magram _ daudegar suls, am da sxva
leqsebidan igrZnoba, ra gulwrfeli siyvaruliT uyvars mas megobrebi, rom-
lebic ojaxis gasaxlebis Semdeg axal ojaxad eqcnen, megobrebisadmi iseTi
uangaro siyvaruli igrZnoba am axalgazrda kacis sulSi, rogoric, magali-
Tad, puSkinisaTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli. yovelive zemoTqmulis Semdeg, al-
baT, Zneli warmosadgeni ar aris, ra saSineli tragedia iqneboda besikisaT-
vis samSoblodan gaZeveba, satrfosa Tu megobarTagan ZaliT mocileba... es
mefisa da megobrebisadmi mimarTuli leqsad Seqmnili erTgvari werilia.
amgvari stilisa sxva leqsebic aqvs dawerili besiks...
Tu besikis mravalmxrivobaze gavamxvilebT yuradRebas, leqsebis garda,
cxadia, misi poeziis sxva Janrebzec aucileblad unda visaubroT.
besiks ekuTvnis ori patriotuli poema: `aspinZisaTvis~ da `ruxis brZo-
la~. poemaSi `aspinZisaTvis~ aspinZasTan osmalebze da lekebze qarTvelTa
gamarjvebis Sesaxeb aris moTxrobili. `ruxis brZolaSi~ aRwerilia samegre-
los samTavroze 1780 wels afxazTa, jiqTa da alanTa Tavdasxmisa da am omSi
kacia dadianisa da mis dasaxmareblad mosuli imerTa mefis solomon
pirvelis gamarjvebis ambavi.
rogorc cnobilia, ruseT-osmaleTis omis dros (1768-1774 ww) TurqTa da
lekTa winaaRmdeg mefe erekles ruseTis jarTan erTad unda ebrZola.
saqarTveloSi Camosuli iyo samxedro korpusi totlebenis meTaurobiT,
raTa gaerTianebul jars axalcixis safaSosagan qarTvelTaTvis warTmeuli
teritoriebi gaeTavisuflebina. jari awyuris cixes miadga, magram totle-
benma moulodnelad erekle mefe mters marto Seatova. ereklem sakuTari
ZalebiT daamarcxa mteri. poeti mkacr Sefasebas aZlevs totlebenis saqci-
els, amasTan, igrZnoba, rom igi orWoful mdgomareobaSia, _ ar icis, marto
totlebeni daadanaSaulos momxdarSi Tu, saerTod, _ ruseTis xelisuf-
leba. totlebens ki Tavisuflad gvixatavs uRirs kacad:


37


va, mas dRisa momxsenma viTar vin riT ganvaqiqo?!
cili dasdves mefes rusTa: `CvenTvis keTils ara iqo!~
Rrafi jariT gamobrunda, miT saxeli vera iqo, _
sxva pasuxi arvis misca: `siTac movel, waval iqo!

es strofi martivi, xalxuri, sasaubro eniT aris dawerili da odnav
guramiSviliseuli intonaciac igrZnoba masSi.
poeti ase aqebs daviT sardals:

maSin guls dahkar mjiRiTa, miwani SesZren ryeviTa,
cxenman Segatyo SeqSena, Semzada tani nZreviTa;
Tvalni nakvercxlad Segeqmnes, aSeTdi sisxlmoreviTa,
cxvirisa nestvTa mohqroden qarni qveynisa ngreviTa.

aspinZis omSi gamarjvebis mTavari sulisCamdgmeli erekle mefe iyo.
mecnierebaSi SeniSnulia, rom `besikma gverdi auara erekles. man sagangebod
Seamko mxolod sardlis qveloba. besikma daviT sardals miawera aspinZaSi
mopovebuli gamarjveba~ (kekeliZe, baramiZe 1969: 472)... amasTan, unda iTqvas,
rom poeti ereklesac ar iviwyebs, _ aRniSnavs, rom `TviT mefe, qarTvel da
kaxni omis xalisiT xldebodes~, brZanebs, rom omis Semdeg gamarjvebas
`miulocvidnen mefesa~.
`ruxis omSi~ besikTan solomoni mefur sidinjes ar kargavs, Tumca, cxa-
dia, brZolis dros Sinaganad isic mRelvarebs. mefe loculobs, RvTismSo-
bels evedreba Semweobas; Semdeg ki `frTovan vefxs~ damsgavsebuli ibrZvis:

mefe mSvidi amas zedan gulisobs da ara laRobs,
gulsa mjiRTa nel ikrvida, yovlTa gulic masTan daRobs,
`RvTismSobelo!~mTqmelobs; TvaliT cremlTa ruebs warmonaRobs,
da vefx-frTovanad gardisaxobs gmirTa gmiri, saRTa-saRobs.

poeti qebiT ixseniebs kacia dadians, giorgi wulukiZes, elizbar
erisTavs...
elizbar erisTavis brZolis suraTs iseTi cocxali da dinamiuri ritmiT
gadmogvcems, riTmulad ise ostaturad aris sityvebi erTmaneTTan misada-
gebuli, TiTqos cocxlad vgrZnobT im silaRes, elizbar erisTavs rom
sdevda brZolisas:

avazobdis, gagazobdis,
dahqrolvidis da sTrolvidis;
navardobdis, Savardnobdis,
miwas dascis dahqrolvidis;
anazrobdis, anazdobdis,
ganhkafdis da gansrolvidis;
milaRobdis, Tamamobdis,
ganabnevdis, ganstrolvidis.

unda iTqvas, rom, sargis caiSvilis azriT, `poema aSkarad gadatvirTu-
lia zedmetad xotbiTi elementebiT da adgils ar tovebs ambis epikuri
TxrobisaTvis~ (caiSvili 1966: 667). `rac Seexeba poemis enas, besiki aq garda-
metebul maRalfardovnebasa da RvlarWnil stils misdevs, rac naTelia,
Tundac poemis pirvelive striqonebidanve: `odes ixarebs daviT, suliersa
Cangsa Tana suliTa mRaRadebeli mefe, da ityvis: `_ aw aRmisrulna aR-
38


mTqmelman keTilobaman, viTarmed erTgzis vefuceo wmidasa Cemsa daviTs!~
romlisa Semdgomi, msgavsad sityvisa mis, miecemoda mefobai Seni~.~ mkvleva-
ris TqmiT, _ `ruxis omi~ aSkara xarkia poeti-kariskacisa, romelsac, albaT,
dakveTiT Seusrulebia panegirikuli xasiaTis poema~. sargis caiSvili iqve
dasZens: `magram aq aris Zlieri pasaJebic, farTo bataliebi, rac saerTod
exerxeba besiks mis sxva nawarmoebebSic (mag. `aspinZisaTvis~) (iqve).
k. kekeliZisa da al. baramiZis aRniSvniT: `Tavisma imJamindelma sazoga-
doebrivma mdgomareobam saSualeba ar misca besiks ruxis brZolaSi amoeki-
Txa samwuxaro istoriuli simarTle, eCvenebina Cveni qveynis daZabunebisa da
erovnuli ubedurebis namdvili socialuri mizezebi~ (kekeliZe, baramiZe
1969: 474). cxadia, es marTlac asea, poets solomonisa da mis TanamebrZolTa
Seqeba aqvs miznad dasaxuli da SinaganxeTqilebis gamo wuxils marTlac ar
gamoxatavs, rogorc amas, magaliTad, daviT guramiSvili akeTebs; magram
solomoni warmodgenilia im mefed, romlis gareSe mSvidoba ver SenarCun-
deba da SarvaSiZis TviTnebobac ver ailagmeba; mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi es
mSvidi da vefxviseburad meomari solomoni besikis mier dasavleT saqarTve-
los simSvidis garantad da, iqneb, mis, da aramarto mis, potenciur gamaer-
Tianeblad moiazreba... qarTvelTa gaTiSuloba, cxadia, awuxebs poets,
cxadia, igi ocnebobs, rom gaerTiandes danawevrebuli saqarTvelo, _ iqneb,
Zalian cdeba, magram migvaniSnebs, rom solomons Seswevs saamiso Zali,
oRond, politikuri mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, amas aSkarad ar gamoxa-
tavs... poemaSi saqarTvelos danawilebaze marTlac ar aris wuxili gamoxa-
tuli, magram igrZnoba es wuxili, solomon mefis poziciebidan miniSnebulia
im pirovnebaze, visac qveynis gaerTianebis, yovel SemTxvevaSi, samTavroebs
Soris simSvidis SenarCunebis Zali Seswevs... is qarTvelebi, romlebic
TanamoZmeebis winaaRmdeg midian, qrTamis momlodine, qurdulad maval ada-
mianebad arian warmodgenilni (`aRTqmulni qrTamiT vlidenca RamiT~); moZ-
meTa gamyidvelebi arian SarvaSiZis momxreni... isini qurdulad, laCrulad
eparebian TvistomT... erTis mxriv, RamiT qurduli nabijebiT mosiarule
moRalate, meores mxriv, RvTismSoblis mimarT mlocveli, vefxviseburi
ZaliT meomari solomoni, _ marTlac rom STambeWdavi suraTia...
rac Seexeba poemas `rZal-dedamTiliani~, es ar aris mxolod gasarTobi
nawarmoebi, aq ufro ojaxuri tradiciebis damarRvevelni arian satiris
cecxlSi gatarebulni. tradiciaTa gadagvarebas rom dastiris besiki, es im
ironiidanac Cans, rac poemis bolos `vefxistyaosnis~ bolo strofis
reminiscenciidan (`dasrulda ese ambavi~) vlindeba. Cans, aq imis Tqma unda
poets, rom, erT dros Tu did raindebsa da maT Rirseul mijnurebze iyo
saWiro poemebis Seqmna, axla uRmerTo ojaxSi mcxovreb anCxl rZal-
dedamTilze gaxda saWiro wera:

dasrulda ese ambavi tkbilad sasmenli rZlebisa,
dedamTils hyvandis morCili rZali aseTi nebisa;
mas scemdes, saxlsa aqcevdes, iyos gamyreli Zmebisa,
qmars Tavsa sWrides siurcxviT, iyos Semkvreli grZnebisa .

rogorc miCneulia, `rZaldedamTilianis~ Tema xalxuria da es Tema qar-
Tvel mwerlebSi pirvelad besikma Semoitana. `mas unda esargebla xalxuri
masalebiT, Tumca ambavi gangeb Soreul ucxo qveyanaSi gadaaqvs da ucxouri
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis damaxasiaTebel movlenad acxadebs~ (kekeliZe,
baramiZe 1969: 474).
39


sarkazmsa da Zlier gaRizianebas gamoxatavs besiki mzeWabuk orbelianis
mimarT. mzeWabuk orbeliani, mdivanbegi, dapirispirebuli iyo besikTan, misi
ideuri mowinaaRmdege gaxldaT. mzeWabuk orbelianis obieqtur portrets,
cxadia, es leqsi ver mogvcems, _ aq piradi, subieqturi damokidebuleba
aris gamoxatuli. besikis biografiis calkeuli detalebis kargad dasanaxa-
vad ki, cxadia, leqsi kargi samsaxuris gamwevia; Tumca, vfiqrobT, es leqsi
didi mxatvruli Rirebulebisa mainc ar aris, masSi cudi, adamianuri Tvise-
bebis ganzogadeba ar xdeba, es mxolod da mxolod erTi konkretuli adami-
anis gariTmuli lanZRvaa:

`dampalo leSo, TvalxeneSo, gulRadarao~...
`ar-uziano, kuziano, mawunwarao~...
`Senma gaxeTqam, eSxi mohklavsT Senis welisa!~...
`ra kargi ram dabadebulxar! mag pirs: fuao!~

mirian batoniSvils gulwrfelad megobruli toniT mimarTavs. erT leq-
sSi kremenCukidan qarTvelTa cxovrebis Sesaxeb qilikiTa da xumrobiT
swers ambebs; es faqtiurad werilia leqsad gamogzavnili; meore leqsSi
ase swers ufliswuls qeba mibrZane da ar vici, ra vTqva, Seni Sesaferisio,
mere cotas marTla aqebs, uwodebs ganaTlebuls, `ver gavZel mzeriTa~-o,
locavs da meore strofidan ukve osmalebze esaubreba, isev qarTvelTa
ambebs uyveba... esec gariTmuli werilia.
samgloviaro oda _ `samZimari~ levan batoniSvils eZRvneba. erT-erT
xelnawers (B2539) axlavs ganmarteba: `samZimari aris mowerili besarion
gabaevisagan leonis mefis Zisa daviT orbelianTan~ (besiki 1932: 43). igrZno-
ba, rom besiki gulwrfelad dauRonebia taxtis Rirseuli memkvidris
sikvdils:

irodi mefobs,
sisxlis maxvils iefobs,
brZaneba mCqefobs,
xma muneburi mkrefobs!
raqel SvilT myefobs,
ZuZu naRvliTa mcqefobs;
quxili mWexobs,
grginva elviTa mgrexobs;
sikvdili mkvexobs,
lomsa mZinares ferxobs.

daaxloebiT igive SeiZleba iTqvas `solomon mefis epitafiaze~. epita-
fiis werac xelewifeboda besiks. gulwrfeli pativiscema igrZnoba mefis
mimarT. epitafias, xSir SemTxvevaSi, Tavisi kanonebi aqvs, _ masSi imqveynad
wasuli `laparakobs~; cxadia, poets SeuZlia mxolod formalurad `alapa-
rakos imsoflad myofi~ da warmoaCinos, rom es poetis naTqvamia (epitafiaSi,
umeteswilad, TiTqmis ar xdeba xolme sxvis rolSi gardasaxva...); magram,
amavdroulad, ise unda gamoxatos imqveynad myofisadmi siyvaruli, rom
`sakuTari Tavis gadametebul da araobieqtur maqebrad~ ar gamoiyvanos igi:

adamis ZliTman miwa Tqmisa smenaman
momatyva xma urCebiTa Svebuli,
momsxla uwyalman samoTxiT daviTisiT
vazi, mwdeveli qriste Cemisda sisxliT.
viTne brZaneba meufisa mefeman.
40


besiki sagaloblebis weris tradiciasac kargad icnobs. mas dawerili
aqvs `wmidis giorgis Sesxma iambikod~. korneli kekeliZes yuradReba miuqce-
via im faqtisaTvis, rom besikTan `gvxvdeba Zveli eklesiuri 12-marcvliani
iambiko, mxolod riTmovani~ (kekeliZe1981: 657). Cans, besikisaTvis riTmas
didi mniSvneloba hqonda da amitom iambiko masTan gansxvavebul saxes iZens.
xalxurisa Tu wmidad literaturuli tradiciis saeklesio tradiciasTan
SerwymiT iqmneba leqsi, romelsac, vfiqrobT, SeiZleboda, axleburi tra-
diciis CamoyalibebisaTvis Seewyo xeli... am leqsis enas `maRali Stilis~
gavlena aSkarad etyoba da igrZnoba, Tu ra didi krZalviT arCevs poeti
sityvebs:

giorgis mkerdTa aspekalebs lod-deba,
iTnebs urmis Tvals, muSakad iwodeba,
oqro ibrZmedebs, kirs daflviT aqvn zodeba.

poetis mzera maRla, caTa simaRleTaken, aris apyrobili, _ dawmendili,
amaRlebuli, spetaki sulierebiTaa es striqonebi dawerili:

aRakmevs sulsa, aRvals cebis cialsa,
qriste aRmqmeli miiTvalavs trfialsa.

_ umSvenieresi suraTia, _ zeciur cialSi maRldeba uwmidesi suli,
zeciuri surneleba igrZnoba caTa wiaRebSi, macxovari Rebulobs misTvis
wamebul wmidans...
RvTismSoblis qeba (leqss `yovlad wmidis qeba~ hqvia) ufro sada, mar-
tivi, xalxurTan miaxloebuli stiliT aris dawerili, avtori sruli gul-
wrfelobiT uZlurad miiCnevs Tavs imisaTvis, rom RvTismSobels Rirseuli
Sesxma miuZRvnas, _ ufro sakuTar codvaTa patiebas evedreba
RvTismSobels:

jerisaebr qeba Seni arvis ZaluZs, RvTisa sZalo,
jerars Sehkrben angelosni, qveyierni kacni, qalo,
jobs, rom giZRvnan kinam-kasni, gundruk-muri da Stans-alo,
jvarcmulisa qristes dedav, codvils mkurne, dedofalo!

besiks Seqmili aqvs `nardzed zmebi~, `Wadrakzed zmebi~...

vin ar didsulobs, sulmokled ars yovlgan danaficari,
damkariT pirsa da tkaci miqmeniT, Tu scnaT, vinc ari!

korneli kekeliZis aRniSvniT, am zmebSi besiks `imdenad gaumeorebia
Teimuraz meoris amave saxelis zmebi, rom zogierTi xelnaweri maT Teimu-
razs miawers (kekeliZe1981: 677). Semdeg mkvlevari besikis `anbanTqebanis~
Sesaxeb msjelobs: `aseTi anbanTqebani umTavresad im mxriv warmoadgenen
interess, rom gvaCveneben, ramdenad SeswevdaT maT avtorebs geografiis,
istoria-miTologiis, zoologiisa da botanikis codna~ (kekeliZe1981: 676).
mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom aseTi leqsebi maia gabaSvilis, dimitri orbelianis
wabaZvaa (kekeliZe1981: 676)...
rogorc zemoTac aRiniSna, amgvari leqsebi (zmebi da anbanTqebani), mxat-
vrulobis TvalsazrisiT, marTlac ver aRiqmeba besikis sxva leqsebis done-
ze dawerilad da maTSi ufro avtoris erudicia da, aseve, sityvaTa gariT-
41


mvis, aliteraciis Seqmnis unari vxedavT; Tumca, aqve gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom
zogierT SemTxvevaSi `anbanTqebani~, Tavad amgvari Janris specifikidan
gamomdinare, garkveulwilad, mxatvrulobis TvalsazrisiTac faseulia.
magaliTad, gavixsenoT leqsi `an alva xar tanadobiT~:

an, alva xar tanadobiT, ban, bulbuls migigavs ena,
gan, gibrwyinavs piris saxe, don, daxatuli xar Sena;
en, elvare badri mTvare, vin, varskvlavs surs Seni brwyena,
zen, zilf-kavo, giSris Tmao, he, haeriT daiwye frena,
Tan, Turani, in, eraniT sicxovliT dagiwvams Sena!

vfiqrobT, amgvarad werisas besiki satrfos agebinebs, rom ise Zlier
aris Seyvarebuli, ra bgerac ar unda SesTavazon qarTuli anbanisa, yovel-
Tvis Tavisuflad SeuZlia aqos satrfo... Cveni SexedulebiT, swored es az-
ria warmoCenili am leqsSi... amasTan, unda aRiniSnos, rom, xSirad, aseT
SemTxvevebSi, poetebi leqsis weris teqnikis virtuozuli flobis unaris
Cvenebasac cdilobdnen. aseTi leqsebi rom sworad aRiqvas, mkiTxvelma
Taviseburad, _ erTgvari `sportuli JiniT~ unda Sexedos poets, naxos,
rogori ostatobiT SeuZlia mas sityvebis erTmaneTTan riTmuli misadageba,
aliteraciuli metyveleba... aseTi leqsebis werisas poetebi faqtobrivad
erTmaneTs ejibrebodnen weris teqnikaSi...
besiks qarTul poeziaSi sxva damsaxurebanic miuZRvis. cnobilia, rom man
SemoiRo e. w. 19-marcvliani leqsi. besikis poeziaSi gvxvdeba Caxruxauli
leqsi, rusTveluri, e. w. _ TxuTmetmarcvliani, ToTxmetmarcvliani
(kekeliZe1981: 675)... mas Seuqmnia `baiaTi~, `yifia~, `mustazadi~, `Tejlisi~...
qarTul poeziaSi besikma pirvelma Semoitana 14-marcvliani logaedebi
(ak.gawerelia)... `besikis avtoritetma gansakuTrebiT ganamtkica qarTul
poeziaSi muxambazuri sazomebis gavrceleba~ (caiSvili 1966: 671)... `besikis
poeziam ganuzomeli gavlena moaxdina mis Tanamedrove mwerlobaze da,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mas mimbaZvel-epigonTa laSqari gauCnda~ (caiSvili
1966, 671).
besarion gabaSvilis literaturuli memkvidreobidan sainteresoa Semo-
rCenili fragmenti misi dRiurebidan, romelic sparseTSi mogzaurobisas
dauweria. am dRiurebs mxatvrulobis mizandasaxuloba ara aqvs, magram li-
teraturuli niWiT aRsavse adamianis sruliad Cveulebrivi naweri mainc av-
lens xolme avtorisagan movlenebis mxatvrulad gadmocemis unars. besiki
Tavisi mogzaurobis Sesaxeb wers: `da warsulman avgvale raWiT mTani myinva-
reni da mived digors [...] da ganvisvene mosdogs. agvisto iyo maSin~ (besiki
1932: 104). sxarti da moqnili frazebiT mogviTxrobs Tavis mogzaurobas
besiki.
literaturuli niWi mis werilebSic Cans, SemorCenilia mzeWabuk
orbelianTan, sulxan orbelianTan, potiomkinTan miwerili werilebi... sain-
teresoa, rom besiki mzeWabuks sTxovs Cem mier `crud sadme Tqmuli~ da-
iviwye, `gardasWer vnebani siZulvilisa~-o. am werilebis avtors mxatvruli
teqstis Seqmnis mizani ar hqonia da isini upirvelesad politikis istorias-
Tan dakavSirebiT, besikis pirovnebis ukeT dasanaxavad aris saintereso.
mravalferovani poeziis Semqmneli besarion gabaSvili yovelmxriv imsaxu-
rebs interess...
udavoa, rom besarion gabaSvilis SemoqmedebisaTvis mravalmxrivobaa
erTi umTavresi damaxasiaTebeli niSani da am poetis erT romelime, _ miT
42


umetes, _ mxolod aRmosavluri poeziis konteqstSi ganxilva, vfiqrobT, ar
SeiZleba.
besiki qarTuli literaturis istoriis periodTa gzagasayarze cxov-
robda, rac aisaxa kidec mis SemoqmedebaSi. am istoriaSi yovelTvis gamor-
Ceuli adgili eqneba damkvidrebuli am Zalze mravalmxrivsa da niWier
poets, romelTanac aRmosavleTs ukve enacvleba dasavleTi, visTanac war-
sulis sunTqvac igrZnoba da momavlis konturebic isaxeba... iSviaTia erT
poetSi aseTi mravalferovneba.


damowmebani:

besiki 1932: besiki. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. teqsti, gamokvleva, SeniS-
vnebi, leqsikoni al. baramiZisa da v. Tofurias redaqciiT. tf.: federacia, 1932.
besiki 1962: besiki. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. Tb.: `sabW. mwerali~, 1962.
baramiZe 1940: baramiZe al. narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istoriidan. Tb.:
1940.
gawerelia 1953: gawerelia a. qarTuli klasikuri leqsi. Tb.: 1953.
kalmasoba 1948: ioane batoniSvili. kalmasoba. II. k. kekeliZisa da al. baramiZis
redaqciiT. Tb.: 1948.
kekeliZe 1981: kekeliZe k. Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria. II. Tb.: 1981.
kekeliZe, baramiZe 1969: kekeliZe k. baramiZe. a. Zveli qarTuli literaturis
istoria. Tb.: 1969.
leoniZe 1949: leoniZe g. Ziebani Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan. I.
Tb.: 1949.
maWaraZe 1962: maWaraZe v. besiki diplomatiur sarbielze. Tb.: 1962.
q.s.e.: qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia. _ besiki (avtorebi s. caiSvili, k.
maWavariani).
q. p. 1975: qarTuli poezia. V. Tb.: 1976.
q. m. 1984: qarTuli mwerloba. leqsikoni-cnobari. I. Tb.: 1984.
caiSvili 1966: caiSvili s. besarion gabaSvili, qarTuli literaturis
istoria. II. Tb.: 1966.
caiSvili 1962: caiSvili s. besiki. Tb.: 1962.
SayulaSvili 1984: SayulaSvili g. besikis ori leqsis gamo. _ saqarTvelos ssr
mecnierebaTa akademiis literaturismcodneobis respublikuri sakoordinacio
sabWo. SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis istoriis instituti.
samecniero sesia, XIX, 25-27 XII; 1984.
SayulaSvili 1995: SayulaSvili g. besiki da aRmosavluri literaturuli
tradiciebi. samecniero konferencia. Tbilisis damoukidebeli instituti
`ritorika~; 15-16 maisi; 1995.
ZoweniZe 2002: ZoweniZe l. mzeWabuk orbeliani. _ `al. baramiZe, 100~. SoTa
rusTavelis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis instituti, Tb.: 2002.


43


Gocha Kuchukhidze

For the Interrelationship of Oriental-Western Aspects
in Besiki`s Works

Summary

In the article there is shown that the Georgian poet Besarion Gabashvili (Besik; 1750-
1891) was close to numerous genres of literature.
Besiks poetry shows love to eastern poetry as well. At the same time, as the author of
the article considers, in his creative work there are felt the signs of romanticism, which
was brought into Georgian poetry later.
In the article there is shown that Besik was also close to classical Georgian poetry, in
particular, to Rustavelis Knight in Panthers skin; he also has some hymnography
verses, and one can meet in the poets work panegyrics, satire, and some signs of other
genres.
In Besiks poetry most often is seen a young man of romantic spirit, always passionate
and searching new ways in the life.
The author of the article shares the opinion that the assumption, according to which
Besik is admitted eastern type poet, is erroneous. Eastern style appears some kind of
exotics to him Basik does not follow major specific signs of eastern poetry.












44


irina javaxaZe

saswaulTa saxeebi `cxovrebaTa~ Janris
naTargmn agiografiaSi

wmindanTa mier saswaulTa qmedeba erT-erTi umTavresi momentia qristi-
anul literaturaSi. Sesabamisad, saswaulTqmedebaTa aRwerac erT-erTi
farTod gavrcelebuli motivia zogadad agiografiuli Janris literatu-
raSi. ramdenadac agiografiul literaturas moeTxoveboda sruli WeSmari-
tebis gadmocema, saswaulebic religiuri TvalsazrisiT, iseTive realobas
warmoadgenda, rogorsac konkretul-istoriuli faqtebi. isic unda aRiniS-
nos, rom saswaulTmoqmedebaTa `WeSmaritebad~ miCneva xels uwyobda moma-
valSi `mxatvruli hiperbolis~, `gamonagonis~ farTod Semotanas mwerloba-
Si (siraZe 1975: 169-170). agiografi avtorebi dabejiTebiT acxadebdnen, rom
saswaulTmoqmedebebi srul WeSmaritebaze dayrdnobiT aRiwereboda, rom
maT monaTxrobSi ar iyo marcvali gamonagonisa, fantaziisa. da Tu arsebob-
da nawarmoebebi, rogorc `kostanti-kaxas martvilobis~ avtori miiCnevda,
romlebSic aRwerili istoriebi avtors `arasada exilva, aramed uwyebiTa
sulisaTa wmidisaTa aRwera igi, viTarca TualiTxiluli~, r. siraZis Tval-
TaxedviT gamonagoni ambavi (~suli wmidis STagonebuli~) SeiZleba yofiliyo
`TualiTa xilulis msgavsi~ (siraZe 1975: 99), anu gamogonili ambavi, suli
wmindisgan STagonebuli SeiZleba yofiliyo TvaliT nanaxis tolfasi. saswa-
uls ver moaxdens ubralo adamiani, maTi Cadena mxolod wmindanTa xvedria,
radganac sulieri moRvaweebi `wmindanad~ gaxdomamde gadian did mowamebriv
gzas: SemdgomSi `Semdgari wmindanebi~, rogorc cnobilia, bavSvobaSive gamo-
irCevian sxvaTagan Tavisi gansakuTrebulobiT, Semdeg adganan sulierebis
gzas, da bolos Tavisi RvawliT, maT Soris saswaulTa qmnadobiTac, aRweven
umaRles mwvervalamde `wmindanobamde~.
imTaviTve unda aRiniSnos, rom saswauli xdeba uflis ZaliT da nebiT da
Sesabamisad, saswaulis Cadenis Semdeg sazogadoeba adidebs ufals. aki aRniS-
navs kidec antoni didi, rom `yofa saswaulisa ara Cueni ars, aramed
macxovrisa ars saqm~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 28). da ramdenadac
uflis nebis xorcSesxma miwier samyaroSi xdeba mxolod da mxolod wmindanis
saSualebiT, rac amtkicebs mis zebunebriobas, aqedan gamomdinare wmindani
moiazreba qristes simbolod dedamiwaze. `iovane oqropiris cxovrebaSi~ saswa-
ulis Cadenis Semdeg iovaneze Semdegs amboben sulieri Zmebi: `ese mona ars
qristesi da suli wmida damkdrebul ars mis Tana, da miscems madlTa kur-
nebisaTa, viTar-igi misca mociqulTa~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba 1986: 21).
Cveni statiis mizania `cxovrebaTa~ Janris naTargmn agiografiul Txzu-
lebebSi saswaulTa aRwera-daxasiaTeba da maTi saTanado tipebis mixedviT
dajgufeba. am saswaulTagan zogi SemTxveva tipuria anu saxarebiseuli _
macxovris, mociqulebisa da pirvelwmindanebis mier ganxorcielebuli
(mrevliSvili 2002: 121), xolo zogic, Cveni azriT _ originaluri.

45


I. saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia xilvebi da RvTaebrivi
gamocxadebebi

1. xilvebi cxadSi:
a) wminda mamebs aqvT Cveneba an uflisagan euwyebaT is adgili, sadac un-
da aSendes eklesia. magaliTad, Tevdosi didi, rodesac evedreboda ufals
`raTa gamoucxados, Tu neba misi ars monastrisa Snebasa da uCuenos
adgili, romelsa Sehgvandes Sneba.
da aRixuna sacecxurni da aRavso igi naSiriTa. da naSirsa zeda _
sakumeveli. da gamovida quabiT da iloca da Tqua: ufalo RmerTo Cemo...
sadaca neba Seni iyos Snebad monastrisa, mun aRenTen naSiri ese, romel
ars sacecxurTa amaT, raTa miT vcna neba Seni... da ganvida da movlo yove-
li adgili udabnosa, romeli sagonebel iyo saSnebelad... da viTar arara
ixila, Seiqca quabadve. da viTar mieaxla mas, aRuteva suli sakumevelman man
sacecxurTa maTgan da viTar daxedna, naSiri igi nakuercxal qmnul iyo. da
cna wmidaman, rameTu neba RmrTisa ars, raTa mas adgilsa aRaSnos~
(cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975: 188).
b) xilvaTa jgufSi moiazreba wmindanTa saswaulebrivi gamoCena sazoga-
doebaSi. sanimuSod gavixsenoT saba ganwmendilis mefesTan misvlis epizodi,
rodesac `RmerTman madli monisa Tsisa gamoucxada mefesa... ese viTarca
Sevidoda mRdelTmTavarTa Tana mefisa... ganuxuna RmerTman Tualni mefesa
da ixila msgavsad grgnisa Tavsa zeda mis netarisasa naTeli mbrwyinval,
viTarca mzisTuali~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 109).
`iovane oqropiris cxovrebaSic~ iovanes xucad kurTxevis dros, `tredi
spetaki gardamoda zT da daadgra Tavsa zeda iovanessa. da viTarca ixiles
ese patreaqman da yovelman erman... ityodes: ...rameTu madli RmrTisa gamo-
cxadebul ars awve mis zeda~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba 1986: 31). es epizodi
mogvagonebs ieso qristes naTlobis pasaJs saxarebidan (biblia 1989: 1045-
1046).
g) xilvaTa jgufs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT gamocxadeba ara xiluli, aramed
sityvieri formiT. ase, magaliTad, antoni didma, rodesac ganizraxa xorci-
eli fufunebis ukugdeba da qonebis glaxakebze darigeba, `Sevida eklesiad
da moemTxa mas wmidisa saxarebisa sakiTxavi, da esma uflisagan, viTar-igi
etys mdidarsa mas: ukueTu gnebavs, raTa srul iyo, warved da ganyide
yoveli monagebi Seni da ganuyav glaxakTa da moved da Semomideg me da mo-
ipoo safas caTa Sina~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 10).
d) Cveni azriT, xilvaTa jgufs unda mivakuTvnoT saswaulTa iseTi ara-
tipuri SemTxveva, rogoricaa RvTaebrivi saswaulebrivi Cvenebebi. aseT ma-
galiTs vawydebiT `saba ganwmendilis cxovrebaSi~: sabam, fsalmunis galobis
dros xevSi, `Sovris samTa eklesiaTa ixila sueti cecxlisa, mdgomar qu-
eyanasa zeda, romlisa Tavi iyo vidre cadmde. hxedvida ra ese saSinelsa
mas xilvasa, SiSman Seipyra da sixarulad gardaiqca, rameTu moisena weri-
lisa viTar-igi eCuena mamaTmTavarsa iakobs... da daadgra adgilsa mas neta-
ri igi vidre ganTiadmde locvasa Sina da aRmovida mier eviT SiSiTa da sixa-
ruliTa didiTa, sada-igi eCuena mas sueti igi cecxlisa. da pova mun quabi
didi da sakrveli, romelsa aqunda sax eklesiisa~ (saba ganwmendilis
cxovreba 1975: 66).
46


e) originalur SemTxvevad gvesaxeba `iovane oqropiris cxovrebaSi~
mocemuli saswaulic. am saswaulis mixedviT or sxvadasxva adamians, am Sem-
TxvevaSi iovanesa da episkopos flabianes, erTdroulad aqvT erTi da igive
xilva-Cveneba erTsa da imave saqmeze: flabianes, locvis dros eCvena `ange-
lozi RmrTisa da hrqua mas: `iswrafe ganTiad da mived monastrad, romelsa
Sina iyofvis rCeuli RmrTisa iovane, Semoiyvane qalaqad da akurTxe igi xu-
cad, rameTu RmerTman gamoabrwyinva igi... da mis mier ganabrwyinvnes Rmer-
Tman mravalni moslvad mecnierebasa. da aha esera movlinebul var me misa
RmrTisa mier, raTa ara urC geqmnes, aramed yos yoveli brZaneba Seni~.
da mesyeulad masve Jamsa daadgra angelozi uflisa iovanes samosliTa
elvariTa, iyo ra igi senaksa da ilocvida~, da angelozma miugo iovanes: `me
var angelozi RmrTisa...
Sen warhyev ebiskopozsa flabianes qalaqad Seuorgulebelad da yav yo-
veli brZaneba misi, rameTu gamomicxadebia misda saqm Seni. da aha esera
movals mRdelTa Tana waryvanebad Senda qalaqad~ (iovane oqropiris
cxovreba 1986: 28-29).
v) aratipur SemTxvevad gveCveneba agreTve `antoni didis cxovrebaSi~
aRwerili erTi saswauli, romelic mistikur xasiaTs atarebs. am saswaulSi
asaxulia wmindanis cnobieri bunebis mier sakuTari Tavis xilva irealur-
sulier samyaroSi. SevecdebiT magaliTis moxmobiT warmovaCinoT misi ara-
tipuroba: antoni, `viTar-igi pursa Wamn, da aRdga odesme da ilocvida cxra
Jams da agrZna Tavisa Tsisa, rameTu aRitaca gonebiTa, da sakrvel ese iyo:
mdgomar xedvida Tavsa Tssa, viTarca guamsa gareSe ipova, da viTarca ze
haerTa wina-vinme-uZRodes mas. da merme ixilna mwareni da ficxelni haerTa
zeda mdgomareni, da unda dabrkoleba misi, raTamca gare-ara-warhda maT,
xolo romelni-igi wina-uZRodes mas, Sehrisxnes maT. eseni sityuasa mohdi-
des maT, numca ukue Tanamdeb rame iyos maTa, unda maT sitysa yofa SobiT-
gan misiT, ayenebdes antonis winamZRuarni igi da etyodes maT, rameTu So-
biTganni igi ufalman aocna, xolo vinaTgan monazon iqmna da aRuTqua
RmerTsa, jer-ars sitys-yofa. maSin Seasmendes da vera amxiles. mieriT-
gan Tavisufal iqmna da daubrkolebel gza Tsi. da meys ixila Tavi Tsi
mdgomar da iyo igive antoni... igi mas dResa da Rame yovel sulT-iTqumida
locviT, rameTu ukrda, ixila ra ese~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 40).
Cvens mier ganxilul naTargmn agiografiul TxzulebebSi mravlad aris
magaliTebi Cveulebrivi, tipuri anu bibliis saswaulebTan mimsgavsebuli
saswaulebisa xilva-CvenebaTa Sesaxeb. sanimuSod moviyvanT ramdenime
maTgans:
`efrem asuris cxovreba~: `eCuena mas xilva, rameTu vazi aRmoda enasa
zeda missa didi da aRorZnda friad, da aRivso misgan yoveli queyana, da
gamoixunna tevanni uricxuni. da movidodes yovelni mfrinvelni cisani da
Wamdes nayofisa misisagan. da ravdenca Wamdes, ufrosRa aRmoeceneboda da
gamohqondes tevanni~ (efrem asuris cxovreba 1975: 233).
`antoni didis cxovreba~: saxeSecvlili eSmakebis damarcxebis Semdeg
`ufalman arcaRa esrT daiviwya simn igi antonisi, aramed Semwe eqmna mas,
aRixilna da ixila sarTuli reca ganRebuli da brwyinvaleba naTlisa
gardamomavali misa...~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 15).

47


2. xilvebi Zilis dros:
wminda mamebs Zilis dros, Rame aqvT xolme xilvebi. maT am CvenebaTa
dros ecxadebaT ufali, angelozebi an kidev romelime wminda mama, romle-
bic maT aZleven garkveul davalebas aRsasruleblad. magaliTad, mamasax-
liss, romelmac ar Seismina saba ganwmendilis Txovna ierusalimSi wasvlasa
da martod dayudebis Sesaxeb, Rame gamoecxada ufali da uTxra: `ganuteve
saba, raTa mmsaxuros me udabnos. xolo mamasaxlisman mouwoda Tsagan fa-
rulad da hrqua: `gangiteveb Sen, Svilo, brZanebiTa RmrTisaTa, rameTu Cu-
enebiT meuwya~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 59).
`Tevdosis cxovrebaSi~ ki aRwerilia, Tu rogor gamoecxada wminda
Tevdosi zRvis Relvis dros ZilSi naviT mimaval erT ZmaTagans: `eCuena maT
Zilsa Sina da hrqua maT: nu geSinin, rameTu RmerTsa ubrZanebies sna Tqu-
eni~ (cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975: 194).
a) Cveni azriT, ZilSi xilvaTa jgufs unda mivakuTvnoT aratipuri saswa-
uli `saba ganwmendilis cxovrebidan~, romelSic aRwerilia, Tu rogor ecxa-
debaT ZilSi ramdenime pirovnebas wmindani erTdroulad erTsa da imave da-
valebaze: erTma dedakacma, saxelad genarus `orisa ezosa aRuTqua qsova:
erTi kastelisa monastersa da erTi spileonisa monastersa. da moemzada yo-
veli samari, da romelTa dedaTa eTqua mis Tana qsova, gardaeqces. viTar-
ca ara movides dedani igi, friad gulsa aklda genaross da iurvoda. eCuena
mas Zilsa Sina netari saba da hrqua: ciskars mouvline dedaTa maT, da movi-
den da aRasrulon saqm Seni... da eCuena dedaTaca maT mqsovelTa risxviT
dapkolebisa misTs saqmisa. da viTarca ganTena, meyseulad movides sixaru-
liT gulsmodgined da uTxrobdes urTierTas Cuenebasa mas~ (saba ganwmen-
dilis cxovreba 1975: 116).

3. xilvebi gardacvalebis win:
a) wminda mamebs TavianTi aRsasrulis dros aqvT xolme xilvebi. maga-
liTad, antoni didma aRsasrulis moaxloebisas `ganirTxna ferni Tsni da,
viTarca megobarTa TsTa, xedvida momavalTa angelozTa da maTTs mxiaru-
liTa piriTa moaklda da SeeZina igi wmidaTa mamaTa~ (antoni didis cxovreba
1975: 52).
b) wminda mamebs aqvT Cveneba-xilvani agreTve sxva mamaTa gardacvalebis
dros. amis naTeli magaliTia antoni didis xilva wminda amonis gardacva-
lebisas: mTaze mjdomare antoni didma `ixila haerTa zeda aRmavali vinme da
mravalni vinme, romelni moegebvodes mas. da iyo sixaruli. da viTar ukrda
mas da hnatrida da eseviTarsa krebulsa ilocvida uwyebad, vinZi ars ese, da
meyseulad iyo misa ma: ese ars wmidisa amonis suli, romeli-igi jda nit-
rias monazoni... xolo romelni iyvnes antonis Tana, xedvides ra bersa mas
dakrvebulsa, evedrebodes mas, raTa uTxras maT. da uTxra, viTarmed: aw
aResrula amon. rameTu iyo misa mecnier, da zedas-zeda movidis misa...
da monazonTa maT, romelTa uTxra antoni sikudili amonisi, daiswaves
dR igi, da aRmovides Zmani nitriiT ocdaaTisa dRisa Semdgomad, gamohki-
Txvides, da esma maTgan, viTarmed mas dResa da mas Jamsa daiZina amon, ro-
melsa Jamsa suli igi amonisi aRyvanebuli ixilva berman~ (antoni didis
cxovreba 1975: 38-39).



48


II. saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia zemoqmedeba adamianebze

1. zogadad agiografiul literaturaSi Zalze gavrcelebulia wminda
mamaTagan urwmunoTa da ukeTurTa saswaulebrivi dasjis epizodebi. Cven
mier ganxilul naTargmn agiografiul literaturaSic sakmao raodenobiT
moipoveba aseTi epizodebi. sanimuSod moviyvanT ramdenime magaliTs: qalaq-
gareT, eklesiaSi salocavad wasul Tevdosi dids da episkoposebs, gzad
SemoxvdaT monasteri, `romelsa Sina iyvnes monazonni wyeulni, iakobni.
raJams ixiles wmida igi, iwyes rekad sarekelsa Tnier Jamisa urcxnod da
kicxeviT. da ikiTxa wmidaman man saqm maTi. da raJams uTxres saqm maTi da
sarwmunoeba maTi, aRegzna igi SuriTa da Tqua: kurTxeul ars ufali, rame-
Tu ara daSTes vansa amas Sina qva qvasa zeda. da Semdgomad mciredTa dReTa
moetevnes vinme kacni dasavaliT kerZo vansa mas zeda da aRiWres yoveli, ra
iyo mas Sina, da umravlsni monazonni tyued wariyvannes da adgili igi
cecxliTa mowues, da iqmna vani igi saTesav ifqlisa~ (cxoreba wmidisa
Tevdosisi 1975: 194).
agreTve, rodesac iovane oqropiris brZanebiT ukeTur dedofal
evdoqsias aukrZales eklesiaSi Sesvla, dedoflis erT-erT msaxurs `aqunda
elTa misTa laxuari da aRipyra igi, raTamca Semusra kari eklesiisa da
munTquesve Sehma eli da iqmna igi viTarca mkudari... xolo romelsa-igi
xeli Sehma, Sevida eklesiad... da Tqua: `Semiwyale me, ufalo Cemo, mamao
wmidao, da gankurne eli Cemi, romeli ganma ugunurebisa da umecrebisa
Cemisagan da kadnierad moslviTa CemiTa saxlsa zeda RmrTisasa...
xolo iovane gulisma-yo suliTa mizezi igi, romliTa SeemTxa ese da
kacsa mas hrqua: `mived da daibane eli Seni wyalsa mas, romeli ars arnaksa
Sina eklesiisasa da vesav qristesa... rameTu geyos Sen msgavsad sarwmuno-
ebisa Senisa~.
`da warvida kaci igi da daibana da ganikurna~ (iovane oqropiris
cxovreba 1986: 93).
xolo `antoni didis cxovrebaSi~, rodesac qristianTa mdevneli sarda-
li, balakiosi, gaafrTxila antoni didma werilSi, raTa xeli aeRo qristian-
Ta Seviwroebisagan, sardalma yurad ar iRo misi darigeba da piriqiT, muqara
SeuTvala mas. amis Semdgom, ramodenime dReSi `moiwia mis zeda risxva, rame-
Tu pirvelsa savanesa aleqsandriasasa, romelsa hrqan qereu, ganvidoda
igi balakios da nistorios ... da ornive sxdes cxenTa, rameTu iyvnes ornive
balakisni, umSds yovelTa, romelni izardebodes misgan. da viTar arRa mi-
wevnul iyvnes adgilsa mas, iwyes cxenTa maT simRerad, viTarca Cueul iyvnes,
urTierTas da myis umSdsman man, romelsa zeda jda nistori, kbiliTa gar-
damoiqua balakios da daTrguna igi da esrT kbiliTa mohSWama barkalsxli
misi. da munTquesve wariques qalaqad. da mesamesa dResa mokuda. da yovel-
Tave ukrda ese da ityodes, rameTu: romel-igi Tqua antoni, adre aRes-
rula~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 49).
2. agiografiul nawarmoebebSi gavrcelebuli saxe eZleva iseT saswa-
ulebs, romlebSic aRwerilia wmindanTagan adamianTa gankurneba. magali-
Tad, `efrem asuris cxovrebaSi~ aRweril saswaulSi iyo `erTi ufero da
maradis dajdis winaSe karTa eklesiisaTa ... da dResa romelsame movida
wmida Seslvad eklesiasa da ixila man ufero igi da Seewyala da garemo
mixedna yovliT kerZove, da viTar arRaravin ixila, eaxla mas wmida ese da
49


hrqua mas: Zmao, ginebasa, raTa ganikurno? xolo man hrqua mas: he, ufalo,
rameTu mnebavs, dasdevs eli Seni Cem zeda. hrqua mas netarman: saxeliTa
iesu qristsiTa aRdeg da vidode! da meyseulad aRdga da vidoda~ (efrem
asuris cxovreba 1975: 227).
saba ganwmendilma ki gankurna sisxlis dinebiani qali, romelsac veravin
ver ekareboda. `netarsa mas ... Seewyala igi da mivida misa stovasa mas da
hrqua mas: `ramca migec Sen, arara maqus, garna ra-igi maqus, migce _ eli
ese Cemi, miiRe da dadev salmobasa Sensa. da vesav RmerTsa, romelsaca vhmsa-
xureb, viTarmed ganikurno. da man viTarca miiRo wmidisa mis eli, dadva
igi mis zeda, da munquesve dadga dineba igi sisxlisa mis, da ganikurna
dedakaci~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 104).
xolo Tevdosi didTan mivida mtirali qali, romelmac SesCivla wminda
mamas, rom `Svili ara damadgrebis. da mravali Svili miSobia, da Sobisa sixa-
rulsa sikudilisa gemo ewiis xolo. da evedreboda mas, raTa ulocos, da
RmerTman ucxovnos mas Svili. da uloca mas wmidaman man da ubrZana, raTa
Svili romel Sves, uwodos mas saxelad Tevdosios. da man yo egrT. da
ucxovna mas Svili~ (cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975: 192-193).
3. agiografiul TxzulebebSi mravlad moipoveba saswaulebi, romlebSic
aRwerilia wminda mamaTa CareviT adamianTagan eSmakTa gaZeveba.
erTxel antoni didi, rodesac sulier Zmebze locvebis wasakiTxad avida
navze `mas xolo martosa myraloba rame ficxeli da friad mwar ecemoda,
xolo romelni-igi navsa Sina iyvnes, ityodes, viTarmed: Tevzica liwebuli
ars navsa amas Sina da misgan ars ese myraloba. xolo igi ityoda: sxua ars
ese yrola aqa. da viTar igi amas ityoda, Wabuki vinme eSmakeuli iyo da misa
wina Sesrul iyo da damalul navsa Sina. da viTar myis ma-yo, Sehrisxna
eSmaksa mas antoni saxeliTa iesu qristsiTa, da ganvida misgan, da kaci igi
ganego misgan myis. maSin yovelTa gulisxma-yves, viTarmed eSmakisa iyo
yrola igi~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 39).
`iovane oqropiris cxovrebaSi~ ki aRwerilia saswauli, romlis mixedviT
brZeni anTemiosi, qristes saxelis gmobisTvis Seipyra eSmakma `da daeca
queyanasa da iSTveboda misgan uwyalod mraval Jam, da uqcevda TualTa da
perooda, vidremdis yovelni SeZrwundes, da mravalni ivltodes da evedre-
bodes netarsa iovanes, raTa gankurnos igi.
da miugo maT da hrqua: `ukueTu ara hrwmenes, romel-igi gmo qriste
RmerTi, ver miemTxos kurnebasa~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba 1986: 12), da
mas Semdeg, rac aRiara anTemiosma qriste, `munTquesve ganikurna da iqmna dawy-
narebul, da aRdga ferTa TsTa zeda~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba 1986: 12).
xolo efrem asurma amxila mwvalebeli monazoni eSmakiseuli ZaliT sas-
waulTa moxdenaSi, ramac gamoiwvia monazvnis ganrisxeba. man Seuracxyofa
miayena efrems, razec efremma sapasuxod miugo: `ara gaqus Sen elmwifeba
zraxvad dabadebulTa RmrTisaTa.
da meyseulad gamocxadda eSmaki, romeli iyo mas Sina, da daeca queyanasa
zeda, yrida elTa da ferTa da scemda Tavsa queyanasa... viTarca ixila
wmidaman efrem eseviTarsa Ruawlsa Sina, Seiwyala igi da mieaxla da aRupyra
eli, da guami misi Zwoda da aRSfoTebul iyo yovliT kerZo. maSin wmida
Sehrisxna eSmaksa mas, romeli iyo mas Sina, da hrqua mas: saxeliTa iesus
qristsiTa... gibrZaneb, raTa ganhde xatisa RmrTisagan... da meyseulad
ganvida eSmaki misgan~ (efrem asuris cxovreba 1975: 222).
50


wminda mamebi agreTve aZeveben saxeSecvlil eSmakebs Tavisi samyofeli-
dan, rodesac isini cdiloben maT SeSinebas. wmindanebi gaZlierebulni arian
uflis mfarvelobiT. sanimuSod mogvyavs ori magaliTi:
`saba ganwmendilis cxovreba~: `gardaicvala eSmaki msgavsad guelTa da
RriakalTa raTamca SeaSina mas.
xolo netari igi mcired rame Sezrunda da cna mterisa igi siborot,
meyseulad aRdga da sax juarisa daiwera da ganiSovra misgan SiSi, dga da
ityoda: odes SemiZlo SeSinebad Cemda, maSin gZlo, rameTu Cem Tana ars ufa-
li RmerTi Cemi, romelman momca Sen zeda Zleva ... da amas ra ityoda, myis
uCino iqmna yovliTurT ZaliT misiT~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 62).
antoni dids ki fsalmunTa galobis dros, `eSmaki igi umzirin da iRrWenn
mis zeda kbilTa, xolo antoni nugeSiniscemul iyo macxovrisagan da uvne-
belad dga misTa maT zakuvaTagan da ferad-feradTa ucnebaTa. da viTar
mRZare iyo igi Rame, yovelni mecni velisani moutevna, da gamovides yo-
velni afTarni maT adgilTani ureliT TsiT da gare-moadges mas. da dga
igi marto Sovris maTsa. viTar aRamtkmes pirebi maTi da datkebnad aSineb-
des, gulisxma-yo man mterisa igi manqaneba da hrqua yovelTa maT: ukueTu
elmwifeba mogiRebies Cem zeda, ganmzadebul var SesaWmelad Tquenda;
ukueTu eSmakTagan aRZrul xarT, nu sdgaT, aramed warvediT, rameTu mona
var qristsi. viTarca ese antoni hrqua maT, ivltodes yovelni, viTarca
tanjviTa sitysa misgan~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 34-35).
4. wminda mamebs uflisagan aqvT miniWebuli winaswarmetyvelebisa da
saidumloTa Secnobis unari. magaliTad, Tevdosi didma jer zaris darekva
ubrZanaT eklesiis msaxurebs da Semdeg damwuxrebulma TavisTan ixmo su-
lieri Zmebi da mouwodaT: `mamano, ilocevdiT, rameTu vixile RmrTisagan
gamosruli risxva queyanasa zeda aRmosavaliT kerZo. da Semdgomad equsisa
anu Sdisa dRisa movida, romelman uTxra, viTarmed antioqia dairRua
ZrviTa mas Ramesa Sina, romelsa wmidaman man Tqua~ (cxoreba wmidisa
Tevdosisi 1975: 195).
wmindanis winaswarmetyvelebis unaris dasturad movixmobT erT-erT
epizods `antoni didis cxovrebidan~: `Se-vinme-vidodes orni Zmani da muak-
lda gzasa zeda wyali, erTi igi mokuda, xolo erTi igi iurvoda sikudid da
ver eZlo slvad da idva igica queyanasa zeda da moeloda sikudilsa. xolo
antoni jda ra mTasa zeda, mouwoda orTa monazonTa, rameTu iyvnes eseni
mun, aswrafebda da etyoda: wariReT sarwyuliTa wyali da mirbiodeT egp-
tiT kerZo gzasa, rameTu orni movidodes. erTi igi awRa mokuda, xolo erTi
igi iurvis. ukueTu ara iswrafoT, mokudes igica, rameTu ese aw locvasa Sina
meuwya. viTarca warvides monazonni igi, poves erTi igi mdebar da momku-
dari igi dahfles, xolo erTsa mas asues wyali ...
xolo antonisi ese iyo sakrvel, rameTu mTasa zeda jda da aqunda guli
frTxili, da ufali uCuenebda mas Sorad~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 37-38).
wmindanebs uflisagan gadaecemaT uwyeba-niSani ama Tu im pirovnebaze, an
saqmis warmarTvaze. magaliTad, erT ganmartoebul, dayudebul bers gauk-
virdeba, Tu saidan aRmoCndeba saba ganwmendili mis gamoqvabulSi. razec
netarma sabam upasuxa: `RmerTman, romelman gauwya Sen saxeli Cemi, manve
miCuena me adgili ese~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 69).
da agreTve, rodesac basili didma gagzavna ori diakvani efrem asuris
mosayvanad, `cna wmidaman efrem suliTa wmidiTa. da viTar ixilna igini, rame-
51


Tu ikiTxvides misTs~ (efrem asuris cxovreba 1975: 227), efremma arCia iqe-
dan ganrideba da wasvla.
wminda mamebi winaswar grZnoben agreTve TavianTi sikvdilis moaxloebas,
risTvisac winaswar emzadebian. saba ganwmendilma ixila `aRsruleba Tsi
Semdgomad mciredTa dReTa _ da uTxra ese mTavarepiskopossa da evedrebo-
da mas, raTamca ganuteva igi da STavida lavrad da senaksa Tssa aResrula~
(saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 114).
antoni didsac winaswar euwya uflisagan Tavisi aRsasruli. `da etyoda
yovelTa ZmaTa, viTarmed: amas gety Tquen: ukuanasknelsa xilvasa vhyof da
mikrs, ukueTu kualad Tavni Cuenni amas sofelsa vixilneT, rameTu Jami ars
amierTgan Cemisa ganslvisa ...
viTarca weril ars, gzasa mamaTasa warval, rameTu vxedav me Tavsa Cemsa
wodebulsa uflisa mier~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 50-51).
aseve iwinaswarmetyvela aRsasrulis moaxloeba efrem asurma da iovane
oqropirma. iovanes Rame eCvena gardacvlili wmindani, saxelad basiliskosi,
romelmac auwya wmindans sikvdilis moaxloeba.
5. aris aratipuri saswaulebi, romlebSic saswauli xdeba wmindanis da-
uswreblad, anu wminda mamebi axdenen saswauls Tavisi fizikuri aryofniT
saswaulTa ganxorcielebis adgilze. es ki mianiSnebs imas, rom wmindani
Tavisi qmedebiT SeuzRudavia drosa da sivrceSi.
sanimuSod SevexebiT ramdenime magaliTs: `Tevdosi didis cxovreba~:
`movida mkali sofelsa erTsa. da soflisa mis myofTa Cueuleba aqunda
evlogiisa moRebad monastersa missa ucxoTaTs da glaxakTa, romelni misa
miivltodian. da movides soflioni igi da Seiwevdes wmidasa mas. da man mo-
iRo zeTi da locva warTqua mas zeda da warsca igi erTsa ZmaTagansa, raTa
apkuron igi garemo sofelsa mas. da daicva igi RmerTman vnebisa misgan
mklisa~ (cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975: 193).
am epizodis msgavss vawydebiT `iovane oqropiris cxovrebaSi~, romelSic
aRwerilia, Tu rogor gaatana iovanem xalxs jvari, raTa daesoT im adgilze,
sadac iwva lomi, romelic aSinebda mosaxleobas. marTlac xalxma aRasrula
iovanes danabarebi da meore dRes naxes im adgilze gardacvlili lomi.
xolo `antoni didis cxovrebaSi~ aRwerilia, Tu rogor evedreboda mTa-
ze myof antons arqelaozi kumsi lavdikieli qalwulis gankurnebas. antonma
`locva-yo misTs. da kumsman man daiswava dR igi, romelsa dResa locva-yo
misTs. da viTar warvida laudikiad, pova qalwuli igi cocxali. da viTar
gamoikiTxvida igi, romelsa dResa dascxra igi uZlurebisagan, warmoiRo
wigni, romelsa Jamsa locva igi misTs daiwera. da viTar esma maTgan, uCuena
manca myis wignsa aRwerili, da yovelTave ukrda da gulisxma-yves, rameTu
mas Jamsa gankurna igi ufalman salmobisa misgan, romelsa dResa locva-yo
antoni~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 39).


III. saswaulebi, romlebSic asaxulia wmindanis Caurevlad
uSualod uflisagan movlenili saswaulebi

1. naTargmn agiografiul TxzulebebSi vxvdebiT saswaulebs, romlebSic
aRwerilia uflisagan movlenili risxva stiqiuri ubedurebebis saxiT.
magaliTad, `saba ganwmendilis cxovrebaSi~ `vinaTgan ganaZes mTavarepis-
koposi elia, daeSa ca da ara wma xuT wel da uwmrobasa Tana moda mkali
52


quemgogvari friad, romlisa ara iyo ricx, da moWama yoveli piri queya-
nisa. da meoresa welsa Semdgomad moslvisa mis mklisa movida sxua mkali da
dahfara ca da SeWamna yovelni xeni queyanisani. da iyo siymili Zlieri da
sikudili. eseviTari ixiles risxva mowevnuli, ityodes ierusalemelni,
viTarmed romel-igi iqmna saqm _ mTavarepisoposisa elias mimarT codva
ganZebisa misisa _ amisTs mowia ese yoveli Cuen zeda~ (saba ganwmendilis
cxovreba 1975: 101).
xolo iovane oqropiris qalaqidan gaZevebis Semdeg `cecxli gamoda
saydriT, romelsa zeda aqunda Cueuleba jdomad, da aRetyina, vidremdis
Seedva jaWuTa da ganvida sarkumliT, raTa amxilos xilviTa misiTa mris-
xaniTa krebulsa mas ujerosa. da viTar cecxli igi etyineboda, da mohbera
qarman da Seedva erTsa sikritonsa sameufosa da dawua. da iyo ese pirispir
eklesiasa Soris, raTa amxilis yovelTa, romelni aRdges iovans zeda mis
adgilisa kerZoni. xolo eklesiasa maxlobelad ara Seedva cecxli, aramed
maxlobelad sameufosa, raTa cnan, viTarmed risxva ars RmrTisa~ (iovane
oqropiris cxovreba 1986: 115).
2. aris saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia ukeTur adamianebze Tavsdam-
tydari RvTaebrivi risxva. erTxel Tevdosi didze `viTar miesma mefesa
simniT dgoma misi marTlmadideblobisaTs, mowera, raTa equsoria yon
adgilisa Tsisagan. da vidre wignisa mowevnamde moavlina RmerTman risxva
misi mefesa zeda, da mokla igi~ (cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975: 190).
xolo `efrem asuris cxovrebaSi~ aRwerilia, Tu rogor Semoesien spar-
selebi qalaq nisibins. da efremma ra `ixilna bevris-bevreulni kacni, aRi-
xilna Tualni Tsni RmrTisa mimarT da iTxova misgan, raTa miavlinos maT
zeda risxva, mkali da buzi, raTa amaT mecTa undoTa mier kma-uyos maTisa
brZolisaTs, da gulisxma-yos sabur sparsTa mefeman... Zali RmrTisa.
maSin... moiwia maT zeda Rrubeli da mkali da buzi da daesxa piloTa
zeda, rameTu Tma ara asxs maT. da faqli Sevidis yurTa da cxrTa Seudis.
da daesxa buzi igi cxenTa da piloTa da sxuaTaca pirutyuTa: orTa da
aqlemTa... da ver daudges winaSe risxvasa mas, romeli-igi moavlina RmerTman
maT zeda~ (efrem asuris cxovreba 1975: 216).
3. gavrcelebulia agreTve saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia wminda ma-
mebze uflisagan movlenili mxardaWera, Sewevna sxvadasxva saxiT. ase, maga-
liTad, saba ganwmendils surda ucxo monazonTa samyofelad senakis SeZena,
romelic Zviri Rirda, sabas ki ar hqonda naxevari drahkanis meti. da `xvali-
sa dRisasa aRmoslvamde mzisa ganizraxvida netari igi amisTs da ilocvida.
mo-vinme-vida misa ucxo, romelman yovladve ara icoda igi, da mosca mas
assameocdaaTi drahkani. da masve Jamsa warvida kaci igi da arcaRa Tu saxeli
misi uTxra. xolo netarsa mas daukrda RmrTisa mier Sewevna igi misi...~
(saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 74).
uflis mxardaWeraze metyvelebs erTi epizodi `iovane oqropiris cxov-
rebidan~. wminda mamam ganizraxa pavle mociqulis wignTa ganmartebis dawe-
ra. magram garkveuli drois Semdeg mas gauCnda kiTxva, rom surda Tu ara
ufals aseTi sapasuxismgeblo davaleba Seesrulebina Tavad iovanes. amde-
nad, wmindanma SesTxova ufals euwyebina misTvis raime niSniT mxardaWera.
iovanes saTxovari Seismina ufalma da ramdenime dReSi mouvlina mxardaWera
Semdegi saxiT: sulierma Zmam, proklem napralidan ixila, Tu rogor muSaob-
da iovane wignze da amave dros ixila, rom `iyo pavle mociquli miyrdnobil
misa zurgiT kerZo Tavadmde iovansa da piri misi yursa Tana marjuenesa
53


iovanessa da hzraxvida mas, xolo xati misi hgvanda xatsa elise winawarme-
tyuelisasa da wueri misi iyo srul da vrcel~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba
1986: 53) da rodesac iovanem ikiTxa imis vinaoba, visTanac prokles TqmiT
Turme Rame hqonia saubari, `maSin uTxra prokle sax kacisa mis, romeli
eCuena mas da Semkuleba misi, da viTar iyo piri misi yursa Tana da zraxvida
saidumlod, xolo igi werda. da viTarca esma ese wmidasa mas, friad daukr-
da. xolo viTar daasrula prokle Txroba misi, mixedna da ixila xati igi
mociqulisa da hgvanda kacsa mas, romeli eCuena mas. da mulni moidrikna
iovansa da hrqua mas da TualiTa uCuenebda xatsa mas: `Semindev me, mamao,
rameTu kaci igi, romeli gzraxvida, hgavs xatsa amas, da me vhgoneb, viTarmed
arsve ege~.
maSin cna iovane brZenman, rameTu RmerTman gamoucxada, viTarmed sTnavs
Targmaneba wignTa maT da moavlina mociquli misi pavle da ubrZana mas,
raTa gamouTargmnides wignTa TsTa iovanes~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba
1986: 55).


IV. saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia zegavlena
micvalebulTa samyaroze

1. saflavTa da wminda nawilTa saswaulebi:
a) naTargmn agiografiul TxzulebebSi mravlad moipoveba saswaulebi,
romlebSic aRwerilia gardacvlili wmindanis mier saswaulTa moxdena.
kerZod, wminda nawilTa xelis SexebiT avadmyofTa gankurneba da adamiane-
bisagan eSmakTa gansxma. magaliTad, `iovane oqropiris cxovrebaSi~ iyo `kaci
vinme, romlisa fersa missa guelsa ekbina. da iyo igi mkelobel da maradis
zin eklesias da iTxovn qvelis-saqmarsa. da igica davarda krebulsa mas Tana
da Tayuanis-sca wmidisa mis guamsa. da moiRo naxevi samoslisa misisa da
moixa fersa mas missa uZlursa, da ganhmarta feri igi da iqmna cocxal,
viTarca erTi igi... da viTar ixiles ese sakrveli mis adgilisa myofTa,
aRitaces TiToeulman samoslisa misisagani mcired-mcired da wariRes igi
evlogiad da sakurneblad sneulTa~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba 1986: 141).
da kidev: `saba ganwmendilis cxovrebaSi~, ori morwmune Zma `dasneuldes
Jamsa oden sTulisasa SemTxueviTa eSmakisaTa ficxlad. da ganwirnes igini
sikudid, da iurvodes igini sTuelisaTs. maSin moisenes wmida saba da
ilocvides misa mimarT, da eCuena maT TiToeulsa Tsisagan da hrqua: `aha
esera vevedre me RmerTsa ganmrTelebisa TquenisaTs... aRdegiT da ganvediT
saqmesa Tquensa. xolo eseni munquesve ganZlierdes, aRdges da warvides
saqmesa Tssa~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 116).
xolo rac Seexeba eSmakTa gansxmas, aq SeiZleba movixmoT pasaJi `Tevdosi
didis cxovrebidan~: erTi aleqsandrieli kaci `daecemoda igi eSmakisagan.
da movida igi adgilsa mas da esvida igi, raTa RmerTman gankurnos locviTa
mis wmidisaTa. da RmerTman ukunadroa gankurneba misi, vidre dRedmde
wmidisa mis Sesuenebisa, raTa miT pativ-sces wmidasa Tssa. da raJams gamo-
vida suli netarisa mis orcTa misTagan, movida vnebuli igi da moekida igi
wmidasa guamsa missa... da Tqua, viTarmed: ara uteo daflvad, vidremdis
RmerTman locviTa misiTa momces gankurneba... da daaltobda ferTa misTa
cremliTa da ityoda: Semiwyale me, wmidao RmrTisao, da aCuene, rameTu Sem-
54


dgomadca ganslvisa Senisa amier sofliT arave dascxrebi vedrebad RmrTisa
mimarT maTTs... da Seiwira RmerTman mowyaleman sarwmunoeba misi da aCuena
sakrveleba Tsi Cueulebisaebr da meyseulad dasca igi sulman man arawmi-
daman, da iwyo sityuad wmidisa mimarT sityTa yuedrebisaTa. da myis gan-
vida misgan, da ganTavisuflda kaci igi~ (cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975:
196-197).
b) saintereso SemTxvevas warmoadgens wminda nawilebTan dakavSirebuli
iseTi saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia micvalebuli wmindanis cxedris ga-
uxrwnelad Senaxva, an kidev micvalebuli wmindanis axlos angelozTa galo-
ba. sanimuSod gavixsenebT or sagulisxmo moments: `saba ganwmendilis cxov-
rebaSi~ weria, rom `ara mokuda wmida ese, aramed sZinavs... da RmerTsa saT-
no-eyo, viTarca weril ars: sulni marTalTa _ elTa Sina RmrTisaTa, da
ara Seexos maT sikudili, xolo guami misi saflavsa Sina Zes ganurRuevelad
vidre dRendelad dRedmde, dacvul ars~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975:
115).
xolo `iovane oqropiris cxovrebaSi~ aRwerilia, Tu rogor gandevnes da
awames iovanes mimdevari mgalobeli avtropiosi. `da gamoacxada RmerTman
sakrveli, raJams mokudeboda igi, mimsgavsebuli msnelsa Cuensa, rameTu
SuvaRames galoba ismoda angelozTa zeda guamsa missa~ (iovane oqropiris
cxovreba 1986: 120).
g) aris saswaulebi, romlebSic gardacvlili wmindanebi sikvdilisagan
gadaarCenen adamianebs da cxovelebs. movixmobT ramdenime pasaJs `saba
ganwmendilis cxovrebidan~: rodesac datvirTuli aqlemi gadavarda kldi-
dan, aqlemis sarkinozi patroni `RaRadebda da ityoda: locvao wmidisa
sabaso, Seewie aqlemsa amas Cemsa... da ixila vinme beri Suenieri, zeda-mjdo-
mar aqlemsa mas mgorvalsa. da srbiT sxT gziT STavida evad aqlemisa
ufali da beri igi aqlemsa mas zeda mjdomar ara pova. xolo aqlemi igi uv-
nebelad dacvuli pova~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 117). saba ganwmen-
dilis suli aseve gadaarCens yrma bavSvs wyalSi danTqmisagan.
2. zogadad agiografiul TxzulebebSi gavrcelebulia wmindanisagan
adamianis an cxovelis mkvdreTiT aRdgena. aseT SemTxvevas vawydebiT `efrem
asuris cxovrebaSi~: erTi mwvalebeli, romelic uflis nebiT da risxviT
gvelis kbenisagan gardaicvala, efremma ixila ra `mkudari igi... miaqcia piri
Tsi aRmosavaliT da TayuaniscemiT iloca da aRupyra eliTa TsiTa
mkudarsa mas da aRadgina igi~ (efrem asuris cxovreba 1975: 225).
3. aris aratipuri saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia gardacvlil wmin-
danTagan cocxal adamianebze garkveul movlenaTa winaswarmetyveleba. ma-
galiTad, iovane oqropirs eCvenebian mociqulebi iovane da petre, romle-
bic uwinaswarmetyveleben iovanes devnis gamo evdoqsia dedofals, rom
`aRetyinos da aRivsos matliTa cocxalive da geZiebdes Sen, raTamca
Seiwyale, da ara gpoos da mokudes sensa mas~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba
1986: 129).
xolo `saba ganwmendilis cxovrebaSi~ erT vercxlis mWedels, romelsac
mopares vercxli, uwinaswarmetyvelebs qristesTvis wamebuli Teodore ver-
cxlis povnas sabas gansasvenebel adgilze: `aramed aRdeg da mived adgilsa
mas, da hpovneT mun mparavni da vecxli Seni. da me aRvdeg masve Jamsa Sina da
warviyvanen Cem Tana sxuanica. da viTarca mivediT adgilsa mas, romeli miCu-
ena me wmidaman Teodore, vpoveT egre~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 116).

55


V. saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia zemoqmedeba
materialur samyaroze

1. agiografiul TxzulebebSi moipoveba saswaulebi, romlebSic wmin-
danTa Zala aris hiperbolizirebuli. `saba ganwmendilis cxovrebaSi~, rode-
sac marTlmadideblobis mowinaaRmdegeebma alya Semoartyes did lavras da
masSi myof sulier mamebs, `erTman vinme, Teudolos saxeliT, besi monazoni,
SewyudobilTa maTgani, aman pova niCabi da aRiRo igi da qsenadoqiT gamo-
vida. xolo mbrZolni igi iyvnes viTar samas oden, da aman martoman yovelni
ganabnivna. xolo uxeTqna aravis... da munquesve RmrTismsaxurTa maT zeda
brZola igi ganqarda~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 121-122).
`Tevdosis cxovrebaSi~ ki moTxrobilia erTi saswauli, romlis mixedviT
wmindanisagan gatanebuli wminda nawiliT, adamians Seemateba Zala da ener-
gia: TevdosisTan misuli spasalari wminda mamisagan iTxovs samosels, Seimo-
seba ZaZis samoseliT viTarca saWurveliT da wava sabrZolvelad. brZolaSi
gamarjvebuli spasalari dabrundeba, Tevdosis Seswiravs madlobas da Tan
uambobs, rom `Jamsa brZolisa SemTxuevisasa Sevimose samoseli igi ZaZisa,
romeli Sen momec nacvalad rkinisa jaWsa ... da ganved brZolad mterisa ...
ada mtueri didZali srbiTa... mas Jamsa Sina gixile Sen, wmidao mamao, winaSe
Cemsa, miCuenebd ra eliTa SeniTa da maswavebd, viTar vyo. da SeniTa zaxe-
biTa ganmaZliera me RmerTman, da vaoten mterni igi~ (cxoreba wmidisa
Tevdosisi 1975: 194).
2. Zalze gavrcelebulia wminda mamaTagan bunebrivi movlenebis damor-
Cileba da mbrZanebloba maTze. magaliTad, zRva auRelda naviT mimaval
efrem asurs, `da Tumca ara Sewevna RmrTisa da locva wmidisa efremisi,
navi da-mca-nTqumul iyo, rameTu yoveli samZimari da WurWeli STayares
zRuasa, da ficxlad Relvida zRua igi...
igi aRdga da Tayuanisca RmerTsa da tiroda da elni Tsni ganipyrna da
juari daswera zRuasa da Tqua: saxeliTa uflisa Cuenisa iesu qristsiTa...
gibrZaneb, raTa dascxre da dayudden Relvani Senni. da viTarca Tqua
wmidaman esre, dayudda zRua da Relvani misni~ (efrem asuris cxovreba
1975: 221).
xolo uwylobis dros Tevdosi dids evedreboden glaxakni wyals, da man
`iloca, da gardamoda wma, da nayofier iqmna queyana~ (cxoreba wmidisa
Tevdosisi 1975: 194).
3. aris saswaulebi, romlebSic aRwerilia, Tu rogor icvlian Tvisebebs
wmindanTa zemoqmedebiT bunebrivi da fizikuri movlenebi, stiqionebi. amis
naTeli nimuSia `iovane oqropiris cxovrebaSi~ aRwerili saswauli, romlis
Tanaxmad iovanes gaZevebis gamo uflisagan movlenili risxvis dros `kacni
orTa mTaTa Soris cecxlisaTa iqceodes uvnebelad. xolo cecxli igi,
viTarca gulismieri, frinvida da zRua egreT Relvooda sarTulTa zeda
mrguliad da ara Seexo saxlTa maT, romelTa Sina idva kimilia eklesiisa...
da aman eseviTarman cecxlman aravin dawua~ (iovane oqropiris cxovreba
1986: 115-116).
`saba ganwmendilis cxovrebaSi~ ki udabnoSi SeSiT mimavalma sulierma
Zmam, romelsac gzaSi sicxe wamoewia, iloca da daxmareba SesTxova sabas: `da
meyseulad romeli-igi suetiTa RrublisaTa agrilobda isralsa RmerTi,
amasca egreve saxed Rrubeli cuarisa mosca da daSrita wyurili misi da
56


ganaZliera igi. da Tana-uvidoda mas Rrubeli igi vidre moslvadmde misa
lavrad~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 70).
4. agiografiul TxzulebebSi aRiniSneba iseTi SemTxvevebi, romlebSic
wmindanTa CareviT bunebas icvlian nivTierebebi da sagnebi. ase, magaliTad,
lavris magirosma, rodesac aRmoaCina xuroTaTvis gamzadebuli gogris sim-
ware, mivida saba ganwmendilTan da SesCivla. xolo saba `movida da quabsa mas
daswera niSi juarisa da hrqua magirossa mas: vidode, kurTxeul ars ufali.
dauge tablebsa. da myis datkbna ayiro igi. da Wames yovelTa da ganZRes da
adidebdes RmerTsa~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 88). da kvlav sabam,
gograSi Casxmuli Zmari aqcia Rvinod da Tan gaixsena saxarebiseuli saswa-
uli qristesgan wylis Rvinod gadaqcevis Sesaxeb.
5. arcTu iSviaTia naTargmn agiografiul TxzulebebSi saswaulebi, rom-
lebSic wyaros aRmoceneba da sakvebis gamravlebaa aRwerili. ufali iCens
guluxvobas Tavisi sulieri Svilebis mimarT Znelbedobis Jams da ajildo-
ebs maT wyarosa da sakvebis aRmocenebiT. udabnoSi mimaval antoni dids da
monazvnebs Seawuxebs uwyloba, da amis gamo `dacees queyanasa da aqlemica
igi ganuteves warslvad... da berman man viTarca ixilna yovelnive Wirsa Sina,
Sewuxna friad da sulT-iTqumida da warvida maTgan mcired, moidrikna mu-
lni; elni ganipyrna da ilocvida. da meys ismina misi ufalman, da wyaro
aRmoda mier adgiliT, sada-igi dga, da ilocvida~ (antoni didis cxovreba
1975: 35).
agreTve domentianosTan da efTvimi didTan erTad udabnoSi mimavali
saba, sicxis da uwylobis gamo davarda miwaze, ris gamoc `bersa Seewyala igi
da ganeSovra maTgan viTar qvis-satyorcebel oden da davarda pirsa zeda
Tssa, evedreboda RmerTsa da Tqua: ufalo RmerTo, moec wyali adgilsa
amas urwyulsa da ganuqarve Wabuksa amas wyurili.
da Semdgomad locvisa mouwoda da samjer dasca skalidi da aRmoeca
adgilsa mas wyali cxoveli~ (saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 62).
rac Seexeba sakvebis aRmocenebis SemTxvevas, sanimuSod gavixsenebT erT
epizods `Tevdosis cxovrebidan~, romelSic SimSilobis Jams Tevdosis mier
makaris wverisagan gaCenili marcvali `viTarca didi rame evlogia~,
makarma `STaagdo igi saifqlesa adgilsa da dahkrZala kari misi...
da mesamesa dResa mivida amba makari saifqlesa mas adgilsa da pova igi
savs ifqliTa.. da hrqua: akurTxe, mamao, raTa ganvaRoT kari adgilisa
amis da vWamoT nayofisagan, romeli ara daTesul ars da arca queyanasa
gamouRebia, romeli locviTa SeniTa ikurTxa da ganmravlda erTisa misgan
marculisa, romeli Sen momec~ (cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975: 191-192).
6. zogadad agiografiul TxzulebebSi farTod gavrcelebulia wminda-
nisa da cxovelTa urTierTobis motivi, romelSic warmoCenilia wmindan-
Tagan cxovelTa moSinaurebisa da morCilebis faqtebi.
cxovelTa da mwerTa damorCilebis SemTxvevas vawydebiT `Tevdosi didis
cxovrebaSi~: `movida odesme queyanasa amas uricx mkali da quemgogvari. da
queyanisa kacni moivltodes wmidisa amis... da movida, sada-igi iyo simravl
mklisa mis. da mun dadga igi da iloca da brZana, raTa mohguaron mas mkli-
sa misgan... da hrqua maT: Tquenca monani xarT Cuenebrve erTisa uflisani, nu
SeexebiT glaxakTa sazrdelsa _ esrT gibrZanebs Tquen ufali. maSin yo-
veli, romeli iyo mkalTa maTgani gareSe Robesa, dadga, romeli Sina iyo,
iwyo Wamad Tivasa da dautevebda nayofsa. da yovelma, romelTa ixiles ese,
daukrda~ (cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975: 193).
57


aseve `antoni didis cxovrebaSi~ `udabnosa mecni mizeziTa mis wyli-
saTa movidodes da mravalgzis avnebdes Tesulsa mas missa da Sromilsa.
xolo man gancxromiT Seipyra erTi meci da etyoda yovelTa: rad mavnebT
me, rameTu me ara gavneb Tquen; warvediT da saxeliTa iesusiTa nuRara
moeaxlebiT aqa. mieriTgan SeSindes mcnebisa misTs da arRara moeaxlnes
adgilsa mas~ (antoni didis cxovreba 1975: 34).
cxovelTa moSinaurebasa da damorCilebaze metyvelebs agreTve `saba
ganwmendilis cxovrebaSi~ aRwerili erTi saswauli, romlis mixedviT gzad
mimaval sabas Sexvda `lomi friad didi da mkelobeli. da Seuvrda mas da
uCuena feri igi, romliTa kelobda. da TualTa wamisyofiTa evedreboda
mas, raTamca uxila. xolo mamaman Cuenman saba gulisxma-yo mecisa mis tki-
vili da aRupyra feri misi da Cnd aRsobili gamohada mas. da munquesve
daucxra salmoba. igi lomsa mas da vidoda igi mSdobiT. mier JamiTgan or-
meocTa maT dReTa marxvisaTa ukuana Seudga, viTarca mona, Tana-hyvanda~
(saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: 88-89).
amgvarad, warmodgenil naSromSi SeZlebisdagvarad mimovixileT `cxov-
rebaTa~ Janris naTargmni agiografiuli Txzulebebi, vaCveneT Txzulebebs
Soris arsebuli siuJetur-kompoziciuri paralelebi, agreTve siuJetur-
kompoziciuri Sablonebi da bolos, isini davajgufeT saTanado sqemebis
mixedviT.

damowmebani:

antoni didis cxovreba 1975: cxoreba wmidisa mamisa Cuenisa antonisi. mamaTa
cxorebani (britaneTis muzeumis qarTuli xelnaweri XI saukunisa). teqsti
gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo vaxtang imnaiSvilma.
Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1975.
biblia 1989: biblia. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo. Tb.: saqarTvelos
sapatriarqos gamocema, 1989.
efrem asuris cxovreba 1975: cxoreba da gangeba wmidisa mamisa Cuenisa
udabnosa mTiebisa da monazonTa moZRurisa efremisi. mamaTa cxorebani,
(britaneTis muzeumis qarTuli xelnaweri XI saukunisa). teqsti gamosacemad
moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo vaxtang imnaiSvilma. Tb.: Tbilisis
universitetis gamomcemloba, 1975.
iovane oqropiris cxovreba 1986: `iovane oqropiris cxovrebis~ Zveli qarTu-
li Targmani da misi Taviseburebani. teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva
da leqsikoni daurTo r. gvaramiam. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1986.
mrevliSvili 2002: mrevliSvili n. grigol noselis `grigol sakvirvel-
moqmedis cxovrebis~ qarTuli versia. sakandidato disertacia, Tbilisis saxel-
mwifo uniersiteti, 2002.
saba ganwmendilis cxovreba 1975: cxoreba netarisa mamisa Cuenisa sabasi.
mamaTa cxorebani (britaneTis muzeumis qarTuli xelnaweri XI saukunisa). teqsti
gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo vaxtang imnaiSvilma.
Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1975.
siraZe 1975: siraZe r. Zveli qarTuli Teoriul-literaturuli azrovnebis
sakiTxebi. Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1975.
cxoreba wmidisa Tevdosisi 1975: cxoreba wmidisa mamisa Cuenisa Tevdosisi.
mamaTa cxorebani (britaneTis muzeumis qarTuli xelnaweri XI saukunisa). teqsti
gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo vaxtang imnaiSvilma.
Tb.: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1975.
58


Irina Javakhadze

Miracle types in Translated Hagiography of the Genre of Lives

Summary

Miracles, as one of the widespread motifs in hagiographic works, are represented with
a wide range in the considered translated hagiographic works of the Lives genre. On the
basis of their study, they have been classified and arranged according to the following
groups: I. Visions and divine appearances, which unites visions in reality, visions in sleep
and visions at the time of death. The subgroup of visions in reality further includes
miracles of the following type: beholding in a vision of the place where a church must be
built, miraculous appearance of saints in the public, appearance of the Lord to a saint not in
a visible, but in a verbal form, divine miraculous visions, the vision on one and the same
question beheld by two different clergymen simultaneously and finally mystical miracles.
Among visions in sleep, along with widespread miracles, cases of the appearance of a saint
to several persons in order to entrust them with one and the same assignment also occur.
Holy fathers have a vision before dying, they also behold a vision at the time of the repose
of other holy fathers. II. The effect on human beings. This group unites facts of miraculous
punishment of the wicked by saints, healing of the sick, casting unclean spirits out of men,
facts of prophesying and performance of miracles by saints in their absence. III. Miracles
sent by the Lord without the participation of a saint, which unites natural calamities
happening by the Lords will as a punishment, the wrath of God befalling wicked people
and the support shown to holy fathers. IV. The effect on the world of the dead, including
miracles of tombs and holy relics (after saints death healing of people by touching holy
relics, casting devils out of human beings; incorruptibility of the body of a deceased saint
and rescuing of people and animals from death by saints), raising of a dead person by the
saint and the prophecy of deceased saints about living people. V. The effect on the material
world, which unites cases of the hyperbolization of the saints power, controlling-subduing
of elements by saints, changing of the nature of elements, substances and objects, making a
spring to flow, multiplication of food and relationship with the animal kingdom.





59


qeTevan goderZiSvili

berZnuli `varlaam da ioasafi~ da
aristides dakarguli `apologia~

berZnul-qarTul literaturul urTierTobaTa kvlevis xangrZliv
procesSi mravali problema wamoWrila. araerT sakiTxs mohfenia naTeli,
zogic dRemde ar aris bolomde garkveuli. maT Sorisaa araerTi Tema, rom-
lis mniSvneloba scdeba sakuTriv berZnul-bizantiuri da qarTuli mwerlo-
bis farglebs da gacilebiT didi datvirTvis matarebelia zogadkultu-
ruli TvalsazrisiT. amgvar Temebs miekuTvneba `varlaamisa da ioasafis
cxovreba~, qarTul mwerlobaSi _ `sibrZne balavarisa~, igive `balavariani~.
Zveli qarTuli literatura msoflio qristianul mwerlobaSi mniSvne-
lovan rols asrulebda. es garemoeba ki imiT iyo ganpirobebuli, rom qar-
Tuli kultura Taviseburi damakavSirebeli xidi iyo aRmosavlur da dasav-
lur samyaros Soris. sparsuli da arabuli gziT mosuli aRmosavluri az-
rovneba qarTul sinamdvileSi erwymoda did bizantiur kulturas da erov-
nul qarTul niadagze originalur gadamuSavebas da gaazrebas poulobda.
aman ganapiroba is faqti, rom bizantiuri mwerlobis gziT, qarTul samyaros
Tavisi wvlili Seutania Sua saukuneebis zogad-qristianuli literaturu-
li da sazogadoebriv filosofiuri azris ganviTarebaSi. am Tezisis erT-
erTi damadasturebeli faqtia Sua saukuneebis Zalze popularuli romani
`varlaam da ioasafi~ (xinTibiZe 1982b : 288).
am nawarmoebis siuJeti aseTia: indoeTis mefe, saxelad abeneri, aris
qristianTa mteri. mas hyavs mxolodSobili vaJi ioasafi. sanam vaJi SeeZine-
boda, astrologebma uwinaswarmetyveles mefes, rom misi vaJi gaxdeboda
Zlieri, magram miiRebda axal doqtrinas. amis aRsakveTad, mefem mas gars
Semoartya lamazi msaxurebi, romelTac unda ezrunaT imaze, rom uflis-
wuls ar gaego ra aris avadmyofoba da sikvdili, ar daenaxa moxucebuli
xalxi, magram ioasafs undoda Tavisufleba. wavida samogzaurod, da ro-
gorc budas cxovrebaSia, man gzad naxa uamravi gaWirveba, uimedoba. Semdgom
masTan midis varlaami, igi aqristianebs mefis vaJs da kvlav midis udabnoSi.
mefe SvilTan gamarTuli amao saubris Semdeg, gadaswyvets gamarTos sajaro
diskusia. mefis veziri naqori unda daupirispirdes varlaams da unda moax-
dinos qristianuli religiis uaryofiTi axsna. roca es dRe dadga, mefis-
wulma uambo naqors, Tu ra iyo qristianuli mrwamsi, amiTi stimulirebuli
naqori mefisgan darigebulis sawinaaRmdegod qristianobis dasacavad
iwyebs saubars. amis Semdgom, samefoSi yvela gaqristiandeba. mefis vaJi uars
ambobs samefo taxtze da midis udabnoSi balavarTan erTad locvisTvis da
fiqrisTvis.
`varlaam da ioasafi~ gaxlavT hagiografiul-moraluri da dogmatikuri
xasiaTis Txzuleba, romelic warmoadgens budas cxovrebis qristianul
moTxrobad gadmokeTebas (interpretacias), umTavresad aristides `apolo-
giis~ safuZvelze. teqstSi CarTuli `naqoris sityvis~ didi nawili, aristi-
des `apologiis~ berZnuli originalia. am romanSi gamoyenebulia zogierTi
sxva wyaroc. rogoricaa, magaliTad: `cxovreba da wameba ekaterinesi~,
`trofimesi~, `filipe heraklielisa~ da aRapite konstantinopolelis `same-
fo qarta anu tomari~ (VI s) (kekeliZe 1951:473).
60


es nawarmoebi savsea uxvi igavebiT da parabolebiT, romlebic aRmosav-
leTidan modis da gvabrunebs antikurobaSi. miCneulia, rom am romanis
siuJeturi qarga, romelmac gauZlo gadamuSavebas Sua saukuneebis TiTqmis
yvela religiis da moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad, sawyiss mainc budisturi
da qristianuli Temebis Sexvedris punqtebidan iRebs. swored amitom,
Suasaukuneebis eklesiebi iviwyeben moTxrobis zRaprul Sinaarss da varla-
ams da ioasafs ayeneben wmindanebis gverdiT qristianul kalendrebSi. ro-
gorc Cans, romanis avtori Tavisdauneburad budaizmis qristianul inter-
pretacias axdenda.
Znelia moiZebnos Sua saukuneebis msoflio literaturaSi ufro popu-
laruli Zegli, vidre `varlaamisa da ioasafis~ `sulTamargebeli istoriaa~.
XIII saukunemde is iTargmna uamrav enaze. aRmosavleTSi is iTargmna: arabu-
lad, eTiopiurad, somxurad, ebraulad, dasavleTSi misi versiebi mraval
enazea, inglisuris CaTvliT. 1204 wels norvegiis mefem Tavad Targmna
islandiurad (kekeliZe 1951: 262).
mecnierebaSi Zalze mniSvnelovani sakiTxia am Zeglis pirveli qristi-
anuli gadamuSaveba da berZnuli `varlaam da ioasafis~ Seqmna, radganac
Txzulebis popularoba mTlianad misi berZnuli redaqciidan unda yofi-
liyo wamosuli. am sakiTxis gadasawyvetad ki, qarTuli wyaroebi da Txzulebis
qarTuli versiebi specialistebis gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxureben.
sanam mecnierebisaTvis cnobili gaxdeboda qarTuli `sibrZne balavari-
sa~, qarTul variants ver iTvaliswinebdnen im grZel gzaze, rac berZnulma
`varlaam da ioasafma~ gaiara indoeTidan xmelTaSua zRvamde. miuxedavad
imisa, rom iyo ramodenime cnoba, romlis mixedviTac `varlaamisa da
ioasafis cxovreba~ qarTulidan momdinare Canda.
ase rom, bizantinistikis erT-erTi udidesi problemaa berZnuli `var-
laam da ioasafis~ warmoSobisa da misi avtorobis sakiTxi, romelic amav-
droulad qarTuli filologiis erT-erTi umTavresi sakvlevi sakiTxicaa
(xinTibiZe 1982 b:262-772).
2500 welze meti gavida mas Semdeg, rac pirvelad Seiqmna is birTvi, rom-
lidanac Semdeg qristianul samyaroSi popularuli nawarmoebi `varlaam da
ioasafis cxovreba~ warmoiSva. am xnis ganmavlobaSi xdeba am siuJetis ara-
qristianuli enebidan qristianulze, erTi araqristianuli Tu qristianuli
enidan meoreze Targmna-gadakeTeba da yoveli Targmanis, gadakeTebisa da
gadawerisas misi agebulebis, Sinaarsis, saTaurisa da avtoris Sesabamisi,
metnaklebi cvalebadoba. XI saukuneSi ki, mas Semdeg rac nawarmoebi evropul
literaturaSi gamoCnda berZnul-laTinuri versiis saxiT, kerZod rac
berZnul xelnawerebSi gaCnda warwera imis maCveneblad, rom is qarTulidan
berZnulad Targmna efTvime aTonelma, mTargmnelTa Tu gadamwerTa umrav-
lesoba sxvadasxva mizeziT cdilobda Seecvala rogorc nawarmoebis saTa-
uri, ise misi avtor-mTargmnelis vinaobac (gafrindaSvili 2005: 8).
`varlaam da ioasafis~ berZnuli teqsti beWduri saxiT sakmaod mogvi-
anebiT, XIX s-Si (1832 w.)gamoica boisonades mier parizSi `Anecdota Graeca~-Si.
am faqtma bizantinistikaSi erTgvari gakvirvebac gamoiwvia. sakvirvelia,
rom es Zegli, romelic odesRac sargeblobda aseTi popularobiT, Tavis
originalur enaze XIX saukunemde ar iyo dabeWdili. am periodSi, Txzu-
lebam daibruna Tavisi odindeli popularoba, Tumca es interesi amjerad,
mxolod wminda mecnieruli xasiaTisa iyo.
61


berZnuli teqstis pirvelma gamomcemelma i. boisonadem daafuZna Tavisi
gamocema 4 xelnawerze dayrdnobiT da parizis nacionalur biblioTekaSi 16
sxva berZnuli xelnaweris arsebobaze miuTiTa. h.zotenbergmac aseve miuTi-
Ta ramdenime aTeul xelnawerze 1886 wels. xelnawerTa es mozRvaveba iz-
rdeboda da erT-erT aRnusxvaSi 14 aTeuls miaRwia. `varlaamisa da ioasa-
fis~ berZnul xelnawerTa gamovlineba kvlavac grZeldeba. 1968 wels am
Txzulebis uZvelesi TariRiani berZnuli xelnaweri aRmoaCina fonkiCma,
daTariRebuli 1021 wliT (xinTibiZe 1982 b: 263).
mecnierebma labulem da librextma daasabuTes teqstis aSkarad budis-
turi warmoSoba. amave dros dadasturda, rom berZnuli teqsti amJRavnebda
ukiduresad zust msgavsebebs orTodoqsul-qristianul dogmatikasTan.
masSi gamoyenebulia: gr. nazianzelis, basili didis, ioane damaskelis,
aristides doqtrinuli nawerebi da xSir SemTxvevaSi msgavseba ioane damas-
kelTan sityvasityviT identurobamde adis (xinTibiZe,1982 b:267).
mecnieruli kvlevis Semdgom etapze, h.zotenbergma, mecnieruli argu-
mentaciiT, eWvis qveS daayena berZnul xelnawerTa tradiciiT naanderZevi
da `varlaam da ioasafis~ laTinurad mTargmnelis, biliusis, mier, Txzu-
lebis laTinuri Targmanis SesavalSi gatarebuli azri imis Sesaxeb, rom
`varlaam da ioasafis~ avtori VII-VIII saukuneebis didi saeklesio moRvawe
ioane damaskeli iyo. swored aq daisva pirvelad sakiTxi imis Sesxaeb, Tu vin
SeiZleba yofiliyo am Txzulebis berZnuli redaqciis avtori.
zotenbergma dauSva, rom Txzulebis avtori iyo VII saukunis sabawmin-
deli ucnobi beri ioane. (xinTibiZe 1982 b:265).
am kvlevaSi axali etapi Cndeba 1931 wels, rodesac Jurnal `analeqta bo-
landianaSi~ (briuseli, parizi), gamoqveynda paul peetersis werili `varla-
am da ioasafis pirveli laTinuri Targmani da misi berZnuli dedani.
p.peetersi yuradRebas aqcevs `varlaam da ioasafis~ uZveles laTinur Tar-
gmans, romelic 1048 wels iqna Sesrulebuli berZnuli enidan ucnobi laTi-
neli mTargmnelis mier. mTargmneli iZleva Targmanis mokle istorias da
aRniSnavs, rom berZnulad es Txzuleba Targmna efTvTime aTonelma. asabu-
Tebs, rom amas adgili unda hqonoda X-XI saukuneebis mijnaze. is am azrs
anviTarebs Semdeg masalebze dayrdnobiT:
1. laTinuri cnoba _ XIs-is, romelic wamZRvarebuli aqvs 1048 wlis
laTinur Targmans da albaT is mas berZnuli dednidan gadmohyva. neapolis
nacionaluri biblioTekis XIV saukunis xelnawerSi moTavsebulia `varlaam
da ioasafis~ pirveli laTinuri Targmani, romelsac win uZRvis lema,
romelic warmomdgaria im kategoriis berZnuli lemidan, romelic Txzu-
lebis mTargmnelad eqvTime aTonels acxadebs. garda am lemisa, Targmans
SesavalSic da dasasrulSic erTvis mTargmnelis anderZi, romelSic berZnu-
li `varlaamisa da ioasafis~ Seqmna dakavSirebulia efTvime aTonelis sa-
xelTan. es xelnaweri pirvelad swored peetersma Seiswavla.
2. aRsaniSnavia XI s-is pirveli naxevris berZnul xelnawerSi arsebuli
lema (daculi veneciis wm. markozis biblioTekaSi). am lemis mixedviT,
`varlaam da ioasafis~ sulismargebeli istoria, eTiopelTa qveynidan wmin-
da qalaqSi moitana sabas monastris berma ioanem, xolo berZnuli enaze
iberiulidan metafrasireba gaukeTa pativcemulma da saTno kacma efTvimem,
iberad wodebulma. am lemis monacemebs mxars uWers sxva berZnuli xelna-
weric. lemis am variants ewinaaRmdegeba lemis sxva saxeobebi, romelTa
mixedviTac am ambis wminda qalaqSi momtani aris pativcemuli da rCeuli
62


kaci, sabas monastris beri ioane, xolo mis berZnul enaze Targmnaze ara-
feria naTqvami. lemebis ganxilvisas miiCneven, rom uZvelesia is varianti,
sadac efTvimes Sesaxebac aris saubari, radgan is veneciis xelnaweri, ro-
melSic eqvTime ixsenieba mTargmnelad, adreulia, XI saukunisaa. lemis pir-
veli variantidan naxevris Camocileba, aToneli berZnebis qarTvelTa wina-
aRmdeg mimarTul moqmedebadaa miCneuli. qarTvelTa devnas aTonze ki, mar-
Tlac hqonda adgili XI saukunis meore meoTxedSi. 1975 wels e. xinTibiZem
eWvi Seitana lemis cvlilebis zemoT naCveneb variantSi da gamoTqva azri,
rom uZvelesi lemis am saxeobebidan iyo is, romelSic mxolod ambis momtan
ioaneze iyo saubari, xolo eqvTimes Sesaxeb cnoba misi gardacvalebis Sem-
dgom (1028 weli) unda yofiliyo darTuli. es lema aTonis qarTvelebs unda
SeedginaT. es unda yofiliyo pasuxi im gaafTrebul brZolaze, rac ber-
Znebma wamoiwyes efTvimes mimarT. fonkiCic amave mosazrebas amyarebs, mxo-
lod lemas XII saukuniT aTariRebs. e. xinTibiZes miaCnia, rom lemis meore
nawili XI saukuneSia Seqmnili.
3. 1042 w. giorgi aTonelis cnoba, romelic, giorgi mTawmindelis
`ioanesa da eqvTimes cxovrebaSia~ CarTuli.
peetersi miiCnevs, rom am romanis berZnuli legendis tradicia swored
XI s-Si iwyeba. 1048 wlis laTinur Targmanamde es romani dasavleTSi jer ki-
dev ar yofila popularuli. p.peetersi amas faqtebiT asabuTebs. igi miiC-
nevs, rom lemebSi pirveladia is, romelSic mTargmnelad eqvTime ixsenieba
da Semdgomia is varianti, sadac ioane damaskelia gamocxadebuli mTargmnelad.
peeterss specialuri gamokvlevebiT daeTanxmnen amerikelebi: r.vulfi,
r.bleiki. aTeuli wlebis manZilze es azri dominirebda bizantinistikaSi
(xinTibiZe 1982 b:266-267).
amis Semdgom samecniero wreebSi axali etapia f.delgeris statiis gamo-
Cena. is icavs ioane damaskelis avtorobas. igi cal-calke ixilavs peetersis
argumentebs, romlebic efTvimes avtorobis sakiTxs uWeren mxars da zoten-
bergisas, romelic damasakelis avtorobis Teorias ar eTanxmeba. igi amodis
Txzulebis stilidan, rac misi azriT pirwmindad damaskeliseulia
(xinTibiZe 1982:267-269).
1957 wels d.langis werili `balavarianze~, am nawarmoebis mecnieruli
kvlevis procesSi mniSvnelovani etapia. d. langma mxari dauWira efTvime
aTonelis avtorobas da ganixila `balavarianis~ ori qarTuli redaqciis
warmoSobis sakiTxi. misi azriT, vrceli qarTuli redaqcia `iodasafis
cxovreba~ arabuli araqristianuli teqstis qarTuli originaluri gadaq-
ristianeba. am ukanasknelis Semoklebaa Tbilisuri redaqcia, qarTuli re-
daqcia `sibrZne balavarisa~, romelic aseve IX saukuneSia gadamuSavebuli.
langma inglisur enaze Targmna orive qarTuli redaqcia. anri greguaric
efTvime aTonelis avtorobas uWerda mxars, aseve glenvil daunic
(xinTibiZe 1982 b:268).
XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi qarTvelma mecnierebmac bevri Sroma gaswies am
Txzulebis redaqciaTa urTierTmimarTebaTa dasadgenad. 1956 wels
k.kekeliZem dawera narkvevi `balavarianis~ romani qristianul mwerlobaSi~.
k.kekeliZe exeba am romanis sxvadasxva redaqciaTa erTmaneTTan mimarTebas.
k.kekeliZe uSvebda arabuli qristianuli versiis arsebobas da qarTuli
Targmanis misgan momdinareobas. amave wels S.nucubiZis specialuri monog-
rafia qveyndeba. axali hipoTeza Cndeba, rom mokle qarTuli redaqcia aris
ara Targmani, aramed originaluri da dawerilia qarTul enaze VII saukuneSi
63


ioane mosxis mier, romelic mkvlevaris azriT orenovani mweralia. is wers
berZnuladac da qarTuladac.
1957 wels i. abulaZem gamoaqveyna qarTuli mokle da vrceli ierusa-
limuri variantebi da mimoixila maTi urTierTmimarTebis problema. Txzu-
lebis qarTul-berZnuli teqstebis mimarTebas da `varlaam da ioasafis~
lemis Seswavlas vrceli gamokvleva miuZRvna s. yauxCiSvilmac.
60-ian wlebSi delgeris hipoTeza ioane damaskelis avtorobisa, kvlav
aqtualuri xdeba. albaT imitom rom, bizantiuri literaturis saukeTeso
qmnilebis avtorad, damaskelis garda sxva avtori ver warmoedginaT. cno-
bili bizantinisti hans beki eTanxmeba ioane damaskelis avtorobas
(xinTibiZe 1982 b:270-271).
qarTvelma mecnierma e. xinTibiZem `varlaam da ioasafis~ sakiTxs uamravi
mecnieruli kvleva miuZRvna. 1976 wels parizSi gamoqveynda e.xinTibiZis
gamokvleva `balavarianis~ qarTuli da berZnuli teqstebis mimarTebis
Taobaze. naSromSi gaTvaliswinebulia am Txzulebis arabuli redaqciac.
misi daskvniT, arabuli redaqcia berZnuls ar hgavs, ufro qarTuls emsgav-
seba. qarTuli Sualeduri redaqciaa. e. xinTibiZis azriT, berZnul re-
daqciaSi ar Cans arc erTi winadadeba, romelic qarTulis gverdis avliT
arabulidan iyos gakeTebuli. sainteresoa d.Jimares monografiac. man ara-
buli versia Seadara berZnul da qarTul redaqciebs da qarTuli redaqcia
Sualedur redaqciad miiCnia (xinTibiZe 1976: 16-28).
1991 wels bizantinistTa XVIII saerTaSoriso kongresze moxda prezenta-
cia `oqsforduli bizantinistikis leqsikonis~ samtomeulisa. am samtome-
ulis Seqmna dakavSirebulia cnobili bizantinistis, a.kaJdanis saxelTan.
leqsikonis pirvel tomSi moTavsebulia a.kaJdanis statia bizantiuri roma-
nis `varlaam da ioasafis` Sesaxeb. aq vkiTxulobT, rom berZnuli `varlaam da
ioasafis~ Seqmnis TariRi da avtoroba azrTa sxvadasxvaobis sagania. mecni-
eruli tradicia mxars uWers or saxels: ioane damaskelsa da efTvime
iberiels, romelsac am naSromis Targmna miewereba qarTulidan. kaJdani
miiCnevs, rom arc erTi maTgani ar SeiZleba iyos avtori da naSromi unda
miekuTvnos ucnob ioane sabawmindels da daTariRdes IX saukuniT.
kaJdanis es Tvalsazrisi TiTqmis gameorebaa pirveli mecnieruli Tval-
sazrisisa, romelic zotenbergs miekuTvneba. gansxvaveba imaSia, rom zoten-
bergi kaJdanisagan gansxvavebiT miiCnevda, rom es ioane sabawmindeli unda
yofiliyo VII saukunis ucnobi beri.
kaJdanma gaiTvaliswina zotenbergis Teoriis winaaRmdeg arsebuli mec-
nieruli Tvalsazrisebi da daaskvna, rom Zeglis VII-VIII saukuneebiT daTari-
Rebas teqstobrivi niuansebic ar uWers mxars da ucnobi beri IX saukuneSi
gadmoiyvana.
e. xinTibiZe miiCnevs, rom kaJdanis Tvalsazrisi imiTaa saintereso, rom
gvxveba axali argumentebi, romlebic abaTilebs ioane damaskelis avtoro-
bis sakiTxs. amasTanave, kaJdani cdilobs teqstSi ipovos iseTi detalebi,
romlebic nawarmoebis Seqmnas efTvimes epoqaSi gamoricxaven.
e. xinTibiZis azriT IX saukunis sabawmindeli beri ar SeiZleba yofiliyo
berZnuli redaqciis avtori (xinTibiZe 2003: 52-62]
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom: erTmaneTTan ar aris Sejerebuli `varlaam
da ioasafis~ yvela berZnuli xelnaweri. ar aris dazustebuli yvela maT-
ganSi Txzuleba zustad erTi da imave Semadgenlobisaa, Tu gamosayofia re-
daqciebi da variantebi. ar aris dadgenili, Tu ra saxis cvlilebebi ganicada
64


teqstma saukuneTa manZilze. dasturdeba, rom `varlaam da ioasafis~ erTi
XIs. xelnaweri, romelic moTavsebulia moskovis _yofil sinodalur bib-
lioTekaSi, romelic erT dros aTonis iberTa monastris kuTvnilebas war-
moadgenda, inaxavs minis gamocemasTan SedarebiT sagrZnoblad mokle
teqsts. ar aris dadgenili berZnuli `varlaam da ioasafis teqstualuri
mimarTeba qarTuli `balavarianis~ or redaqciasTan _ mokle Tbilisur
redaqciasTan _ `sibrZne balavarisa~ da vrcel _ ierusalimur redaq-
ciasTan, romelsac xelnaweris Tanaxmad `iodasafis cxovrebac~ SeiZleba
ewodos. Tumca, sanam qarTul teqstTan mimarTeba gairkveva, jer berZnul
xelnawerTa urTierTmimarTebis garkveva iqneboda ukeTesi, raTa gamovle-
niliyo Tavdapirveli da gviandeli variantebi. aseve gasarkvevia arabuli
redaqciis teqsturi mimarTeba qarTul da berZnul teqstebTan. savsebiT
SesaZlebelia, rom arabuli wyarodan modiodes ierusalimuri redaqcia,
aqedan ki Tbilisuri (xinTibiZe 1982 b:280-281).
sainteresoa erTi garemoebac. berZnuli `varlaam da ioasafi~, rogorc
literaturuli Zegli, IX saukunis sabawmindis literaturul garemocvaSi
ar eteva. sabawmindis kulturuli garemo religiuri SemwynareblobiTa da
literaturuli TanamSromlobiT xasiaTdeba. berZnuli `varlaam da
ioasafi~ ki, gansxvavebiT misi winamorbedi arabuli da qarTuli redaqciebi-
sagan, aZlierebs polemikur _ dogmatur stils. Zveli _ Semwynarebluri
literaturuli stilidan mas auRia bevri elementi, magram e. xinTibiZe amas
imiT xsnis, rom berZnuli `varlaam da ioasafi~ gadaTargmna da gadamuSavebaa
swored dasaxelebul garemocvaSi Seqmnili qarTuli `iodasafis cxovre-
bisa~. magram amas miuRia axali literaturuli forma, romelic swored X
saukunis dasasrulis kvals atarebs. esaa swored is metafrasuli hagiogra-
fiuli stili, romelic aSkarad SeiniSneba romanSi. Cvenamde moRweuli es
Txzuleba aSkarad metafrasuli Zeglia, amas TviT avtoric afiqsirebs. misi
TqmiT, nawarmoebi `arwmuno Canawerebis metafrasirebas~warmoadgens. me-
tafrasuli stili ki X saukunis 80-iani wlebidan mkvidrdeba bizantiur mwer-
lobaSi da isic konstantinopolis literaturul garemocvaSi (xinTibiZe
1975:125-136).
sainteresoa erTi faqtoric. ra iyo is stimuli, rac biZgs miscemda X
saukunis dasasruls, aTonis mTaze, bizantiuri samonastro korporaciis
centrSi, im literaturuli saqmianobis wamowyebas, romelic bizantiuri
literaturis Sedevris, `varlaam da ioasafis~ SeqmniT dagvirgvinda? e.xin-
TibiZe am stimuls ori garemoebiT xsnis. pirveli, es aris qarTvelebis SeWra
aTonis mTis samonastro korporaciis cxovrebaSi, maTi uzado saqmianoba
aTonis qarTul saliteraturo skolaSi X saukunis gasuls, ramac bizantiis
saero da sasuliero wreebis yuradReba miiqcia. es erTis mxriv gamowveuli
iyo qarTveli didgvarovnebis daxmarebiT konstantinopolis samefo kari-
sadmi, rodesac barda skliarosi ajanyda da meores mxriv, maTi simdidriT,
rac qarTvelTa mier aTonis mTis berZenTa monastrebis uxvad dasaCuqrebaSi
gamoixata. meore garemoeba, sadac qarTvelebs pretenzia aucileblad eqne-
bodaT rom Tavi gamoeCinaT, es iyo sulieri da inteleqtualuri sfero.
aTonis monastris damaarseblis wminda ioanesa da misi Svilis, efTvimes
mTavari devizi iyo literaturuli saxis sasuliero moRvaweoba. am lite-
raturuli skolis saqmianobis ZiriTadi mimarTuleba iyo qarTuli RvTis-
msaxurebis axal, konstantinopolis saeklesio praqtikasTan daaxloeba da
dogmatikuri, kanonikuri da liturgikuli wignebis axali redaqciebis
65


Seqmna. es saqme sabawmindaSi iyo dawyebuli, magram gagrZeleba aTonze xde-
boda. am saqmianobaSi naTlad gamoCnda, rom qarTuli saeklesio praqtika
icnobda zogierTi iseTi wmindanis saxels da qarTulad arsebobda iseTi
`wmindanTa~ cxovrebanic da sagaloblebi, romlebic ucnobi iyo berZnuli
eklesiisaTvis da aseTebi pirvel rigSi iyvnen wmindanebi _ varlaam da
ioasafi. da maT saxelebTan dakavSirebuli literaturuli Zeglebi. savara-
udoa, rom es garemoeba qarTvel mwignobrebs miscemda stimuls SeevsoT
berZnuli kalendris es xarvezi da amiT berZenTa winaSe warmoeCinaT ro-
gorc qarTuli eklesiis praqtikisa da literaturis simdidre, aseve saku-
Tari inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobani.
meore momenti, rac miiCneva stimulad im epoqaSi, rom Seqmniliyo
`varlaam da ioasafi~ aris is, rom romanis fabula savaraudod Zalze po-
pularuli unda yofiliyo imdroindel saero da sasuliero wreebSi. aqac e.
xinTibiZis azriT kaJdani cdeba, roca Tvlis, rom aTonis mTaze eqvTime
aTonelis dros es problematika aqtualuri ar iyo. e. xinTibiZis azriT,
sworedac rom X saukunis dasasrulisaTvis, `varlaam da ioasafis~ gadamu-
Savebis dros, bizantiis socialur-politikur da kulturul cxovrebaSi
Cans saWiroeba imisa, rom gaCeniliyo es romani (xinTibiZe 2003: 57).
`varlaam da ioasafis~ ZiriTadi idea aris propaganda qristianobis gav-
rcelebisaTvis. am Txzulebis fabulis safuZvelSi mefis vaJis mier qveynis
qristianiobaze moqceva Zevs. berZnuli versiis avtors aqcenti warmarTo-
basTan polemikasa da qristianobis gavrcelebaze gadaaqvs.
e. xinTibiZis azriT, amgvari Txzulebis Seqmna X saukunis 80-iani wlebis
dasasrulisaTvis bizantiis samefo karisa da qristianuli eklesiis intere-
sebis gadaudebel saWiroebas warmoadgenda. saqme is aris, rom bizantiuri
diplomatiis yvelaze didi problema am droisaTvis iyo moRvaweoba imperiis
Crdiloeli didi da mZvinvare mezoblis _ ruseTis gaqristianebisaTvis.
rogorc bizantiis saistorio wyaroebi miuTiTeben, am diplomatiis mTavari
iaraRi ruseTSi qristianobis gavrceleba iyo.
xangrZlivi perepetiebis Semdgom, imperator basilisa da ruseTis
mTavris, vladimiris, mmarTvelobis dros, es moxerxda. diplomatiuri gari-
gebis Tanaxmad, vladimirma colad SeirTo imperatoris da, princesa ana da
TviTon ki qristianad moinaTla. amas mohyva ruseTis qristianobaze moqceva.
es iyo 988 Tu 989 weli. amiT daiwyo Zalze xangrZlivi megobroba da ekono-
mikuri urTierToba ruseTsa da bizantias Soris. rodis unda yofiliyo
ufro drouli da popularuli bizantiis samefo karsa da saeklesioo wre-
ebSi `varlaam da ioasafis sulismargebeli romanis~ mimzidveli fabula _
ambavi gaqristianebuli ufliswulisa, qristianobasa da warmarTobas Soris
dapirispirebis, samyaros qristianul da araqristianul nawilebad gayofis,
qristianobis absoluturi triumfis Taobaze: Tu ara swored saukunis
bolo aTaswleulSi _ kievis ruseTis gaqristianebis rogorc uSualod wina
wlebSi, aseve ufro metad momdevno aTwleulSi?!
unda iTqvas isic, rom Zvel rusul mwerlobaSi, yvelaze metad gav-
rcelebuli Txzuleba swored `varlaam da ioasafi~ iyo. Cvenamde moRweuli
Zveli rusuli xelnawerebi am Txzulebis daaxloebiT 1000 egzemplaramde
aRwevs (sruli Tu fragmentuli). e. xinTibiZes miaCnia, rom `varlaam da
ioasafis~ berZnuli Txzuleba, efTvime aTonelis mier `balavarianis~ qar-
Tuli redaqciis Targmanisa da gametafrasebis Sedegad Seqmnili Zegli unda
iyos X saukunis dasasruls, rac misi azriT unda momxdariyo X saukunis
66


ukanasknel aTwleulSi, ruseTis gaqristianebis periodSi (xinTibiZe 1999:
174-177).
unda SevexoT kidev erT mniSvnelovan detalsac, rasac mecnierma e.
xinTibiZem miaqcia saTanado yuradReba. es gaxlavT sityva eTiopia, `varlaam
da ioasafis romanis~ berZnuli versiis lemidan. es gaxlavT lemaSi naxsenebi
erTaderTi geografiuli dasaxeleba. veneciuri xelnaweris lemis mixedviT
(Venet. marc vii-2b), es Txzuleba eTiopiis Sida qveynidan aris motanili. amave
lemis meore varianti, romelsac Cvenamde moRweuli SedarebiT Zveli
xelnawerebi inaxavs, ufro azustebs am dasaxelebas. eTiopia aq indoeTis
qveynadaa gamoyvanili: `sulismargebeli moTxroba motanili eTiopiis Sida
qveynidan, egreT wodebuli indoeTis qveynidan~. es lema ase ikiTxeba 60-ze
met berZnul xelnawerSi, romelTagan 14 ekuTvnis XIV saukunes. sami maTgani
ki delgeris azriT X saukunisaa.
riTi SeiZleba avxsnaT, rom romanis dasawyisSi, romelSic moTxrobilia
indoeTSi qristianobis gavrcelebis ambavi, indoeTis identifikacia xdeba
eTiopiasTan, razec araferia naTqvami berZnuli redaqciis gamoCenamde ar-
sebul qarTul da arabul redaqciebSi. e. xinTibiZe fiqrobs, rom am kiTxvas
SesaZloa vupasuxoT Zvel qarTul bibliur teqstebze dayrdnobiT.
`mociqulTa moRvaweobis~ Sesaxeb VIII TavSi saubaria eTiopiis dedofal-
ze da erT eTiopze. yvela evropul TargmanSi es citata ase JRers. `moci-
qulTa moRvaweobis~ Sesaxeb giorgi mTawmindelis XI saukunis qarTul
TargmanSi ki eTiopiis da eTiopis magivrad saubaria indoeTze da indusze.
eTiopia sxva Zvel qarTul TargmanebSic indoeTad xSiradaa Targmnili.
sainteresoa XI saukunis xelnaweriT Cvenamde moRweuli pateriki, romel-
sac am kuTxiT yuradReba miaqcies bibliuri teqstebis mkvlevarebma. Zvel
qarTul bibliur teqstebSi xSir SemTxvevebSi sityva eTiopia, qarTveli
mTargmnelebis mier gaazrebulia, rogorc miTiTeba zangze, Savkanianze.
antikur wyaroebSi eTiopeli _ Savkanians niSnavda. rogorc dadgenilia,
hindo, ZvelqarTulSi aramarto induss aRniSnavda, aramed Savkanians zogadad.
SeiZleba gakeTdes daskvna: identifikacia indoeTisa eTiopiasTan, rome-
lic damaxasiaTebelia mxolod `varlaam da ioasafis~ berZnuli redaqci-
isaTvis, unda modiodes berZnuli `varlaam da ioasafis~ avtorisagan. av-
torma Tavad uwoda indoeTs eTiopia. mis win mdebare masalebSi mas indoeTi
erqva. e. xinTibiZe miiCnevs, rom es identifikacia unda moexdina adamians,
romelic kargad erkveoda berZnul da qarTul bibliur teqstebSi, radga-
nac berZnuli bibliis eTiopia bibliuri teqstebis qarTul TargmanSi indo-
eTia. aqedan gamomdinare, am tradiciebze aRzrdil avtors, qarTulidan
indoeTi gadmoaqvs berZnul TargmanSi eTiopiad. am mizeziTac, e. xinTibiZis
azriT `varlaam da ioasafis~ avtorad efTvime mTawmindeli unda miviCnioT
(xinTibiZe 1982a:70-73).
amrigad, evropeli da qarTveli mecnierebis gamokvlevebze da Sexedu-
lebebze dayrdnobiT migvaCnia, rom `varlaam da ioasafis~ berZnuli Txzu-
leba qarTuli enidan, `balavarianis~ qarTuli redaqciidan Targmna da me-
tafrasireba gaukeTa efTvime aTonelma X saukunis bolos, aTonis mTis
monasterSi. qarTuli redaqciis wyaroa arabuli araqristianuli redaqcia.
qarTuli vrceli redaqcia, `iodasafis cxovreba~, gaxlavT Sualeduri re-
daqcia aRmosavlur araqristianul Txzulebasa da Rrmad dogmatikur _
polemikur, berZnul, `varlaam da ioasafis cxovrebas~ Soris.
67


Cven SevexeT am nawarmoebis redaqciaTa urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxs,
berZnuli versiis avtorobis sakiTxs da a.S. amavdroulad, CvenTvis sainte-
resoa is faqti, rom nawarmoebis avtors, berZnul `varlaam da ioasafSi~
gamoyenebuli aqvs II saukunis berZeni apologetis, aristides `apologia
TiTqmis sruli saxiT, romelic IV saukunidan moyolebuli berZnul mwerlo-
baSi dakargulad iyo miCneuli. rogorc zeviT iTqva, `varlaam da ioasafis
cxovrebaSi~ CarTuli `naqoris sityvis~ didi nawili aristides `apologiis~
berZnuli originalia.
qarTul mecnierebas, zogadad qarTvelologias, aristide ainteresebs
imdenad, ramdenadac, misi saxeliT, Cvenamde moRweulia apologia, romel-
Sic avtori akritikebs antikur warmarTobas, maT Soris cecxlTayvanismcem-
lobas da am `apologiis~ gamoyenebis aSkara kvali Cans qarTul hagiogra-
fiul ZeglebSi cecxlTayvanismcemlobasTan polemikis saSualebad. garda
amisa aRmoCnda, rom dakargulad miCneuli `apologiis~ TiTqmis sruli teq-
sti CarTulia `varlaam da ioasafis` berZnul redaqciaSi, romlis avtora-
dac gavrcelebuli versiiT eqvTime aToneli miiCneva.
mecnier e. xinTibiZis azriT, `varlaam da ioasafis~ berZnuli versiis
avtoris kvlevis procesSi, sagangebo aRniSvnis Rirsia `varlaam da ioasaf-
Si~ CarTuli aristides `apologiis~ teqsti. amaod fiqrobda delgeri, rom
aToneli qarTvelebisaTvis gamoricxuli unda yofiliyo am teqstis xelSi
Cagdeba, radganac igi mTeli berZnuli samyarosaTvis dakargulad Cans ukve
VI saukunidan. e. xinTibiZes miaCnia, rom es faqti sxvagvar komentars saWi-
roebs. Tu berZnul mwerlobaSi aristides apologiis teqsti ukve VI s-dan
aRar Cans, moulodnelia, rom igi hqonoda VIII saukunis avtors ioane damas-
kels. meore mxriv, aristides `apologia~ Sua saukuneebs ar daukargavT. igi
Semoinaxa aRmosavleTis araberZnulenovanma qristianulma samyarom. dRe-
isaTvis am Txzulebis sruli teqsti daculia siriul enaze VI s. xelnawerSi,
misi fragmenti _ somxurze. ismis kiTxva: SeeZlo Tu ara efTvime aTonels
aRmosavleTis araberZnulenovani qristianuli samyarodan daebrunebina es
Zegli berZnuli enisaTvis? e. xinTibiZis azriT, SeeZlo. miT umetes rom,
qarTul qristianul literaturaSi aristides `apologiis~ gamoyenebis uwy-
veti xazi Cans. qarTul hagiografiul literaturas ki, aTonis salitera-
turo skola udaod iqneboda naziarebi. Tanac, efTvime aToneli aTonis salite-
raturo skolis erT-erTi yvelaze nayofieri moRvawe da mamamTavari iyo.
mas Semdeg, rac gamovlinda efTvime aTonelis damsaxureba berZnuli
mwerlobis winaSe masSi varlaam da ioasafis cxovrebis Setanis saxiT, saWi-
ro gaxda axsna sakiTxisa, Tu ra wyaros unda dayrdnoboda efTvime aToneli
aristides `apologiis~ gamoyenebisas da ra periodSi moxda aristides `apo-
logiis~ TiTqmis sruli teqstis Setana `varlaam da ioasafSi~?!
am SemTxvevaSi berZnuli wyaro moxsnili iqna im motiviT, rom berZnul
mwerlobaSi is jer kidev VI saukuneSi daikarga, xolo qarTvel mwerals
`balavariani~ wyarod ver gamoadgeboda, radganac TviTonaa misi Semtani
berZnul samyaroSi. amasTanave mecnier volfs hqonda SeniSnuli, rom qar-
Tuli `balavarianic~ apologias Seicavda `impliciturad~. b.kilanava izi-
arebs qarTveli mecnieris, S.nucubiZis mosazrebas am faqtTan dakavSirebiT.
misi azriT, eqvTime aToneli iyenebs qarTul wyaroebs, radgan, berZnulisa-
gan gansxvavebiT, aq iyo sruli kulturuli winapiroba aristides `apologi-
is~ gasacnobad; bakuris biografiidan moyolebuli, evstaTisa da abibosis
68


`wamebaTa~ da qarTuli `balavarianis~ gavliT, gza berZnuli `balavariani-
saken~ midis (kilanava 1990:206).
migvaCnia, rom aristides `apologiis~ CarTva varlaam da ioasafSi
gamowveuli iyo sxvadasxva mizezebiT. jer erTi, vfiqrobT, rom berZnuli
Txzulebis avtors, efTvime mTawmindels, unda scodnoda, rom es nawarmoebi
berZnul mwerlobaSi didi xnis manZilze dakarguli iyo. vfiqrob, rom
eqvTimem icoda is faqtic, rom aristides `apologiis~ gamoyenebis uwyveti
kvali Canda VI saukunidan moyolebuli, qarTul hagiografiul ZeglebSi.
kerZod, aristide arsebobda aRmosavleTSi maSin, rodesac dasavlur mwer-
lobaSi misi `apologia~ ukve gamqralia.
eqvTime aToneli, aristides `apologiis~ CarTviT berZnul `varlaam da
ioasafSi~, swored am xarvezs uvsebs bizantiur mwerlobas. meore mniSvne-
lovani faqtori. avtori am `apologias~ iyenebs garkveuli miznebisaTvis.
efTvime am SemTxvevaSi moqmedebs bizantielTa interesebis dasacavad saer-
TaSoriso asparezze. kerZod, im periodSi, bizantiam moaxerxa ruseTis gaq-
ristianeba, razec zeviT visaubreT. am faqtis gasamyareblad ki, saWiro iyo
iseTi Txzulebebis arseboba bizantiur mwerlobaSi, romlebic axladgaq-
ristianebuli ruseTis sarwmunoebriv pozicias gaamyarebda da did Sta-
beWdilebas moaxdenda. `varlaam da ioasafis cxovrebis~ berZnul Txzule-
baSi, romelSic moTxrobilia warmarTuli qveynis gaqristianebis ambavi,
efTvime mTawmindeli ostaturad iyenebs aristides `apologias~, rogorc
warmarTobasTan sapolemiko saSualebas. aristides `apologiis~ meSveobiT,
misi polemikuri debulebebis wyalobiT, romelsac avtori warmosTqvams
naqoris piriT, warmarTuli qveyana xdeba qristiani.
Cveni azriT, efTvime aTonels aristides dakargulad miCneuli `apolo-
gia~, romelSic naCvenebia polemika antikuri warmarTobis winaaRmdeg, sWir-
deba, raTa daasabuTos ruseTis warmarTobidan qristianobaze gadasvla.

yvela zemoT CamoTvlil argumentze dayrdnobiT, vakeTebT Cveneul
daskvnebs. efTvime mTawmindeli, X s. bolos qmnis berZnul `varlaam da
ioasafis cxovrebas~ qarTuli `balavarianis~ Targmnis Sedegad. berZnul
`varlaam da ioasafSi~ eqvTime rTavs aristides dakargulad miCneul `apo-
logias~, romliTac is sargeblobs qarTuli, an zogadad aRmosavluri qris-
tianuli wyaroebidan. rogorc iTqva, aristides `apologia~ aRmoCnda aRmo-
savlur qristianul mwerlobaSi: siriulSi srulad, xolo somxurSi frag-
mentebis saxiT. rogorc Cans, mas icnobdnen qarTveli avtorebic. amitom
araa gasakviri, rom berZnul mwerlobaSi dabrunda qarTulis gziT. rogorc
dReisaTvis damtkicebulad iTvleba, `apologiis~ berZnuli teqsti TiTqmis
sruli saxiT aris CarTuli `varlaam da ioasafis~ berZnul romanSi, romlis
uZvelesi xelnawerebi XI saukunis dasawyisiT TariRdeba. Tu gaviziarebT am
ukanaskneli Txzulebis avtorobis erT yvelaze metad dasabuTebul
versias, rom is Seqmnilia aTonis mTaze moRvawe qarTveli mwerlis wminda
efTvime aTonelis mier `iodasafis cxovrebaze~ anu varlaam da ioasafis
qarTul versiaze dayrdnobiT, maSin advilad aixsneba is garemoebac, rom
aristides `apologiis~ adrindel SuasaukuneebSi dakarguli teqsti ber-
Znul mwerlobas SeiZleboda dabruneboda qarTuli, an zogadad aRmosavle-
Tis qristianuli mwerlobidan.


69


miviCnev, rom qarTveli eqvTime mTawmindelis mier `varlaam da ioasafis~
berZnuli Txzulebis avtorobis faqti da mis mier aristides `apologiis~
originalis enaze aRdgenis movlena, qarTvelologiis kidev erTi mniSvne-
lovani wingadadgmuli nabijia msoflio mecnierebaSi.


damowmebani:

gafrindaSvili 2005: gafrindaSvili n. varlaamisa da ioasafis cxovreba. Tb.:
programa `logosi`, 2005.
kekeliZe 1951: kekeliZe k. Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis ostoria. Tb.:1951.
kilanava 1990: kilanava b. qarTuli damwerlobis da mwerlobis saTaveebTan.
evstaTi mcxeTelis wameba da adreqristianuli mwerloba. Tb.:1990.
xinTibiZe 1975: xinTibiZe e. berZnuli varlaam da ioasafi metafrasuli
hagiografiuli Zegli. Tsu `Sromebi~, 162, Tb.: 1975.
xinTibiZe 1976: Khintibidze E. Concerning the Relationship of the Georgian and Greek
Versions of Balaam and Ioasaph. Volume 34. Paris: Supplement to Revue de kartvelologie. 1976.
xinTibiZe 1982a: . . .: 1982.
xinTibiZe 1982b: xinTibiZe e. qarTul-bizantiuri literaturuli
urTierTobis istoriisaTvis. Tb.: universitetis gamomcemloba, 1982.
xinTibiZe 1999: xinTibiZe e. berZnuli varlaam da ioasafi da ruseTis
gaqristianeba. mesame saerTaSoriso simpoziumis masalebi. Tb.: universitetis
gamomcemloba, 1999.
xinTibiZe 2003: xinTibiZe e. kidev erTi axleburi Tvalsazrisi Sua saukuneebis
evropuli literaturis Sedevris varlaam da ioasafis avtorobis sakiTxze.
Tb.: saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis macne, enisa da literaturis seria,
2003.


Ketevan Goderdzishvili

Greek Barlaam and Ioasaph and the Lost Apology of Aristide

Summary

Number of problem appeared in the long-term reserch process of Greek-Georgian
literatural relations. Many of these issues were solved, some of them havnt been explaned
till now. Among these topics, there are number of issues which importance disjoined
Greek-Byzantian-Georgian borders and have more importance in general cultural point of
view. The topics like these are: The Life of Barlaam and Ioasaph, in Georgian writing-
The Wisdom of Balahvar, the same Balavariani.
The Old Georgian literature played an important role in the World Christian Writing.
This momemt was justified by the fact, that Georgian culture was the connecting bridge
between Oriental and Western universe. The Oriental thought which was brought through
Persian and Arabian way, in Georgian reality was mixed with great Bizantian culture and
in national Georgian ground was reproducted and was interpreted originally. By this factor
was motivated the fact, that through Bizantian writing,Georgian universe did its bit in
development of middle centuries general-christian literal and civil philosophic opinion.
70


One of the confirmative fact of this thesis is the most popular novel of the middle centuries
Barlaam and Ioasaph.
The plot of this story is following: The king of India, Abener is the enemy of Christian
religion and Christian people. He has the only son- Ioasaph. Before his birth, the
astrologists predicted him, that his son would become strong, but he would receive a new
doctrine. For not being like that, he managed and hired a lot of beautiful servants. They
had to look after him for one reason, Prince Ioasaph would be see only beauty, happiness
and not understand what is illness and death and also not to see old people. But Ioasaph
wanted freedom. He asked his father and went for journey. As it is in the Life of Buda,
he saw a number of need and hopeless. After this Christian man, Barlaam, came to him,
christened him and went back to desert. Father King is worried about it. He decided to
celebrate an open discussion in which his Vizier Nachor must be in opposition with
Barlaam and must manage to make a negative interpretation of Christianity. Before this
discussion Prince Ioasaph told Nachor about the wisdom of Christianity. And during this
discussion, Nachor, stimulated with the wisdom of Christianity, what about Ioasaph spoke
with him by the help of God, starts his speech vice versa to what king had told him. He
begins to advocate Christianity. After this fact, everybody in kingdom became Christians.
Kings son Ioasaph refuses to be king, denied his title and went to desert for prying and
thinking.
The churches of middle centuries have forgotten a fairy content of this story and they
placed Barlaam and Ioasaph near with the names of martyrs in Christian calendars. The
author of this novel unintentionally makes the interpretation of the religion of Buda in
Christianity way.
One important factor is that, a big part of Nachors speech is a Greek original of the
Apology of Aristide.
The popularity of this novel must be started from the Greek edition of this story.
In the process of studying the Greek edition of this novel, Georgian sources and
Georgian versions of this story drop to attention of a number of literature specialists. So, a
subject of the origin and the author of Barlaam and Ioasaph, which is a great problem for
Bizantium-researchers, simultaneously, appeared to be the main researching subject for
Georgian philology.
More then 2500 years passed, since the creation of first kernel, from which lately
appeared very popular novel in Christian universe. It is The life of Barlaam and
Ioasaph. During this period, this subject was rebuilt and translated from non Christian
languages to Christian languages. During this process of translation,there were made some
changes in the plot ,in title and in author of the novel. After XI century, after the
appearance of this novel in European literature as Greek and latin versions, more
concretely, after the appearamce of superscription in Greek manuscripts, which indicated
that this novel was translated from Georgian Languagew in Greek, by Eithimius
Mtatsmindeli, a great majority of translators and rewrighters for some reasons tried to
change title and the identification of author-tranlator.
In our article we discuss chronologically all scientific researches of foreign and
Georgian scientists and their views about the origin of Greek Balaam and Ioasaph and
about the author of this novel.
So, taking in mind the opinions and scientific searches of foreign and Georgian
scolars, we suppose, that the Greek novel The life of Balaam and Ioasaph was translated
71


from Georgian language, from Georgian Balavariani and mataphrased by Euthimius
Mtatsmindeli at the end of X century, in the Mountain of Athos. The source of Georgian
edition is Ariabian Chtistian edition. Georgian enlarged edition The Life of Ioasaph is
considered to be the middle edition between Oriental Nonchristian novel and deeply
dogmated, polemic, Greek, Balaam and Ioasaph.
In our article after the discussion of Greek Balaam and Ioasaph, we drop our
attention to the Apology of Aristide, whch was considered to be lost after the IV-th
century inGreek writing and literature and appeared again in original Greek language in
Greek novel of Balaam and Ioasaph.As we already mentioned, Nachors speech in this
novel is the Apology of Aristide.
We are interested in Apology of Aristide, because of some reasons. Firstly, this
Apology is used in original Georgian Hagiography, as a source of polemics with
paganism( In this case against fire-worship). Secondly, at this moment this Apology had
been already disappeared in original Greek writings. At the same moment this Apology
was found in Sirian manuscript which is dated of the VI-th century and also fragment of
this Apology was found in Armenian Language.
The fact, that lost Apology of Aristide was recovered in Greek novel Balaam and
Ioasaph which author is considered to be Etimius Mtatsmindeli, is very important for
Kartvelology. By the inclusion of this Apology in Balaam and Ioasaph, Georgian
author fils up the gap of Greek writing. We can clearly see, that Euthimius used oriental
,may be Georgian sources in making Greek novel.
We hope, that inclusion of this Apology in Greek novel is caused for some reasons.
Firstly, we think that Euthinius could have an information that this Apology had been
lost in origilan Greek Language. Also, he knew that Aristide existed in Georgian
literature, when it was already disappeared in Greek literature. Also clever man, Euthimius
who was very much educated in Christian literature, created this novel in very important
for Bizantium period. It was a period, when the neighbour of Bizantium-Russia become
christian and it was a need to create such kind of literature work, which would be make
stable Christian faith of the Northern neighbour. Euthimius Mtatsmindeli used this
Apology in which is shown a picture of how a pagan country became Christian to base
Russias correct position to become christian.
So, in conclusion we could said, that The Apology of Aristide, which was
considered to be lost, appeared in Oriental Christian Literature: In Syrian completely and
in Armenian in fragments. We know, that Georgian authors used greatly the Apology of
Aristide. So I think, that it is not astonishing that the lost Apology returned by Georgian
way. As it is estimated for today, the Greek text of Apology nearly completely is
included in Greek novel Barlaam and Ioasaph, which oldest manuscripts are dated of
the beginning of XI century. If we realized the mostly spread version of Authorship of this
novel, that it was created in the mountain of Athos, by the Georgian writer Euthymius ,
who was working in Athos, on the base of Georgian version of the Life of Ioasaph, or
Barlaam and Ioasaph.We can easily outline the fact, that the lost text of theApology
of Aristide in the early middle centuries, must be returned in Greek literature from
Georgian, or generally from Oriental Christian literature. This fact is one more victory for
Kartvelology.


72


TamTa grigolia

RvTismSoblis saxe-simboloTa paralelizmi
qarTul himnografiaSi

qarTulma himnografiulma literaturam, marTalia, ganviTarebis rTu-
li da grZeli gza ganvlo, magram dagvitova rogorc originaluri Semoq-
medebis, aseve naTargmni Zeglebis SesaniSnavi da mravalricxovani nimuSebi.
mdidarma himnografiulma literaturam saukuneebis manZilze mxatvru-
li saxeebis sakuTari samyaro Seqmna. homiletikuri Zeglebis maRalmxatvrul
nimuSebTan erTad, man moamzada niadagi saero mwerlobis ganviTarebisaTvis.
Tavisi ganviTarebis kulminaciur punqtze qarTuli originaluri him-
nografia Semdgara X saukunis meore naxevarSi. esaa klasikuri xana qarTuli
himnografiis istoriaSi. X saukuneSi erTmaneTs cvlis qarTvel himnograf-
Ta Taobebi, romlebic originalur sagaloblebs qmnian.
qarTveli himnografebi eyrdnobian sxvadasxva ucxoel Tu qarTvel moR-
vaweTa literaturul-esTetikur gamocdilebas, inarCuneben da iyeneben maT
mier SemuSavebul mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebsa da saSualebebs, sim-
boloebs, alegoriebs, saxeobriv sistemas.
himnografiaSi qebis obieqti aris RmerTi, RvTismSobeli, wmindanebi.
sagalobeli maTi cxovrebisa Tu wamebis epizodebs asaxavs. qebis obieqti
gamorCeulia sulierebiT, zneobrivi samyaroTi, faqizi da saTuTi bunebiT,
arsad Cans garegnuli faqtori.
Cveni interesis sagania X-XII saukuneebis himnografia da, kerZod, RvTis-
mSoblis mimarT iq gamovlenili saxe-simboloebi; upiratesad, ioane minCxis,
ioane SavTelis, miqael modrekilisa da demetre mefis himnebi.
mariam RvTismSoblisadmi miZRvnilma religiurma dResaswaulebma, ekle-
sia-monastrebma, xatebma, himnebma, locvebma ganapirobes misi kultis Seqmna.
RvTismSoblis Temas himnografiaSi udidesi adgili uWiravs, rasac mi-
sadmi miZRvnil sagalobelTa simravle mowmobs. maT Soris gamoirCeva
`RvTismSoblis daujdomeli~ (`akaTisto~), romelic yvela drosa da yovel
qristianul qveyanaSi RvTismSoblisadmi miZRvnil himnografiul Txzuleba-
TaTvis erTgvar magaliTad, modelad iyo miCneuli.
saintereaoa, rogor aris warmodgenili dedoflis saxe qarTvel himnog-
rafTa sagaloblebSi, ra aqvT specipikuri da ra saerTo.
himnografebi sxvadasxva saxelebiT amkoben RvTismSobels, magram yvela-
ze xSirad mas uwodeben dedas, dedofalsa da qalwuls. pirvelad deda
uflisa mas uwoda suliwmidiT ganbrZnobilma elisabedma jer kidev maSin,
roca deda-qalwuli dausabamo yrmas mucliT atarebda: `da vina Cemda ese,
raTa movides deda uflisa Cemisa Cemda. (luk. 1, 43). wminda mariamis qalwul
dedad yofnas bibliuri winaswarmetyveleba gansazRvravs. esaias winaswar-
metyveleba gvamcnobs: `ismineT aw, saxlo daviTiso! nu mciresa Ruawlsa mi-
atyuebT kacTa, da viTar ufalsa miatyuebT Ruawlsa? amisTvis TviT ufal-
man mogces saswauli Tqven: aha, qalwulman muclad-iRos da Svas Ze da
uwodon saxeli misi emmanuil~ (es. 7, 13-14).
RvTismSoblis dedoflobis winaswarmetyveleba miniSnebulia 44-e fsal-
munSi: `dadges dedofali marjueniT Sensa samosliTa oqroqsoviliTa Sem-
kul da Semosil~ (fsalm. 44,10).
73


minCxi: `qalwulo da dedao qristeso (xaCiZe 1987: 205).
modrekili: ` gixaroden qalwulo siqadulo; Sen mier dedao...
wylulebani guelisa mierni ganikurnes (gvaxaria 1978: 2).


dimitri mefe: `RmrTismSobeli da yovlad patiosani,
deda, qalwuli Suenieri SroSani... (qarT. poezia 1979: 183).
SavTeli: dedofalo... dasTaebr gigalobT... otebulTa Sen mier Zali!
aseve: `ixsen cxovreba Cemi, RmrTisa dedao (qarT. poezia 1979: 192).

ioane SavTelis sagalobelTan dakavSirebiT, revaz siraZem aRniSna:
`Tuki ioane SavTelis `galobanSi~ simbolurad da Tundac reminiscenciebiT
Tamaris saxes davinaxavT, yovelive es daukavSirdeba varZiaSive arsebul
Tamaris freskul gamosaxulebas. maT erTi saerTo idea aerTianebdaT. es iyo
idea mfarvelobis da xsnis~ (siraZe 1992: 102).
uwodeben aseve mananas (demetresTan es saxeli ar Cans _ avt.), mananas
sadgurs, saRmrTo mananas, Sedarebulia mayvlovanTan, mis uwvel cecxlTan.

minCxi: `...viTarca mayualsa Seuwvelsa~ (xaCiZe 1987: 62).
modrekili: `gixaroden qalwulo mariam, Seuwuvelo mayualo,
romeli gixila mose~ (gvaxaria 1978: 541).
ioane SavTeli: `iakob kibed gixila, xolo mose mayulad...~
(qarT. poezia 1979: 199)

minCxTan qalwuli Sedarebulia soflis mcvelTan, amis analogiurad,
miqael modrekili RvTismSobels uwodebs soflis zRudes, caTa bWesa da
kars, rasac safuZvlad iezekielis winaswarmetyveleba udevs (ezek. 44, 1-2).
rogorc iesos ewodeba kari, romliTac Sedian zeciur sasufevelSi _ `me var
kari: Cem mier Tu vinme Sevides, cxovndes~ (ioan. 10,9), aseve winaswarmetyveli
uwodebs karibWes qalwul mariams, romliTac macxovari movida amqveynad,
ris Semdegac, RvTis nebiT, es karibWe daketili darCa, riTac mariamis
maradqalwulobaa miniSnebuli.

minCxi: `...sulTa CuenTa cxovrebisa kari~ (xaCiZe 1987: 328).
`ese ars saso Cueni, kari cxovrebisa Cuenisa, deda meufisa da
meoxi sulTa CuenTasa (igive: 219).
modrekili: `soflisa zRudeo da saso yovelTao, bWeo caTao~...
(gvaxaria 1978: 213).

demetre-damiane mas uwodebs axlad ayvavebul venaxs: `Sen xar venaxi,
axlad aRyuavebuli~. es fraza saxarebis sityvebs exmianeba: `me var venaxi da
mama Cemi moqmed ars~. `aRyvavebuli venaxi moaswavebs vazis mtevnis gamos-
vlas, e.i. macxovris Casaxvasa da Sobas, amitomac am mtevnidan gamosuli
Rvino evqaristiaSi macxovris daTxeul sisxlTan ziarebas gamoxatavs. minCxi
dedofals uwodebs `gonier venaxs~. rogorc venaxi iZleva nayofs, ise `gamo-
iRo~ RvTismSobelmac nayofi.
minCxTan RvTismSobeli Sedarebulia evasTan, SavTeli mas `evas codvisa
damxsnels~, `evas aRdgomisa~ da `adamis xsnas~ uwodebs, anu misi meoxebiT
xdeba, evasgan moyolebuli, Cveni codvebis gamoxsna da miteveba.



74


minCxi: `rameTu saSosagan Senisa
gamogvibrwyinda mxsneli Cueni da macxovari
da Sen xar mizezi xsnis, Cuenisa
da cxoreba saukunoi sulTa CuenTa~.
(xaCiZe 1987: 205)

aq TiTqos erTgvari dapirispirebacaa. rodesac vixsenebT evas Sec-
domebs, vivsebiT mwuxarebiT, xolo roca wminda dedofals vigonebT, miuw-
vdomeli sixaruli gveufleba, radgan isaa Cveni xsnisa da saukuno cxovrebis
mizezi.
evam daiviwya Tavisi dambadeblis cneba da moSurnis smeniT `moguatyua
Cuen sikudili~, xolo vinc dagvbada Tavis xatad, manve Segviwyala,

`Sengan xorcTa SesxmiTa pirveli igi wyeva
dedisa Cuenisa evasi Sen mier
muclad-RebiTa kravisa mis RmrTisaTa~.
(xaCiZe 1987: 294)

SavTelis mier RvTismSoblisadmi miZRvnil samadlobel sagalobels gas-
devs kacobriobis xsnis motivi, romelic esoden gavrcelebulia sasuliero
poeziaSi. amitom uwodebs himnografi RvTismSobels `evas cods dams-
nels~, romelmac qristes SobiT `evas miuzRo vali~, radgan Sva adamis codva-
Ta `aRmxumeli~ macxovari qriste:

`xolo me miTa qebisaTa mimsxuerple
evas codvisa damsnelo, raodeni
lmobierebiT aRTques bageTa CemTa~.
(qarT. poezia 1979: 193)

am sagaloblis bolo troparic amave Temas exeba: `adamis xsnao da evas
aRdgomao, _ mimarTavs himnografi RvTismSobels da misgan Sendobas
moelis, rogorc am sagaloblis `gamomTqumeli:

`sagalobelTa amaT SesxmaTa mier
adidebs suli Cemi Sengan Sobilsa,
galobs taZari Seni, yovlad uxrwnelo,
adamis xsnao da evas aRdgomao,
niWad mommadle Sendoba gamomTqumelsa.
(qarT. poezia 1979: 194)

am iambikos safuZveli lukas saxarebis is sityvebia, romlebmac himnog-
rafiuli kanonis mecxre galobis Tema ganapirobes: `adidebs suli Cemi
ufalsa, da ganixara sulman Cemman RmrTisa mimarT, macxovrisa Cemisa, rame-
Tu moxedna simdablesa zeda mevlisa Tsasa (luk. 1, 46-48).
`adamis snisa da evas aRdgomis, `evas codvaTa damsnelisgan, RvTis-
mSoblisagan iSva xorcSesxmuli RmerTi. evas codvas qalwulma uzenaesi
siwminde, ucodveloba daupirispira, evam codva dahbada, RvTismSobelma _
kacobriobis codvaTa mtvirTveli.
sasuliero mwerlobisTvis, kerZod, himnografiisTvis, damaxasiaTebelia
ioane SavTelis sagalobelSi moxmobili RvTismSoblis mier evas codvaTa
gamosyidvis motivi, romlis mixedviT, qalis codva qalma gamoisyida.
75


RvTismSobeli saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi iwodeba `dasabamad kur-
Txevisa da dasasrulad wyevisa~, radgan misgan, viTarca ubiwosagan, RmerT-
kacis Sobam unda daubrunos pirvelsaxe yovel arss. `RvTismSoblisgan
macxovris Soba himnografiaSi aRqmulia sulieri tyveobisagan ganTavisuf-
lebad~ (sulava 2003: 19).
minCxTan dedofali Sedarebulia Semoqmed RmerTTan. es erTgvari dakav-
Sirebaa uflisa da misi moqmedebisa. ufalma Seqmna qveyniereba, RvTismSo-
belma ki mogvivlina mxsneli _ ieso. dedaRvTisa gaTanasworebulia samebasTan.

modrekili: `Sen samguamovnad cnobilo, samebao wmidao, arsebiT uxilavo,
erTarsebiT didebulo, yovelni morwmuneni gadidebT~.
(gvaxaria 1978: 9)

saucxood gaaerTiana sameba RvTismSobelSi:

`gvixsen sZalo mamisa maRlisao, mtvirTvelo Zisao da
sadguro sulisa wmidisao (gvaxaria 1978: 541).

minCxi: `TanaarsebiT swori mamisa da sulisa wmidisa (xaCiZe 1987: 204).

is movida Cven, warwymedilTa saxsnelad, amitom vadidebT, vakurTxebT da
vaqebT mis saxels.

minCxi: `cxorebad moxued _ Cuen warwymedulTaTvis da sitkboebiT momiZieni
da TviT mimiZeRu munve, romelsa _ igi Sina dagebadeniT (igive: 204).

miqael modrekilic SesTxovs RvTismSobels sulTa CvenTaTvis vedrebas
Tavisi Zis winaSe: `aw nu damiviwyeb Cuen winaSe Zisa Senisa mosavTa SenTa.
saTno iyav mxsnelo... viTarca kacT moyuare xar, Sen gicnobT qalwulo sasod
da meoxad yovelni morwmuneni RvTisa dedao meox gueyav... mosavTa SenTaTvis
cxovrebad sulTa CuenTaTvis~ (gvaxaria 1978: 541).
dedaRvTisas aseve gavrcelebuli epiTetia `sZali~, `RvTis sZali~.

minCxi: `qerobinTa uaRreso
caTa uvrceleso sZalo RmrTisao~...
`gixaroden sZalo usZloo~ (xaCiZe 1987: 332).
modrekili: `gadidebT Sen, sZalo usZloo...~ (gvaxaria 1978: 10).
SavTeli: `sZalo RmrTisao, SewevniTa SeniTa! aw ganvisueno dRisa
mis wil Wirisa~ (qarT. poezia 1979: 195).

RvTismSoblis simbolod es saxe gvxvdeba `uZveles iadgarSi~ (`sZali~,
`sZali ubiwo~, `sZali zecisa~). sasuliero mwerlobaSi xSirad figurirebs
qriste `zecis siZed~, wminda mariami ki _ `zecisa sZlad~: `gadidebT Sen
zecis siZesa, Sobilsa qalwulisagan~ (metreveli 1980: 184). `zecis sZali
gulisxmobs sasufevlis sapatio binadars, mis damamSvenebel arsebas.
ioane damaskelis `RvTismSoblis Sobis sakiTxavSi~ vkiTxulobT: `gixa-
roden, sZalo, romlisa damwindebel ars suli wmida, xolo siZe _ ufali
yovelTa, romeli-igi ityvis qebaTa Sina: `yovlad Suenier xar, maxlobelo
Cemo, da biwi ara ars Sen Tana. moved, sZalo, libaniT aqa, moved gundru-
kovniT~ (Zv. metafrasuli krebuli 1986: 111).
76


ase emsgavsebian erTmaneTs es himnografebi RvTismSoblis poeturi saxis
SeqmnaSi.
amis Semdeg sainteresoa, Tu riT gansxvavdebian isini dedoflis saxis
warmodgenisas.
ioane minCxi dedofals uwodebs zeciur ierusalims. caTa sasufeveli,
zeciuri qalaqi, zeciur ierusalimadac moixsenieba, rac dasabams ioanes
gamocxdebidan iRebs. `samoTxesa queyanisasa, ierusalms zecisasa (xaCiZe
1987: 235).

`viTarmed gxadodeT Sen, mariam,
qalaqad RmrTisad maRlisad,
samoTxed sulierad~ (igive: 224).

minCxTan gvxvdeba qalwulobis aRmniSvneli saxe-simbolo: `dauTesveli
yana~ da `dauTesveli qveyana~.
minCxi: `queynad dauTesvelad, aRmomaceneblad Tavwarsxmulsa ifqlisa
cxovrebisasa~ (igive: 224).
RvTismSobelma gviboZa sinanulis grZnoba, raTa viTxovdeT codvaTa
mitevebas mociqulTa da yovel wmindanTa winaSe, Tumca Cveni ena uZluria
RvTismSoblis madlis aRsawerad:

`daRacaTu gonebTagan CuenTa
ver SesaZlebel ars jerovnad mogonebad
da RirsebiT qebad Senda, qalwulo, wmidaTa uwmideso,
naTelo sulTa CuenTao, mSobelo Semoqmedisa RmrTisao,
aramed... da vdumneT Cuen qebad Senda~ (igive: 294).

minCxTan sagangebod gamosayofia sagalobelTa is nawili, sadac aRweri-
lia dedoflis sasufevelSi wabrZaneba. ufalma Tavis samyofelSi aiyvana
mSobeli deda, ris Semdegac

`monani Senni mglovare varT micvalebasa Sensa,
rameTu dRes gangueSorebi Sen Cuen~.
(xaCiZe 1987: 329)

mSvenieri sikvdiliT daiZina ubiwo dedofalma da moxda misi cad ayvana

`da maradis iqebis angelozTa da kacTagan Rirsad,
saukunod ididebis, viTarca deda, RmrTisa (igive: 332).

modrekilTan SedarebiT sxva viTarebaa. is dedofals uwodebs siwmidis
etls. etli amaRlebis, gandidebis simboloa. rogorc viciT, elia swored
etliT amaRlda RrublebSi. uwodebs myudro navTsayudels. navis pirvel-
saxe, mogexsenebaT, noes kidobania. rogorc am kidobanSi Sefarebulni gadar-
Cnen warRvnas, ise gadavrCebiT uflisa da RvTismSoblis mimdevarni, ise
dagvifaravs Tavisi kalTis qveS dedofali. aseve uwodebs: `soflis zRudes~,
`yovelTa sasos~, `caTa bWes~... aq zRude RvTis safarvels niSnavs, bWe _
samaradiso samyofelSi Sesasvlel kars da saso ki _ imeds.
miqael modrekils RvTismSobeli angelozTa uzeSTaesad (umaRlesad)
esaxeba: `uzeSTaes xar qerobinTasa, Rirso, uSuenieres yovelTa samkaulTa,
RmrTismSobelo~ (gvaxaria 1978: 372).
77


uwodebs aseve `mzisa ubrwyinvale~ cxovrebis mizezs, radgan misi meoxe-
biT yoveli morwmune saukuno didebas moipovebs maradiul samyofelSi.
miqael modrekilTan RvTismSoblis aseve saintereso saxe-simboloa
`cxovrebisa wyaro dauwyueteli~. bibliurad es saxe Semdegnairad ixsneba:
wyaro, rogorc viciT, Sreba gvalvisagan, amitom Cven unda vecadoT, rom
urwmunoebiT ar `amovaSroT~ CvenSi RvTismSoblis saxeli. am SemTxvevaSi
wyaro maradiul sicocxles niSnavs, RmerTis sikeTis siuxves.
ioane SavTelis sityvebi: `ahronis kuerTxi, takuki da sasanTle, erT-
bamad tabla, beselielis uwyebiTi karavi ltolvilisa erisa orkerZ sni-
TurT mogaswavebdes dedasa RmrTisas~, _ mTlianad paralelizmis princip-
ze agebuli troparia, romelSic bibliuri saxeebi mxatvruli funqciiT
datvirTulad gvevlinebian da simbolurad xsnian axali aRTqmis epizodebs.
aqve aRvniSnavT, rom ahronis kuerTxad RvTismSoblis moxseniebas himnogra-
fiaSi xangrZlivi tradicia aqvs. RvTismSoblis simbolod mis moazrebas
safuZvlad daedo ricxvTa wignSi moTxrobili epizodi, romlidanac ahronis
RvTisgan gamorCeuloba dasturdeba (ricx. 17, 2-8). ahronis kverTxis ga-
nedleba, yvavil-foTolTa da nayofis gamosxma simbolurad mianiSnebs
RvTismSoblisagan qristes Sobis winaswarmetyvelebas. kverTxis ganedleba
kacobriobis ganaxlebis ideasac gulisxmobs. am winaswarmetyvelebam himnog-
rafebs RvTismSoblis ahronis kverTxad miCnevis safuZveli misca, xolo
kverTxze mosxmuli nayofi Zes RvTisas, kacobriobis mxsnelsa da ganmaaxle-
bels mianiSnebs.
ioane SavTelis sagaloblis mixedviT, qalwulis mier qristes SobiT
kacobriobisTvis axali gza daisaxa, es aris gza dakarguli cxovrebisaken,
cxovrebis xisken, RvTaebrivi realobisaken, rac iniciacias gulisxmobs, anu
sxeulis, sulisa da samSvinelis kvlav Serwymas, ris Sedegadac maT ubrun-
debaT codviT dacemis Sedegad dakarguli pirvelsaxe. axali gza qristes
simboloa, romelic zesTasoflis dabrunebis saSualebas aZlevs kacTa
modgmas.
ioane SavTeli sagalobelSi qristes xorcSesxmadobas mianiSnebs, ro-
gorc RvTismSoblis `niWs~, anu saCuqars: `maSin ara ganmlevel eklis-saxedTa
SewuvadTa ewuvebodes ra orcTa niWad Sengan orcSesxmadisa~ (qarTuli
poezia 1979: 197). adamianis dacemis Semdeg codva yvela materialurad arse-
bulze gavrcelda, RvTismSoblisagan, viTarca ubiwosagan, RmerTkacis Sobam
unda daubrunos pirvelsaxe yovel arss:

`akurTxevs Sengan Sobilsa, ubiwoo,
meufesa da RmerTsa arsTa qmnuleba,
itys yoveli ganweseba, viTarca
miTa, qebasa missa da aRiarebs
saukuneTa Semoqmedad RmerTkacad.
(qarT. poezia 1979: 198)

swored amis gamo RvTismSobeli saxvTismetyvelo literaturaSi iwodeba
`dasabamad kurTxevisa da dasasrulad wyevisa. dedoflisagan macxovris
Soba himnografiaSi aRqmulia sulieri tyveobisagan gaTavisuflebad, rasac
ioane SavTeli gamoxatavs rogorc sagalobelSi, aseve akrostiqSi. is RvTis-
mSobels evedreba sulieri tyveobisgan daxsnas, soflis mRvimeTagan amoy-
vanas, raTa ganaxldes suli codvilisa. am mxriv sainteresoa mecxre galobis
erT-erTi tropari, romelic mTlianad simboluradaa gasaazrebeli:
78


`uCinoTagan mRmeTa soflisaTa
eqsorioba Cemi aRmoiyvane,
orbeb ganaxldi siWabuke sulisa,
bralTagan misen ZlierTa, didebulo,
inebe yofad Cem Soris, ubiwoo.
(qarT. poezia 1979: 196)

himnografi qalwuls wuTisoflis uCinar mRvimeTa Soris yofisagan
ganTavisuflebas SesTxovs. es motivi fsalmunebidan momdinareobs: `misen
me Tiisagan, raTa ara davinTqa, ganveri me moZuleTa CemTagan da siR-
rmeTagan wyalTasa. nu damTqaven me morevi wyalTa, nuca STamTqamn me
ufskruli, nuca Seiyofn Cemzeda jurRmuli pirsa missa~ (fsalm. 68, 15-16).
samecniero literaturaSi miuTiTeben, rom mRvime, gamoqvabuli amob-
runebuli mTaa, mRvime adamianis sulieri gamocdis adgilia, msgavsad udab-
nosi. mTa is adgilia, sadac RmerTma mcnebebi misca mose winaswarmetyvels,
e.i. mTa RmerTTan ziarebis adgilia. mRvime misi sapirispiroa, mRvime cod-
vaTagan gansawmendeli adgilia. swored amitom adamianis upirvelesi mizani
mRvimidan Tavis daRwevisa da iqidan sulis aRmoyvanisaTvis zrunvaa. aseTi
ram ki mxolod znesrul adamians xelewifeba.
ioane SavTelis sagalobelSi sxvaganac aris sulis xsnaze yuradReba
gamaxvilebuli:

`ZnelovanTagan ubadrukebisaTa
ixsen cxoreba Cemi, RmrTisa dedao~.
(qarT. poezia 1979: 198)

wuTisoflis mRvimeTagan ganTavisufleba sulieri ganaxlebis mauwyebe-
lia, rac fsalmunuri motivis mixedviT, `orbeb ganaxlebiTaa~ asaxuli ioane
SavTelTan. orbi ganaxlebis, gaaxalgazrdavebis simboloa qristianul
mwerlobaSi.
ioane SavTeli dedofals uwodebs adgilis meufes, uxrwnels, naTels,
aseve moixseniebs kibed, karvad. karavi ganwmendilia zeTis cxebiT. igi Sec-
vales taZriT mudmivi samefos Seqmnis Semdeg, anu taZris pirvelsaxea. ufali
gamoCnda karvis saxuravs zemoT... mxolod mRvdlebs SeeZloT karavSi Ses-
vla. aseve mxolod rwmeniT SevaRwevT uflisa da RvTismSoblis samyofelSi.
demetre uwodebs `SroSans~ (mindvris yvavilebia). SroSani gamoxatavs
naTels, siwmindesa da sispetakes. SroSanis simbolo, romelic qristesac
aRniSnavs da RvTismSobelsac, bibliur-evangeluri swavlebidan momdinare-
obs: `siZe etyvis sZalsa sulisa TvisisaTvis: me yuavili velisa da SroSani
ReleTa. da viTarca SroSani Soris ekalTa, esreT ars maxlobeli Cemi
asulTa~ (qeb.2, 1-2). maTesa da lukas saxarebaSi maTze naTqvamia: `samoslis-
Tvis rasa zrunavT? ganicadeniT SroSanni velisani; viTar-igi aRorZindis!
ara Sromoben, arca hsTaven. xolo metyviT Tqven, rameTu arcaRa solomon
yovelsa mas didebasa missa Seimosa, viTarca erTi amaTgani~ (maT. 6, 28-30;
luk. 12, 27-28). uwodebs gvirgvinosani mefis mSobels. mefe aris meufe me-
ufeTa, qriste aris qveynis mefeTa mTavari, yvela mefe modrkeba RmerTisa da
RvTismSoblis winaSe.
demetre-damianesTan aseve RvTismSoblis saxismetyvelebiTi saxelia
`morCi keTili~. RvTismSobeli genealogiiTaa daviT winaswarmetyvelis mor-
Ci, ylorti (an Sto). demetres sityvebi `morCi keTili~ gulisxmobs, rom Zi-
79


riTve sikeTea masSi da, amasTanave, maradiul bednierebasaa naziarebi _
`edemsaa danerguli~. am striqons, r. siraZis TqmiT, Semdegi gaazrebac ax-
lavs: `RvTismSobeli qristianul mwerlobaSi upirispirdeba evas, romlis
braliTac pirveli adamiani samoTxes moaklda, xolo RvTismSobeli samoTxis
mkvidri gaxda~ (siraZe 1992: 99). amave azrs ukavSirdeba iambikos III striqo-
nic: `alva sulneli, samoTxiT gamosruli~.
saerTodac, da qarTul himnografiaSi, Zalze xSirad gvxvdeba Semdegi
gaazreba: RmerTma yvela dedaTa Soris gamoarCia mariami, raTa is gamxdariyo
RvTismSobeli. gankaceba TviT RvTaebis neba iyo da es saswauli RvTismSo-
bels yvelas winaSe amaRlebs. amitomac werda demetre-damiane: `RmerTman
Segamko, vervin gjobs qebuli~.
dasasrulSi ki RvTismSoblis erTaderTobis motivia mTeli siZlieriT
gamoxatuli: `da TaviT TvisiT mze xar gabrwyinvebuli~ (qarT.poezia 1979:
183). yovladwminda RvTismSoblis erTaderToba gamoxatulia mziT.
mzes ewodeba udidesi mnaTobi. igi naTels hfens keTilebsa da borotebs,
iseve, rogorc RvTismSobeli, mTavaria, vin rogor gamoiyenebs am sinaTlesa
da wyalobas. mzem icis amosvlisa da Casvlis dro, TvalismomWreli sinaTle
aqvs, mzis sxivi sixarulis momgvrelia, dRes mzis amosvlasTan erTad
iwyebdnen.
iambikos dasawyisi da dasasruli erTmaneTs aSinaarsebs. r. siraZis
TqmiT, Tu xar venaxi da xar amavdroulad mzec, es aris warmarTulis desak-
ralizeba da qristianobis sakralizeba. simbolurad `venaxi~ da `mze~ erT-
maneTs gulisxmobs. saxismetyvelebiT `venaxi~ sisavsis siWarbes moaswavebs.
venaxs am sisavses mze aniWebs, venaxi mziTaa aRvsili, rogorc RvTismSobeli
_ RvTaebriobiT.
rogorc vnaxeT, am himnografebTan dasturdeba RvTismSoblis rogorc
saerTo saxe-simboloebi, aseve gansxvavebuli, specifikuri xat-saxeebi, rom-
lebsac erTob moxdenilad da mizanmimarTulad iyeneben, raTa saTanadod
Seafason dedaRvTisas Rvawli kacobriobis winaSe da TavianTi Sesxma-vedre-
bac ufro saintereso da mravalferovani gaxadon.
amasTanave, RvTismSoblis warmodgena iseTi saxeebiT, romlebic saRvTo
saxelebadac gvxvdeba, yovlismomcvel universaliebTan ziarebas gulisxmobs.


damowmebani:

gvaxaria 1978: gvaxaria v. miqael modrekilis himnebi. Tb.: 1978.
metreveli... 1980: metreveli e., Wankievi c., xevsuriani l. uZvelesi iadgari.
Tb.: 1980.
kekeliZe 1980: kekeliZe k. Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. I, Tb.: 1980.
leqsikoni... 2004: bibliuri leqsikoni, Tb.: 2004.
siraZe 1992: siraZe r. qristianuli kultura da qarTuli mwerloba. Tb.: 1992.
sulava 2003: sulava n. XII-XIII saukuneebis qarTuli himnografia. Tb.: 2003.
qarTuli... 1979: qarTuli poezia, Tb.: 1979.
Zveli... 1986: Zveli metafrasuli krebulebi Tb.: `mecniereba, 1986.
xaCiZe 1987: xaCiZe l. ioane minCxis poezia, Tb.: 1987.
xinTibiZe 1969: xinTibiZe e. bizantiur-qarTuli literaturuli
urTierTobani. Tb.: 1969


80


Tamta Grigolia

Parallelism of the Virgin's Face-symbols in Georgian Hymnography

Symmary

The subject of our research is face-symbols of the virgin exposed in medieval
hymnographs and their interrelations.
How is represented the face-symbols of queen in hymns of Minchkhi, Modrekili,
Mtbevari, David Agmashenebeli, Demetre king and Ioane Shavteli, represented what
specific and common features they have.
In the research process we base ourselves on rich traditions of biblival, liturgial and
hymnographic authorship. We take into consideration various scientific literature
connected with face-symbols, the oldest Iadgar and the old metaphrastic collection.
There are emphasized the following issues in the work: what literary traditions are
inherited by hymnographs, what is innovative in their creative work, what parallelism is
the virgins face-symbols in Georgian Hymnographs works, what correlation are exposed
in their works with the oldest Iadgar and the old metaphrastic collection, particularly
with the Readings of the virgins birth.


81




rusTvelologiuri kvlevani


revaz siraZe

`vefxistyaosnis~ mkiTxvelis istoriisaTvis

(masalebi narkvevebisaTvis)

`vefxistyaosnis~ mkiTxvelis istoria iTxovs Semdegi etapebis
gaTvaliswinebas:
I etapi gulisxmobs miTosur (eidetur) saxismetyvelebas (ramdenad Cans
amgvari tipis saxismetyveleba `vefxistyaosanSi~?);
II etapia eikonuri saxismetyvelebis nakadi. es Cans qarTuli agiogra-
fiaSiac, magram sruliad gansakuTrebiT _ `Satberdis krebulSi~ (bibli-
ologia, qristianuli anTropologia, saxismetyvelebiTi (simboluri) egze-
getikis principebi: efrem mcire da sxva).
III etapi iwyeba saero mwerlobidan, gansakuTrebiT, `vefxistyaosnidan~.
esaa teqstis sakuTriv-mxatvruli SinaarsiT gaazreba da gaazrebani filo-
sofiuri sityvaxmarebisa;
IV etapad gamovyofT sparsofilur da antisparsofilur hermenevtikas
(`marTlis Tqmis~ principebi da sxva);
V etapad gamosayofia `vefxistyaosanSi~ sasuliero da saero saxismety-
velebis urTierTmimarTeba (anton I, vaxtang VI-is `Targmani~; d. guramiSvili).
VI etapze iwyeba `vefxistyaosnis~ mecnieruli ganmartebani (vaxtang VI,
Teimuraz bagrationi, s. dodaSvili, mari brose) da romantikuli TvalTa-
xedviT wakiTxva `vefxistyaosnisa~ (aleqsandre orbeliani);
VII etapze Zlierdeba XIX saukunis Sua wlebidan (i. WavWavaZe, a. wereTeli,
vaJa-fSavela da sxvani) erovnuli da zogadsakacobrio TvalTaxedvani;
VIII etapi iwyeba XX saukunis dasawyisidan (n. mari, p. ingoroyva, iustine
abulaZe);
IX etapi dgeba XX s-is 20-iani wlebis Semdeg, romelic bevri ramiT dRem-
de grZeldeba. esaa `vefxistyaosnis~ problemaTa akademiuri gaazrebani (k.
kekeliZe, a. baramiZe, g. imedaSvili, v. nozaZe, s. caiSvili, n. naTaZe, g.
nadiraZe, e.xinTibiZe, m. gigineiSvili, m. karbelaSvili da sxvani);
X etapad unda CaiTvalos `vefxistyaosnis~ gaazrebani aRmosavluri
renesansis konteqstSi (Salva nucubiZis Teoria), romelmac mravalmxrivi
(dadebiTic da uaryofiTic) rezonansi hpova.
XI etapad gamovyofT `vefxistyaosnis~ gaazrebebs uaxlesi literatu-
rul-esTetikuri Teoriebisa da cnebaTmetyvelebaTa mixedviT (Tanamedrove
hermenevtika, qronotopis Teoria, pluralizmi, recefciuli esTetika,
postmodernizmi da sxva).
amas yvelas mniSvneloba aqvs Tanamedrove mkiTxvelisaTvis da ara mxo-
lod `idealuri mkiTxvelisaTvis~ (umberto ekos kvalobaze Tu vityviT),
aramed garkveulwil _ TviT `farTo~ mkiTxvelisTvisac.
82


sadReisod `vefxistyaosnis~ mkiTxvelis istoria arsebiTad TviT teq-
stis istoriaa da araoden teqstologiuri TvalsazrisiT, aramed yvela,
swored rom, yvela mniSvnelovani TvalsazrisiT, poemis adaptaciis
TvalsazrisiTac.
sadReisod `vefxistyaosnis~ mkiTxvelis istoria ukavSirdeba sam
sakiTxs:
I. hermenevtikis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi;
II. recefciuli (aRqmis) esTetika;
III. ganwyobis Teoriis sakiTxebi.
teqsti mogvemarTeba, ase vTqvaT, `metalogikiT~ (sxva rom araferi, lo-
gikurze meti siRrmiseuli azriT, xan, logikuri cnobierebisTvis bolomde
miuRweveli SinaarsiT), Cven ki mivemarTebiT mas `sxva enaze~, xSirad emoci-
isaTvis SeuTavsebeli logikiT. e. i. logikuri ganmarteba iwvevs Sinaarsis
erTi enidan meore `ucxo enaze~ gardaTqmas. albaT, amitomacaa, rom `her-
menevtikis~ mravlismomcvel semantikaSi Sedis `Targmanic~, teqstis erTi
enidan meore enaze gadatana (Targmna) (dvorecki 1958: 664).
gagebisa da gaazrebis fenomeni sulis Sesaxeb mecnierebis meTodolo-
giaa da _ ara mxolod, _ aRniSnavs gadameri (gadameri 1988: 29).igi vrcel-
debao filosofiis, xelovnebis da istoriis sferoebSi (gadameri 1988: 30).
saerTodac da Cveni narkvevebisTvisac, sainteresoa, rom am wignis
pirvelsave nawilSi Sedis didi monakveTi (gadameri 1988: 30): `xelovnebis
nawarmoebi da misi hermenevtikuli mniSvneloba~, romelsac win uZRvis wina
nawilis qveTavi, sadac gaazrebulia `xelovnebis WeSmariteba~ (gadameri
1988: 126-134; 134-147).
albaT, araa SemTxveviTi, rom hermenevtikis erT-erTi yvelaze didi
sfero xelovnebaa. da esTetikuri hermenevtika sxva sferoebzec axdens
gavlenas, TviT istoriis hermenevtikaze (radgan poeziaSia `sinamdvileze
meti sinamdvile~). garkveuli pirobiTobiT iTqmis, rom poezia sinamdvilis
hermenvtikaa. aseTia `vefxistyaosanic~.
gadamerTan erTad yuradRebulia TamaSis fenomeni, rogorc Semoqmede-
biTi Tavisuflebisa da reglamentirebis urTierTmimarTeba. mgoni, am kon-
teqstSi unda ganvixiloT f. nicSes moxmobiT daviwyebis raobis gadamerise-
uli gaazrebani (gadameri 1988: 57).
`vefxistyaosnis~ saanalizod yuradsaRebad gvesaxeba gadameris mier
dialogis saxeTa gaazrebanic (gadameri 1988: 281, 291, 422, 423 da sxvani). di-
alogi aris ara mxolod adamianTa kontaqtis forma, saubris forma, aramed
azrovnebis wesicaa. esTetikuri hermenevtika aris dialogi arte-faqtTan
da Tan, imavdroulad, Sinagani dialogic.
aseve friad yuradRebulia `horizontis~ cneba. dRes mas xSirad `kon-
teqsti~ cvlis-xolme. `horizonti~ yovelTvis ar unda gulisxmobdes dasaz-
Rvras. piriqiT, horizonti upiratesad usazRvroebasac gulisxmobs.
dRevandeli qarTuli literaturaTmcodneobisaTvis didad mniSvnelo-
vania xeli Seuwyos mkiTxvelis Sinagan saazrovno Tavisuflebas, saazrovno
relativizms da pluralizms. am mxriv, yuradsaRebia saerTod `sicocxlis
filosofiis~ warmomadgenlebi (vilhelm dilaTi, anri bergsoni), magram gan-
sakuTrebiT f. nicSe (1844-1900). qarTuli azrovnebis nicSeuri hermenevti-
kis mniSvnelobas warmoaCens filosofiis institutis mier gamocemuli:
krebuli _ `nicSe saqarTveloSi~ (miZRvnili Tamaz buCiZisadmi~. iremaZe:
2007).
83


g. xeoSvili wers:
`nicSes filosofiis aTvisebis mxriv dReisaTvis CvenSi arsebuli mdgo-
mareobis aRsawerad yvelaze ukeT literaturuli hermenevtika SeiZleba
gamodges. literaturuli hermenevtika teqsts ganixilavs rogorc erTgvar
saSualebas social-kulturuli dialogisaTvis. msgavsi midgoma aRiarebs
potenciur mkiTxvelTa mravalricxovani jgufis da teqstis SesaZlo inter-
pretaciaTa usasrulo simravlis arsebobas~ (iremaZe 2007: 129).
`qarTul sulTan nicSes anaTesavebs gansakuTrebuli siZulvili jogu-
ri, monuri cxovrebisa, masSi gaTqvefili, sakuTar saxes moklebuli adami-
anisa, mdore, uSfoTveli arsebobisa, `pawia~ bednierebisa da `pawia~ keTil-
dReobisa~ (buaCiZe 1986a).
amnairi nicSeanuri xedvisTvis axlobeli SeiZleba iyos araerTi renesan-
suli niSan-Tvisebani `vefxistyaosnis~ personaJebisa, kerZod, Tundac, si-
laRe personaJebisa, zogjer maqsimalurad gamovlenili, roca esTetikuri
TvalTaxedva maRldeba TviT eTikazedac-ki, magaliTad, avTandilis gala-
Reba fatmanTan da Sedegad, WaSnagiris gawirva, rac xSirad sakamaTo xdeba
maqsimalist-esTetikosTa da `sterilizebuli~ moralizmis momxreebisaT-
vis. albaT, saintereso iqneba, Tuki am konteqstSi SemovitanT f. nicSes iseT
naSromebs rogoricaa: `sikeTisa da borotebis miRma~ (nicSe 1990: 238-406),
anda _ `moralis genealogia~ (nicSe 1990: 407-525).
aqve gasaTvaliswinebelia Semdegi: nicSem uyuradRebod datova is azri
kantisa, rom `yoveli iracionaluri racionaluris TviTkritikaa, adamianis
gonebis mier sakuTari SesaZleblobebis, sakuTari Tavis kritika~ (TevzaZe
2002: 35). am Cixidan gasvla (ganrideba da ara amisi gadalaxva) xdeba po-
eturi da, saerTod, esTetikuri azrovnebiT (buaCiZe 1986).
yuradsaRebia karl iaspersis Teoria `Sifrebisa~, romelic gadmocemu-
lia mis wignSi _ `filosofiuri rwmena gamocxadebis pirispir~ (iaspersi
1962). es Teoria Zalze srulad ganxilulia aleqsandre TvaraZis wignSi
(TvaraZe 2004).
`Sifria~ yvelaferi, rac Tavisi sakuTari raobis garda, gamoxatavs
kidev sxva raimes.
`Sifrze~ fiqri wamoWris kiTxvas: ratom arsebobs raime da ratom ar
arsebobs araferi? (TvaraZe 2004: 280). cxadia, es kiTxva `vefxistyaosnis~
mkiTxvelebSi aRZravs sxvadasxva pasuxs.
`Sifri transcendenturis enaa~ (204). misi igiveobrivi araa arc `niSani~
da arc `simbolo~, TiTqos, arc `saxe~. magram saWiroa gavixsenoT erTi
terminologiuri tradicia, romelic emyareba yofierebis saxeobriv
koncefcias.
a. TvaraZis wignSi k. iaspersze dayrdnobiT naTqvamia: `Sifrebs vxvdebiT
miTosur, religiur-sakulto, sakralur, literaturisa da xelovnebis qmni-
lebebSi, filosofiaSi~. literaturasa da saxviT xelovnebaso `saaSkaraoze
gamoaqvT Sifrebis yvelaze sufTa da SesaniSnavi ena~ (214) (SevadaroT
haidegeri 1992: 38-82).
n. WavWavaZe wers. `esTetikuri Rirebuleba ariso saxeldobr Rirebu-
leba Tavad gamoxatulebisa, esTetikuri obieqtis ~sxeulis~ gamsWvalvisa
misi `sulis naTliT~ (WavWavaZe 1984: 157) (Sdr. siraZe 2000: 270).
rusTavelis cnobiereba ar amoiwureba mxolod logikuri azrovnebiT,
logikuri gansjiT, metadre _ panlogizmiT, gnebavT, logocentrizmiT.
Tumca gasagebia, rom misTvis axlobelia aristoteluri nakadic azrovne-
84


bisa da am kuTxiT wakiTxvac sruliad bunebrivia (xinTibiZe 2009: 41-48; 316-
329). Tumca rusTvelisaTvis aseve axlobelia platonuri nakadic azrovne-
bisa (iqve: 95-101; 105-114; 474-486; b. bregvaZe da sxva), metadre, platonur-
aristoteluri nakadebis e. w. `simfonia~, rac mocemulia neoplatonizmSi.
simboluri egzegetikisaTvis erT-erTi albaT, umTavresi, pirvelsaTave
aris basil didis traqtati _ `Sesaxeb imisa, Tu rogor miiRos sargebeli
axalgazrdobam warmarTuli wignebidan~ (basil kesarieli 1968: 24-650. aq
naCvenebia, rom warmarTuli miTosuri saxeebis desakralizeba moxdes, raTa
isini gaSinaarsdes qristianuli simbolikiT (siraZe 1978: 246).
miTosSi (da zRaprebSiac) ufro alegoriebia, xolo qristianul saxis-
metyvelebaSi ki simboloebi.
`
,
.
. , , -
.
: ...
,
. ,
,
, , ,
, !
... .
,
, ,
~ (hoizinga 1988: 225-226).
umberto ekos romani _ `vardis saxeli~ aris sinTezi (Tu simbioni, iq-
neb, sinergia) deteqtivisa, agiografiisa da postmodernizmisa. aseTia es
nawarmoebi da avtori iTxovs aseTive unda iyoso misi mkiTxveli, idealuri
mkiTxveli, romelTan dialogsac epireba avtori (eko 1989: 450), ufro zus-
tad, dialogs marTavs TviT nawarmoebi da misi idealuri mkiTxveli. `avtori
amas eTiSebao~, _ aRniSnavs u. eko nawarmoebze darTul marginalSi, romel-
sac hqvia _ `mkiTxvelis Seqmna~ (eko 1989: 451). teqstiT unda moxdeso `mki-
Txvelis iniciacia~ (eko 1989: 453). marTalia, u. eko teqstis damoukideblo-
bas moiTxovs, magram Tan svams kiTxvas: `rogor idealur mkiTxvelze vax-
dendio orientirebas me Cems naSromSi?~ da ase pasuxobs: `Tanamoazreze,
cxadiao! masze, vinc mzadaa iTamaSoso Cemi TamaSi~ (iqve: 453). e. i. aq ar Cans,
rom man `Searbila~ bartiseburi maqsimalizmi _ `avtoris gardacvaleba~
(barti 1989: 384-391), sadac malarmes damowmebiT dasZens: `naweri upi-
rovnoao~ (iqve: 385).
`vefxistyaosnis~ mkiTxvelis TvalsazrisiT, vfiqrobT, yuradsaRebia
xorxe borxesis mier don kixotis (personaJis) warmodgena `donkixotis~ (ro-
manis) mkiTxvelad (borxesi 1984: 212-213). gamodis rom, don kixotma
mkiTxvelma Seqmna don kixoti _ personaJi. erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba es post-
modernistuli maqsimalizmia. magram TviT servantesis romanSia naCvenebi,
rom saraindo romanebis kiTxvam aqcia aznauri kixoto mwuxare saxis rain-
dad. erTgvarad Soreulad, magram mainc sayuradReboa, rom `vefxistyaosan-
Si~ friad mZlavrobs sparsuli tropika, rac albaT imdroindeli mkiTxve-
lis, `visramianisa~ da firdousis mkiTxvelTa zegavleniT unda aixsnas.
85


miSel fuko borxess exmianeba, roca gviCvenebs, rom don kixoti _
personaJi sxvadasxva wignebis mieraa Seqmnilio (fuko 2004: 81-85).
don kixotisaTvis `wigni ufro misi movaleobaa, vidre arsebobis dastu-
ri. don kixoti dausruleblad unda mimarTavdes wigns rCevisaTvis, raTa
icodes, rogor moiqces da ra Tqvas, an ra niSnebiT gamoavlinos sakuTari
Tavi da sxvebi, raTa daadasturos, rom isic zustad imave bunebisaa, rac
saraindo romanebSia aRwerili~ (fuko 2004: 81). `don kixoti wigniviT
kiTxulobs samyaros~ (fuko 2004: 82).
avTandilic xSirad wignebs mihyveba (`wagikiTxavs, siyvarulsa mociquli
ragvar weren?!~; `Tu bZeni xar, yovli bZenni apireben ama pirsa...~). misi ena
ufro mwigrobrulia, vidre spaspetisa. igi mwignobrulad kiTxulobs zeci-
ur mnaTobTa raobas, Tumc maTSi Tavis Sinagan gancdebs amoikiTxavs.
`vefxistyaosanSi~ xSiria gansjiTi Sinaarsis Semcveli `saxeebi~, romle-
bic ZiriTadad logikur-racionalur wakiTxvas iTxovs, Tumca maT emoci-
ebic axlavs-xolme, magaliTad: `Tavisisa cnobisagan Cavardebis kaci Wirsa~
(875,4); `ara viqm, codna ras margebs filosofosTa brZnobisa! miT viswav-
lebiT, mogveces SerTva zesT mwyobTa wyobisa~ (792,3-4). `wagikiTxavs, siyva-
rulsa mociqulni ragvar weren? viT ityvian, viT aqeden! can, cnobani
miaferen: `siyvaruli agvamaRlebs~, viT eJvanni amas JReren~ (792,1-3) da
misTanani (metadre, aforizmebSia).
aris Tu ara es mxatvrul-esTetikuri raobani?
xom ar unda ganvixiloT eseni `azris silamazis~ koncefciis kvalobaze?
(siraZe 1987: 166-173).
daismis kiTxva: `vefxistyaosnis~ zemomoyvanili da msgavsi adgilebi
`azris silamazis~ principiT unda Sefasdes, Tu maT SeiZleba mivusadagoT
tropis sxvadasxva terminebi Tu kategoriebi? es kiTxvebi sayuradRebo un-
da iyos rusTvelologisaTvis, metadre, saskolo swavlebisas.
aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT yuradRebas mivaqcevT ritorikis Teorias
(dibua... 1986), romelic erTgvari SemaerTebeli xidia literaturuli da
filosofiuri teqstebis saanalizod.
am wignSi Sedis aseTi terminebi: sineqdoqe, metafora, Sedareba, metoni-
mia, oqsimoroni da sxvani. eseni moixmareba saerTod azrTawyobis gaazrebi-
saTvis rogorc zogadi `metyvelebis figurebi~ (dibua... 1986: 188-225).
hermenevtikis istoriisa da TeoriaTa gaazrebisaTvis saWiro xdeba
gaviTvaliswinoT sami etapi: zogadad gasaTvaliswinebelia antikuri peiodi,
magram gansakuTrebiT, egzegetikis etapebi da Semdeg _ sakuTriv herme-
nevtika, romelic, faqtobriv, iwyeba saero mwerlobidan da kerZod, rus-
Tvelologiuri naazrevidan.
qarTuli egzegetikis istoriisaTvis qrestomaTiuli mniSvneloba aqvs k.
kekeliZis `Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriis `Sesabamis Tavs~ _ `egze-
getika~ (kekeliZe 1980: 457-466).
egzegetika ZiriTadad bibliur teqtTa ganmartebas gulisxmobs. amas
ZvelqarTuli `Targmani~ (`Targmaneba~) ewodeba (es sityva gadaTargmnasac
aRniSnavda).`Targmani~ ewodeba agreTve bibliuri teqstis martivad gar-
daTqmas (kekeliZe 1980: 457).
qarTul mwerlobaSi uZvelesi gardaTqma _ `qarTuli Targumi~, bibli-
uri teqstisa CarTulia `evstaTi mcxeTelis wamebaSi~. Seiqmna ~katenebi~.
teqsti iwereboda SuagulSi (`kimeni~), xolo arSiaze sqolio (ganmartebani)
an kolofonebi.
86


`uZvelesi, Cvenamde Senaxuli da dRes cnobili saegzetiko Txzulebani
moTavsebulia e. w. `Satberdis krebulSi~ da naTargmnia somxuridan ara ug-
vianes mecxre saukunisa~ (kekeliZe 1980: 459). Cven vfiqrobT, rom am krebulis
erT-erTi mTavari mizandasaxulebaa ganmartebani `wm. ninos cxovrebisa~:
anTropologia, mrwamsi, simboloebi da a. S. (siraZe 1992: 13-25); amitomac
swored am krebulSia CarTuli `wm. ninos cxovreba~.
`Satberdis krebuli~ gviCvenebs, Tu rogor konteqstSi kiTxulobdnen-
xolme `wm. ninos cxovrebas~.
amasTanave `Satberdis krebulis~ gaTvaliswineba friad sasurvelia
dResac `vefxistyaosnis~ marTebuli wakiTxvisas. moviyvanT ramdenime
magaliTs.
`Satberdis krebuli~ iwyeba gr. noselis TxzulebiT _ `kacisa Sesaqmi-
saTvis~ (`Satberdis krebuli~ 1979: 67-127). rusTveluri adamianTmcodne-
obisaTvis aucilebelia qristianuli anTropologiis gaTvaliswineba. cxa-
dia, gasaTvaliswinebelia sxva wyaroebic, magram qristianul anTropolo-
giaze Seqmnil erT-erTi umTavresi nawarmoebis mniSvneloba am mxriv sru-
liad gansakuTrebulia.
amas mosdevs `TualTa~ epifane kvpirelisa (`Satberdis krebuli~ 1979:
127-175). aq ara mxolod ganmartebulia 12 bibliuri Tvali-patiosani, aramed
mocemulia Sesabamisi farTo konteqstebi bibliidan.
fatmani nestanze ambobs:

`Sua Zowsa da akiksa Wvris margaliti tyupebi~ .
(`vefxistyaosani~ 1966: 1146,4)

`vefxistyaosnis~ simfoniaSi~ akakis adgilas Setanilia `ayiyi~ (simfonia
1956: 31).
n. naTaZe ganmartavs: `Zowi-wiTeli marjani. ayiyo-wiTeli Zvirfasi qva~
(naTaZe 1986: 378).
basil kesarielis `mxecTaTvis saxisa sityua~ Seicavs cxovelTa (mxec-
Ta) simboloebis ganmartebas (saxismetyvelebiT ganmartebebs). aq `saxis-
metyvelebiT~ (avtori _ basil kesarieli) simbolurad ganmartebulia
`lomi~ da `lekvi lomisa~ (Satberdis krebuli: 179).
aseve sainteresoa ganmartebani `tredisa~, `irmisa~ da sxvaTa.
TiTqos Soreulad, magram mainc sayuradReboa `vefxistyaosnis~ adami-
anTmcodneobisaTvis `Satberdis krebulSi~ Sesuli: ipolite romaelis
`daviTisaTvis da goliadisTvis ganmarteba~ (kr.: 141-249). saqme isaa, rom
k.kekeliZis TeoriiT, `vefxistyaosnis~ gmiri-personaJebis saxeebSi mocemu-
lia saerTod transformirebuli idealebi `wminda mxedrebisa~ (kekeliZe
1945: 6-12), romelTa pirvelsaxeebia qriste (ara mxolod mSvidobisaTvis
movsulvar, aramed maxviliTaco); miqael mTavarangelozi, mere _ daviT
mefe (winaswarmetyveli da fsalmunmgalobeli), wminda giorgi da sxva wminda
mxedrebi. daviTi goliaTis dammarcxebelia. i. romaelTan es gaazrebulia
gveleSapis damarcxebad. amitom is, rac Tqmulia daviTze, zogjer SeiZleba
simbolurad mivusadagoT tarielis gmirobas.
ufro metad yuradsaRebia ipolite romaelis `Targmaneba qeba qeba-
Ta~ (kr.: 249-269). aqaa maRalsulieri siyvarulis qristologiuri gaazre-
bani. TviT wminda adamianuri siyvaruli RvTis siyvarulia, siyvarulia
qristesi (`RmerTi siyvaruli ars~). simbolurad esaa `siyvarulis siyvaru-
87


li~ (`kvla mijnursa mijnuroba uJvardes da gamoscnobdeso~, _ naTqvamia
poemis prologSi~, 11,3). aseTi azria d. guramiSvilis `zubovkaSic~: zubov-
keli qalis siyvaruli qristes siyvaruliao, aseTi siyvaruli mediumia
adamianursa da RvTaebrivs Soris. egevea naTqvami avgustines TxzulebaSi _
`aRsarebani~. rusTaveli ki ambobs: wminda xorcieli siyvaruliT mijnurni
`masve (maRalsulierebas) hbaZaven, Tu odes, ar siZven, SoriT bndebian~. 21.4).
ipolite romaels mohyavs `qeba qebaTas~ sityvebi `umjobes arian Cemda
ZuZuni Senni ufros Rvinisa~ (kr.: 252) da iqve ganmartavs: `ganamxiarulis
Rvinoman guli, esreT saxed ganamxiaruleben mcnebani qristeni~ (252). cxa-
dia, aseT gaazrebaTa pirdapiri gadmotana `vefxistyaosnisTvis~ TiTqos
araa swori (Tumca amgvars irCevs vaxtang VI Tavis `TargmanebaSi~), magram
amisi mizanSewonili, Tundac siRrmiseuli gaTvaliswineba mainc gvmarTebs.
qarTuli egzegetikisaTvis da, Tundac, Semdegdroindeli hermenevtiki-
sa da TviT rusTvelologiisaTvis friad sayuradReboa efrem mciris
egzegetikuri leqsikoni (efrem mcire 1968: 83-97). esaa `Teologiuri leqsi-
koni~. aq sayuradReboa ara mxolod calkeul sityvaTa simboluri (saxis-
metyvelebiTi) ganmartebani, aramed ganmartebaTa meTodologia, principi
ganmartebisa. es gulisxmobs, rom arsebobs Cveulebrivi, leqsikologiuri
ganmartebani da arsebobs saxismetyvelebiTi ganmartebani:
`gesmodin ra xelni da ferxni RmrTisani, Tualni da guli, uwyode,
viTarmed amissaca gulisxmuofasa saxismetyveleba uxms da ara ganmarte-
ba~ (efrem mcire 1968: 82).
`adgil RmrTisad odesme ca iTqumis, da odesme eklesia da odesme
qalwuli, da odesme guami kacad-kacadisa, gina yovelive, romelsaca zeda
ganisuenos nebaman RmrTisaman. rameTu amaT yovlTa mier cxad ars, viTarmed
arca erTsa adgilisa mier gare-Secvul ars igi, aramed yovelive mas
mxolosa Seucavs. saxelni ese yovelni sxuebr da sxuebr gulisxma-iyofebian
adgilad RmrTisa: ca-simaRlisaTvis RmrTeebisa misisa, rameTu arara
ipoebis sxua gonebasa kacTasa umaRlesi adgili ufrois caTa~ (efrem mcire
1968: 83).
`vefxistyaosnisTvis~ aqedan bevri ramaa sayuradRebo; magaliTad: etli
(85), naTel (88), ufali ZalTa~ (88), risxva RmrTisa (89), suli (89), saxeli
RmrTisa (90), smena RmrTisa (91), ar-smena misa (91), frTe RmrTisa (91), Su-
eniereba RmrTisa (93), ucnaureba misa (94), Zali RmrTisa (94). efrem mcire
dasZens: es sityvebio `RmrTisaTvis xorcielad iTqmuian da sulierad
gulisxma iyofiano~ (96).
yvela eseni, da sxva mravalic, cal-calkea Sesaswavli `vefxistyaosan-
Tan~ mimarTebaSi, Tundac iseTi friad iSviaTi ram _ `sicili RmrTisa~ (90).
msgavsi TvalTaxedva SeiZleba amovikiTxoT aikin riCardsis narkvevebSi
_ `ritorikis filosofia~ (metaforis Teoria 1990: 44-67). metafora mxo-
lod e. w. mxatvruli `xerxi~ ki araa, igia moucilebeli Tviseba azrovnebisa
da enisa, yoveli azri ganrkveulad metaforaao (metaforis Teoria 1990: 47).
gamodis, rom dialogi metaforaTa `gacvlaa~ (metaforis Teoria 1990:17).
metafora realobis gamowvevaa, raTa sagani (xdomileba) iyos ara oden is,
rac aris, aramed kidec sxva ram. yoveli metafora, garkveuli azriT, iraci-
onalobaa (metaforis Teoria 1990: 12).
oqtavio pasi aRniSnavs: aRmosavluri azrovnebao ar ganicdida SiSs `sxva
raobis~ winaSe, romelic aris da arc aris erTdroulad (pasi 2000: 228).
88


nicSedan modis TviT dRevandel RirebulebaTa gadafaseba, magram
nicSesTan amas axlavs TviTkritika, rom me varo yovelive nihilizmis mizezi,
me var is subieqti, romlis bralia RmerTis mokvdinebao. ai, aseT konteqstSi
faseulia TviTironia.
erTi eprigrama nicSes Txzulebisa aseTia: `mxiaruli mecniereba~ (nicSe
1990: 491): CemTvis sasaciloa yvela xelovani, romelsac TavisTavisTvis ar
dauciniao.
amitomaa, rom mizanSewonilad miviCnieT nicSes zemodasaxelebul Txzu-
lebas `mxiaruli mecnierebis` nacvlad ewodos _ `sibrZne malaRobeli~
(rac vaxtang VI-seuli saTauria) (siraZe 2008: 57-58).
hermenevtikis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi qarTul samecniero
literaturaSi specialuradaa Seswavlili (hermenevtika 2008: 114-122).
f. Slaiermaxeris principebi jer v. diliaim da mere kidev ufro siR-
rmiseulad ganaviTara martin haidegerma (1869-1976) (gansakuTrebiT sayu-
radReboa _ m. haidegeri, `yofiereba da dro~. Tbilisi, 1989).
misTvis mTavaria fenomenis cneba.
`haidegerma fenomeni ganmarta rogorc dafaruloba. es mianiSnebda, rom
dafarulis Sesamecneblad sakmarisi ar aris aRwera, aramed saWiroa safaris
axsna, rac mxolod hermenevtikul interpretacias ZaluZs~ (ratiani 2008: 117).
`vefxistyaosnis~ mkiTxvelisaTvis sruliad gansakuTebuli miSvnelobi-
saa m. baxtinis hermenevtikuli Sexedulebani, romelTagan araerTi ram didi
xania iqcevda yuradRebas, Tumca bolo dros aRdga da gacxovelda. bevri
ramaa maTgan ganxiluli axalgamocemul `literaturis TeoriaSi~ (ratiani
i. mixeil baxtinis Teoriuli koncefcia. dialoguri kritika. _ literatu-
ris Teoria, 2008, gv. 26-56).
saerTodac da, kerZod, `vefxistyaosnis~ hermenevtikisaTvis mraval-
mxriv sayuradReboa `recefciuli esTetika~, romelic calke Tavdaa Seta-
nili zemoxsenebul `literaturis TeoriaSi~ (bregaZe 2008: 185-193).
mgoni, ar unda iyos Zalze Soreuli ram, Tu gavixsenebT, rasac amis
msgavs cnobierebaze ioane petriwi werda. obieqts (`gasagonod~ e. i. imas, rac
Semodis gonebaSi) `goneba, zed miesxmis martivado~ (petriwi 1937: 7).
haidegeri amas Tvlida cnobierebis wuTieri ganaTebis Sedegad.
recefciul esTetikaSi Sesuli `aRqmis~ fenomenis miCneva pirovnebis
cnobierebis hermenevtikul `ganaTebad~ SeiZleba filosofiuri metafora
iyos, magram udaoa, masSi arseboba rogorc ityvian, `WeSmaritebis marc-
vlisa~. amitomac sruliad bunebrivia aseTi formulireba: `literaturuli
teqstis realizeba, gacocxleba, mxolod misi aRqmis procesSi aRmqmeli
suZieqtis cnobierebis procesSi xdeba (bgeraZe 2008: 185). es, magaliTad,
`vfxistyaosanSi~, Seexeba wminda mxatvrul saxeebs, filosofiur gamonaT-
qvamebSi ki silamazis aRqma diskursiuli cnobierebiT, anu safexurebrivad
warimarTeba.
`literaturis TeoriaSi~ Semavali narkvevi _ `postmodernizmi~ (wifu-
ria 2008: 259-291) am mimdinareobis umTavres principebs exeba, romelTagan
calkeuli yuradsaRebia `vefxistyaosnis~ hermenevtikisaTvis, xan poziti-
urad, xanac negaciiT. wamyvania `postmodernistuli mgrZnobeloba~. kidev
ufro mTavaria destruqtivizmi da krizisiT gamowveuli mravali saxis
nihilizmi. xSir SemTxvevaSi TviT arapostmodernistuli TvalsazrisiTac
aseTi nihilizmi ubralod uarsayofi ki araa, aramed dasaZlevia, oRond
gaTaviseba-daZleviT.
89


`vefxistyaosnis~ hermenevtiuli analizisaTvis friad mizanSewonilad
gvesaxeba movixmoT d. uznaZis ganwyobis Teoria da enis Sinaofrmis kon-
cefciis problematika (uznaZe 1977; uznaZe 1947), raTa warmovaCinoT qar-
Tuli mwerlobis paradigmuli saxeebi (siraZe 2008: 180-218). am SemTxvevaSi
viyenebT `kulturis lingvisturi paleontolgiis~ daskvnebsac (gamyreliZe
1984a; gamyreliZe 1984b). amasTanave mizanSewonilia movixmoT m. fukos wigni
`sityvebi da sagnebi (humanitarul mecnierebaTaa arqeologia) (fuko 2004).
aRniSnul safuZvelze SemdomSi gaanalizebuli iqneba rusTvelis enob-
rivi msoflxedva, saero-saraindo Tu aristokratiul-ceremonialuri enob-
rivi stili; aris Tu ara diferencireba avtorisa da personaJebis sityva-
xmarebas Soris?
amjerad ki yuradRebas mivaqevT, Tu ra konteqstSi da ra azriTaa
naxsenebi `mkiTxveli~ (`leqsTa mkiTxvelio~. 942,1) an mxatvari (`mas wina
RamiT Zal-edvis mxatvarsa xatva xatisa~. 1465,4; `aqa, mxatvaro, daxate~).
`vefxistyaosnis~ mkiTxvelTa istoriisaTvis gasaTvaliswinebelia pi-
rovnebis ganviTarebis peripetiebi (koni 1978: 111-327) da am kuTxiT enobrivi
msoflmxedvis sakiTxebi (siraZe 2008: 180-218).
`mkiTxvelis fenomenis~ TvalsazrisiT, saWiroa SeZlebisgvarad `vefxis-
tyaosani~ gaviazroT miTosur-folklorul samyarosTan mimarTebiTac.
am sferoSi mravali gamokvleTa arsebobs:
m. Ciqovani 1966; e. virsalaZe, 1968; m. karbelaSvili 1982; m. karbelaSvili
1980.
am da sxva avtorTa mosazrebani ganxilulia Tamar xvedelianis monogra-
fiaSi _ `vefxistyaosnis~ miTosur-folkloruli samyaro~, romelic mra-
valmxrivaa gasaTvaliswinebeli `mkiTxvelis fenomenis~ TvalsazrisiTac
(xvedeliani 2001)..
marTalia, miTosuri azrovneba winaqristianul xanaSi Camoyalibda da
mTeli Tavisi raobiT swored im dros mniSvnelobs, magram igi mxolod im
xaniT ar ifargleba da SemdegSiac ganagrZobs arsebobas xan uSualod, xanac
saxismetyvelebiT, warmarTuli Sinaarsis desakralizebiT da qristianuli
sakralizebiT (saamiso principebi mocemulia basili didis specialur
traqtatSi), xan, rogorc ityvian, `paganizebulad~ anu folkloruli Tavi-
suflebiT. amisi nimuSia `vefxistyaosnis~ cnobili striqonebi: `naxes, mzisa
Sesayrelad gamoeSva mTvare gvelsa~. es ukavSirdeba `wminda giorgis cxov-
rebis~ apokriful versias, oRond ara pirdapir, aramed xalxuri variantis
gamoyenebiT, xalxuri `wakiTxvis~ mixedviT.
CvenTvis erT-erTi amosavalia Semdegi ram:
Cvenis azriT, prologis sityvebi: `ese ambavi sparsuli, qarTulad na-
Targmanebi... vpove da leqsad gardavTqvi~, romelic exeba poemis fabulis
raobas, niSnavs ara warmoSobiT sparsuls, aramed `gamonagons~ (siraZe 1975:
190-196) `zRapruls~, gnebavT, miTosur ambavs (Sdr. baramiZe 1964: 173).
literaturisa da, saerTod, xelovnebis istoriis mimarT `ganviTareba~
yovlad pirobiTia. aq siaxlenia da ara _ `ganviTareba~ (ukeTesis Seqmna).
yoveli nawarmoebi TavisTavadia da TviTkmari. Tu mainc `ganviTarebas~ vix-
marT, aq mniSvnelovania cnobili moZRvreba `orgvar sibrZneze~. sibrZne vi-
Tardeba da aisaxeba saxismetyvelebaSi (siraZe 2008: 5-22).
teqsts ori ganzomileba aqvs: horizontaluri da vertikaluri. hori-
zontalur ganzomilebaSi vgulisxmobT teqstis sityvaTa struqturul
90


Tanmimdevrobas, dasawyisidan dasasrulamde, xolo vertikalurSi teqstis
sulier Sinaarss, mis `suls~ anda, sulierebas.
am SemTxvevaSi viTvaliswinebT r. ingardens, magram niSvnelovani daSo-
rebiT. nawarmoebis organzomilebianoba adre aRuniSnavs herders. r. ingar-
deni pirvel ganzomilebaSi gulisxmobs sxvadasxva nawilTa monacvleobas,
meore ganzomilebaSi kavSirs im nawilTa Soris (ingardeni 1962).
teqstis Cveulebriv mdinarebaSi misi amqveyniuri Sinaarsia, xolo mis-
save siRrmeSi aris sulieri Sinaarsi, romelic jvris vertikals Seesabameba.
amas swvdeba mkiTxvelis zecnobiereba.
jvarsaxovnebas Seicavs calkeuli mxatvruli saxe, nawarmoebi, Semoqme-
deba, epoqa da mTeli istoria literaturisa. arcerTi maTgani ar srul-
deba-xolme TavisTavSi. isini mudmivad gacxoveldeba sul sxvadasxva mkiTx-
velSi. mkiTxveli aniWebs maT jvarsaxovnebas, Tumca jvarsaxovneba maTSi
`obieqturad` aris. es niSnavs, rom uCvenodac wilnayaria sulierebasTan
(siraZe 2000: 199-203).
jvarsaxovneba met-naklebad yovel teqstSia, sulierebis ierarqiulo-
bisda Sesabamisad, radgan suli yvelganaa. garkveuli azriT, sulia `sico-
cxle~ da ara marto cocxali organizmisa, aramed nebismieri sagnis Tu mov-
lenisa. aseTi zogadi azriT, sulia is, riTac xdeba Tavisi raobis SenarCu-
neba da Tanac garemocvasTan mimarTebis damyareba, misgan gamijvnac da mas-
Tan Tanaarsebobac (WavWavaZe 1984: 153-157).
RirebulebaTa gadafaseba xdeba, mkiTxveli icvleba, magram masSi raRac
mainc ucvleli rCeba, pirovnulic, erovnulic da religiuri. aseTivea pi-
rad-individualuri `me~. erTsa da imave mdinareSi ganmeorebiT ver Seval-
To, magram amasTanave swored erTsa da imave mdinareSi SevdivarT mraval-
gzis. galaktionic ambobs, rom `yovelive mimdinareobs da amave dros dgas
yoveliveo~. esaa erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani nicSeanuri azri
galaktionTan. nicSe Turme mxolod idumali CurCuliT warmoTqvamda amas.
teqstis horizontaluri mdinareba droSi xdeba, sulieri vertikalis
SegrZneba ki myisieri SeiZleba iyos. gaston baSliari werda: `poezia wamieri
metafizikaao. igi wamierebas eZiebs. is qmnis wamierebas... da mxolod verti-
kalur droSi Seyovnebuli wuTiT iZens poezia gansakuTrebul energias.
arsebobs wminda poeziis wminda energia da igi ganifineba vertikalurad
formisa da pirovnebis droSi~. `yovel WeSmarit leqsSi aris aramedini dro,
aq dro araa ganzomilebadi, romelsac Cven vuwodebT vertikalurs, raTa is
ganvasxvaoT Cveulebrivi droisgan, romelic mdinarebs horizontalurad,
viTarca mdinare da qari~ (baSliari 1987: 347, 358).
`jvarsaxovneba~, garkveuli pirobiTobiT, saero nawarmoebSiac SeiZleba
davinaxoT, zogadad, sulierebisa da xorcielebis urTierTgadakveTis
azriT.
amitom gvsurs, rom `jvarsaxovneba~ damkvidrdes literaturul-esTe-
tikur sferoSic sekularizebulad (siraZe 2000: 190-203).
umberto ekos `vardis saxelis~ marginaliebSi erT-erT saTauradaa
`mkiTxvelis Seqmna~ (eko 1989). aq meordeba-xolme aseTi azri: `idealuri
mkiTxvelis formireba~. isaa Tanamedrove pirovneba an garkveuli nawili
sazogadoebisa. momaval mkiTxvels ver gaiTvlis avtori (stendali, piriqiT,
momavali mkiTxvelisagan eloda namdvil dafasebas). mkiTxveli sulmudam
Tavidanve qmnis nawarmoebs da am gziT mkiTxveli qmnis literaturul
epoqasac. `idealuri~ aq niSnavs ideaSi warmosadgens da ara zesrulyofils.
91


masTan iwyeba dialogi nawarmoebisa, `avtori ki gamoiricxeba~. es albaT
rolan bartidan momdinare azria. mis statias pirdapir ase hqvia _ `sikvdi-
li avtorisa~ (barti 1989). aseve sayuradReboa qveTavi _ `wakiTxva~, naSro-
midan _ `kritika da WeSmariteba~. `mkiTxvelic~ da `avtoris sikvdilic~
postmodernizmis fundamentarul terminologiaSi Sevida da orive rolan
bartis mier damkvidrebulad iTvleba (Postmodernism. London and New York. 2001;
II. Names ans Terms, P. 221, 347).
1972 wels gamoqvenda gaston buaCiZis vrceli narkvevi _ `miSel fuko
sityvebsa da sagnebs Soris~ (buaCiZe 1972: 196-216), romelSic dawvrilebiTaa
gaanalizebuli miSel fukos wigni _ `sityvebi da sagnebi~.
axla es wigni qarTuladacaa.
m. fukos wigni struqturalisturad iTvleboda, Tumca Semdeg m. fuko
postmodernizmis erT-erT mTavar Teoretikosad miiCneva.
aq mravali sakiTxia, magram amjerad Cven yuradRebas miaqcevs msjelobas
imis Sesaxeb, rom kritikosi Cvens Tvalwin warmoSobs axal samyaroso (gv.
208). es mkiTxveliseuli Semoqmedebaa (e. i. TanaSemoqmedeba) da kidev:
fukosTan don-kixoti gaazrebulia rogorc mkiTxveli, romelic iluziiT
cxovrobs, radganac aRar arsebobs saraindo romanebis is sinamdvile, rom-
lisac don-kixots amaod sjera (borxesi 1984: 212-213). don-kixoti sityvebSi
xedavs Zvel sinamdviles, romelic aRar arsebobs. ase Sordeba-xolme sag-
nebs sityvebi. maT ki mkiTxveli sxvadasxvagvarad aSinaarsebs.
es grZeldeba, roca don-kixoti mkiTxvelia `don kixotisa~, _ ambobs
borxesi (`dafaruli magia `don-kixotisa~). parodia Tanamedrove donkixo-
tur mkiTxvelze parodiac aRaraa, esaa ufro keTili `filosofiuri Rimi-
li~ iluziaTa aucileblobaze (asevea g. doCanaSvilis moTxrobaSi `kaci,
romelsac literatura Zlier uyvarda~).
mkiTxvelis problemas Seexo araerTi avtori da maT Soris Cvenc (siraZe
2008: 5-22). specialuri narkvevi ki am sakiTxs miuZRvnes r. yaralaSvilma
(`wigni da mkiTxveli~. 1970), k. jamburiam (`mkiTxvelo, xom ar mogewyina?~,
`literatura da xelovneba~, 1991, 2, gv. 95-107) da l. bregaZem (`me vwer,
mkiTxvelo, Seni imediT~ _ almanaxi: `literatura da sxva~, Tsu, 2003, gv 19-
27; i. ratiani. i. WavWavaZe da misi mkiTxveli. saiubileo krebuli, 2007). aq
recefciuli esTetikis mixedviT ganxilulia mweralTa da literaturaT-
mcodneTa hermenevtikuli Sexudulebani `mkiTxvelis~ Sesaxeb.
amjerad `mkiTxvelis fenomenis~ istorias warmovadgenT teqstTa isto-
riisa da avtorTa gamonaTqvamebis mixedviT.
`wm. ninos cxovreba~ mravalmxriv icvleboda. Tavdapirveli teqstebis
ZiriTadi nawilebi liturgiuli daniSnulebiT unda iyos Seqmnili, Cvenis
azriT, IV-V ss-Si (Tumca mas win uZRvis istoriuli nawili da, rogorc aRniS-
nulia, igic icvleboda). Semdeg, roca `qarTlis cxovreba~ (jer `mefeTa
cxovreba~) iqmneba, `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ teqsti sakiTxavi gaxda istoriis
mkiTxvelTaTvis, Tumca mianiSnebs `cxovreba~ cxonebas gulisxmobso. mere,
metafrastika rom Semovida, kvlav misda Sesabamisad gadaakeTes teqsti
axleburi TvalTaxedviT wakiTxvisaTvis. n. gulaberisZis `sakiTxavSi~ igive
teqsti gardaTqmulia saqarTvelos istoriis ZiriTadi sazrisis warmosa-
Cenad (ZiriTadi sazrisi _ sveticxoveliao).
`abos wamebis~ pirvel TavSi naTqvamia. `sixarul eqmnis WabukTa moTxro-
biTa miT, simxne igi qristes moRuaweTa da siqaduli da mxiaruleba
moxucebulTa xseneba igi Ruawlisa mis martvilisa~ da a. S. (Zeglebi 1963:
92


51). kidev ufro sainteresoa, Tu rogor unda icvlebodes msmeneli, raTa
misi sxeulis `karavSi~ daivanos wminda sityva.friad gansakuTrebulia da,
vityodiT, unikaluric-ki, dasawyisi `ioane zedaznelis cxovrebisa~:
`mizezni arian aRmZvrel sityvisa da sityua ars mimTxrobel mizezTa,
romlisaTvis pirvel movlenan sagrZnobelTa da miarTvian mimRebelsa, da
mimRebelman miscis ganmkiTxvelsa da ganmkiTxvelman dammarxvelsa da
esreT gamosaxuli igi miiqcis da daeberis nestusa enisa Tvisisa da gangebu-
lad oxrin, raTa kualad sasmenelTa sxuaTa miscemdeT TviT TanaziarebiTa
smenisaTa, romel ars awindeli ese Cueni moqceva~ (Zeglebi 1963: 191-192).
e. w. mcxeTis fsmalmuns win uZRvis aTanase aleqsandrielis (326-372)
`gamokvleva Zalisa fsalmuniTasa~. aq ganmartebulia, rom sxvadasxva
bibliuri wigni sxvadasxvagvarad unda vikiTxoTo, zogSi sxvis ambebs
vecnobiT, fsalmuni ki ise unda wavikiTxoT, rogorc Cveni saTqmeli (TiT-
qos, RvTis winaSe Cven vambobT amaso) (fsalmuni 1960: 447).
cxadia, es fsalmunur-himnografiul poezias exeba, magram met-naklebad
igive iTqmis saerTod lirikul poeziaze.
eqvTime aToneli Tavisufali Targmanis zusti TargmaniT Secvlas efrem
mcire mkiTxvelTa moTxovnilebiT xsnida: `siCCoebasa Cuenisa naTesavisasa
sZiTa zrdida da mxaliTa, xolo aw, mis mier aRzrdili, mtkicisa sazrdelisa
moqene iqmnao~.
oriode magaliTi `vefxistyaosnidan~.
tarieli da avTandili midian qvabSi asmaTTan, Semdeg avTandili aqedan
unda wavides. isini sevdiT mosilni arian. rusTaveli dasZens:

`leqsTa mkiTxvelo, Senimca Tvali cremlisa mRvrelia!
gulman, glax, ra qnas ugulod, Tu guli gulsa elia?!
moSorveba da moyvrisa gayra kacisa mkvlelia,
vinca ar icis, ar esmis, ese dRe ragvar Znelia~. (951)

roca tarieli da avTandili SeiWurvebian, mere naTqvamia:

`aqa, mxatvaro, daxaten ZmaT umtkicesni Zmobilni,
igi mijnurni mnaTobTa, sxvisa vervisgan swrobilni,
orive gmirni moymeni, mamacobisa cnobilni,
ra qajeTs mivlen, gasinjon omi, laxvarTa sobilni~.
(k. WiWinaZis gamocemaSi 1438).

`vefxistyaosnis~ saxismetyvelebis mTavari niSania azrTawyobis esTeti-
zacia. aq ufro mZlavrobs esTetikuri saxismetyveleba, vidre eikonuri an
eideturi. gamonagoni sxvaganacaa, Tundac, miTosSi, magram iq is realobad
iTvleba, aq ki gamonagonis ararealoba gacnobierebulia, gamonagons misi
esTetikuroba amarTlebs agiografiisadmi dispoziciiT, sadac religiuri
sinamdvilea da `Sinagani xilva~ (farulava 1982). gamonagonze damyarebuli
saxismetyveleba `vefxistyaosanSi~ renesansuli esTetikis niSania.
e. w. aRorZinebis xanaSi (XV-XVIII ss.) `vefxistyaosnis~ orgvari wakiTxva
dominirebda: religiur-qristianuli da saero TvalTaxedva. TiToeuli
amaTgani sxvadasxva saxiT vlindeba: zogad-qristianuli TvalTaxedvani da
religiuri maqsimalizmi. maqsimalizmi vlindeba meores mxrivac: sparsofi-
luri pozicia da `marTlis Tqmis~ principTa mixedviT wakiTxva.
93


es sakiTxebi yvelaze srulad ganxilulia meri guguSvilis monogra-
fiaSi (guguSvili 1966).
`vefxistyaosnis~ Tavisufali romantikuli wakiTxvis Sedegia aleqsan-
dre orbelianis leqsi `rusTaveli~. es leqsi aleqsandre orbelians dauwe-
ria 1852 wels, algeTis xeobaSi, wminda samebis mTaze.
leqsi iwyeba ase: `rusTavel!~ _ da esaa imdroindeli arcTu umaRlesi
poeturi gemovnebis gamovlineba, rasac mohyveba Semdegi striqonebi: `yov-
lis zeciuri madliT gabrwyinvebulo, da angelozebr wmindad amomsun-
Tqmelo~! amgvari dasawyisi gvkarnaxobs, rom leqsi aRviqvaT religiuri su-
lierebiTa da paTetikuri amaRlebulobiT, rac mowodebulia qristianuli
universaliebis gamomxatveli sityvaxmarebiT. aseTi azrovneba ar mieswraf-
vis originalobas. `originalobas~ qmnis arCevani saero-gamomsaxvelobiTi
arsenalidan, magaliTad, aseTi: ~vin mogitana didsulovnobis rto sasufev-
lidan~! es exmianeba demetre-damianes sityvebs: `morCi keTili edems Sina
nerguli, alva sulneli, samoTxiT gamosruli~, anda _ `daviTians~, romel-
Sic Zalze xSiria RvTis gansaxovneba rtoTi (`Srto~). maSasadame, rusTavels
miemarTeba tradiciulad RvTaebasTan dakavSirebuli simbolika (ioane
SavTelis varZiis RvTismSoblisadmi miZRvnil `galobanSi~ RvTismSobeli
warmoCenilia imgvari niSnebiT, romlebic gasaidealeblad miaCndaT Tamar
mefis saxeSi). esaa poeturi gza adamianis ganRmrTobisa.
swored amgvarad unda aRviqvaT Semdegi sityvebic: `cTomilTa mogfines
mzis podiri~ (anu Saravandedi); `ca pativsa gcems Rrublis gvirgviniT~ (148-
e fsalmunSia: `aqebdiT ufalsa caTagan, aqebdiT mas cani caTani~. msgavsi
saxismetyvelebaa Tamariseul sagalobelSi `casa caTasa~).
aseT fonze sruliad gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens leqsis Semdegi
saxe _ `suli, davnebuli surviliTa~. am sulis mxilvelia rusTveli (igi
misken `momfrinavia~), e. i. masTan ziarebulia. SeiZleba am saxeSi TviT rus-
Tavelis sulic-ki amovicnoT, Tuki leqsis saerTo saxismetyvelebas
gaviTvaliswinebT.
leqsSi rusTavelis warmosadgenad erT-erTi mTavari safuZvelia
avTandilis saxe, ufro zustad, misi romantizebuli saxe (etyoba, egeve iyo
TviT al. orbelianis sakuTari Sinagani ideali). amas gvafiqrebinebs Semdegi
striqonebi: `romels mindorze ilocavdi, romel cTomilTa mogfines mzis
podiri?.. romels mdinares mouTxrobdi Sens gulis wadils?.. ramden gvari
frinvelebi yofilan SenTan mesaubred? is ra tye aris, SengniT molben mxec-
nadirni gaafTrebulni?.. iyo sada da vin giTxra: `ager xedav! ca pativs gcems
Rrublis gvirgviniT!~ yovelive es leqsSi Tqmulia rusTavelze.
araa Zneli saerTo momentebi davinaxoT am sityvebsa da imaT Soris, rac
avTandilzea Tqmuli `vefxistyaosanSi~. magaliTad: `Rame ilxendis, dRe
sjidis, elis Caslvasa mzisasa, ra wyali naxis, gardaxdis, uWvretdis Wavlsa
wylisasa, masTana rTvidis nakadsa sisxlisa cremlTa tbisasa~; `ra esmodis
mRera ymisa, smenad mxecni movidian...~; nestanis povniT avTandilis gaxarebis
niSnad `agrgvinda ca, da Rrubelni tirodes brolis cvariTa?~, rasac ex-
mianeba n. baraTaSvilic (al. orbelianis leqsSi baraTaSviliseburia agreT-
ve aseTi striqoni: `am dros sigrilis cvaric movida, gulsa mSvebeli~).
Tuki al. orbelianis leqsSi rusTavelis pirvelsaxe avTandilia, amiT
ikveTeba misi rusTvelologiuri koncefcia, rom `vefxistyaosanSi~ avTan-
dilis pirvelsaxe TviT rusTavelia, igia misi alter-ego. esaa romantikuli
koncefcia, romlis umTavresi gamarTleba poetur WeSmaritebaSia. al.
94


orbeliani mravali kiTxviT mimarTavs rusTavels, Tu sad, rogor da rodis
gadagxdao is, rac `vefxistyaosnis~ mixedviT, Tavs gadaxdenia avTandils.
al. orbelianis mier avTandilis mixedviTaa warmodgenili `vefxistyaosnis~
movlenaTa aRmqmeli, ramdenadac poemaSi ZiriTadia tarielis ambebi, rom-
lebsac igi uyveba avTandils. erTmaneTs erwymian avTandilisa da
rusTavelis saxeebi, viTarca poemis mTavari poeturi subieqtebisa. asea al.
orbelianis mixedviT.
leqsis dasasruls misi mxatvrulobis done mdabldeba, ramdenadac
rusTavelis gandideba da qveteqstSi mocemuli romantikuli patriotizmi
zedmeti paTetikurobiT gamoixateba. erTi ram mainc unda aRiniSnos:
holderlinze naTqvamia, rom mis poeziaSi iSviaTia RvTis xseneba, magram igi
aRvsiliao RvTismosaobiT. al. orbelianis leqsic uSualod RvTaebisadmi
araa mimarTuli, magram mTels leqss saRvTo suliereba msWvalavs. esaa misi
mTlianobis ganmsazRvreli. da aseT fonze rusTavelis fundac usazRvro
gandideba daviT fsalmunTmetyvelze zeaRmatebulobas ar unda gulisxmob-
des. SeiZleboda aseTi maqsimalizmi imiT agvexsna, rom maSin, rogorc s.
dodaSvili aRniSnavda, _ jer kidev bevrs ver Seegno Rirseba sakuTari
literaturuli warsulisa. amasTan dapirispirebam moitana swored maqsima-
listuri Tvalsazrisi. igi daemyara romantikul warmosaxvas. amas Tan axlda
swrafva (`survili~) rusTavelis maRalsulierebis Tanagancdisaken. al.
orbelianisaTvis rusTvelis maRalsuliereba samoTxis mkvidrTaTvis
wilxvdomili Rirsebaa. yvelas da yvelafers amTlianebs `suli, davnebuli
surviliTa~, anu saRvTo swrafva da esaa mTavari (siraZe 1997).
aseTia `vefxistyaosnis~, ufro _ rusTavelis identifikaciis, erTi
sayuradRebo romantikuli gaazreba.

P.S. rusTvelologiuri hermenevitikis egzegetikuri tradiciisaTvis
sruliad gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisaa efrem mciris Teologiuri
leqsikoni, romelSiac SemorCenili xelnawerebiT 100-ze meti ganmartebaa
fsalmunur sityvaxmarebaTa bizantiur patristikaze damyarebiT.
`zogierTi ganmarteba leqsikonSi TviTon efrems SeiZleba ekuTvnodeso~, _
aRniSnavs am teqstis gamomcemeli mzeqala SaniZe (SaniZe 1068: 121).
`adgil RmrTisa odesme ca iTqumis da odesme eklesia da odesme
qalwuli, da odesme gvami kacad-kacadisa, gina Tu yovelive, romelsaca
zeda ganisuenos nebaman RmrTisaman. rameTu amaT yovelTa mier cxad ars,
viTarmed arca erTsa adgilsa mier gare-metyuel ars igi, aramed yovelive
mas mxolosa Seicavs. xolo ese yovelTa sxuebr da sxuebr. gulisxma-iyofin
adgilad RmrTisa: ca-simaRlisaTvis RmrTeebisa misisa, rameTu arara
epoebis sxua gonebasa kacTasa umaRlesi adgili ufros caTa. amisaTvisca
casa saydar misa uwodian da queyanasa kuarcxbek. da ese yoveli mopovnebiT
da saxismetyvelebiT, raTa gamoaCinos simaRle RmrTeebisa misisa~ (SaniZe
1968: 83).
efrem mciris es leqsikoni gvkarnaxobs, rom nawarmoebSi zogierTi
sityva pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT (`ganmartebiT~) unda gaviazroT, zogierTi
ki `saxismetyvelebiT~ anu simbolurad:
`gesmodin ra xelni da ferxni RmrTisani, Tualni da guli, uwyode,
viTarmed amissaca gulisxmis-yofasa saxismetyveleba uxms da ara
ganmarteba~ (SaniZe 1968: 82).
95


marTalia, es yovelive, upirveles yovlisa, fsalmunebs exeba, magram
SeuZlebelia es ar gaeTvaliswinebina mkiTxvels `vefxistyaosnis~ sityvaxma-
rebaTa gaazrebisas, pirdapiri Tu saxismetyvelobiT.
kidev ramdenime magaliTi:
`Tqumul RmrTisa arian yovelnive sityuani RmrTiv-sulierTa wignTani~
(SaniZe 1968: 86).
`elva RmrTisa ars mosrwafed movlineba Zalsa sakvirvelebaTa da
SewevnaTa masTasa, romeli-igi meysa Sina qmniTa ganmanaTlebelca ars da
SemaZrwunebelTa~ (SaniZe 1968: 84).
`wiTel saxel-edebis zogadad brwyinvalebasa mas erT-RmrTeebisasa~
(SaniZe 1968: 88).
Zalze iSviaTia aseTi ganmarteba:
`sicil RmrTisa esreTi gulisxma-iyofebis, viTarmed igi Tavadi sacinel
hyofs eSmaksa~ (SaniZe 1968: 90).
`frTe misa arian saTnoeba da sibrZne, gina Tu saqme da xedva~ (SaniZe
1968: 91). rusTaveli, cxadia, icnobda fsalmunebs (es kargad Cans nestanis
werilidanac: `momcnes frTeni da aRvfrinde...~ es fsalmunis sityvebia).
`Zal RmerTisa ars qriste, RmrTisa Zali da RmrTisa sibrZne~ (SaniZe
1968: 94). (dRevandel rusTvelologiaSic gvxvdeba aseTi ganmarteba poemis
pirveli striqonisa: `romelman Seqmna samyaro ZaliTa miT ZlieriTa~).
`vefxistyaosnis~ wakiTxvisaTvis, tradiciuli Tvalsazrisi iqneba es Tu
TviT Tanamedrove TvalTaxedva, aucilebelia movixmoT elizbar javeliZis
narkvevi _ `Sua saukuneebis aRmosavluri poeziis tipologiisa da Ses-
wavlis meTodisaTvis~ (javeliZe 1985: 74-152). es gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelo-
vania `vefxistyaosanSi~ sparsuli poetikuri nakadis gaazrebisaTvis, anda
Tundac imis gasagebad, Tu rogor upirispirdeba mas `vefxistyaosani~. aq
garda konkretuli sakiTxebisa, gasaTvaliswinebelia mkiTxvelis istorias-
Tan dakavSirebuli zogadTeoriuli problemebic; esaa: dialogiuri mimar-
Teba teqstTan (baxtini 1974); tradiciuli da Tanamedrove wakiTxvis urTi-
erTmimarTeba (r. ueleksa da o. uorenze dayrdnobiT. ueleki 1978. javeliZe
1985: 78). avtori _ teqsti _ mkiTxveli (javeliZe 1985| 91) da sxva. saamisod
moxmobilia mravali mkvlevari (s. averincevi, m. baxtini, r. iakobsoni. mra-
valmxrivaa gaazrebuli Tamaz WilaZis mosazrebani (WilaZe 1989).
Tamaz vasaZis wigns (vasaZe 2005) SeiZleba vuwodoT `vefxistyaosnis~
Tavisufali wakiTxva, rac umTavresad mkvlevriseuli wakiTxvaa da ara
maincdamainc romelime koncefciis calsaxa dasabuTeba. Tumca mkvlevari
iTvaliswinebs araerT rusTvelologiur naazrevs. aseTi naSromis mixedviT,
rusTvelis mTavari koncefciaa _ esTetikuri TvalTaxedva da TavisTavad
sagulisxmo ram, sxvagan ugulvebelyofilia-xolme.
`vefxistyaosnis~ Tanamedrove wakiTxvisa da, vityodiT asec _ wakiTx-
vadi ganaxlebisaTvis udaod perspeqtiulia maka elbaqiZis naSromi, metad-
re, dasavleTevropul mwerlobaTa da, kerZod, saraindo romanebis kon-
teqstSi (elbaqiZe 2001; elbaqiZe 2006; elbaqiZe 2006; elbaqiZe 2007; elbaqiZe
2009), romelTa mimoxilvas Semdgom warmovadgenT.






96


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97


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98


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Sromebi. VII, 1977.
farulava 1982: farulava g. mxatvruli saxis bunebisaTvis Zvel qarTul
mwerlobaSi. Tb.: `ganaTleba~, 1982.
fsalmunni 1960: fsalmunis Zveli qarTuli redaqciebi X-XII saukuneebis
xelnawerebis mixedviT gamosca mzeqala SaniZem. I teqsti. Tb.: mecn. akad.
gamomTemloba, 1960.
fuko 2004: fuko m. sityvebi da sagnebi (humanitarul mecnierebaTa
arqeologia). Tb.: `diogene~, 2004.
yaralaSvili 1977: yaralaSvili r. wigni da mkiTxveli. Tb.: 1977.
SaniZe 1968: SaniZe m. Sesavali efrem mciris fsalmunTa Targmanebisa. _
saiubileo krebuli (Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, 11), Tb.: Tsu
gamomcemloba, 1968.
Satberdis krebuli 1979: Satberdis krebuli. X saukunisa, gamosacemad
moamzades b. gigineiSvilma da el. giunaSvilma. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1979.
CanarTi 1948: vefxistyaosnis CanarTi da danarTi strofebi. s. iordaniSvilis
gamocema. Tb.: 1948.
Ciqovani 1966: Ciqovani m. SoTa rusTaveli da qarTuli folklori. kreb.: SoTa
rusTaveli skolaSi. Tb.: 1966.
Zeglebi 1963: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi. I (V-X ss.).
dasabeWdad moamzades i. abulaZem, n. aTaneliSvilma, n. goguaZem, l. qajaiam, c.
qurcikiZem, c. Wankievma da c. jRamaiam, ilia abulaZis xelmZRvanelobiTa da
redaqciiT. Tb.: saq. mecn. akad. gamomcemloba, 1963.
Zeglebi 1967: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi. II. Tb.: saq.
mecn. akad. gamomcemloba, 1967.
wifuria 2008: wifuria b. postmodernizmi. _ literaturis Teoria. Tb.:
literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2008.
WavWavaZe 1984: . . .: "", 1984.
xvedeliani 2001: xvedeliani T. vefxistyaosnis miTosur-folkloruli
samyaro. Tb.: 2001.
xinTibiZe 2009: xinTibiZe e. vefxistyaosnis ideur-msoflmxedvelobiTi
samyaro. Tb.: `qarTvelologi~, 2009.

99


javeliZe 1985: javeliZe e. poeziis tipologiisa da Seswavlis meTodisaTvis. _
e. javeliZe, Studiebi. Tb.: 1985.
jamburia 1991: jamburia k. `mkiTxvelo, xom ar mogewyina?!~ _ `literatura da
xelovneba~, 2, Tb.: 1991.
haidegeri 1992: haidegeri m. dasabami xelovnebis qmnilebisa (Tavebi: qmnileba
da WeSmariteba; WeSmariteba da xelovneba). germanulidan Targmna giorgi
baramiZem. Tb.: `goni~, 1992.
hoizinga 1988: . (
XIV XV ), .: "", 1988.


Revaz Siradze
On the History of the Vepkhistqaosani Reading

Summary

Two kinds of reading the poem Vepkhistqaosani were formed from the outset: with
Christian content and Persian content. From the 19
th
century the emergence of the national
analogies was added to it. The study of Christian (Biblical, warrior-saint and chivalry)
content has been deepened since the 20
th
century. The post modernist readings have been
added to it since the 21
st
century.
In the light of modern hermeneutics, not only the so-called ideal reader becomes the
object of attention but also the controversial or negative views. For this, along with the
west European and Russian scholars the views of Georgian scholars (R.Karalashvili,
L.Bregadze, K.Jamburia, I.Ratiani, etc) should be taken into account.
We would like to mention D.Uznadzes theory of set in order to clarify, whether the
readers position is traditional, epochal or dictated by some modern theory. This work is
based on R.Siradzes paper: Phenomenon of a Reader and Tropological Periodization
(Sjani, 2008).

100


mariam karbelaSvili

vefxistyaosnis uadresi komentari

interteqstobrioba: rusTaveli da JamTaaRmwereli

`moparviT mokal sasiZo~.
vefxistyaosani~, 543,2
`...arian kacis mklvelni miparviTa,
romelTa mulidad uwodian~
`...ara ars naTesavi qarTvelTa
kacis mklveli, da arca sjuli ucT
eseviTarisa saqmisa qmnad~.
JamTaaRmwereli

brZenma berZnebma saocari SorsmWvretelobiT cxra muzis dedad
mnemosine _ mexsierebis qalRmerTi dasaxes. es niSnavs, rom msgavsad
nivTierebis maradisobis kanonisa, arsebobs mexsierebis maradisobis kano-
nic: kulturuli mexsierebis maradisobis kanoni interteqstobriobis
safuZvelia.

* * *
SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom interteqstobrivi mimarTeba JamTaaRmwerlis
istoriuli qronikisa vefxistyaosanTan eTikur-moraluri problematikis
konteqstSia gadawyvetili: nebismieri mxatvruli nawarmoebi moralur
sawyiss eqvemdebareba. am moraluri kriteriumiT iqna Sefasebuli vefxis-
tyaosnis mkiTxvel TaobaTa mier poemis erT-erTi sakvanZo kolizia _
tarielis mier mZinare xvarazmSas Svilis `moparviT mokvla~. rogorc rus-
Tvelologiuri mecnierebis istoria mowmobs, dawyebuli vefxistyaosnis
CanarT-danarTiT _ rogorc vefxistyaosnis uadresi komentariT _
mravali saukunis manZilze poemis Sesaxeb gamoTqmul mosazrebaTa Soris XX
saukunis 30-iani wlebis meore naxevramde ar arsebobs arc erTi, romelic
tarielis am qmedebas gaamarTlebda. niSandoblivia, rom sabWoTa epoqaSi
moxda am epizodis tradiciuli Sefasebidan mkveTri gadaxveva da tarielis
qmedebis gamarTlebis mizniT diametrulad sawinaaRmdego interpretaciis
Seqmna, romelic rusTvelologiur mecnierebaSi `tarielis reabilitaciis
Teoriis~ (norakiZe 1966: 149) saxeliT aris cnobili. es antihumanisturi Te-
oria Tavisi arsiT sabWoTa epoqis ideologiuri warmonaqmnia da vulgaruli
sociologiis niadagzea aRmocenebuli (karbelaSvili 2010: 277-281).
`tarielis reabilitaciis Teoriis~ Seqmna-Camoyalibeba sruliad konkre-
tul qronologiur CarCoebSi Tavsdeba: esaa 1936-1938 wlebi (cincaZe 1936:
81-82, 90, 106-108; baramiZe 1938: 85-106).
aucileblad unda iTqvas, rom tarielis mxatvruli saxisadmi miZRvnil
naSromSi al. baramiZe sruli mecnieruli obieqturobiT aRniSnavda:
`...mkvlevarTa mTeli Taobebi mas saZraxis gmirad racxaven, zog SemTxvevaSi
ki saocrad mZime braldebebsac ki uyeneben... mkvlevarni gansakuTrebiT
amcireben tariels nestanis saqmros ambavTan dakavSirebiT~ (baramiZe 1938:
86, 93). amrigad, `saocrad mZime braldebebs~ Soris umTavresia indoeTSi
nestan-darejanis saqmrod miwveuli xvarazmSas Svilis mkvleloba (`aulag-
101


mav vnebas mkvlelobamde mihyavs~ _ gulaki; `mxecurad klavs udanaSaulo
pirs~ _ iustine abulaZe; `konkurentis miparviT mokvla~, `udanaSaulo
adamianis veraguli mkvleloba~ _ korneli kekeliZe da sxv.).
sabWoTa literaturaTmcodneobis doqtrinerulma sworxazovnebam,
romlis Tanaxmad literaturul nawarmoebTa personaJebi ZiriTadad or
jgufad nawildebian dadebiTi da uaryofiTi personaJebis saxiT (leqsikoni
1966: 25-26), (terminebi 1974: 273-275), sabWoTa periodis rusTvelologiur
mecnierebazec moaxdina Tavisi msaxvrali gavlena, da, rogorc adre ukve
aRvniSne, `yvelaferia gakeTebuli imisTvis, rom [sabWoTa periodis _ m.k.]
rusTvelologiur mecnierebaSi idealurad miCneul gmirebs araferi hqon-
deT uaryofiTi, da, radgan sxva gza ar arsebobs, uaryofiTi an Segnebulad
unda miiCqmalos, an dadebiTad unda gamocxaddes da xotba Seesxas. ase moxda
veraguli mkvlelobis gamarTleba `saxelmwifoebrivi interesebiTa~ da
`patriotizmiT~ (evdoSvili 1991: 124). sakiTxisadmi sruliad dogmaturma
midgomam saerTod ver SeniSna SoTa rusTavelis erT-erTi udidesi msoflio
mniSvnelobis miRweva da damsaxureba: vefxistyaosnis zogierT personaJTa
_ kerZod, tarielisa da nestan-darejanis _ xasiaTTa ara statikaSi, aramed
sulieri ganviTarebis dinamikaSi asaxva (karbelaSvili 1987: 275; karbelaS-
vili 1991: 134-136), rasac Sedegad mcdari interpretaciebi da rusTavelis
humanisturi msoflmxedvelobis profanireba mohyva. `tarielis rebilita-
ciis Teoria~ ar iqna gaziarebuli rig avtoritetuli mecnierTa mier
(k.kekeliZe, i. javaxiSvili, v. nozaZe da sxv.).
Tumca a. baramiZis xsenebul naSromSi `mkvlevarTa mTel Taobebzea~ _
igulisxmeba XIX s.-XX s-is pirveli mesamedi _ aqcenti gakeTebuli, rogorc
sakiTxis istoriis _ maT Soris vefxistyaosnis CanarT-danarTis, gansakuT-
rebiT ki poemis cnobili gagrZelebis `xvarazmelTa ambis~ _ Seswavla gviC-
venebs (karbelaSvili 1991: 123), cxadad Cans, rom mravali saukunis winaTac
`xvarazmSas Svilis usisxlod mokvlis sakiTxi da misi moraluri Sefaseba
vefxistyaosnis mkiTxvelTa araerT Taobas aRelvebda!~ (karbelaSvili 1993: 198).
raoden saocaric unda Candes, am moraluri muxtiT niSandebulma
epizodma pirveli gamoxmaureba eqvsi saukunis win hpova, amasTan ara
literaturuli, aramed istoriuli xasiaTis nawarmoebSi _ iseT brwyinvale
qronikaSi, rogoricaa JamTaaRmwerlis Txzuleba, dawerili XIV saukuneSi; am
faqtis Tanaxmad JamTaaRmwereli vefxistyaosnis am epizodis pirvel
komentatorad, xolo Tavad teqsti mis pirvel komentarad unda CaiTvalos.
es arcaa sakvirveli, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rogori fxizeli damokidebu-
leba aqvs JamTaaRmwerels zneobisa da uzneobis mimarT: pirvelis ilus-
tracia mis mier moTxrobili cotne dadianisa da dimitri Tavdadebulis
Tavganwirvis, meorisa ki _ Tamaris asulis rusudanis `gansakrTomeli~ ambebia.
JamTaaRmwerlis mimarTeba vefxistyaosnis aRniSnuli epizodisadmi in-
terteqstis saukeTeso nimuSia. interteqstobriobis gansazRvris Tvalsaz-
risiT Tavisi maRali ganzogadebis xarisxiT amomwuravad mimaCnia m. baxtinis
formula: `teqsti, rogorc Taviseburi monada, romelic aisaxavs mocemuli
azrobrivi sferos (sazRvrebSi) yvela teqsts. yvela azris urTierTkavSiri
(ramdenadac isini realizdebian gamonaTqvamebSi)~ (baxtini 1976: 125). inter-
teqstobriobis aspeqtSi detalizacias Semdgom mivmarTavT, axla mTavari
sakiTxis dayenebaa.
konkretulad, ra aris is `mocemuli azrobrivi sferos sazRvrebSi arse-
buli teqsti~, romlis arsic JamTaaRmwerlis qronikaSi aisaxa? maqsimalu-
102


rad Tu davkonkretdebiT, es aris mZinare adamianis `moparviT//miparviT
mokvla~ (am iuridiuli terminis Sinaarss Semdeg ganvmartavT), ramac Tavisi
asaxva pirvelad vefxistyaosanSi hpova tarielis mier mZinare xvarazmeli
sasiZos mkvlelobis saxiT, meored ki _ JamTaaRmwerlis Txzulebis im
monakveTSi, sadac sparseli mulidis mier mZinare CaRata noinis mkvlelobis
istoriuli faqtia aRwerili, romelsac mTlianobaSi `almuTis epizodi~
SeiZleba vuwodoT (qc 1959: 208-211).
interteqstobriobis principiT erTmaneTTan aris dakavSirebuli
vefxistyaosnis taepi _ nestan-darejanis mier tarielisTvis micemuli
davaleba:
moparviT mokal sasiZo~ (543,2; varianti: miparviT)
da `almuTis epizodidan~ JamTaaRmwerlis fraza:
`arian kacis mklvelni miparviTa, romelTa mulidad uwodian~ (qc 1959: 208).
amrigad, Zveli qarTuli sisxlis samarTlis specifikuri termini mopar-
viT//miparviT mokvla, romelmac ivane javaxiSvilis yuradReba miipyro, da,
ramdenadac vici, qarTuli mwerlobis ZeglebSi mxolod orjer gvxvdeba,
pirvelad vefxistyaosanSia dafiqsirebuli, meored _JamTaaRmwerlis
qronikaSi.
sakiTxis dayenebisTvis es ori faqti sakmarisia; aq savsebiT Sesaferisia
SesaniSnavi poloneli paradoqsalistis stanislav eJi lecis fraza: `yve-
lafris Sesaxeb yvelaferi ukve Tqmulia. sabednierod, yvelaferze ar aris
nafiqri~.

* * *
termini interteqstobrioba SemoiRo i. kristevam 1967 wels, es termini
SemdgomSi postmodernistuli kritikis erT-erT ZiriTad principad iqca.
interteqstobrioba aRniSnavs teqstTa zogad Tvisebas, rac imaSi gamoixa-
teba, rom maT Soris arsebobs kavSirebi, romelTa meSveobiT teqstebs (an maT
nawilebs) mravali sxvadasxvagvari xerxiT cxadad Tu farulad SeuZliaT
erTmaneTze miTiTeba.
i. kristevam interteqstobriobis koncefcia daaformula m. baxtinis
adrindeli naSromis _ `Sinaarsis, masalisa da formis problema sityvier
xelovnebaSi~ (1924 w.) _ gadaazrebis safuZvelze, sadac m. baxtini litera-
turis arsebobis dialeqtikis aRwerisas aRniSnavda, rom garda arsebuli
mxatvruli sinamdvilisa, mas aseve aqvs kavSiri adrindel da Tanamedrove
literaturasTan, romelTanac mudmiv dialogSi imyofeba. SemdgomSi Tavisi
debuleba m. baxtinma Semdegnairad Camoayaliba: `teqsti, rogorc Tavise-
buri monada, romelic aisaxavs mocemuli azrobrivi sferos (sazRvrebSi)
yvela teqsts. yvela azris urTierTkavSiri (ramdenadac isini realizdebian
gamonaTqvamebSi)~ (baxtini 1976: 125): esaa interteqstobriobis safuZveli.
interteqstobriobis Teoriis Camoyalibeba ZiriTadad mxatvruli
literaturis interteqstobriv kavSirTa kvlevis mimdinareobis procesSi
xdeboda, magram sinamdvileSi misi arsebobis sfero Seudareblad farToa:
pirvel yovlisa, igi ganekuTvneba yvela sityvier Janrs da ara mxolod
natif sityvierebas; meorec _ interteqstobrivi kavSiri aseve myardeba
saxviT xelovnebaSi, arqiteqturaSi, musikaSi, TeatrSi, kinematografSi
(metyvel nimuSad xSirad asaxeleben k. tarantinos films `kriminaluri
sakiTxavi~, romelic mTlianad agebulia siuJeturi, Janruli da saxviTi
citatebisgan).
103


interteqstobriobas konkretuli funqciebi aqvs: misi eqspresiuli
funqcia imdenad vlindeba, ramdenadac teqstis avtori interteqstobrivi
miniSnebebiT gvamcnobs piradi kulturul-semiotikuri orientirebis anda
pragmatuli mizandasaxulobis Sesaxeb; citataTa SerCeva anda aluziaTa
xasiaTi TavisTavad avtoris TviTgamosaxvis mniSvnelovani elementia.
interteqstis apelaciuri funqcia imaSi vlindeba, rom mocemuli teq-
stis Semadgenlobidan romelime teqstTan gagzavna SeiZleba orientirebu-
li iyos sruliad konkretul adresatze, masze, visac SeuZlia gamoicnos
interteqstobrivi miniSneba, idealur SemTxvevaSi ki Seafasos kidec kon-
kretuli miniSnebis SerCeva da adekvaturad aRiqvas masSi Canergili inten-
cia. zogierT SemTxvevaSi interteqstobrivi miniSneba, faqtobrivad, mimar-
Tvis rols asrulebs, romlis mizania mkiTxveli auditoriis garkveuli
nawilis yuradRebis mipyroba.
interteqsts aqvs fatikuri anu kontaqtis damamyarebeli funqciac: ko-
munikantTa _ avtorsa da adresats Soris interteqstTa gacvla da maTi
adekvaturi amocnobis unari SesaZleblobas iZleva dadgindes, rogorc mi-
nimumi, maTi semiologiuri anda kulturuli mexsierebis, aseve ideologi-
ur-politikuri poziciebisa da esTetikuri midrekilebebis erToba.
interteqsts aseve SeuZlia Seasrulos gare samyaros Sesaxeb informaci-
is gadacemis referentuli funqciac: es imdenad xdeba, ramdenadac gagzav-
nas sxva teqstisken mosdevs im informaciis aqtivizacia, romelsac Seicavs
es `gare~ teqsti (preteqsti). aqtivizaciis xarisxis varireba farTo saz-
RvrebSi xdeba: dawyebuli martivi gaxseneba-SexsenebiT, rom am Temaze azri
gamoTqva ama Tu im avtorma, da gangrZobili im yovelives ganxilviT, rac
Semonaxulia mexsierebaSi winamavali teqstis koncefciis, misi gamoxatvis
formis, stilistikis, argumentaciis, misi aRqmiT gamowveuli emociis da a.S.
Sesaxeb.
interteqtobriv kavSirTa dadgena grafikuladac gamoixata: g. friges
semiotikur samkuTxedze dayrdnobiT m. rifaterma problemis sakuTari
gaazreba warmoadgina tolgverda samkuTxedis saxiT, sadac fuZeSi kuTxe-
ebTan ganlagebulia T _ teqsti, T
II
_ interteqsti, xolo samkuTxedis wve-
roSi I _ interpretanta. m. rifateris mosazrebiT `interteqstobrioba ar
funqcionirebs da, maSasadame, ar iRebs teqstobriobas, Tu wanakiTxi Tdan
T
II
-mde ar gaivlis I-s, anu Tuki teqstis interpretacia interteqstis gavliT
ar warmoadgens interpretantis funqcias~. m. rifateris mixedviT, es gvaZ-
levs uflebas vTqvaT, rom teqsti da interteqsti erTmaneTTan dakavSi-
rebuli ar arian, rogorc `donori~ da `mimRebi~, da maTi urTierTmimarTeba
ar daiyvaneba `sesxebisa~ da `gavlenebis~ primitiul warmodgenebamde. in-
terpretantis wyalobiT xdeba teqstTa azris Sejvaredineba da urTierT
transformacia, romelnic iwyeben urTierTqmedebas.
interteqstobriv kavSirTa yvelaze zogadi klasifikacia frang lite-
raturaTmcodne Jerar Jenets ekuTvnis, romelmac am sakiTxs miuZRvna wigni
originaluri saTauriT: `palimfsesti~; literatura meore xarisxSi~ (1982).
`palimfsesti~ marTlac marjve metaforaa interteqstobriv mimarTebaTa
gamosaxatad im TvalsazrisiT, rom axali teqstis miRma xerxdeba Zveli, ad-
re arsebuli teqstis amokiTxva. J. Jenetma teqstTa urTierTqmedebis xuT-
wevriani klasifikacia Camoayaliba:
_ interteqstobrioba, sadac erT teqstSi Tanaarsebobs ori an meti
teqsti (citata, aluzia, plagiati da a. S.).
104


_ parateqstobrioba, rogorc teqstis mimarTeba Tavis saTaurTan, epig-
rafTan, bolosityvaobasTan;
_ metateqstobrioba, rogorc komentaris Semcveli da xSirad kriti-
kuli miTiTeba Tavis preteqstze;
_ hiperteqstobrioba, rogorc erTi teqstis mier meoris dacinva da
parodireba;
_ interteqstobrioba, aRqmuli, rogorc teqstTa Janrobrivi kavSiri.
saerTod, interteqsti metateqstis funqciasac asrulebs: mkiTxvelis-
Tvis, romelic teqstis raime fragments Seicnobs, rogorc miniSneba-miTi-
Tebas sxva teqstze, am fragmentis Sesamecneblad aucilebeli xdeba teqst-
wyarosTan aqtualuri kavSiris dafiqsireba, e. i. man unda gansazRvros Sec-
nobili fragmentis aqtualuri kavSiri teqst-wyarosTan, anu gansazRvros
Secnobili fragmentis ganmarteba amosavali teqstis meSveobiT, romelic
mocemuli fragmentis mimarT metateqsturi funqciiT vlindeba.
amrigad, interteqstobrivi kavSiri erTdroulad warmoadgens rogorc
konstruqcias _ `teqsti teqstSi~, aseve konstruqcias _ `teqsti teqstis
Sesaxeb~ ( . http://www.krugosvet.ru/enc./gumanitarnye
nauki/lingvistica/INTERTEKSTUALNOST.html/)

* * *
m. baxtini teqstis filosofiuri analizis konteqstSi dialogurobis
umniSvnelovanes sakiTxsac ayenebs: `sxvadasxva pirTa _ romelTac araferi
ician erTmaneTis Sesaxeb _ ori Sepirispirebuli gamonaTqvami, Tundac rom
mxolod odnav exebodes erTsa da imave Temas (azrs), aucileblad erTveba
erTmaneTTan dialogur urTierTobaSi. maTi urTierTSexeba saerTo Temis,
saerTo azris teritoriaze xdeba... dialoguri urTierTmimarTebani warmo-
adgens (azrobriv) urTierTobebs metyvelebiT urTierTobaSi, nebismieri
ori gamonaTqvami, Tu maT azrobriv sibrtyeze SevupirispirebT erTmaneTs,
dialogur mimarTebaSi aRmoCndebian~ (baxtini 1976: 136, 239).
m. baxtinis am koncefciis aspeqtSi rusTavelis poema misi Seqmnis dRidan
saukuneTa manZilze qarTvel erTan maradiul dialogur urTierTobaSi
imyofeba, rac uiSviaTesi movlenaa msoflio literaturis istoriaSi.

* * *
cnobili faqtia, rom `dacemis periodis literaturam (me-13-me-15 sauk.)
TiTqmis arc erTi cnoba ar dagvitova SoTa rusTavelisa da misi `vefxis-
tyaosnis~ Sesaxeb, Tu ar miviRebT mxedvelobaSi `vefxistyaosnis~ damateba-
Ta ciklebs, romlebic interpolatorTa kalams ekuTvnis~ (ruxaZe 1936: 185);
Cemi mxriv imasac davumateb, rom manamdel, e. w. `dacemis periodamdel~ um-
didres mwerlobaSic _ Tamaris istoriebsa da xotbebSi _ Ria teqstiT
erTi sityviTac ar aris naxsenebi Tamaris epoqis mwerlobis gvirgvini _
vefxistyaosani da misi avtori. unda vaRiaroT, rom metad ucnauri viTare-
baa: ai kidev erTi `ratom~, romelic axsnas da pasuxs moiTxovs. amgvari kiTx-
vis dasma miT ufro sabuTiania, rom poemisadmi Rrma interesi, gamoxatuli
CanarT-danarTis saxiT, interpolaciebSi moyvanili realiebis mixedviT
(`ese ambavi narComi maT lomTa morWmiT mgoneTa, galeqsva aklda xvaraz-
mTa...~ _ 1869,1-2; `Zvelni narComni ambavni leqsad vTqven, gaixareniT,
sargiss daurCa uTqmelad~ _ 1870, 2-3; `es ambavi darComoda sargiss leqsTa
Seuwyoblad~ _ 2024,1), lamis XIII saukunidanve dawyebula, rac mowmobs, rom
105


vefxistyaosani imdroindeli qarTveli sazogadoebisTvis friad aqtualu-
ri yofila.
Tumca Tamaris epoqis saistorio qronikebsa da JamTaaRmwerlis aswlo-
van istoriaSi SoTa rusTaveli sruliad ignorirebuli aRmoCnda, Seqmnili
viTarebis konteqstSi SeuZlebelia ar gagvaxsendes `rusTvelianas~ avtoris
mier maxvili intuiciiT nagrZnobi da striqonTa Soris saocari gamWriaxo-
biT amokiTxuli mtruli damokidebuleba JamTaaRmwerlisa `SoTas~ _ pavle
ingoroyvas varaudiT, vefxistyaosnis avtoris SoTa rusTavelis _ mimarT.
pavle ingoroyvam Tavisi Teoria SoTa rusTavelis Sesaxeb swored JamTaaR-
mwerlis Txzulebaze dayrdnobiT SeimuSava, CaTvala ra, rom `JamTaaRmwer-
lis TxzulebaSi SoTas Sesaxeb daculia ori `Cveneba~: pirveli _ `hereTisa
erisTavi SoTai, romelsa manisa ferobisaTvis kuprobiT uxmobdes~, da
meore: `ara raTa niWTa da zneTa samamakacoTa mqonebeli SoTa kupari~
(ingoroyva 1926: 213). mkvlevarma sagangebod aRniSna, rom JamTaaRmwereli
vefxistyaosnis avtoris mimarT ver faravs siZulvils, rac, misi azriT,
istorikosis klerikaluri msoflmxedvelobiTaa ganpirobebuli, romelic
`...didis siZulviliT moixseniebs me-XIII saukunis dasawyisis saero litera-
turas~, `...es istorikosi gansakuTrebuli siZulviliT aris gamsWvaluli
piradad SoTas mimarT~; `erT adgilas JamTa-aRmwereli SoTas Sesaxeb ex
abrupto, sruliad dausabuTeblad ambobs, rom SoTa iyoo _ moklebuli yo-
velgvar adamianur Rirsebas~; `...Tu movigonebT JamTaaRmwerlis msoflio-
mxedvelobas da klerikalur tendencias... SoTa miuRebelia misTvis, ro-
gorc avtori vefxistyaosnisa~ (ingoroyva 1926: 204, 211, 212).
rac Seexeba `rusTvelianas~ avtoris mier argumentad moxmobil pirvel
`Cvenebas~, didi xania mecnieruladaa dasabuTebuli, rom SoTa rusTaveli da
`hereTis erisTavi SoTai~ erTidaigive piri ar aris (baramiZe 1975: 38-39; iqve
_ saTanado literatura); amas isic unda davumatoT, rom meore `Cveneba~
JamTaaRmwerlis Txzulebis teqstis dadgenisas gamoyenebuli Tormeti xel-
naweridan mxolod erTi redaqciis sam xelnawerSia (qc 1959: 195) da glosas
unda warmoadgendes.
magram, miuxedavad amisa, pavle ingoroyvas sagulisxmo migneba zogadi
azriT mainc ZalaSi rCeba, Tumca dazustebas moiTxovs: unda davemowmoT am
SesaniSnav gamWriax mkvlevars, rom JamTaaRmwerlis TxzulebaSi marTlac
ikiTxeba `mikerZoebuli siZulvili am istorikosisa SoTasadmi~ (ingoroyva
1926: 112), magram ara mis mier aqcentirebul frazebSi konkretuli saxel-
debiT da Ria teqstiT, aramed anonimurad da qveteqsturad, ris sabuTsac
warmoadgens, erTi mxriv, XIII s-is pirveli naxevris politikuri moRvawis,
rusudanis, daviT meeqvsis da daviT meSvidis Tanamedrovis, mxargrZelTa
sagvareulos warmomadgenlis sargis Tmogvelis _ romlis saxeli vefxis-
tyaosnis gagrZelebebSic figurirebs _ inteleqtualur SesaZleblobaTa
zeaRmatebuli Sefaseba (`kaci swavluli da filasofosi da mravalRone~,
`kaci mecnieri da filosofosi da ritori~ (qc 1959: 191, 217), xolo meore
mxriv _ TxzulebaSi didi dramatizmiT aRwerili almuTis epizodi (qc
1959: 208-211), romelic mTlianad tarielis mier xvarazmSas Svilis `mipar-
viT mokvlis~ aluzias warmoadgens da mkveTrad polemikuria SoTa rusTve-
lis mimarT qristianuli (resp. zogadsakacobrio) zneobis konteqstSi. am
dasabuTebiT JamTaaRmwerlis Txzulebis es epizodi vefxistyaosnis cnobil
epizodTan interteqstis kategoriaSi unda ganvixiloT.

106


* * *
axla gavixsenoT monRolobisdroindeli friad dramatuli istoriuli
faqti `qarTlis cxovrebisa~, romelic JamTaaRmwerelma WeSmariti novelis-
tis ostatobiT mogviTxro:
`da esreT ganaCines TaTarTa, da ganiyves saqarTvelo, da warvides brZo-
lad almuTs, da qarTvelni Tana-waritanes, romelni ganiyvnes orad: naxe-
varni erTsa welsa, da naxevarni erTsa welsa iyvian almuTs. rameTu Sd wel
gangrZelda brZola almuTisi, romelni arian kacis mklvelni miparviTa,
romelTa mulidad uwodian. da maT hbrZodes TaTarni CarmaRan, CaRata,
iosur da biCui mouwyenlad zafxul da zamTar. xolo qarTvelni ganyofilni
TToeulsa missa weliwadsa xudis da iyvis almuTs, da kualad warvidian
sxuani xvedrsa missa. da esreT Sdsa wlisa JamTa gangrZelda yofa da omi
almuTs.
dResa erTsa warmogzavnes almuTelTa mulidi elovani, movida RamiT
da Semoepara mcvelTa CaRata noinisaTa, Sevida karavsa missa, mZinaresa
dasdva dana gulsa missa da mokla igi, romel veravin cna. da viTar ganTenda,
ixiles karvis mcvelTa, CaRata noini moklul iyo, iwyes tirilad da tyebad
da vaebad; romel ixiles spaTa CaRata noinisaTa, mirbiodes da ixiles maTca,
rome momkudar iyo CaRata, ara uwyodes, visgan moklul iyo.
maSin Tques yovelTa: `vinaTgan qarTvelni didsa Wirsa arian Cuen moal-
Tagan, SuriT qarTvelTa mier moikla~. amas yovelni ucilod daamtkicebdes,
Tnier CarmaRan noinisa gareSe, rameTu igi ityoda: `daswynardiT, kacno,
rameTu ara ars naTesavi qarTvelTa kacis mklveli, da arca sjuli ucT
eseviTarisa saqmisa qmnad~. xoli igini, aRSfoTebulni, sikudilisaTs pat-
ronisa ganZnebulni, warmoemarTnes banakisa mimarT qarTvelTasa, rameTu
maxlobelad CaRata noinisasa dabanakebul iyvnes. da viTar momarTes,
gankrTes qarTvelni, da uRonoebasa miecnes, da ara uwyodes, ramca yves.
xolo zogni omisa mimarT ganemzadebodes, da zogni ayenebdes, rameTu friad
mcire iyvnes. maSin grigol surameli, qarTlisa erisTavi, ityoda: `ara ars
Jami brZolisa, rameTu mcire varT. da ukeTu vebrZviT, didiT mciremdis
moguwyueden, da Tu ar vebrZviT, Cuen warCinebulTa oden vgoneb mokudi-
nebad, da umjobes miCns raTa Cven moviklneT da ara yoveli ese Zali. garna
Sevrdoma RmrTisa jer ars, rameTu aravin ars msneli Cueni, Tnier ieso
qriste, Ze RmrTisa, da yovladwmida mSobeli misi, maradis qalwuli mariam,
romeli maradis mcveli ars mosavTa Zisa misisaTa da umetes Cuen qristi-
aneTa. aw yovelTa sam-sami muxli moidrikeT, SevrdomiT yovlad-wmidisa
RmrTismSobelisa mimarT, da romelTa uwyiT, TqT Sesxma ese misi: `mowyale-
bisa kari gangviRe, kurTxeulo RmrTismSobelo~ da Semdgomi.
viTar aRasrules locva ese, savedrebeli da qeba yovlad-wmidisa
RmrTismSobelisa, da moaxlebul iyvnes barbarozni igi, uwyalod mspolavni
qarTvelTa, maSin gamovida kaci erTi lerwmoaniT, romelsa aqunda laxuari
wudili, SeRebuli sisxliTa, da laxuari igi aRipyra ze, da Zlierad ma yo:
`man quStem CaRata~, romel ars eniTa sparsuliTa, `me movkal CaRata~. viTar
ixiles TaTarTa, mietivnes. xolo igi ivltoda lerwmoanTa mimarT, xolo
maT Seudves cecxli lerwamsa, da gamoiyvana cecxlman lerwamTagan kaci igi,
da moiyvanes CarmaRan, iosursa da biCusa winaSe. xolo igini hkiTxvides,
viTar moakudina CaRata noini. da man esreT auwya: `me var mulidi, mulidTa
Soris saCino. maT mulidTa TavadTa momces oqro friadi, raTa Tquengan
vinme movakudino oTxTa magaTgan. warmoved, movkal da davimale~. da igini
107


etyodes: `ra iyo mizezi gamoslvisa Senisa da yivili maRlad sikudili
didisa noinisa, vinaTgan damalul iyav~. da kualad mulidi miugebda. `ler-
wamTa imaT uSiresTa Seved da davimale; myis movida dedakaci vinme situr-
fe-aRmatebuli da mrqua me: `ra ese hqmen, kaco? Sen mohkal kaci da daimale,
da aw mravali suli mokudebis mizezad Senda da igi ubraloni moswydebian~.
da me varq: `ra vhyo, dedofalo?~ xolo man mrqua: `aRdeg da Semomideg me;
warved da Tqu, rameTu Sen mohkal kaci igi, da ganarine uricx suli siku-
dilisagan~. xolo me mswrafl aRvdeg da Seudeg, sada-igi momiyvana winaSe
Tquensa. viTar ma vyav da mixileT, dedakaci igi uCino iqmna, da ara uwyi vina
mosrul iyo, da me ese-ra var winaSe Tquensa~. viTar esma sityua kacisa misgan
TaTarTa, gankrdes da kaci igi mulidi rmliTa orad gankueTes, da esreT
isna eri Tsi yovla-wmidaman RmrTismSobelman da ganarina umsjavrosa
sikudilisagan~ (qc 1959: 208-211).

* * *
`esreT isna eri Tsi yovladwmidaman
RmrTismSobelman~.
JamTaaRmwereli

ara mgonia, genialur berZen tragikosTa genialuri migneba _ finaluri
`RmerTi manqanidan~ _ cnobili yofiliyo XIV saukunis qarTveli JamTaaR-
mwerlisTvis. Deus ex machina-s es qarTuli varianti mTeli am epizodis WeS-
mariti masStabiT aris nakarnaxevi da RvTaebriv epifanias Sesabamisi ideuri
da ideologiuri datvirTva aqvs miniWebuli.
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ es dramatiuli epizodi, ra Tqma unda, SemTxveviT
ar momixmia JamTaaRmwerlis Txzulebidan; misi qveteqsti kvlevis sakiTxTan
dakavSirebiT, vfiqrob, TavisTavad gasagebia: esaa qarTveli eris istori-
ulad damowmebuli Sefaseba im zneobrivi kategoriis sakiTxisa, romelic
vefxistyaosnis CvenTvis saintereso epizodSi daisva.
`erovnul-saxelmwifoebriv Tavmoyvareobas garda Cvens avtors amasTa-
nave sarwmunoebrivic metad mgrZnobiare aqvs~ _ werda ivane javaxiSvili
JamTaaRmwerlis Sesaxeb (javaxiSvili 1945: 251). metad mniSvnelovani daxasi-
aTebaa JamTaaRmwerlisa, romelic qarTveli eris zneobriv kredos exeba.
garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, qarTveli istorikosis Canafiqri ufro Rrmaa da
Sorsgamiznuli, vidre erTi istoriuli faqtis aRwera; aq erTmaneTs exlar-
Teba monRolobisdroindeli saqarTvelos Savbedobis tragizmi da zneob-
rivi simaRliT aRbeWdili ukvdavi qarTuli erovnuli sulis gamonaTeba
saqarTvelosTvis rTulsa da mZime istoriul periodSi: qarTvelTa mfar-
veli RvTismSoblis gamocxadeba ara mxolod `miparviT kacis kvlaSi~ cil-
dawamebul qarTvelTa laSqris xsnaa, aramed, umTavresad, qristianuli sar-
wmunoebis aRmsarebeli qarTveli eris maRali qristianuli zneobis demon-
strireba mulid-sparselTa, da, Tu kargad CavukvirdebiT, yvela `cud-
rjulTan~ da `crurjulTan~ SepirispirebaSi.
im tragikul situaciaSi, rodesac `mulidi elovanis~ mier Cadenili
muxTali mkvlelobis gamo qarTvelni monRolTa anu `TaTarTa~ ciliswame-
bis msxverplni Seiqmnen, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom qarTvelTa
mosarCled, da, maSasadme, qarTvelTa maRali moralur-eTikuri Tvisebebis
maRiareblad monRoli CarmaRan noini gamodis: `daswynardiT, kacno, rameTu
ara ars naTesavi qarTvelTa kacis mklveli da arca sjuli ucT eseviTarisa
108


saqmis qmnad~, xolo umaRlesi moraluri absoluti _ qarTvelTa mfarveli
`siturfe-aRmatebuli~ (esTetikuri momenti, mulidis mier aRqmuli!)
RvTismSoblis saxiT Tavad mkvlels _ mulids gamoecxadeba, rogorc mamxi-
lebeli da samarTlianobis aRmdgeni RvTaebrivi Zalis apoTeozi. `...da es-
reT isna eri Tsi yovlad-wmidaman RmrTismSobelman~ da `ganarina umsjav-
rosa sikudilisagan...~ _ wers JamTaaRmwereli, magram, rac mTavaria, amasTa-
nave `ganarina~ kacis miparviT kvlis ciliswamebisganac _ RaRadebs qveteqsti.
swored esaa JamTaaRmwerlis mizani da mis TxzulebaSi deus ex machina-s
umTavresi daniSnuleba. cildawamebuli da amis gamo uwyalod `mosaspolad~
ganwirul qarTvelebs ciuri dedofali moevlinebaT mxsnelad da namdvil
mkvlels, `kacis miparviT klvaSi~ daxelovnebul mulids amxels: amiT
braldeba exsneba yvela qarTvels.
magram RvTismSoblis epifaniaSi sxva ramacaa sagulisxmo: esaa mtris
`razmiTa mravalkeciTa~ Zleuli, magram WeSmariti sarwmunoebis mindobiT
zneobrivad gautexeli da RvTaebrivi sasoebiT sulierad uZleveli eris
fsiqologia, romlisTvisac principulad miuRebelia usjuloeba anu
moralis uaryofa.
JamTaaRmwerlis mier qcevis Sefasebis kriteriumad sayovelTaod aRi-
arebuli zogadsakacobrio zneobrivi normebia miRebuli: `muxTlad moklva~
sruliad miuRebeli iyo qristianuli moraliT nasuldgmulebi erovnuli
idealisTvis. qarTveli eris mier am idealebis poziciidan iqna aRqmuli da
Sefasebuli is sakvanZo epizodi, romelic axla Cveni interesisa da gan-
xilvis sagans Seadgens: vefxistyaosnis Zvel mkiTxvelTaTvis _ romelnic,
wesisamebr, qristianuli, Sesabamisad ki zogadsakacobrio moraluri kri-
teriumiT azrovnebdnen _ gaugebari darCa, ratom mokla am SesaniSnavma,
lom-vefxTa SiSveli xeliT mxocavma tarielma mZinare adamiani veragulad.
qarTveli erisTvis RmerTi, upirveles yovlisa, umaRlesi moraluri
absoluti iyo, JamTaaRmwerlis mier moTxrobili epizodis dasasruli ara-
orazrovani sicxadiT gvarwmunebs amaSi. qristianuli sarwmunoeba qarTvel-
TaTvis eTikur-moraluri orientiri iyo da es cxadad gamoCnda zemoT
citirebul epizodSic.
amrigad, Cven mier moxmobil epizodSi leqsemebi `qarTveli mulidi~
orgvari informaciis Semcvelia: pirvelia maTi pirdapiri eTnikuri mniSvne-
loba; meore _ tradiciiT ganmtkicebuli konotaciuri _ eTikur-zneob-
rivi _ mniSvneloba; JamTaaRmwereli, ra Tqma unda, mTlianad tradiciis
farglebSi azrovnebs.
ase exlarTeba erTmaneTs JamTaaRmwerlis TxzulebaSi moraluri, ide-
ologiuri, politikuri ideebi da rjuliani-urjulo samkvdro-sasicocx-
lo WidilSi ejaxeba erTmaneTs, raTa saboloo gamarjveba mxolod erTs
darCes. aq centrSi eTikur-moraluri problematika dgas: polarulobis
kanoni qmnis ori rjulis dapirispirebas moralur-eTikur aspeqtSi da Cven
mier moxmobil magaliTSi sruliad mkafiod ikveTeba opozicia; qarTveli//
qristiani//rjulni//moraluri _ sparseli//mulidi// urjulo//amoraluri.
yuradReba unda movaqcioT erT garemoebas _ rjulTa `SedarebiTi
daxasiaTeba~ TviT JamTaaRmwerels ar ekuTvnis, igi mangu yaens mociqulebma
`miumcnes~ (qveteqsti: sruli obieqturoba!): `...qarTvelni srulad movides,
mefe da erTobilni mTavarni, romelTa aqus sjuli keTili, da tyuilsa
evltian, da mwamlveli arca Tu saxel idebis maT Soris~. da sparsTaTs
miumcnes esreT: `arian sparsni cru, moRalate, ficisa ar Semnaxvel, da
109


mravalni ipovebian mwamlvelni da mamaT-maval urcxnoT~ (qc 1959: 196).
JamTaaRmwerlis mier gadmocemuli eTikur-sarwmunoebrivi daxasiaTeba zne-
obis modusis Semcveli, gansakuTrebuli elferis mqone, me vityodi, rus-
Tveluri leqsikiT (Sdr. vefxistyaosani: `kaci cru da moRalate xams
laxvarTa dasaWrelad~ _ 162,4; `kacsa ficni gamoscdian~ _ 748,3) garkveul
semantikur dones qmnis: qarTveli//rjuliani _ sparseli//urjulo; es
istoriuli viTarebiT nakarnaxevi erTgvari konvenciuri enaa, da swored
amiT xasiaTdeba garkveuli epoqis teqsti (istoriuli, sasuliero, saero),
sadac sityvis Cveulebrivi leqsikuri mniSvneloba aris erTgvari forma,
Tavad sityva ki warmoadgens damatebiTi informaciis pirobiT niSans, rome-
lic Tavis mxriv ufro maRal dones _ semantikur dones Seesabameba.
yovelive amis Semdgom cxadia, Tu ra zneobrivi datvirTva eniWeba
almuTis epizods JamTaaRmwerlis TxzulebaSi: am oTx abzacSi kondensire-
buli teqstis mizani garegnulad monRolTa mier almuTs saomrad `Tana-
wartanil~ qarTvelTa laSqris Tavgadasavlis erTi istoriuli faqtis
moTxrobaa, sinamdvileSi ki mTavaria am epizodis is qveteqsti, romelic
maqsimalurad aris damuxtuli erovnuli ideologiiT da xdeba eTnikuri da
religiuri cnebebis sxva semantikur rigSi _ eTikuri kategoriis termino-
logiaSi _ gadanacvleba Tavisi araorazrovani, principuli da konkretuli
poziciiT: erTi mxriv, mulidni//urjuloni//`kacis mkvlelni miparviTa~,
meore mxriv, qarTvelni//rjulierni//`rameTu ara ars naTesavi qarTvelTa
kacis mklveli da arca sjuli ucT eseviTarisa saqmisa qmnad~.
Tuki gavixsenebT pavle ingoroyvas mixvedras, rom JamTaaRmwereli
`gansakuTrebiT siZulviliT aris gamsWvaluli piradad SoTas mimarT~ da
aseve gavixsenebT tarielis mier karavSi mZinare xvarazmeli sasiZos `mopar-
viT mkvlelobas~, romlis mimarT mulidis mier karavSi mZinare CaRata
noinis mkvleloba srul analogias warmoadgens, iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom
JamTaaRmwerelma almuTis mTeli epizodi im mizniT Seitana TxzulebaSi,
raTa, misi gagebiT, dapirispireboda rusTavels qarTvelTa moralis sakiTx-
Si. amis pasuxad risi Tqma SeiZleba? mxolod erTis: rTulia rusTaveli!

* * *
interteqstobriobis TvalsazrisiT am statiaSi aRZruli sakiTxis
azrobriv sferoSi Semodis ori mniSvnelovani mecnieruli xasiaTis teqsti,
romelTagan pirveli sulxan-saba orbelians ekuTvnis da leqsikologiuri
aspeqtisaa, meore ki ivane javaxiSvils da iuriduli aspeqtisaa. am konteq-
stSi mTavaria is faqtori, rom orive SemTxvevaSi avtorebisTvis wyaros
JamTaaRmwerlis qronika warmoadgens.
JamTaaRmwerlis zemoT citirebuli teqstis damowmebiT Seitana sulxan-
saba orbelianma `sityvis konaSi~ leqsema mulidi da misi ganmarteba: `muli-
di _ parviT kacis mkuleli (qarTlis cxovrebaSi)~.
Zveli qarTuli samarTlis istoriis gamokvlevaSi ivane javaxiSvili
`miparviT kaciskvlasTan~ dakavSirebiT aseve JamTaaRmwerels imowmebs:
`mkvlelobisa, gerSisa da naxSirisaTvis sasjeli gansxvavdeboda imisda gva-
rad, Tu ra Tvisebisa iyo es danaSauloba. dawvrilebiTi cnobebi ganzrax-
viTi, nebsiTi Tu uneblieTi da sxvanairi borotmoqmedebis Sesaxeb sisxlis
samarTlis pirvel TavSi iyo moTavsebuli... iq mxolod `RalatiT~, motyu-
ilebiT, `safrxiT~ kaciskvlaze araferia naTqvami. RalatiT kacis kvlisaT-
vis terminad X s-mde ixmareboda Casafrebis aRsaniSnavad `mzirad waslva~
110


(ci ggl xZTelisa) an `mziryofa~ (msajulTa 21,20), zurgidan dacemis
aRsaniSnavad _ `kacisklva miparviTa~, xolo TviT moqmed pirs ewodeboda
`kacismkuleli moparviTa~ (JamTaaRm.). aqvea mocemuli amgvari mkvlelobis
samarTlebrivi Sefasebac: `RalatiT kacis klvas, viTarca, veragulsa da
ganzrax gangebuls, qarTuli mermindeli samarTali mZime danaSaulad
sTvlida (beqa-aRbuRas wignis bolos darTuli kanoni 117) da ase iyo Zvela-
dac~ (javaxiSvili 1929: 304-305).
vefxistyaosanTan dakavSirebiT uTuod unda aRiniSnos, rom poemaSi Zve-
li qarTuli sisxlis samarTlis am specifikuri terminis _ moparviT//
miparviT mokvlis garda meore terminic gvxvdeba _ usisxlod mokvla
(557,4); rogorc gairkva, samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT moparviT//miparviT
mokvla da usisxlod mokvla, rogorc iuridiuli terminebi, sinonimebia da
niSnavs farul mkvlelobas _ `sisxlis moparvas~; misi Tanamedrove Sesa-
tyvisia kileri (Sdr. JamTaaRmwereli: `maT mulidTa TavadTa momces oqro
friadi, raTa Tquengan vinme movakudino oTxTa magaTgan. wamoved, movkal da
davimale~). magram mTavari isaa, rom vefxistyaosanSi aisaxa ara mxolod
gardasul saukuneTa sisxlis samarTlis es specifikuri iuridiuli ter-
minologia, aramed am terminologiiT gadmocemuli tarielis qmedebis zne-
obrivi TvalsazrisiT Sefasebac: esaa Ralatad//RalatiT//moparviT//mipar-
viT//saqme-dedlad//usisxlod// muxTlad//malviT//Radrad Cadenili mkvle-
loba _ aseTia rusTavelis sruliad ukompromiso zneobrivi xasiaTis
verdiqti (dawvrilebiT: karbelaSvili 1993: 183-220), rac vefxistyaosanSi
plakaturi moralizebis ararsebobis gamo Seucnobeli darCa kvalificiuri
mkiTxvelebisTvisac ki (karbelaSvili 2008: 55-72).

* * *
garegnuli simartivis miuxedavad, JamTaaRmwereli rTuli avtoria:
almuTis epizodSi istoriuli faqtis gadmocemis narativis moCvenebiTi
simartivis miRma emociebiT datvirTuli rTuli, kargad agebuli diskursi
ifareba: epizodis konstruqciuli logika ramdenime diskursuli fenisgan
Sedgeba, romelTagan yoveli damokidebulia winamavalze da ganapirobebs
momdevnos: monRolobisdroindeli istoriuli faqti; vefxistyaosnis alu-
zia _ faruli dapirispireba rusTavelTan; qarTvelTaTvis cilis dawameba;
qarTvelTa zneobrivi da sarwmunoebrivi Sefaseba dampyroblis mier; mora-
lur-sarwmunoebrivi antiTeza _ qarTveli//sparseli; warCinebulTa Tav-
dadeba laSqrisTvis; RvTaebrivi saswauli: mkvlelis mxileba da qarTvelTa
xsna.
monRolobis droindeli am dramatuli faqtis gadmocemas uniWieresi
istorikosis mier aqvs ara mxolod pirdapiri, sityva-sityviTi mniSvneloba,
aramed araerTi sxvac: JamTaaRmwereli qveteqstebis didostatia _ Sedegad
viRebT istoriisaTvis imanentur narativs, Seqmnils istoriuli faqtisa da
daSifruli aluziebisgan, sadac xdeba Temis pirdapiri teqstiT da qveteq-
stiT gaerTianeba diskursSi.
JamTaaRmwerlis stiluri teqnika uzadoa: aq SemTxveviTi ara Tu fraza,
sityvac ki gamoricxulia da am didi Sinagani gancdiT gadmocemul istori-
ul ambavs safuZvlad uZevs sqema, romlis mizania mkiTxvelis yuradReba
garkveuli mimarTulebiT warmarTos: es mizani _ ufro zustad, zemizani _
qristiani qarTveli eris maRali zneobrivi Rirsebis demonstrirebaa.
111


rogorc ukve iTqva, ar SeiZleba SemTxveviTobad CaiTvalos, rom `mopar-
viT mokvla~ jer vefxistyaosnis teqstSi gvxvdeba, Semdeg ki JamTaaRmwer-
lis qronikaSi: JamTaaRmwereli aSkarad polemikuria rusTavelis mimarT.
raime siaxlis _ am SemTxvevaSi rusTvelTan kontradiqciis _ dasasabu-
Teblad aucilebelia am ori teqstis Sepirispireba. interteqstobriobis
Tviseba axali teqstis sworxazovani gagebis `afeTqebaa~, rac bunebrivad mo-
iTxovs teqsts-wyarosken mibrunebas erTgvari inteleqtualuri anamnezis
mizniT.
interteqstobriobis funqciaTa gaTvaliwinebiT JamTaaRmwerlis pole-
mikuri mimarTeba rusTavelTan eqspresiulia: igi gviCvenebs JamTaaRmwer-
lis damokidebulebas teqst-wyaros mimarT, romelic konteqstis mixedviT
aSkarad odiozuria; amave dros mas apelaciuri funqciac aqvs: JamTaaRmwe-
reli ara mxolod mis Tanamedrove, aramed im momaval mkiTxvelTsac gu-
lisxmobs, romelic SeZlebs am interteqstobrivi miniSnebis amocnobas da
avtoris miznis Sesabamisad aRqmas _ es miniSneba faqtobrivad mimarTvaa,
raTa mkiTxvelis yuradReba miipyros; JamTaaRmwerlis qronikis am epizods
fatikuri, e. i. kontaqtis damamyarebeli funqciac aqvs avtorsa da adresats
Soris _ amgvar interteqstobriv kavSirs is mixvdeba, visi kulturul-
emociuri mexsiereba inaxavs vefxistyaosnis Sesabamis epizods, sadac
tarielis mier xvarazmSas Svilis `moparviT mokvlaa~ aRwerili; mas aseve
aqvs referentuli funqciac: preteqstSi anu `gare~ teqstSi _ vefxistya-
osanSi _ arsebuli informaciis aqtivizacia; xolo bolos unda aRiniSnos
metateqsturi funqcia: rasakvirvelia, savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom adrin-
del teqstze miTiTebas mkiTxveli saerTod ver mixvdes, magram, Tuki mix-
vdeba, mas aucileblad mouxdeba axali teqstis fragmentis Sesamecneblad
teqst-wyarosTan misi aqtualuri kavSiris dafiqsireba: am SemTxvevaSi
vefxistyaosnis teqsts JamTaaRmwerlis teqstis mimarT metateqsturi
funqcia aqvs.
metateqstis TvalsazrisiT Cven winaSea rogorc konstruqcia `teqsti
teqstSi~, aseve konstruqcia `teqsti teqstis Sesaxeb~. `teqsti teqstSi~
JamTaaRmwerlis qronikaSi realizebulia Semdegi saxiT _ vefxistyaosani:
`moparviT mokal sasiZo~ _ JamTaaRmwereli: `arian kacis mklvelni mipar-
viTa, romelTa mulidad uwodian~. rac Seexeba konstruqcias `teqsti teq-
stis Sesaxeb~, aq erTmaneTTan aris dapirspirebuli vefxistyaosanSi
tarielis mier xvarazmSas Svilis mokvla da JamTaaRmwerlis fraza: `ara ars
naTesavi qarTvelTa kacis mklveli da arca sjuli ucT eseviTarisa saqmisa
qmnad~, sadac qveteqsturad ikiTxeba JamTaaRmwerliseuli Sefaseba tari-
elis qmedebisa: `tarieli ar aris qarTveli~, `tarieli ar aris qristiani~.
unda iTqvas, rom es idea realizebulia vefxistyaosnis gagrZelebaSi `xva-
razmelTa ambavi~; romlis prozauli pirvelsaxe JamTaaRmwerlis mier
qebul sargis mxargrZel-Tmogvels miewereba (`es ambavi darComoda sargiss
leqsTa Seuwyoblad~ _ A 2024,1), sadac tarieli mahmadianad aris gamoyva-
nili (`uficavs mas mahmadia~ _ A 2014,3).
interteqstobriobis TvalsazrisiT JamTaaRmwerlis qveteqsturi po-
lemika rusTavelTan m. rifateris samkuTxedis konteqstSi kidev erTi das-
kvnis gamotanis saSualebas gvaZlevs. vefxistyaosani, rogorc teqsti (T) da
JamTaaRmwerlis qronika, rogorc interteqsti (T
II
) erTmaneTs ar ukavSir-
deba, rogorc `donori~ da `recipienti~, amitom maTi urTierTmimarTeba ar
daiyvaneba raimegvari `sesxebisa~ da `gavlenis~ martiv warmodgenaze. aq
112


interteqstobrioba funqcionirebs, radgan wakiTxva vefxistyaosnidan (T)
JamTaaRmwerlis qronikamde (T
II
) gadis interpretaciaze (I), ramdenadac swo-
red interpretantis meSveobiT xdeba urTierTqmedebaSi CarTul teqstTa
urTierTmimarTebis dadgena.
J. Jenetis klasifikaciis konteqstSi JamTaaRmwerlis `almuTis epizo-
di~ vefxistyaosnis Sesabamisi epizodis mimarT gvevlineba metateqstad,
ramdenadac igi Seicavs komentars da kritikul miTiTebas Tavis preteqstze
_ konkretulad, tarielis mier xvarazmSas Svilis `moparviT mokvlis~ epi-
zodze _ rogorc zneobrivi TvalsazrisiT qristianobis maRiarebeli qar-
Tveli erisTvis yovlad miuRebel da Seuwynarebel qmedebaze.
amrigad, rogorc istoria mowmobs, tarielis mier xvarazmSas Svilis
moparviT mokvla jer kidev eqvsi saukunis win yofila moraluri Tvalsaz-
risiT uaryofiTad Sefasebuli.

* * *
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ qronikebTan vefxistyaosnis interteqstobrivi
kavSiris konteqstSi aqve unda movixsenioT erTi epizodi `axali qarTlis
cxovrebidan~ (mesame teqsti), sadac XVI saukunis miwuruls momxdari
istoriuli faqtia moTxrobili _ qarTlis mefe svimon pirvelze (1558-1600)
aleqsandre meore kaxT batonis Tavdasxma RamiT, rodesac mefes eZina.
saistorio TxzulebebSi istoriul faqtTa Sefasebis kriteriumad zne-
obrivi normebia miRebuli. piruTvneli meistorie Tvals ver daxuWavda
imaze, rom muxTloba da veragulad kacis kvla mxolod mulidTa kompeten-
cias ar warmoadgenda. am mxriv vefxistyaosnis CvenTvis saintereso epi-
zodTan dialogurobis TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa svimon mefis zneobrivi
kredo _ romelic amave dros meistories kredoc aris _ SeTvlili
aleqsandre kaxT batonisTvis mas Semdeg, rac igi `...warmoemarTa RamiT da
daesxa ugrZnoblad mefesa svimons..., xolo mefeman svimon Semoiyara spani
qarTvelTani da warvida guliTa sruliTa aleqsandresa zeda. da winaTve
waravlina kaci da miumcno esreT: `vinaTgan Sen ikadre esegvari boroti,
romel ara ars wesi mefeTa, da muxTlad damesxi SeugrZnad mZinaresa, da aw
uwyode, rameTu wamosrul var Sen zeda brZolad. da ukeTu xar kaci gamoc-
dili mamacobasa Sina, damxudi, rameTu umjobes ars omi gamocxadebuli uf-
ros Ralatad naqmarsa~ (qc 1955: 527).
`muxTlad Tavdasxma SeugrZnad mZinaresa~, rogorc amoraluri qmedeba,
sruliad miuRebeli aqti iyo qarTuli tradiciuli zneobisTvis (SeuZle-
belia ar gagvaxsendes tarielis sityvebi, SeTvlili ramaz mefisTvis _ `ze-
da ar mogeparebiT~ (388,3) da aq kvlav aisaxa _ sxva istoriul faqtTan
dakavSirebiT da gansxvavebul konteqstSi _ interteqstobrivi mimarTeba
vefxistyaosanTan, rogorc tarielis mier mZinare xvarazmeli sasiZos
mkvlelobis epizodis azrobrivi sferos sazRvrebSi arsebuli teqsti.
saerTod ki unda iTqvas, rom vefxistyaosnis interteqstobrivi da di-
aloguri mimarTeba `qarTlis cxovrebis~ garkveul qronikebTan aq aRZruli
sakiTxiT ar amoiwureba da mravalmxrivia, saerTod ki vefxistyaosani, da-
wyebuli misi Seqmnis dRidan, qarTuli mwerlobis maradiuli interteqstia.




113


* * *
zemoT moviyvane ivane javaxiSvilis friad mniSvnelovani daskvna, rom
JamTaaRmwerels erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi da sarwmunoebrivi Tavmoyvare-
oba metad mgrZnobiane aqvs. rogorc sruliad cxadad Cans, JamTaaRmwerlis-
Tvis erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi da sarwmunoebrivi TviTSegneba ganuyofe-
li mTlianobaa: qristianuli _ Sesabamisad ki zogadsakacobrio _ moralu-
ri kriteriumebi misTvis erovnuli zneobis sazomia. rodesac es didi meis-
torie wers, rom eri `midrka gzisagan samRTosa~, es niSnavs, rom erma zne-
obrivi normebi ugulebelyo. iv. javaxiSvili amis Sesaxeb aRniSnavs: `miscna
RmerTman naTesavni qarTvelTa mosasrvelado~. es iyo uzenaesi gangebis
sasjeli, xolo mizezad, maSasadame, Cvens avtors am SemTxvevaSic mTeli eris
zneobrivi dacema miaCnda~ (javaxiSvili 1945: 253). amitomac aqvs JamTaaRmwe-
rels aseTi gamZafrebuli damokidebuleba eris zneobis mimarT: misi Rrma
rwmeniT, eris zneobis dacema qveynis dacemis winapirobaa. amis Sesaxeb jer
kidev daviT aRmaSeneblis istorikosi afrTxilebda qarTvelT, imowmebda ra
esaia winaswarmetyvels: `vai naTesavsa codvils, eri romeli savse ars
usjuloebiTa, ara ars mas Sina sicocxle... amisTvis queyana oxer, qalaqni
cecxliTa momwuar, sofelTa TquenTa ucxo Teslni mosWamen da mooxrebul
da daqceul ars erisagan ucxotomTasa~ [esaia 1,4-7] (qc 1955: 322). JamTaaR-
mwerlis mier sruliad realisturad aris Sefasebuli moralis mniSvneloba
saxelmwifosTvis: es didi mamuliSvili eris zneobriv sijansaReze zrunavda
da amitom ekamaTeboda qveteqsturad rusTavels, romelTanac sinamdvileSi
sakamaTo araferi hqonda...
is ganuzomeli zneobrivi zegavlena, romelic rusTavelis vefxistya-
osans aqvs qarTvel erze, ganapirobebs poemisadmi mecnieruli midgomisa da
interpretaciis mimarT did pasuxismgeblobas. `tarielis reabilitaciis
Teoriis~ Seqmnisas ar yofila gaTvaliswinebuli is Sedegebi, rac am Teorias
SeiZleboda mohyoloda, sinamdvileSi ki konkretuli droisa da viTarebis
pirobebSi am koniunqturuli Teoriis SeqmniT mTel sabWour sistemas aqvs
gamotanili msjavri, rogorc totalitaruls da antihumanurs.
korneli kekeliZem moraluri TvalsazrisiT Seafasa vefxistyaosnis
axleburi mxatvruli interpretacia `tarielis reabilitaciis Teoriis~
konteqstSi da 1959 wels dasva tragikuli kiTxva: `magram unda vikiTxoT:
iziarebda Tu ara rusTaveli princips: mizani amarTlebs saSualebas?~
(kekeliZe 1968: 291). sabWoTa oficialurma rusTvelologiam korneli keke-
liZis kiTxva upasuxod datova, Tumca savsebiT cxadia, rom am kiTxvaze
gacemuli nebismieri pasuxi _ dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi _ `tarielis reabi-
litaciis Teoriis~ ideuri da ideologiuri kraxis mamxilebeli iqneba.
`borotebis imperiad~ wodebul sabWoTa kavSirSi aTwleulTa ganmavlo-
baSi moralma iseTi devalvacia-degradacia ganicada, rom mogvianebiT _
1977 wels _ aucilebeli Seiqna masze sazogadoebis yuradRebis gamaxvileba
da sajaro diskusiis dawyeba. niSneulia, rom rusuli -s
furclebze axali sadiskusio rubrika STambeWdavi saTauriT `Homo moralis~:
rogoria igi?~ qarTveli mecnieris avlip zurabaSvilis statiiT gaixsna: am
droisTvis bevri morals da sindiss `moZvelebul~, `dromoWmul~ cnebebad
aRiqvamda. a. zurabaSvilis statia warmoadgens amomwurav pasuxs iseT fun-
damentur problemaze, rogoricaa Homo moralis: `Sinagani sindisis xma ab-
straqcia ki ar aris, aramed wmindaTa wminda niWi, romlis gareSe SeuZle-
belia adamianis cxovreba da moRvaweoba. me didi xania vwer imis Sesaxeb, rom
114


cneba homo moralis arafriT Camouvardeba cnebas homo sopiens... me myarad
vdgavar poziciaze, rom moraluri fuZe _ is RerZia, romlis garSemo unda
ibrunos adamianuri moRvaweobis nebismierma gamovlinebam~ (zurabaSvili
1977).


damowmebani:

baramiZe 1936: baramiZe a. tarieli. _ rusTavelis krebuli _ 750. tf.:
saxelgami, 1936.
baxtini 1976: . . . -
. 10. 1976.
evdoSvili 1991: evdoSvili m. (karbelaSvili m.) `ar, uTqmeloba ar varga...~ _
`laSari~, 2, 1991.
zurabaSvili 1977: zurabaSvili a. Homo moralis: ? , 5
ianvari, 1977.
ilini 1989: . . : .
. - . .: 1989.
ingoroyva 1926: ingoroyva p. Rustveliana. I. vefxis-tyaosnis TariRi. SoTa
rusTavelis vinaoba. tfilisi, 1926.
kekeliZe 1968: kekeliZe k. nadiraZe g. rusTavelis esTetika. _ kekeliZe k.
etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1968.
interneti: . http://www.krugosvet.ru/enc./gumanitarnye
nauki/ lingvistica/INTERTEKSTUALNOST.html/
karbelaSvili 1987: karbelaSvili m. ori bibliuri paraleli vefxistyaosnis
erTi epizodisaTvis. _ literaturuli Ziebani, 1(XVI), Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1987.
karbelaSvili 1993: karbelaSvili m. vefxistyaosnis `usisxlod~: terminis
iuridiuli da eTikuri aspeqtebi~ _ qarTuli mwerlobis sakiTxebi. eZRvneba
gamoCenili mecnierisa da sazogado moRvawis akademikos aleqsandre baramiZis
dabadebis 90-e wlisTavs. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1993.
karbelaSvili 2010: karbelaSvili m. rusTvelologia sabWoTa totalita-
rizmis pirobebSi. _ saerTaSoriso samecniero konferencia. totalitarizmi da
literaturuli diskursi. me-20 saukunis gamocdileba. masalebi. Tb.: literatu-
ris institutis gamomcemloba, 2010.
leqsikoni 1966: literaturismcodneobis terminTa mokle leqsikoni.
m.duduCavas saerTo redaqciiT. Tb.: `nakaduli~, 1966.
norakiZe 1966: norakiZe v. adamianis idea `vefxistyaosanSi~. Tb.: `sabWoTa
saqarTvelo~, 1966.
ruxaZe 1936: ruxaZe tr. aRorZinebis periodis mwerlobis cnobebi SoTa
rusTavelsa da `vefxistyaosanze~. tfilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
Sromebi, III, tfilisi: 1936.
terminebi 1974: . - . .
. . . .: "", 1974.
fateeva 1998: . .
. . . , 5, 1998.
qc 1955: qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris
mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I, Tb.: saxelgami, 1955.
qc 1959: qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris
mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. II, Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1959.
115


cincaZe 1936: cincaZe p. vefxistyaosnis msoflmxedveloba da mxatvruli
konstruqcia. kritikuli etiudi. ssrk mecnierebaTa akademiis saqarTvelos
filialis gamocema, Tb.: 1936.
javaxiSvili 1929: javaxiSvili iv. qarTuli samarTlis istoria. wigni meore.
nakveTi meore, tf.: 1929.
javaxiSvili 1945: javaxiSvili iv. istoriis mizani, wyaroebi da meTodebi winaT
da axla. wigni I. Zveli qarTuli saistorio mwerloba (V-XVIII ss). Tb.: stalinis
sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, 1945.


Mariam Karbelashvili

The Earliest Comment to The Knight in the Panthers Skin
Intertextuality: Rustaveli and Zhamtaaghmtsereli

Summary

It is logical that intertextual aspect of the historical Chronicles by Zhamtaaghmtsereli
(Chronograph ) relative to The Knight in the Panthers Skin is solved in ethical-moral
problematic context: any piece of art is subject to moral principle. Generations of readers
of the poem evaluated by this moral criterion one of the key collisions stealthy slay by
Tariel of Khvarazmshas son when he was sleeping. As the history of Rustaveli studies
show, starting from the annex to the poem among opinions about it expressed for many
centuries, up to late thirties of the XX century there is no one comment, which would
justify this act committed by Tariel. It is notable that in the soviet period dramatic
deviation from the traditional evaluation of this episode took place and for the purpose of
justification of such act by Tariel the absolutely different interpretation was developed,
which is known in Rustaveli studies, as The theory of Tariels rehabilitation. This anti-
human theory, with its substance, is the ideological product of the soviet regime and is
based on the vulgar sociology. On the whole formulation and formation of the The theory
of Tariels rehabilitation took place within exact chronological scopes 1936-1938.
It turned out that the episode marked with such charge has found its first response six
centuries ago in the work of historical nature in the Chronicles by Zhamtaaghmtsereli
(XIV century), in the episode related to Almuti battles. According to this fact,
Zhamtaaghmtsereli should be regarded as the first commenter of this episode the poem and
Almuti episode as its first comment.
The intertextual principle connects the stanza of the poem the task assigned by
Nestan-Darejan to Tariel: Slay the bridegroom stealthily (543,2) and the phrase by
Zhamtaaghmtsereli: There are the people who slay stealthily and they are called Mulids.
Specific term of the ancient Georgian law: to slay stealthily was mentioned for the
first time in The Knight in the Panthers Skin and for the second time in the Chronicle
by Zhamtaaghmtsereli. With respect of intertextual principle, Almuti episode is the
meta-text of the respective episode, as it contains the comment and critical reference to its
pretext.


116







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122


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123


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124


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125


1999: . . / . . // .
.- .: , 1999.- . 76.- . 45-68; . .
/ . . // . . .: , 1999. . 77.
. 95-110; . . .
/ . . // . . .: , 2008. . 89 / III. .
23-35; . . / . .
// . 2009. 1. . 60-67; . .
, , / . . // . 2009. 2.
. 33-38. .
1951: . / . . .: 1951, . 5556.


Yuri Stoliarov

Book-culture Related Motives in Shota Rustaveli Creation

Summary

In the preface of the article author gives some explanations of those terms and
concepts, which are related to book culture and he proves scientifically that all infor-
mation, included in extant writing text analysis is related to book culture. Author marks
correctly that education existed long before the appearance of written language and scien-
tific analysis of ancient folk epos and myths can serve as argument for such conclusion.
Author speaks specially about Georgian epic poem The Knight in the Panthers Skin
and poses it next to ancient folk eposes: Sumerian Gilgamesh, Indian Ramayana and
Mahabharata, Greek Iliad and Odyssey, Italian Eneide, but underlines that Georgian epos
was written by one author. The fact that the book was given as a dowry (at first as written
text and printed version after) speaks about its popularity among people. Author describes
the social and material background of the period when poem was created and marks that it
was the time of Queen Tamar and King David the Builder when Georgia as feudal state
reached its age of prosperity.
The terms, topics and concepts from the poem are explained according to Russian text
(translator S.Iordanishvili, 1966 Tbilisi). In the preface of the work author gives some
examples of feature methods and comparisons. For example agate lake instead of ink,
reed - instead of stylus. etc. Many examples can be found in various chapters of the poem.
Tinatin demands King Rostevans order to grant people with all gold and jewelry. The so-
called Business correspondence was very popular at that time, letters were sent in form
of roll. Letter writing and will writing was so often used among the characters of the poem,
that they knew each others hand writing very well. There are some holy books mentioned
in the poem too; people used to read books in times of misery, sorrow, they used to swore
on books in the name of devotion, friendship. The book was considered to be an origin and
symbol of wisdom. Avtandili is trying to calm down Fatman, telling her such stories are
written in books too.
This article is the first attempt in Georgian literary criticism, considering the aspect
from this point of view and therefore it will cause an interest among Georgian literature
history researchers.


126


lia kariWaSvili

`vefxistyaosnis~ saxismetyvelebiTi perspeqtivebi
`daviTianSi~

`vefxistyaosnis~ usazRvro popularobam erTgvarad Seaferxa qarTuli
poeturi azrovnebis ganviTareba. igi niWierebis erTgvar sazomad iqca.
kargi poeti iyo is, vinc ukeT mibaZavda rusTavels. `daviTiani~ qarTuli
literaturis istoriaSi `vefxistyaosnis~ saukuneobrivi gavlenis erTgvar
daZlevad ganixileba. mkvlevari sargis caiSvili wignSi `SoTa rusTaveli
daviT guramiSvili~ wers: `guramiSvili rusTavelis yvelaze Rirseuli
memkvidrea Zvel saqarTveloSi. ukve is konteqsti, romelSic guramiSvili
axsenebs rusTavels, TavisTavad metyvelebs, Tu ra maRal Sefasebas aZlevda
igi Tavis did winamorbeds. ... magram, amave dros swored man yvelaze mZlavri
nabiji gadadga, raTa ganTavisuflebuliyo rusTavelis ganuzomeli gavlen-
isagan~ (caiSvili 1974: 199). (aRniSnuli garemoeba pirvelad akaki wereTelma
SeniSna (wereTeli 1899: 24) guramiSvilis striqoniT unda iyos STagonebuli
l. kalandaZis xatovani gamonaTqvami `ukvdavi rusTavelis Semdeg bevri
niWieri qarTveli SeeWida qarTul poetur sityvas, magram arsebiTad verc
erTi vefxistyaosnis did Crdils ver gascda, sanam guramiSvilma saWiatos
ar miagno~ (Sdr. `bnelsa vzivar, gevedrebi sasinaTlo amixvrito...~)
(kalandaZe 1960: 3).
axalma saTqmelma axali forma moitana. miuxedavad am ori poeturi
samyaros TviTmyofadobisa, aSkaraa maT Soris msgavsebani, romelTac gar-
kveulwilad ukve ganapirobebs Semdegi garemoebani. orive nawarmoebi mra-
valplaniania da danteseuli zogadi klasifikaciis Tanaxmad, maTSi oTxi
ZiriTadi Sre gamoiyofa: 1. istoriuli; 2. alegoriuli; 3. didaqtikuri da 4.
anagogiuri. TiToeuli es Sre sxvadasxva intensivobiT vlindeba Txzule-
bebSi. magaliTad, istoriuli realoba `daviTianSi~ dominanturia da erT
erT wamyvan Temad ikveTeba (`qarTlis Wiri~), `vefxistyaosanSi~ ki sakvlevia
da amosacnobi. alegorizmi anu igavi `vefxistyaosnisa~ rTulia, `daviTi-
anisa~ _ mizanmimarTulad martivi; didaqtizmi Sefarulia poemaSi, gacxade-
bulia `daviTianSi~. anagogiuri (saRvTismetyvelo) plasti `vefxistyaosnis~
uRrmesi Srea, `daviTianSi~ ki ZiriTadi laitmotivi.
naSromSi ZiriTadad yuradReba gamaxvilebulia Semdeg sakiTxebze:
`vefxistyaosnis~ alegorizmi; poetTa mier SemoqmedebiTi sagnisa da poetu-
ri rangis TviTgansazRvra; didaqtizmi da motivacia; msoflmxedvelobrivi
problemebi; poeturi semantika.
`vefxistyaosnis~, rogorc alegoriuli Txzulebis `Targmanebas~
vaxtang mefis droidan eyreba safuZveli. daviT guramiSvili iziarebs po-
emis pirveli gamomcemlis Tvalsazriss da zustad, lakonurad afasebs
poemas _ igi aris `igavT xe~, romlis fesvebi Rrmad aris damarxuli.

`odesac brZenma ritorman
SoTam rgo igavT xeo da,
fesv Rrmahyo, Srtoni uCinna,
zed xili moiweoda,
orgzisve nayofs miscemda,
visganac moirxeoda~. (4)
127


`daviTianic~ igavT xea, oRond martivad Sesamecnebeli im mizniT, rom
`ufro advilad aRvlian zed yrmani dasarxevelad~.
`vefxistyaosnis~ alegorizmis TvalsazrisiT Zalze sayuradReboa `mij-
nurobis Teoria~ prologidan, romelSic pirvelad saRvTo mijnurobazea
saubari: `vTqva mijnuroba pirveli da tomi gvarTa zenaTa~. momdevno stro-
fis bolo taepebi aRiqmeba, rogorc rusTavelis SemoqmedebiTi arCevani:

`vTqvne xelobani qvenani, romelni xorcTa xvdebian,
marT masve hbaZven, Tu oden ar siZven, SoriT bndebian~.

am taepSi gamoCenili baZvis cneba uyuradRebod ar darCenila samecni-
ero literaturaSi. revaz siraZe wignSi `kultura da saxismetyveleba~ wers:
`aq termini baZva ar SeiZleba sasxvaTaSorisod gavigoT. amqveyniuri siyva-
rulis zeciurisadmi baZvas araerTxel exeba ioane petriwi. amgvar siyva-
rulTanaa dakavSirebuli rusTveluri sityvaxmarebac. saerTod ki termini
antikurobidan iRebs saTaves, aseT SemTxvevaSi igi marto mimsgavsebas rodi
gulisxmobs, igi gulisxmobs `gansaxovnebasac~, ase rom, amqveyniuri amaRle-
buli, adamianuri siyvaruli SeiZleba zeciurs ganasaxovnebdes~ (siraZe
2008: 113114).
ismis kiTxva, mainc sad xdeba Semoqmedebis sagnis dasaxeleba: `vTqva mij-
nuroba pirveli~ Tu `vTqvne xelobani qvenani~? logikuria, rom axali sa-
kiTxi, Tanac aseTi mniSvnelovani, daiwyos axali strofiT. marTlac, Cveni
dakvirvebiT, sakiTxis warmodgena iwyeba swored axali monakveTiT, axali
diskursiT mijnurobis Taobaze da es aris `vTqva mijnuroba pirveli~. swo-
red es aris mTavari Canafiqri, mTavari mizani, xolo `vTqvne xelobani qvena-
ni, romelni xorcTa xvdebian, marT masve hbaZven...~ aris forma, gansaxovneba
am saTqmelisa. isic logikuria, rom gansaxovnebis formaze miniSneba mosdev-
des da uSualod ebmodes sakiTxis Sinaarsobriv warmodgenas (da misi mom-
devno iyos III da IV taepebi). aqvea motivaciac, ratom ar SeiZleba pirdapiri
gadmocema, pirdapiri asaxva SemoqmedebiTi sagnisa da ratom unda moiZebnos
gansaxovnebis saTanado forma, am SemTxvevaSi alegoriuli. imitom, rom
saRvTo mijnuroba Znelad saTqmelia, `saWiro gamosagebi enaTa~, `Wkvianni
ver mixvdebian, ena daSvrebis, msmenlisa yurnica davaldebian~. amdenad,
Cveni azriT, marTebuli iqneboda, `mijnurobis Teoria~ ganixilebodes ara
rogorc erTgvari klasifikacia mijnurobis gvarebisa (romlebsac emijneba
siZva da maTi aRreva dauSvebelia, miT ufro, am konteqstSi, romelSic
wminda adamianuri siyvaruli moxmobilia saRvTo siyvarulis miwier imita-
ciad. amitomac aris rusTaveli aseTi kategoriuli: `nuvin garevT erTma-
neTsa, gesmis Cemi naubari?~), aramed rogorc erTiani, ganuyofeli konteq-
sti _ Semoqmedebis Temisa da misi gansaxovnebis formis gacxadeba.
Sairobis Teoriis mixedviT, rusTaveli, rogorc vrceli epopeis Semoq-
medi, bunebrivia, pirveli rangis moSairea. (Tumca garkveul azrTa sxvadas-
xvaobas iwvevs meorisa `meore leqsi cotai, nawili moSaireTa~ _ da mesamis
_ `mesame leqsi kargi ars sanadimod, samRerelad~ _ win ardasaxeleba
pirvelisa, romelic, vfiqrobT, apriorulad igulisxmeba, misi maxasiaTeb-
lebi ki gabneviT ikiTxeba teqstSi. riT gamoicdeba kargi moSaire? _ `viTa
cxensa Sara grZeli da gamoscdis didi rbeva ...marT agreTve meleqsesa leq-
sTa grZelTa Tqma da xeva~, `moSaire ara hqvia, veras ityvis vinca grZelad~.
daviT guramiSvili, rusTaveli poeturi geniis Tayvanismcemeli (`me rus-
Tvelsa leqss ar vudri, viT margalits Calis Zirsa~), misive kriteriumebiT
128


gansazRvravs sakuTari poeturi ostatobis xarisxs da Tavs meore rangis
moleqseTa kategorias miakuTvnebs.
rusTaveli:
`meore leqsi cotai nawili moSaireTa,
ar ZaluZs srulqmna sityvaTa, gulisa gasagmireTa,
vamsgavse mSvildi bediTi ymawvilTa monadireTa:
didsa ver mohkvlen, xelad aqvs xoca nadirTa mcireTa~. (str. 16)

guramiSvili:
`me yrmaTa msgavsad momixda
namcvrevT walkotTa mcvrevani,
bzakaliTa da wiwkitiT
monadireTSi revani,
verc xili vpove, nadirTac
Zali ar mqonda revani,
da va SemrCa cudsa meTevzes
ubraloT wyalTa mRvrevani~.
(daviTiani, str. 6)

(bzakali xis mSvildi, wiwkati _ patara isari)
rusTveluri saxeebi aq gavrcobilia, Tumca aSkaraa reminiscenciebi:
`ymawvilTa~ _ `yrmaTa msgavsad~; `,monadire~; `didsa ver mohkvlen~
`nadirTac Zali ar maqvnda revani~ da sxva.
`vefxistyaosani~ aRmzrdelobiTi nawarmoebia. zogadad, XII saukunis
romanis kvleva mivida daskvnamde, rom garegnuli xasiaTis miuxedavad, masSi
aRzrdis problematikaa mTavari. amaze jer kidev vaxtang VI mianiSnebda. es
azri SemdgomSic aqtualuri iyo samecniero literaturaSi. `romani, ro-
melSic axalgazrda gmirebi moqmedeben, rogorc wesi, aRmzrdelobiTi roma-
nia~ (karbelaSvili 2003: 5). miT ufro, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom poemis mTa-
vari personaJebi (isini, visi pirovnuli daxvewaamaRleba siuJetis ganviTa-
rebisda kvalad xdeba) ar arian idealurni, aramed miiswrafian srulyofi-
lebisken da Tumca Teoriulad floben sibrZnes, mainc piradi gamocdilebis
mtkivneul gzas gadian gaRrmavebisa da Sinagani ganaxlebisaken.
`daviTiani~ mowodebulia ymawvilTaTvis, maTi aRzrdisa da TviTSemec-
nebisTvis. sayuradReboa, rom orive TxzulebaSi warmoCenilia safuZveli da
motivacia (rogorc ufleba) didaqtizmisa. es aris gamocdilebiT dagrovi-
li codna da garkveuli distancireba problemisgan. orivegan moxmobilia
mkurnalis saxe.

`vefxistyaosani~:
`ra aqimi dasneuldes, razom ginda saqebari,
man sxva ixmos mkurnali da majasica Semtyvebari...
sxvisa sxvaman ukeT icis sasargeblo saubari~. (662)

`daviTiani~:
`ragind brZen iyos mkurnali,
kargad atyobdes majasa,
sxvisas Seityobs, Tavisas
veras gaigebs xvanjasa~. (60)

da sentencia: `sxva sxvisa omsa brZenia~ _ rusTaveli: `me ver virge da
Tqven garge~ _ guramiSvili.
129


TvalsaCinoa `vefxistyaosansa~ da `daviTianSi~ filosofiur-Teologi-
uri cnebaTmetyvelebis Tanxvedra. aseTia mijnuris cneba, romelsac bina-
ruli mniSvneloba aqvs _ saero da saRvTismetyvelo. egreTwodebul xelo-
baTa katalogSi orive Semoqmedi mas warmogvidgens swored saRvTismetyve-
lo SinaarsiT.
rusTaveli:
`muSa miwyiv muSakobdes, meomari gulovnobdes,
kvla mijnursa mijnuroba uyvardes da gamoscnobdes~. ( 11, 34)

guramiSvili:
`mecxrea arCenT mwyemsoba,
uqniaT menaxiroba,
da meaTe mijnurT survili,
trfialTa Senamziroba~. ( 38)

amasTan dakavSirebiT qeTevan bezaraSvili wers: ,,Cans, rom rusTavelTan
da guramiSvilTan dasaxelebuli ritorikuli sqema qristianuli mwerlobis
tradiciebs efuZneba. maTTan katalogis bolos dasaxelebuli mijnuroba
(iseve, rogorc katalogis TavSi dasaxelebuli brZnoba), rogorc saRvTo
sibrZnis trfiali, rogorc saRvTo xedva Teoria, yvelaferze aRmatebuli
Cans~ (bezaraSvili 2005: 26). vfiqrobT, swored es arabuli sityva (mijnuri)
miesadageboda RvTis motrfiales, romlis cnobiereba amaRlebis kvalda-
kval scildeboda empiriuli realobis sazRvrebs da pragmatuli pozici-
idan Smagad, xelad aRiqmeboda.
sayuradReboa, agreTve sityva `qarTulis~ gamoyeneba orive TxzulebaSi
qristianulis sinonimuri moazrebiT. rusTaveli: `ese ambavi sparsuli, qar-
Tulad naTargmanebi...~ guramiSvili: `Tu ram iyos sxvis rjulisa, momiqcios,
gamiqarTlos~. mocemul taepebSi rusTveliseul `sparsuls~ Seesabameba
guramiSviliseuli `sxvis rjulisa~; xolo `qarTulad naTargmanebs~ `mo-
miqcios, gamiqarTlos~. cxadia, rusTaveli `sparsuls~ iyenebs araqristi-
anulis mniSvnelobiT, xolo `qarTulad Targmaneba~, `moqceva~, `gaqarTle-
ba~ qristianulad gamarTvas, qristianulad moazrebas an interpretacias
niSnavs. ase rom, taepi `ese ambavi sparsuli...~ erTi SexedviT poemis siuJetis
warmomavlobis sakiTxs rom ukavSirdeba, vfiqrobT, realurad poemis ale-
goriul xasiaTs mianiSnebs.
sagulisxmoa, rom `wminda ninos cxovrebaSi~ `sparsni~ gamoyenebulia
qristianulis sapirispirod, borot ZalTa alegoriad. wminda ninos da mis
sulier Svilebs aqvT xilva, rodesac qarTlSi fexs ikidebs qristianoba da
mcxeTasa da mis Semogarens toveben wm. ninos locviT otebuli bneli Zalebi.
am konteqstSi sparsTa xsenebas, rasakvirvelia, politikuri aspeqtic ax-
lavs, magram faqtia, rom alegoriulad swored `sparsni~ moizreba qristes
naTlis opoziciad. `da vidre arRa eyivla qaTamsa, samTave karTa sca zarsa
laSqarman Zlierman da dalewes karni qalaqisani, da aRivso laSqarni
sparsTa laSqriTa da meyseulad Seiqmnes zaris aRsaxdelni zrinvani da
yivilni da klvai erisai, viTarmca sisxli dioda. da aRivso yoveli adgili.
da movida Cuen zeda simravlei zaxilTai da maxvilTai, da dadnes xorcni
Cuenni da ganilia suli Cueni~. am saSinelma sanaxaobam mxolod wminda nino
ver SeakrTo. igi erTgvari ironiiTac ki mimarTavs momxvdurT: `sada arian
mefeni sparsTani xuara da xuan xuara; sabastaniT guSin wamoxvediTa? male
moxvediT. didad same ars laSqari uzomo, vidreme xarT. da Zlierad dah-
130


leweT qalaqi ese. maxvili daeciT qarTa da niavTa. warvediT bnelTa Crdi-
loisaTa, mTaTa maT kedarisaTa. aqa movida igi, romelsa Tqven evltodeT~.
da ganZra marjvene Tvisi, daswera xeliTa saxei juarisai, da meyseulad
uCino iqmna yoveli igi simravlei erisai, da iqmna dayudebai did~ (`cxorebai
wmidisa ninoisi~ , gv. 2324).
TavisTavad identuria Teologiuri cnebaTmetyveleba. `vefxistyaosan-
Si~ RmerTi aris ucnauri, uTqmeli, ufali uflebaTa, mze, mziani Rame....
`daviTianSi~ _ mze, miuwvdomeli, ufali uflebaTa, uzomo, gamouTqmeli.
mziani Rame, sityva, dausabamo, pirveli...

rusTaveli:
`he, RmerTo, vin xatad gTqves mzianisa Ramisad.
guramiSvili:
`vidremdis ganaxldeboda Zveli dRe, Rame mziani~.

am TvalsazrisiT orive nawarmoebi mdidar himnografiul tradicias
agrZelebs, agreTve, eyrdnoba areopagitikul swavlebasac. sainteresoa,
rom rogorc sargis caiSvilma SeniSna, daviTianis `mzeTa mze~ sxvagan ar
gvxvdeba. mama RmerTis es alegoriuli saxe-simbolo Tavad guramiSvilis dam-
kvidrebulia, igi STagonebuli unda iyos xalxuri poeziiT (Sdr. `qalTa mze~).
TxzulebaTa msoflmxedvelobriviproblematika moicavs adamianis da-
niSnulebis, swavla-ganaTlebis miznis, gangebisa da bedis, istoriuli da
sakraluri drois da sxva sakiTxebs. orivegan mxatvrulad gaazrianda ka-
cobriobis ganviTarebis umTavresi momentebi, romelTagan gamomdinare, ar-
sebobs mxolod erTi dro _ awmyo da erTi moqmedeba _ codviT dacema da
xsna adamianisa (auerbaxi).
`vefxistyaosnis~ mixedviT, adamianis ganswavlis saboloo mizani misi
naTelTan SeerTeba, zeciur samkvidrebelSi davanebaa. amdenad swavla ga-
naTlebam adamiani RmerTs unda miaaxlovos: `miT viswavlebiT, mogveces
SerTva zesT mwyobrTa wyobisa~; guramiSvilis azriTac, ymawvili sakuTari
Tavis, adgilisa da daniSnulebis Sesamecneblad unda swavlobdes. ganaTle-
ba unda daexmaros mas, gansazRvros Tavisi damokidebulebamimarTeba
uzenaesTan. `ymawvili unda swavlobdes sacnoblad Tavisadao... vinc Seqmna
Tixa WurWelad, ras uZRvnis xelfasadao....~
gangeba da bedi _ orive Semoqmedi msgavs damokidebulebas amJRavnebs
gangebisa da bedis sakiTxebisadmi. gangeba, RvTis neba, ucvlelia; igi auci-
leblad unda aRsruldes da adamians misi morCileba marTebs. `vefxistya-
osnis~ personaJebi RvTis morCilebas avlenen yvelaze mZime wuTebSic ki.
nestanis dakargviT zardacemuli tarieli ambobs: `vTqvi, Tu: `RmerTsa ve-
ras vkadreb, raca swaddes, agre vyoca~. rusTaveli: `gangebasa vervin Ses-
cvlis, ar saqneli ar iqnebis~. `arvis ZaluZs xorcielsa gangebisa gardavle-
na~. `daviTianis~ suliskveTeba swored RvTis nebis uzenaesobaa.
guramiSvili:
`RmerTi aris TviT xelmwife,
TviT ufali, TviT mWirveli,
aravin yavs moziare,
aqvs mpyrobloba ucilveli.
RvTisgan nivTobs yovli nivTi,
xiluli da uxilveli ...~. (138)
131


`igi gaxdis wamis yofiT erTsa asad, assa erTad~ rusTavelis am taepis
reminiscenciad migvaCnia guramiSvilis Semdegi striqonebi:

`nu hgoneb, kaci TviT iyos
mdidari ganakeTia,
anu Raribi wamxdari,
vis Coxa tanT gascveTia;
erTis aTasad gamxdeli
bevris mimcemi RmerTia,
visac waarTmevs, eqnebis
aTasiT aRarc erTia~. (277)

bedi ki wuTisofliseulia. misi Secvla SesaZlebelia adamianis cxovre-
bis wesis, locvisa da mcdelobaTa mixedviT.

rusTaveli: `bedi cdaa, gamarjveba, RmerTsa undes, mocagxvdebis.
guramiSvili:
`aw bedi, giTxra marTali,
me axla momagondao;
razomca sCxrekdnen sawuTros,
brZenT bedi ar moswondao,
amad: arc lxinsa, arc Wirsa
grZlad bolo ara hqondao.
da bedi mas hqvian, vinc rome
ar mokvda, suliT cxondao~. (65)

bedis amgvari gansazRvrebis wyaro, ra Tqma unda, qristianuli
RvTismetyvelebaa.
sawuTro da saiqio `vefxistyaosansa~ da `daviTianSi~ msgavsia war-
modgena amqveyniuri da saiqio cxovrebis Sesaxeb. wuTisofeli erTgvari
mosamzadebuli etapia saukuno samkvidreblisaTvis, romelic ganisazRvreba
adamianis xorciel saqmeTa mixedviT. rusTaveli:

`pirispir marcxvens, ornive mivalT mas saukunosa~. (797,4)
anda
`RmerTsa Semvedre, nuTu kvla damxsnas soflisa Sromasa,
cecxlsa, wyalsa da miwasa, haerTa Tana Zromasa,
momcnes frTeni da avfrinde, mivxvde mas Cemsa ndomasa,
dRisiT da RamiT vxedvide mzisa elvaTa krTomasa. (1304)

`daviTiani~, rogorc Rrmad religiuri Txzuleba, qadagebaa saukuno
cxovrebis Sesaxeb.
wuTisofeli `borotsa zeda sdga~, bindisferia. rusTaveli:

`bindisgvaria sofeli, ese Tur amad binddebis~. (1094)
`igi mindos sofelsa vinca Tavisa mteria. (1348)

guramiSvili:
`nu mindobi, sawuTro
mtyuvani ars da upiro,
ar daiWirvis xelSia,
rac unda bWali uWiro,
132


dRes rome lxini mogagos,
xval ver mourCe uWiro,
amad sjobs xorci uaryo,
sulsa uloco uwiro~. (548)

`amad vwunob sawuTrosa,
sul bnelia, rasac elavs~. (561)

msgavsia wuTisoflis TemasTan dakavSirebuli sityvawarmoebac:
rusTaveli:
`sawuTro nacvlad gvatirebs, rac oden gagvicinia~. (918, 2)

guramiSvili:
`RmerTman Tqven, Zmano cocxalno,
gixsnas yovlisa WiriTa!
gardagiqciosT sicilad,
rasac rom RmerTs SestiriTa~. (13)

`mkvidri mamulis~ cneba `vefxistyaosanSi~, winare da momdevno epoqebis
tradiciaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, binaruli mniSvnelobisaa, poemaSi gvxvdeba
saero da saRvTismetyvelo, pirdapiri da gadataniTi TvalsazrisiT.
Sesabamisad, igi aRniSnavs samSoblos (`Cemia mkvidri mamuli; `mamuli Tqven
dagrComia) an samoTxes. am ukanaskneli mniSvnelobiT ,,mkvidri mamuli
ikiTxeba avTandilis `anderZis~ erTerT strofSi, romelsac, Cveni azriT,
umarTebulod, zogierTi mkvlevari CanarTad miiCnevs.

`RmerTsa mvedrebdes mravali glaxaki gulmxurvalebi,
damxsnas xorcsa da sofelsa, sxvad nuras Sevicvalebi,
kvla cecxli jojoxeTisa numca mwvavs, igi alebi,
momces mkvidrive mamuli, mun Cemi sasurvalebi! (812)

SesaZloa, sadavo iyos strofSi mocemuli romelime sityvis wakiTxva an
punqtuaciuri gamarTva, magram mTlianobaSi strofi Tavisi SinaarsiTa da
mxatvruli gamomsaxvelobiT sruliad logikurad Tavsdeba mocemul kon-
teqstSi. avTandili RmerTs sTxovs, gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi daixsnas
jojoxeTis cecxlisgan da uboZos `mkvidri mamuli, romelic aq, rogorc
jojoxeTis antinomi, gulisxmobs samoTxes, adamis `mamuls~, RvTis naboZeb
upirveles samkvidros. adamma dakarga samoTxe da TiTqmis im wuTidan ada-
mianis mizani dakargulis xelaxla mopoveba, samoTxis damkvidrebaa. aRsa-
niSnavia, rom aq avTandili zogadadamianuri poziciidan aRavlens Txovnas,
anu es survili ar aris oden misi pirovnuli, kerZoobiTi saTxovari. es
yvela adamianis sanukvari mizania. amave poziciidan aRiqmeba rostevan mefis
sityvebi: `igivea mxsneli Cemi, vinca miwa gamakaca. orive SemTxvevaSi perso-
naJi sakuTar TavSi moiazrebs adams _ pirvelkacs da, amavdroulad, yvela
adamians.
sasuliero mwerlobaSi sasufeveli xSirad moixsenieba zeciuri qalaqis,
zeciuri ierusalimis saxeliT. is aris qristiani sulis upirvelesi samSob-
lo da saboloo samkvidrebeli, iseve rogorc qristianis `Tsi upirvele-
sad sulieri naTesaobaa. `romelman yos neba mamisa Cemisa zecaTasa, igi
ars Zma da da da deda Cemi (m. 12, 50). `giorgi mTawmidelis cxovrebaSi
vkiTxulobT: `RvTismsaxurebisa saidumlosa Sina erTi mamuli pativcemul
133


ars, romel ars samoTxe, pirvelisa mis mamisa Cvenisa sayofeli, da erTi qa-
laqi, romel ars zecisa ierusalemi...da erTi naTesaoba, romel ars Tvise-
ba RmrTisa~ (giorgi mcire, `giorgi mTawmidelis cxovreba~, Tavi 2. gv. 66).
sityva `mkvidri~ ,,daviTianSi ukavSirdeba maradiuls, saukuno cxovre-
bas da upirispirdeba wuTisofels.

`romelic Cndes ufro mkvidrad, mas ebRaujeo,
nu aWmunveb mkvidrs mijnursa, wuTi daRrijeo.
anda
`saxiT sityva Sveniero, sxio, mzeTa mzis saxeo,
veZebe da Seni msgavsi me aq versada vnaxeo,
geajebi, nu gamwirav, movkvde, Sen kerZ dammarxeo,
jojoxeTSi nu Camagdeb, miwyalobe samoTxeo. (332)

Tavis cnobil `aRsarebanSi~ netari avgustine mimarTavs ufals: `ufalo
RmerTo Cemo, visac morCilebiTa da simdabliT unda gmsaxurebde, gevedrebi
Cveni meufisa da Cveni wminda, Cveni umwikvlo samSoblos _ zeciuri
ierusalimis gulisTvis ...~ (netari avgustine, `aRsarebani~, 214).
amdenad, WeSmariti qristianis ocneba ,,mkvidri mamulis mopovebaa.
sagulisxmoa, rom XIX saukunis saqarTvelos politikuri mdgomareobi-
dan gamomdinare, rodesac samSoblo da ufali TiTqmis identur universa-
liebad, daunawevrebel mTlianobad moiazreba, samSoblo miwaSi gansveneba
samoTxeSi damkvidrebis tolfasia.

`dedaSvilobam, bevrs ar gTxov,
Sens miwas mimabareo~. (akaki)

vfiqrobT, akakis es striqoni sanukvari `mkvidri mamulis~ reminiscen-
ciaa, epoqaluri niSniT aRbeWdili _ aq mamulis, samSoblos saero da
saRvTismetyvelo mniSvnelobebma, SeiZleba iTqvas, erTmaneTi gadafara.
manamde ki `mkvidri mamulis alegoriul saxeSi samoTxis moazrebiT `vefxis-
tyaosani~ sasuliero mwerlobis tradicias agrZelebs.
istoriuli da sakraluri dro _ `vefxistyaosnis~ dro araerTgvaro-
vania, ramdenadac Txzuleba mravalplaniania da misi erT-erTi mniSvnelo-
vani plasti alegoriulia; alegoria ki poemis saRvTo sazriss faravs da
bibliur-qristianuli TvalTaxedviT ganimarteba. Sesabamisad, masSi moqme-
debs bibliuri dro, esqatologiuri winaswarmetyveleba, radganac poemis
siuJeti faqtobrivad gansruldeba qorwinebebiT, romelTac alegoriul
planSi sakraluri mniSvneloba aqvs. `vefxistyaosans XVI-XVIII saukuneSi
`saero bibliis mniSvneloba mieniWa: Tu jvrisweras eklesia ganagebda, qor-
wili ukve vefxistyaosnis sakraluri qronotoposi iyo, rac sruliad adek-
vaturia rusTavelis poemis esqatologiisa: vefxistyaosnis sazrisi da
telosi xom qorwilia _ amitomac moixmareboda is `saerod~ da `sacol-
qmrod~, magram amave dros am zRaparSi qorwilis sakraluri sazrisic
gamosWvioda, rasac ara oden vaxtang VI grZnobda Tavisi utyuari alRoTi,
aramed is saeklesio pirnic, romlebmac `vefxistyaosnis~ araerTi nusxa
gadagviweres~ ( SaTiriSvili 2002: 5) .
`daviTianSi~ `ramdenime~ droa: istoriuli, realuri, bibliuri da esqa-
tologiuri. gadmocemulia movlenebi, `uJamo Jamierni, e. i. konkretul
droSi momxdarnic da zedroulnic~ (r. siraZe) TxzulebaSi mniSvnelovani
134


adgili eTmoba istoriul narativs (`qarTlis Wiri~) poemis lirikuli gmi-
ris awmyos (SemoqmedebiT procesSi), bibliur dros (guramiSvili bibliur
epizodTa mTxrobeli da `monawile~ _ Tanaganmcdeli) da esqatologiur
Jams _ (guramiSvili saukuno cxovrebis, aRdgomis momlodine).
sulieri gzis qronotopi _ baxtinis cneba _ qronotopi _ bunebrivia
fizikur drosa da sivrces gulisxmobs. `vefxistyaosnis~ yvela personaJi
ar mogzaurobs da arc maTi Sinagani ganviTarebis gzaa dinamiuri. am perso-
naJTa pirovnuli profili Tavidanve ikveTeba, rogorc idealuri, ukve das-
rulebuli mocemuloba. aseTia, magaliTad, TinaTini. poemis zogierTi per-
sonaJi ki gadis faTerakebiT aRsavse gzas. amisdakvalad xdeba misi sulieri
gaRrmaveba da TviTSemecneba (nestani). xolo rodesac personaJi ar gadaad-
gildeba geografiul sivrceSi, magram sulierad drois garkveul etapebze
gadis garkveul sivrces amaRlebisaken, am gzas pirobiTad vuwodeT sulieri
gzis qronotopi (fatmani). `daviTianSi~ lirikuli gmiris sulieri ganviTa-
rebis traeqtoria iwyeba saqarTvelodan, Cadis xaroSi (xTonuri sivrce;
`vefxistyaosanSi~ Seesatyviseba jer zRva, `zRvisa Wipia~, mere qajeTis ci-
xe); amodis da miiswrafis zesTasoflisaken. es gza ar aris sworxazobrivi,
Tumca misi saboloo mizani zeciur naTels ziarebaa. poeti sivrceSi koor-
dinacias axdens mxatvrul saxeTa moSveliebiT.

`qvesknelsa var, vera gxedav, megulvebi cada...~
(zubovka, 13)

(qveskneli es qveyanaa uflis samyofelTan mimarTebaSi. Sdr. `zecis ze-
ca~ _ netari avgustine.) poeti geografiuli gadaadgilebiT asaxavs sulier
gadanacvlebas sawuTrodan zesTasofelSi:

`sasikvdilod mivswurvilvar, yelSi suli amobolsa,
axaldabas nuRar xaro, meZaxian, amo bolsa...~ (564)

poeturi semantikidan amjerad yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT zamTarza-
fxulis antinomiur saxismetyvelebaze, romlis mixedviT, zamTari mwuxare-
bas ganasaxovnebs, zafxuli _ sixaruls (amitomac niSandoblivia saxeldeba
`mxiaruli zafxuli~). adamianis gulze zemoqmedebs yovelgvari mZafri
emocia, iqneba is dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi.

rusTaveli:
`zamTari vardTa gaaxmobs, furcelni Camoscvivian,
zafxulis mzisa siaxle daswvavs, yinvasa sCivian...
sicxe swvavs, yinva daazrobs, wylulni orjerve stkivian...
agreTve guli kacisa mosagvareblad Znelia,
Wirsa da lxinsa orTsave zeda marT viTa xelia,
miwyiv wyluldebis, sawuTro misi arodes mTelia...~ (13421343)

(vfiqrobT, safuZvelmoklebulia, rom `vefxistyaosnis~ zogierTi gamo-
mcemeli am strofebs interpolaciad miiCnevs.)
guramiSvili:
`yinva xorcs mazrobs,
sicxe suls maZrobs...
Tbili da civi orive mtkivi,
saiT gaviqce, rom ar waviqce. (1112)
135


(sainteresoa, rom amave ideis originaluri mxatvruli gaazrebaa XX
saukunis poetis ivane wiklauris leqsi `ram damabera~, romelic mTliano-
baSi pasuxia saTaurad warmodgenili kiTxvisa. pasuxi ki aerTianebs rogorc
mtkivneul, ise sasiamovno mogonebebs.)
sainteresoa poeturi sityvawarmoebis msgavseba TxzulebebSi.
rusTaveli:
`yovlsa misTvis xelovnobdes, mas aqebdes, mas amkobdes,
misgan kide nura unda, misTvis enamusikobdes~. (18,4)

guramiSvili:
`razomc ena musikobdes,
brZnad gaqebdes da gamkobdes~. ( 361)

rusTveliseuli SegonebiT `rac ara gwaddes igi hqmen, nu sdev wadilTa
nebasa!~ (880,3) unda iyos STagonebuli `daviTianis~ Semdegi strofi:

`ndoma bnels naTlad aCvenebs,
danabrmobs naTlad mxedvelsa;
ndoma mxrdals gaxdis mamacad,
Sebedavs Znels sabedvelsa;
ndoma sxvis swavlas miikravs
egreT, viT cercvi kedelsa!
da ndoma miiyvans mimyolsa
Sesarcxvens, warsawymendelsa~. (67)

saRvTo mijnurobis gadmocema, RvTis saTanado qebadideba, uZnelesi
da TiTqmis SeuZlebelia orive SemoqmedisTvis.
rusTaveli:
`mas erTsa mijnurobasa Wkvianni ver mixvdebian,
ena daSvrebis, msmenlisa yurnica davaldebian...~ ( 21,1)

guramiSvili: `...egreTve kaci ritori
razoms amWevrebs enasa,
daSvrebis, viT xams ver aqebs
mas erTsa RmerTsa zenasa~. (137)

poeturi semantikis Tanxvedras xedavs s. caiSvili TxzulebaTa Semdeg
pasaJebSi: tarielisagan gawbilebuli sami Zma avTandils uambobs ucxo
moymesTan Sexvedris Sesaxeb.

`brolman lalsa gareulman, vardni Txelni anatifna
misni mkvaxed moubarni maTraxiTa Segvamwifna!~ (207,4)

guramiSvili:
`xilTa tkbilTa da mwareTa Seityobis gemos naxviT,
Tu vera vsWam xils simkvaxiT, davarbileb, davbeJav qviT~.

rusTveluri sityvaxmarebis nimuSia stiqoni `zubovkidan~: `misman eSxman
dacamlewa, Semimusra Zvali~. Sdr. vefxistyaosnidan: `sixarulman amaCqara,
amaTrTola, da-ca-mlewa~ (627,1).
r. siraZe msjelobs `daviTianSi~ RvTaebis mxatvrul gansaxovnebaze
`miuwvdomelo naTelo, sad pirad mTvarob, sad mzoba~ _ da aRniSnavs, rom
136


`sad pirad mTvarob~ sakuTriv d. guramiSviliseuli poeturi sityvaxmare-
baa, Tumca igi rusTveluradac ismis (`mze aRar mzeobs CvenTvisa...~), xal-
xuradac (`RamiT memTvarianebi~) (siraZe 2005: 9).
`daviTianze~ msjelobisas mkvlevari daviT jiblaZe werda: `zogjer ise
aSkaraa rusTvelis mxatvruli ornamentis gamoyeneba, rom sakmarisia
mxolod ramdenime magaliTis gaxseneba. guramiSvili xmarobs rusTavelis
gamoTqmebs xan ucvlelad, xan ki Secvlilad: `iyo CrdiloeTs xelmwife~,
`mun dabali gamaRldebis~, `razoms ena musikobdes~ `ra vardman...~, `moklea
ese sofeli...~ `vefxistyaosani~ rogorRac asuldgmulebs `daviTians~ ara
uSualod leqsis zomiT, rasac guramiSvili xSir SemTxvevaSi Segnebulad
gaurbis, aramed SemoqmedebiTi suliT, SaravandediTa da Sinagani mRelvare-
biT~ (jiblaZe 1963: 1213).
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, daviT guramiSvili rusTavelisa da misi
epoqis poeturi kulturis tradiciaTa gamgrZelebelia. miuxedavad sauku-
neobrivi siSorisa, maT Soris Sinagani kavSiri ar gamwydara. guramiSvils ara
mxolod esmis rusTavelis poeturi ena, mxatvruli azrovnebis wesi, aramed
TviTonac azrovnebs am sivrceSi. amitomac SeZlo `vefxistyaosnis~ siRrmi-
seuli Semecneba da mis saxe-ideaTa originaluri gaTaviseba-warmoCena. amde-
nad, `vefxistyaosani~ da `daviTiani~ efuZneba arsebiTad erTsa da imave amo-
saval principebs, romelTa poeturi xorcSesxma moxda gansxvavebuli Semoq-
medebiTi meTodebiTa da formebiT TxzulebaTa Janruli Taviseburebebis
kvalobaze, amitomac gamovlinda ase mkveTrad `vefxistyaosnis~ saxismety-
velebiTi perspeqtivebi `daviTianSi~.


damowmebani:

bezaraSvili 2005: bezaraSvili q. `swavla moswavleTas~ problematika, rogorc
`daviTianis~ organuli nawili. _ `daviT guramiSvili 300. Tb.: 2005.
guramiSvili 1931: guramiSvili d. daviTiani. V gamocema. al. baramiZis
winasityvaobiT. Tb.: `qarTuli wigni~, Tb.: 1931.
karbelaSvili 2003: karbelaSvili m. vaxtangis Targmani `vefxistyaosnisa~ da
dro. _ rusTvelologia. II , Tb.: 2003.
kusraSvili 2000: kusraSvili r. daviT guramiSvilis ena da leqsika. Tb.: 2000.
kusraSvili 2000: kusraSvili r. daviT guramiSvilis `daviTianis~ simfonia-
leqsikoni. Tb.: 2005.
netari avgustine 1995: netari avgustine aRsarebani. laTinuridan Targmna da
SeniSvnebi daurTo baCana bregvaZem. Tb.: `nekeri~, 1995.
siraZe 2005: siraZe r. daviT guramiSvilis saxismetyveleba. _ `daviT
guramiSvili 300~. Tb.: `zekari~, 2005.
siraZe 2008: siraZe r. kultura da saxismetyveleba. Tb.: `inteleqti~, 2008.
rusTaveli 1951: rusTaveli S. vefxistyaosani. red. al. baramiZe, k. kekeliZe,
al. SaniZe. Tb.: 1951.
qarTuli mwerloba 2008: `cxoreba wmindisa ninosi~. samecn. kreb. `wminda
nino~. I naw. Tb.: 2008.
qarTuli mwerloba 2008: giorgi mcire. giorgi mTawmidelis cxovreba. qarTu-
li mwerloba. tomi II, Tb.: 1987.
SaTiriSvili 2002: SaTiriSvili z. vefxistyaosnis civilizaciis dasasruli.
`Cveni mwerloba~, 2026 dek., 2002.
137


caiSvili 1974: caiSvili s. daviT guramiSvili. _ `SoTa rusTaveli daviT
guramiSvili~. Tb.: 1974.
wiklauri 2001: wiklauri i. `ram damabera~. xalxuri xelovnebis dacvisa da
aRorZinebis centri. Tb.: `azri~, 2001.
jiblaZe 1963: jiblaZe g. tragikuli poeti. _ `kritikuli etiudebi~, 4, Tb.:
1963.


Lia Karichashvili

Allusions to literary figures of ,,The Knight in the Panthers Skin in ,,Davitiani

Summary

In the History of Georgian Literature ,,Davitiani is discussed as a homogeneous
overcoming of centuries influence of ,,The Knight in Panthers Skin. A new saying
brought a new form. In spite of these two wordls originality, it is obvious that there are
typological similarities between them that are already conditioned partially by the
following circumstances: both the works are multi planned and according to the general
qualification of like Dante, there are distinguished the four main fields: 1. historical, 2.
allegoric, 3. didactical, 4. anagogic. Each these fields are revealed with the different
intensification of the writings. For example, the historical reality in ,,Davitiani is
dominant and one of the leading topics (,,Difficulty of Kartli), but in ,,The Knight in The
Panthers Skin the historical analogy is to be researched and understood. Allegory or
allegory work of ,,The Knight in The Panthers Skin is complicated and ,,Davitiani is
purposely simpl. Didactism is led secretly in the poem, but it is exposed in ,,Davitiani.
Anagogic (theology essence) of ,,The Knight in the Panthers Skin is the deepest field , in
,,Davitiani -- the main light-motived.
In the essay the major attention is devoted to the following issues: allegory,
classification of the own creation by poets and determination of poetical rank, didactics
and motivation, worldwide ideological problems, poetical semantic.
World ideology challenges include assignment of a human, issues of fate and destiny,
life and the beyond , historical and grave issues, the artistic treatment of which in ,,The
Knight in the Panthers Skin and ,,Davitiani too is essentially based on the same
principles (that indicates to the creators ideology conformity of ideas), but their poetical
realization occurred by the different creative methods and forms in the light of genre
characteries of the works.
138


Tamar xvedeliani

is diaci... `Tvalad marjve...~

fatman-xaTuni erT-erTi yvelaze saintereso da mravalmxrivi persona-
Jia rusTvelis poemisa. `Tvalad marjve, ar-ymawvili, magram mzmeli, ...mut-
ribTa da momReralTa moyvaruli, Rvinis msmeli~.
fatman-xaTunis Sesaxeb samecniero literaturaSi araerTgvarovani da
zog SemTxvevaSi urTierTgamomricxavi Tvalsazrisia gamoTqmuli. amis mi-
zezia, erTi mxriv, misi cxovrebis wesi da, meore mxriv, is garemo, romelSic
cxovreba uwevs fatmans.
mas mkvlevarTa nawili iseT qalad Tvlis, romlisTvisac ar arsebobs
amaRlebuli siyvarulis cneba, romlisTvisac ucxoa SeubRalavi meuRleob-
rivi uReli, romlisTvisac gaugebaria sityvebis `guli erTsa daajeros~
filosofia da xanmokle, wuTieri gatacebebis tyvea.
mkvlevari zviad gamsaxurdia mas miwieri pragmatuli codnis gamoxatu-
lebad miiCnevda, romelic avTandilis Teoriul codnasTan SerwymiT miznis
miRwevas ganapirobebda (gamsaxurdia 1991: 95). fatmanis Sesaxeb msjeloben,
rogorc afrodita pornaze, romelic sikvdilis dasaZlevad mxsnels ukav-
Sirdeba da amiT `siZva~ misi gadarCenis metafora xdeba. `fatman-xaTunis
arqetipad nayofierebis qalRmerTis stadialuri reinkarnacia afrodite-
pornaa, romelic elis soters, mxsnels, mxolod maTi kavSiriTaa SesaZle-
beli gadarCena, xsna~ (nakudaSvili 2000: .219). fatmanis ambavi `odiseaSi~
arsebuli e.w. kirkes epizodis literaturul recefciadaa miCneuli
(xinTibiZe 2004: 239). fatmanis saxe gaazrebulia rogorc erTgvari foni
poemis znesrul qalTa ukeT warmosaCenad.
Tu rainduli samyaros Svilebi sulieri simaRleebisken iswrafian, va-
WarTa sazogadoebis wevrebs am simaRleTa Wvretac ki ar xelewifebaT,
radgan amisTvis RvTivsaTno cxovrebaa saWiro, Cadenili codvebis gaazreba
da gulwrfeli monanieba. aseTi adamianebis cxovreba gamudmebuli mcde-
lobaa, miemsgavson pirvelxats, vaWarTa samyaroSi ki arasodes fiqroben
RvTiur saTnoebebze, radganac `kverTxi eSmakTa Zirisa~ umaRles faseulo-
bad qceula, amitom materialurad qveyana Zlieria, `sma, gaxareba, TamaSi,
niadag ars simRerebi...~, `aqa moslviTa gaymdebis, kacica iyo berebi...~, sadac
`glaxa Tve erT gamdidrdebis... da uqonelni weliwdamdis saqonelsa daide-
ben...~, magram maTSi araa Rrma suliereba, ar aris ndoba, megobroba, zneoba,
urTierTgatana da uangaro siyvaruli.
fatmanis meuRle gulanSaroSi mniSvnelovani figuraa, romelsac `pir-
vel marTebs~ naxva vaWarTa mier qalaqSi Semotanili saganZurisa, `yovlisa
uturfesisa~, masve ZaluZs maSinve `aazatos~ fasdaudebeli saCuqris mimZR-
vneli da neba misces `viTa swaddeT, dahyidon~.
sovdagarTuxucesi usenis movaleobas, misi qalaqSi aryofnis dros,
fatman-xaTuni asrulebs da, rogorc Cans, rigianadac asrulebs. sasiamovno
mosaubre, keTili, guluxvi maspinZelia, `mxiaruli, ar Tu mqisi~. fatmans
stumris miReba da saTanadod dafasebac scodnia, radgan gaazrebuli aqvs,
rom swored maTzea damokidebuli misi ojaxis materialuri keTildReoba,
rac sabolood, mefe meliq-surxavis keTilganwyobis safuZvelia, amitom
ambobs mebaRe: `mas vacnobo moslva Tqveni, wagiyvanos, viTa Tvisi, wina kacsa
mogagebebs...~ rogorc Cans, avTandilis miwveva da aseTi pativiscemiT miReba
139


erTaderTi gamonaklisi da gansakuTrebuli SemTxveva ara yofila. fatman-
xaTuni mis mosvlamdec gulkeTili da yuradRebiani maspinZlis saxeliT
sargeblobda, rac ganasxvavebs kidec mas vaWarTa samefos mkvidri mosaxle-
obisgan. keTili maspinZloba vaWrebs mxolod im SemTxvevaSi axasiaTebT, Tu
`sanufqod~ sakadris pativs moelian, uangaro sikeTe maTTvis damaxasiaTe-
beli araa.
miCneulia, rom avTandilis gacnobam fatmanSi iqamde miZinebuli zneob-
rivi Tvisebebi gaacocxla, magram teqsti adasturebs, rom fatmani iqamdec
gansxvavdeboda garSemomyofTagan.
fatmans uyvars stumari; `fatman-xaTuns gaexarnes, gaageba mona aTi, mo-
ukazmna qarvansrani, daayena bargi maTi...~ da vaWarTuxucesis meuRle amiT
piradad iyo dainteresebuli.
eniTuTqmeli pativia! zemoT aRvniSneT, rom Sesaferis miRebaze bevrad
iyo damokidebuli misi ojaxis finansuri mdgomareobac da qveynis materi-
aluri Zlierebac, magram gadametebuli pativiscema risTvis sWirdeboda?
gulanSaroSi savaWrod Camosuli sovdagrebi xom aseTi pativiT daxvedris
gareSec miarTmevdnen saCuqars imis sanacvlod, rom kmayofil `usens~ maT-
Tvis `azatoba~ mieboZebina? magram gonier fatmans kargad moexseneba, rom
adamiani xSirad stumrobs im adgils, sadac sakadrisad xvdebian, amitom
cdilobs gulanSaroSi saqmiani viziti vaWrebs sasiamovnodac daamaxsovros
da amiT maTi momdevno stumrobac uzrunvelyos, amitom avTandilisTvis
(romelic pirvelad ewvia vaWarTa qalaqs) migebebuli msaxurebi ar ikmara da
Tavadac sasaxlis karTan dauxvda, `mxiarulman usalama, sixaruli daiCina~,
SeipatiJa da `umaspinZla metad karga~. sanacvlod avTandilmac miarTva
`ZRveni turfa~, saqmis mcodne vaWarTagan saTanadod SerCeul-dafasebuli
da `brZenTagan ganukiTxveli~.
es epizodi sainteresod warmoaCens fatmanis bunebas. mas, rogorc mas-
pinZels, rusTveli erTi fraziT acocxlebs: `fatmans misi maspinZloba
uRirs...~ bunebrivia, vaWarTa sazogadoebaSi aRzrdilma qalma `saunje _
Zvirnafasebis~ xilvisTanave igrZno, rom `Rirda~ gadametebuli stumarT-
moyvareoba, poeti mas, rogorc bunebiT keklucs da pranWias, aseve erTi
iumornarevi fraziT gvixasiaTebs: `fatman-xaTuns moslva misi, Se-viT-
vatyve, ar ewyina...~, magram TiTqmis SeumCnevelia, rom fatmans mxolod ga-
regnulad ar xiblavs avTandili. xSirad `erTgan sxdian, ubnobdian saubarsa
ara mqissa~. marTalia, vaWris samosi saTanadod faravda rainds, magram gone-
ba xom Znelad ifaravs Tavs, Wkviani kaci saubarSi avlens Tavis gonierebas,
miT ufro Tu msmenelic Sesaferisad ganswavluli, yuradRebiani da brZeni
qalia. am xSirma Sexvedrebma (`zogjer uxmis fatman missa, zogjer iyvis
fatmanissa~) da saubrebma garkveulwilad ganapiroba kidec fatman-xaTunis
keTilganwyoba.
mravali saukunis Semdeg sulxan-saba orbeliani sibrZniT gamorCeul
vazirs ase daaxasiaTebs: sityva tkbili unda hqondes, piridan avi sityva ar
unda waicTunos, rac Tqvas, yvela kacs moawonos, magram mTavari mainc isaa,
sityvis Tqmis Jami icodeso. fatmanis sityvatkbiloba da stumrebis `ara
mqisi~ saubriT Seqceva kidev erTxel adasturebs mis gonierebas. nestani-
sadmi miwerili ustari aris `...Sesanaxavi, ar cudad dasaxeveli, misTa msme-
nelTa gulisa SemZvreli, Semarxeveli...~, amis dasturia misive satrfialo
werili, avTandilisadmi miwerili.
140


da bolos, man icis rodis, sad da ra Tqvas. amaze metyvelebs misi
sityvebi:

vTqvi: uJamod ar wesia moyvana da mzisa xmoba,
momyvaneli gaSmagdebis da wauva erTob cnoba,
xmoba unda Jamierad, saajosa yovlsa Txroba,
rad ar vici ama mzisa saubrisa uJamoba.

`xmoba unda Jamierad~ Cven ase gvesmis: `sityvis Tqmis Jami icodes~, an
Tundac usens rogor gaandobs ucxo stumris ambavs: `mive marto, qmarsa
Cemsa velaRobe, velacice...~ da saidumlos gasamJRavneblad yvelaze xelsay-
reli dro SearCia. rogorc Cans, marTla icis sityvis Tqmis Jami, Tumc
zogjer Secdomasac uSvebs, magram aqac moeZebneba gamarTleba: diaci xom
swored imas aZlevs guls, vinc sicocxles urCevnia, ra misi bralia, Tu misi
rCeuli Rirseulad ver zidavs mijnurobis tvirTs?
fatman-xaTunis Sexedulebebi sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba vaWarTa sazo-
gadoebaSi dadgenil-dakanonebuli normebisagan. aRniSnaven, rom misTvis
erTguleba ucxoa, magram vaWarTa cxovrebis wesi TavisTavad gulisxmobs
Ralatsac, tyuilsac (Tu garemoebam moiTxova), simdidrisken swrafva adami-
anebs gaucnobiereblad ubiZgebs sicruisaken. sanam fatmani Tavs vaWarTa
sazogadoebis wevrad miiCnevs, misi cxovrebis wesic analogiuri unda iyos.
Ralatobs meuRles, magram am faqts ar axmaurebs, garegnulad qmris pati-
viscemas inarCunebs, raTa usens Rirseba ar Seulaxos, rac, bunebrivia, mis
gavlenas Seasustebs. nestanis ambavsac mxolod WaSnagirs andobs, romelic
hgonia, rom uyvars da saerTo saidumloTi ganamtkicebs maT Soris kavSirs.
Tumc WaSnagiri ar aRmoCnda is adamiani, romelsac SeeZlo qalis saidumlos
Senaxva da amiT Tavis vaJkacobaze Tqva uari, rac mogvianebiT naTlad gamo-
ikveTa. satrfos RalatiT ganrisxebulma sasaxlis uxmod da samudamod
datovebiT, an orTabrZoliT ki ar scada Selaxuli Rirsebis aRdgena, (miT
ufro, rom marto Tavis imedad ar iyo, Tan axlda mona `xmal-darakiani~), ara-
med gakapasebuli qaliviT daifica: `gamiTendebis, gananeb maga moymisa
yolasa~ da Tavisi damcirebis gamo SurisZieba mefes miando.
fatmani bunebiT mzrunveli qalia. erTi mxriv, udardeli, garTobis moy-
varuli da amave dros gaWirvebulis qomagi, mowyale, mzadaa mxarSi amoudges
yvelas, visac misi yuradReba sWirdeba. fatmans uyvars mxiaruleba, magram
ver vxedavT mxiaruls, uyvars drostareba, magram mxolod gunebanacvali da
sevdiani warmogvidgeba, `mutribTa da momReralTa~ qebis nacvlad kaeSnis
moZalebaze laparakobs. `marto davrCi...~, sarkmlidan `vixedvidi, viqarveb-
di kaeSansa~, `umizezod gavxe rasme ugemurad... `_acxadebs xSirad, mowyeni-
li jdeba sarkmelTan da gahyurebs zRvis sivrces. es miuTiTebs, rom igi
`sxva samwysos ekuTvnis... instinqturad yvelgan daeZebs sakuTari arsebis
Semavsebel saSualebas...~ (bezaraSvili... 2004: 5), magram ar icis rogor ipo-
vos an rogor icnos, amitom ubrZolvelad mihyveba cxovrebas, iRebs imas,
rasac cxovreba sTavazobs.
wyali miTologiaSi siaxles, ganaxlebas, astrologiurad ki iluzias,
ararealur, ocnebis samyaros ukavSirdeba. amave dros wyali ganasaxierebs
saRmrTo madls, romelic Semodis saaqao yofaSi sulieri samyarodan, aco-
cxlebs da anayofierebs mas (gamsaxurdia 1991: 211). aqedan gamomdinare,
fatmani meocnebe qalad gvevlineba, romelic zRvidan elis siaxles da dar-
wmunebulia, rom es siaxle mis ocnebas realobad aqcevs. TiTqos grZnobs,
141


rom vaWarTa sazogadoebis wevrobaze mets imsaxurebs da Tavadac qvecno-
bierad mieltvis TavisTvis ucxo, amoucnob samyaros. zRvidan mas jer
nestani estumra, Semdeg avTandili da orivesTan fatmanma sulieri siaxlo-
ve igrZno. nestanisaTvis dedaze meti gaxda, tarielisTvis daze utkbesi da,
xolo avTandilisaTvis Seucvleli da sando megobari.
mas TiTqos uyvars WaSnagiri, radgan igi mis `cqaf, uwrfel da mstro-
mel~, `mWle da Tvalad nas~ usenze aRmatebulia (oden garegnobiT). WaSnagi-
ri `kekluci~ da `tannakvTiania~ da amiT amoiwureba misi pirovnuli xibli,
rac Seexeba avTandils, igi fatmanSi ufro Rrma grZnobebs aRZravs, rac
urTierTndobas, urTierTgagebas da urTierTpativiscemas gulisxmobs.
misi gamoCenis Semdeg sadRac gauCinarda fiqri martoobaze, sevda, umizezo
dardi. fatmanma TiTqos Seicno adamiani, romlis siaxlove yovelTvis ak-
lda, amitom misi trfoba ufro idealTan siaxloviT gamowveul grZnobad
unda miviCnioT. grZnobad, romelsac SeuZlia misi sulieri zrda gamoiwvios.
Tamaz WilaZe fatmans `gulanSaroSi samudamod CarCenil sxivs~ uwodebs,
romelic iseve saWiroebs mxsnels, rogorc qajeTis cixis tyve _ nestani,
radgan misTvis gulanSaro iseTive qajeTia, sadac iZulebulia iseve icxov-
ros, rogorc cxovroben sxvebi, Tumc icis, rom arsebobs ukeTesi qveyana
ukeTesi adamianebiT dasaxlebuli da grZnobs, rom im adamianebTan bevri
aqvs saerTo (WilaZe 1998: 58).
miT ufro, rom fatmani imxanad ukve icnobda nestans, romelsac masSi
keTilSobiluri da maRalzneobrivi Tvisebebi ukve gaRvivebuli hqonda.
`swored `maRlad mxedi~ nestanis gamoCenis Semdeg iwyeba misi Sinagani sam-
yaros transformacia, mis cnobierebaSi Semodis sruliad axali sulieri
mSveniereba da zneobiTi Rirebuleba~ (galdava 2002-2003: 81).
avTandilTan damokidebulebaSi naTlad gamovlinda fatmanis gamWri-
axoba. rogorc Cans, zRvis gaRmidan mosulma vaWarma masSi Tavidanve aRZra
eWvi da igi dakvirvebisa da Seswavlis obieqtad aqcia.
roca fatmanisgan xmobil avTandils qalma mona Seageba da SeuTvala:
`amas Rame nu moxvalo...~, albaT namdvil vaWars unda egrZno safrTxe da ukan
gabrunebuliyo, avTandils ki `ewyina, ar dabrunda...~ savaraudod, am gabe-
dulebasa da daumorCileblobas unda gaeRvivebina interesi, romelic male-
ve unda gaZlierebuliyo. roca avTandilma WaSnagiris muqariT SeSinebuli
qalis daxmareba gadawyvita: `...kaci momec maswavlelad, winamZRvarad, gzasa
marTlad wamiyvanos, Tvara meSvlad minda arad; ima kacsa vera vxedav
meomrad da Cemad darad...~, arada vaWrebi xom `jabanni, omisaca umecari~
xalxia. avTandilsac araferSi sWirdeboda es orTabrZola. gamarjvebis Sem-
TxvevaSi Tavsac ki ver moiwonebda, radgan saidumlo saidumlodve unda
darCeniliyo.
`Tu mo-viTa-hkla igi yma... beWedi Cemi acvia, mas gvedreb mosatanelad~
sTxova fatmanma da es misi mxridan eWvis dadastureba da avTandilis sabo-
loo gamocda iyo. risTvis iTxova beWedi? misi naCuqari samkauli rom ar
SeemCniaT mokluli WaSnagiris xelze da maTi urTierToba rom ar gacxade-
buliyo? magram Tu WaSnagirs sicocxleSi `ecva~ misi naCuqari samkauli da
es zedmet kiTxvebs aravis aRuZravda?
vfiqrobT, fatmani darwmunebulia, rom rainduli bunebis adamiani, vaW-
risgan gansxvavebiT, arasodes ikadrebs, xeli mohkidos sxvis kuTvnil Zvir-
fas nivTs, rameTu Rirseuli WabukisaTvis micvalebulis xelidan beWdis
waZroba mis ZarcvasTan iqneboda asocirebuli.
142


fatmanis eWvi gamarTlda. avTandilma WaSnagiri mokla, `beWdiTurT
TiTi mohkveTa, cxedari `zRvisaken sarkmliT gastyorca~, sazareli ZRveni
ki qals niSnad miarTva sisxlian danasTan erTad. amiT avTandilma Tavisi
rainduli buneba gamoavlina, mteri daamarcxa, beWeds ki ar Sexebia. dae, mas
waeZro TiTidan, vinc samkauls Rirebulebis mixedviT afasebda. amis Semdeg
avTandilis raindobaSi darwmunebulma qalma ukve uSiSrad misca `sabeli
misi yelisa~, masac gaando Tavisi xvaSiadi da amiT saidumlos kidev erTi
moziare gaiCina, Tumca axla ukve mtkiced iyo darwmunebuli, rom raindi qa-
lis saidumlos arasodes gascemda. rainds `uZRvna mravali kaba, yabaCa, ri-
debi~ da avTandilmac misTvis Cveuli `saWabuko Seimosa tansa mxnesa~. gu-
lanSaroSi misi stumroba sruldeboda da dasafar _ dasamalic aRara
hqonda ra. fatmanmac SesaSuri TavSekaveba gamoavlina, roca `Taviswina ga-
Rimebul~ avTandils ar agrZnobina, rom yvelaferi cxadi gamxdariyo mis-
Tvis, `gakvirveba daiCina~, `Semoscinna: `agre sjobso~ da amiT saSualeba mis-
ca, Tavad moeTxro, rasac saWirod CaTvlida.
jer nestanTan, Semdeg avTandilTan Sexvedram fatmani daaaxlova im
samyarosTan, romelsac qvecnobierad yovelTvis mieltvoda.
`fatmanSi uTuod aris saTnoebaTa is marcvali, romelic `lxinebul _
hyofs~ mas. fatmani is adamiania, romelmac Seicno nestanis didbunebovneba~
(galdava 2002-2003), gaigo da gainawila avTandilis valdebulebis simZime, es
ki pirovnebisgan garkveul zneobriv simaRles moiTxovs.


damowmebani:

bezaraSvili... 2004: bezaraSvili q., dgvefaZe. fatmanis saxis interpretaci-
isaTvis. _ rusTvelologia. III. Tb.: 2004.
galdava 2002-2003: mRvdeli miqael galdava. ramaz mefisa da fatmanis
zneobiTi kaTarzisisaTvis vefxistyaosanSi. _ klasikuri da Tanamedrove
qarTuli mwerloba. 5-6, 2002-2003.
gamsaxurdia 1991: gamsaxurdia z. vefxistyaosnis saxismetyveleba. Tb.: 1991.
nakudaSvili 2000: nakudaSvili n. arqetipuli motivebi vefxistyaosanSi
(xvarazmeli sasiZosa da fatmanis arqetipisaTvis). _ literaturuli Ziebani. XX,
2000.
WilaZe 1998: WilaZe T. vardis furclobis niSani. 1998.
xinTibiZe 2004: xinTibiZe z. kirke da fatmani. _ literaturuli Ziebani, XXV,
2004.


143


Tamar Khvedeliani

That Woman... attractive to the eye

Summary

There is no scholarly consensus on the character of Dame Patman in literature and in
some cases even contradictory views have been expressed. The reason for this is her way
of life, on the one hand, and, on the other, the environment in which Patman has to live.
One part of the scholars consider that she is a type of woman for whom there is no
such thing as a lofty love, the yoke of honest matrimony is alien for her, the philosophy of
the words the heart should be given only to the special one means nothing to her and she
is a captive of transient, amorous liaisons. The other part of the scholars holds that she
expresses earthly pragmatism which in combination with Avtandils theoretical knowledge
contributes to the achievement of the goal. Some scholars regard Patman archetype as
phased reincarnation of the goddess of fertility Aphrodite-porn who is waiting for a savior
and with the help of this liaison is trying to survive. Besides this, the story of Patman is
presented as a literary reception of the so-called Kirke episode from the Odyssey and is
designed as a certain background for better manifestation of the womens honor and
dignity in the poem.
The paper makes a survey of views existing around the artistic figure of Patman and
the image of an extremely clever, virtuous, noble woman capable to sacrifice for the sake
of a friend who manages to discover Nestans true nature, takes the burden of Avtandils
obligation on herself that requires from a person high standard of morality.

144




XIX saukune _ epoqa da literatura


konstantine bregaZe

soflisa da zesTasoflis urTierTmimarTebis ontologia
qarTul realistur mwerlobaSi
(i. WavWavaZis poema `gandegilis~ mixedviT)

Sesavali

i. WavWavaZis (1837-1907) mTeli mxatvruli Semoqmedebis fonze poema
`gandegili~ (1883) Taviseburi `marginaluri~ teqstia, igi Taviseburi `amo-
vardnaa~ mTliani SemoqmedebiTi konteqstidan, vinaidan poemis sazrisise-
uli diskursi da poemis teqstSi dasmuli problematika acdenilia soci-
aluri, nacionalur-patriotuli da erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli Temati-
kis, ritorikisa da narativis magistralur xazs, romliTac determinebulia
ilias prozauli, lirikuli Tu epikur-lirikuli teqstebis umetesoba (mag.
moTxrobebi _ `mgzavris werilebi~, `oTaraanT qvrivi~, `glaxis naambobi~,
`luarsab TaTqariZe~; leqsebi _ `elegia~, `mesmis, mesmis...~, `gazafxuli~,
`qarTvlis dedas~, `bazaleTis tba~, `Cemo kargo qveyanav...~, `Cemo kalamo...`,
`bednieri eri~, `poeti~, `mas aqeT, raki...~ `qarTvlis deda~ da sxva; poemebi _
`kako yaCaRi~, `aCrdili~, `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli`). amis sapirispirod,
poemaSi asketi berisa da mwyemsi qalis personaJTa konstelaciis fonze
ilias mier intencirebulia anTropologiuri, egzistencialuri da onto-
logiuri problematika, anu, wmindad fundamenturi filosofiuri proble-
matika, sadac ilia cdilobs mxatvruli teqstis formatSi gaiazros (da
Sesabamisad, gadaWras) soflisa da zesTasoflis dualizmis maradiuli
problema.
poemaSi uxilavi da xiluli sinamdvilis urTierTmimarTebis problemis
gaazrebisa da gadaWrisas ilia miyveba rusTveliseul xazs, romelic
Tavis mxriv ukavSirdeba qarTul kulturaSi ganfenil qristianuli moZR-
vrebis fsevdo-dionise areopagiseul (petre iberiseul) interpretacias,
romlis ontologiuri koncefciis mixedviT xilul da uxilav sinamdviles,
transcendenturobasa da empireas Soris imTaviTve moxsnilia dualizmi da
aRiarebulia am ori mocemulobis sinTezi. xolo anTropologiuri Tval-
sazrisiT areopagitikaSi adamiani moiazreba iseT arsad, romelic Tavis
TavSi iTavsebs rogorc xorciel, ise sulier sawyisebs da aviTarebs maT
sinTezss (TvaraZe 1985: 255-286).
qarTul qristianul kulturaSi recifirebul da realizebul am fun-
damentur ontologiur da anTropologiur xazs _ petre iberimerCule
rusTaveli sabaguramiSvilibaraTaSvili _ kvlav iazrebs da anaxlebs
ilia Tavis poemaSi `gandegili~, sadac asketi beris personaJi simbolurad
ganasaxierebs calmxrivad gagebul qristianul moZRvrebas, romlis mixed-
145


viTac xiluli realoba a priori ganasaxierebs demonur, borot sulier ZalTa
sauflos. Sesabamisad, am asketikuri qristianobisaTvis xiluli realoba
araWeSmaritis sferoa. xolo poemis mwyemsi

qalis personaJi simbolurad


ganasaxierebs qristianuli moZRvrebis areopagitul xazs, romelic xilul
samyarosac aseve RvTis qmnilebad ganixilavs da aviTarebs xiluli da uxi-
lavi sinamdvilis, Sesabamisad, soflisa da zesTasoflis sinTezis princips,
sadac daZleulia asketikuri qristianobis ontologiuri dualizmi.
aqedan gamomdinare mimaCnia, rom kulturologiuri TvalsazrisiT
ilias es mxatvruli teqsti unda gaviazroT areopagituli qristianobis
RirebulebaTa xelaxali recefciisa da reanimirebis cdad ilias Tanamed-
rove qarTul kulturul sinamdvileSi, romelic mocemuli momentisaTvis
(XIX s. meore naxevari) ukve dacilebuli da acdenili iyo qarTuli qristi-
anuli kulturis zemoTaRniSnul magistralur xazs.
kulturologiuri TvalsazrisiT ilias mier am msoflmxedvelobrivi
diskursis ganaxlebis cda imJamindel saqarTveloSi (XIX s. 80-90-iani w.w.),
rodesac saqarTvelo TiTqmis izolirebulia evropuli kulturul-poli-
tikuri sivrcisagan da warmoadgens ruseTis imperiis koloniur danamats,
rodesac saqarTvelos kulturuli ganviTareba acdenilia petre iberiseul
da rusTveliseul msoflmxedvelobriv xazs, da rodesac saqarTveloSi ukve
marqsizmi da socialisturi ideebi iwyebs gavrcelebas (mesame dasis gamos-
vla), am fonze poemaSi dasmuli fundamenturi ontologiuri problematika,
ra Tqma unda, ukve warmoCndeba rogorc `marginaluri~ diskursi.
poema `gandegilis~ teqstSi ganviTarebuli soflisa da zesTasoflis
dualizmis problematika aseve sruli amovardna da Seusabamoba iyo im mo-
mentisaTvis arsebuli qarTuli literaturuli procesis konteqstidan,
vinaidan, imJamad, rodesac `gandegili~ gamoqveynda, qarTuli literaturis
narativSi dominirebda socialuri yofis amsaxveli Temebi (d. kldiaSvili,
e. ninoSvili, e. gabaSvili, i. evdoSvili, n. lomouri da sxv.) da nel-nela fexs
ikidebda naturalisturi da fsiqologiuri prozisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
tendenciebi (g. wereTeli, S. aragvispireli, W. lomTaTiZe, da sxv.). xolo
aseTi tipis literaturisaTvis a priori ucxo da `miuRebelia~ `gandegilSi~
dasmuli zogadontologiuri problematika.
xolo saqrTvelos socialur-politikur sinamdvileSi win wamoiwevs
marqsistul-materialisturi ideebi, romelic adamians moiazrebs, rogorc
wmindad biologiur arss, romlis egzistenciac ZiriTadad determinebulia
momxmarebluri miswrafebebiT (yofiereba gansazRvravs cnobierebas). xolo
ontologiuri TvalsazrisiT marqsizmi win wamoswevs yofierebis monistur-
materialistur gagebas.
amdenad, arsebul msoflmxedvelobriv da kulturologiur konteqstSi
poema `gandegilis~ teqsti TiTqosda aRiqmeba srul anaqronizmad da mar-
ginalobad. magram zogadad qarTuli literaturisa da kulturis istoriis
konteqstSi es teqsti ukve warmoCndeba ara rogorc marginaluri tipis
mxatvruli teqsti, aramed am WrilSi igi aRiqmeba rogorc qarTuli qris-

saerTod mxatvrul da sakralur teqstebSi mwyemsi simbolurad ganasaxierebs RmerTze,


Sesaqmesa da bunebaze misterialuri sibrZnis mflobel personaJs, mas uSualo kavSiri aqvs
RvTaebriv gamocxadebasTan: mag., Zvel aRTqmaSi RmerTi ecxadeba mwyems abraamsa da moses.
swored mwyemsi abelisagan Seiwiravs ufali msxverpls da ara miwaTmoqmedi kaenisagan.
aseve sainteresoa iesos Sobis epizodi axali aRTqmidan, rodesac yrma iesos pirvelebi
swored mwyemsebi scemen Tayvans (mecleri... 2008: 159).
146


tianuli kulturis magistraluri msoflmxedvelobrivi xazis gagrZeleba
_ petre iberimerCulerusTavelisabaguramiSvilibaraTaSvili.
amitomac, dRes ilias `gandegili~ aRqmul unda iqnas, rogorc am kultu-
rologiuri magistralis gagrZelebis cda esTetikis sferoSi. Cemi azriT,
dRes am poemas swored amdenad aqvs Rirebuleba da igi momavalSic gamod-
geba rogorc qarTuli kulturis msoflmxedvelobrivi orientaciis para-
digma. dRes es teqsti aseve unda gaviazroT, rogorc ilias filosofiur-
msoflmxedvelobrivi mrwamsi, sadac anTropologiuri da ontologiuri
problematika gaazrebulia qarTuli qristianuli msoflmxedvelobis
(petre iberi, rusTaveli) tradiciaze dayrdnobiT.
aqedan gamomdinare, Tuki dRes sakiTxs davsvamT `gandegilis~ teqstis
Rirebulebisa da aqtualobis Sesaxeb, am TvalsazrisiT aq gamoiyofa sami
mniSvnelovani garemoeba, rac swored gansazRvravs am teqstis Rirebule-
basa da aqtualobas, rogorc Tavad ilias mTliani Semoqmedebis, ise zoga-
dad qarTuli literaturisa da kulturis, da saerTod, msoflio litera-
turis konteqstSi:
I. `gandegilis~ teqstSi ilia aviTarebs sakuTar qristianul-filoso-
fiur mrwamss;
II. teqstSi mocemulia qarTuli qristianuli kulturis magistarluri
xazis kvlav dadgineba da xelaxali gansazRvra.
III. teqstSi ganviTarebulia zogadontologiuri da anTropologiuri
problematika, romlis konteqstSi ilia gamokveTs adamianis daniSnulebis
egzistencialur problematikas.
amitom, miuxedavad ilias saerTo SemoqmedebiTi da imJamad saqarTve-
loSi arsebuli socio-kulturuli da literaturuli procesebis konteq-
stidan poema `gandegilis~ TiTqosda `amovardnisa~, es lirikul-epikuri
teqsti dResac saintereso, aqtualuri da mniSvnelovania swored saqarTve-
los zogadi kulturuli konteqstis TvalsazrisiT da igi warmoadgens
mxatvrul teqstSi qarTuli qristianuli kulturis generaluri xazis
(petre iberirusTaveliguramiSvilibaraTaSvili) reanimaciis, kultu-
ruli identifikaciisa da qarTveli eris samomavlo sulier-kulturuli
orientaciis moxazvis cdas XIX. s. koloniur saqarTveloSi.
aqedan gamomdinare, ilias poema dRes ukve warmoCndeba, rogorc qarTul
qristianul kulturaSi adreul etapzeve SemuSavebuli da SuasaukuneebSi
(XII-XIII s.s.) ganviTarebuli ontologiuri da anTropologiuri xedvis ganax-
lebisa da SenarCunebis cdad ilias Tanamedrove sulieri kulturis Tval-
sazrisiT dezorientirebul da identifikaciadakargul qarTul socio-
kulturul sinamdvileSi.


I. `gandegilis~ ontologiuri da anTropologiuri problematika
amTaviTve unda aRiniSnos, rom konceptualurad aramarTebulia ilias
`gandegilis~ hermenevtikisas wmindad religiuri asketikisa da Teologiis
problematikaze fokusireba (kalandariSvili 1982: 46-59; metreveli 1993:
45-57; niniZe 2000: 23-64), ramdenadac sakuTriv am problematikas aRniSnuli
teqstis ZiriTadi siRrmiseuli sazrisi ar Seicavs, miuxedavad imisa, rom
poemis mTavari personaJi asketi beria da poemis Sinaarsi mis gandegil
cxovrebasa da misi asketikis gzaze mogviTxrobs.
147


sinamdvileSi, poemaSi intencirebulia zogadad adamianis yofierebise-
uli da arsebobiseuli filosofiuri problematika: ontologiuri, egzis-
tencialuri da anTropologiuri sakiTxebi iliam SemoqmedebiTi mizandasa-
xulobidan gamomdinare gandegili beris asketuri cxovrebisa da misi da
mwyemsi qalis urTierTdamokidebulebis formatSi ganaviTara, sadac TiTo-
euli protagonisti simbolurad konkretul msoflxedvas ganasaxierebs da
ara mainca da mainc ama Tu im socialuri, Tu asocialuri statusiT `aR-
Wurvili~ personaJia. xazs vusvam, poemis gmirTa socialuri statusi da po-
emaSi asaxuli garemo SemoqmedebiTi mizandasaxulobidan gamomdinare ganvi-
Tarebuli pirobiTi fiqcionaluri fonia, romlis farglebSic gandegili
berisa da mwyemsi qalis personaJTa konstelaciis fonze mocemulia msof-
lxedvaTa dapirispireba da fundamenturi filosofiuri problematikis, _
kerZod, adamianis arsisa da misi arsebobis raobis problematikis _ mxat-
vruli teqstis farglebSi dasmisa da gadaWris cda.
1
amitomac, poemis teqstis interpretaciisas, Tuki gvsurs vwvdeT aRniS-
nuli teqstis WeSmarit sazriss, interpretatori unda moeridos teqstis
fsiqologiur an fsiqoanalitikur interpretacias, aseve fsiqologizebasa
da moralizebas, anu personaJTa fsiqologiuri da eTikuri portretebis
gadmocemas, maTi cnobieri, qvecnobieri, Tu aracnobieri qcevis analizs,
ramdenadac es am SemTxvevaSi aRniSnuli teqstis interpretaciis meoradi
amocanaa, da poemis teqstis ganmartebisas misi pirvelad amocanad dasaxva
teqstis WeSmariti sazrisisagan, Sinagani logosisagan distancirebas
gamoiwvevs.
aqedan gamomdinare, asketi beris moRvaweoba da misi daRupva simbolu-
rad pirvel rigSi swored garkveuli msoflxedvis marcxs ganasaxierebs
(buaCiZe 2005: 604-605; vasaZe 2010: 64-65; jamburia 2002: 181), da ara wmindad
pirovnul, pirad religiur marcxs (ra Tqma unda, amasac, magram, xazs vusvam,
teqstis am doneze interpretacia teqstis mxolod moraluri an fsiqoana-
litikuri, da ara spiritualur-aRyvanebiTi (goniTi) interpretacia iqne-
boda, anu, saboloo jamSi miviRebdiT teqstis arasrulyofil, nawilobriv
interpretacias da miRma darCeboda teqstis WeSmariti sazrisi, kerZod,
adamianis arsisa da misi arsebobis raobis zogadfilosofiuri problemati-
ka). poemaSi problematika zogadia, da ara kerZo-pirovnuli, anu, gandegi-
lis `erTjeradi~ tragedia.
amgvarad, teqstis interpretaciisas erTi calke aRebuli asketi beris
tragikuli istoriis ambavze Tu movaxdenT fokusirebas, es, erTi mxriv,
iqneboda poemis teqstis sazrisis bolomde verwvdoma, xolo meore mxriv,
avtori warmoCndeboda rogorc SemoqmedebiTad araadekvaturi, romelic
mxatvrul teqstSi aviTarebs mocemuli momentisTvis araaqtualur, da
amavdroulad, aramaradiul, `erTjerad~ problematikas.
aseve aramarTebulad mimaCnia, erTi mxriv `gandegilis~ zogadfiloso-
fiuri problematikisa da, meore mxriv ilias sxva teqstebis erovnul-ganma-
Tavisuflebeli problematikis gaigiveba (mag. `mgzavris werilebi~, an `aC-
rdili~) da maT Soris sazrisiseuli da tropuli paralelebis daZebna (mag.
myinvarwveri da Tergi) (abaSiZe 1962: 170-172; baqraZe 1984: 108-113; zanduke-
li 1976: 333; kotetiSvili 1965: 350; niniZe 2000: 64-85, 92-97). `gandegilis~
teqstSi saerTod araa erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli problematika mocemu-
li da teqstSi saqarTvelos tragikuli bedis alegoriebis Zieba da poemis
XIX s. saqarTvelos cxovrebis simbolur asaxvad gageba da ganmarteba kon-
148


ceptualurad aramarTebuli da xelovnuria (baqraZe 1984: 108), ramdenadac
Tavad teqstis SigniT msgavsi ram arc erT doneze ar vlindeba _ arc
Sinaarsobriv da arc sazrisiseul doneze.
2

filosofosma T. buaCiZem gandegilis msoflxedva da misi msoflgancda
Seafasa rogorc `ubeduri cnobierebis~ produqti (buaCiZe 2005: 597). ras
niSnavs hegeliseuli e. w. `ubeduri cnobiereba~?
es axali forma (e. i. `ubeduri cnobiereba~ _ k. b.), hegelis Tanaxmad,
warmoiSoba maSin, rodesac winaaRmdegoba ara mxolod arsebobs cnobiere-
baSi, aramed amave dros gacnobierebulicaa: `ubedurma cnobierebam~ icis,
rom Tavis TavSi or urTierTsawinaaRmdego cnobierebis matarebelia. `ube-
duri cnobiereba~ Tavis SigniT gaorebulia, Tanac es aris gaoreba, romel-
sac aklia erTianoba, es aris SiSveli `winaaRmdegoba~.
rogoria konkretulad es gaoreba?
ubeduri cnobiereba, hegelis azriT, Seicavs, erTi mxriv ucvlel cno-
bierebas, romelic mimarTulia maradiulisadmi, imqveyniurisadmi, meore
mxriv ki _ cvalebad cnobierebas, romelic dakavebulia `amqveyniuriT~,
cvalebadiT. Tavisi cnobierebis am urTierTsawinaaRmdego moments `ubedu-
ri cnobiereba~ gansxvavebulad afasebs, gansxvavebul Rirebulebas aniWebs:
ucvlels miiCnevs `arsebiTad~, cvalebads ki `araarsebiTad~. amave dros
ucvlelsa da cvalebads is ganicdis aramarto rogorc savsebiT gansxvave-
buli Rirebulebis mqone movlenebs, aramed agreTve, rogorc erTmaneTis
mimarT savsebiT ucxos: ucvlelsa da cvalebads, amqveyniurs da imqveyniurs
Soris gadaulaxavi ufskrulia. [...] dualisturad gaazrebuli samyaro ar
iZleva imis saSualebas, rom cvalebadsa da ucvlels Soris gaidos xidi. es
ki badebs Rrma ubedurebis gancdas. (buaCiZe 2005: 597, 598).


poemis asketi beris cnobierebaSi swored amgvar SeuTavsebel mocemu-
lobebad warmoCndeba xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvile: gandegilisaTvis xi-
luli sinamdvile, empirea Tavisi arsidan gamomdinare warmoadgens cvaleba-
dis, warmavalis sferos, xolo misi sulieri swrafvis sagani _ uxilavi
sinamdvile, transcendenturoba _ ucvlelis, maradiulis sferos. es
dapirispireba gandegilisaTvis apriorulia da misi msoflxedvidan gamom-
dinare zesTasofeli, uxilavi RvTaebrivi sinamdvile mxolod araRvTaebri-
vi xiluli sinamdvilis uaryofiT miiRweva. Sesabamisad, anTropologiuri
TvalsazrisiT transcenedenturobis mopovebisa da umaRlesi sulieri
srulyofilebis miRwevis SesaZleblobis winapirobaa adamianSi ontologi-
urad mocemuli xorcieli sawyisebis daTrgunva da uaryofa, xolo egzis-
tencialuri TvalsazrisiT wuTisoflis, am SemTxvevaSi, adamianuri soci-
umisa (ojaxi, sazogadoeba) da amqveyniuri cxovrebis uaryofa:

ilias `gandegilis~ T. buaCiZiseuli interpretacia zogadad mxatvruli teqstis herme-


nevtikis klasikur nimuSad mimaCnia, es aris brwyinvale magaliTi imisa, Tu rogor unda
moxdes konkretuli mxatvruli teqstis WeSmariti sazrisis maqsimalurad srulyofili
interpretacia da wvdoma. `gandegilis~ T. bauCiZeseuli interpretacia unda mivakuTvnoT
mxatvruli teqstis filosofiuri, anu spiritualur-aRyvanebiTi (goniTi) interpretaci-
is sferos, rac, Cemi azriT, aris kidec mxatvruli teqstis yvelaze maRali ganzomilebis
interpretacia.
149


odesRac taZars im gauqmebuls
meudabnoe Sehkedlebia;
saiqiosTvis es saaqo
dauTmia da ganSorebia.
ganSorebia viT codvis sadgurs,
viT sameufos borotisasa,
sadac marTali gzas ver auqcevs
gansacdelsa mas eSmakisasa;
sad codva kacsa sdevnis dRe-da-Ram,
viTa mparavi da mtacebeli;
sad, rasac hxadis marTali marTlad,
mas umarTlobad hqmnis codvis xeli;
sad ryvna, wawymeda da Ralatia,
sadac Zma hxarobs sisxlsa Zmisasa,
sad cili, zakva Zulebada hxdis
wminda siyvaruls moyvasisasa.
ganSorebia am wuTisofels,
sad yovli niWi macdurebaa,
sad TviT siturfe da saTnoeba
eSmakis maxe da cdunebaa.
(WavWavaZe 2007: 142-143)

amgvarad, gandegilis cnobiereba xilul sinamdviles, wuTisofels, am-
qveyniurs a priori borotebisa da warmavlobis, amaoebis, arasrulyofilebis
sferod moiazrebs, misi cnobierebisaTvis warmoudgenelia, rom masSi SesaZ-
loa iyos RvTaebrivi impulsi, RvTaebrivi dvrita; warmoudgenelia, rom
xiluli realoba raRacnairad mainc SeiZleba warmoadgendes RvTaebrivis
emanacias _ anu imas, rom xiluli realobac SeiZleba iyos sulieri
Rirebulebis matarebeli (buaCiZe 2005: 605; vasaZe 2010: 66-67). Tumca, swored
Semdgomi spiritualuri gamocdileba _ bunebis suraTis, Camavali mzis
silamazis xilva _ aRZravs asket berSi sakuTari apriorulobisadmi pirvel
qvecnobier kritikas:

erTxel, saRamos, locviT daRlili,
gadmomdgariyo zRudis karebsa
da dafiqrebiT gadmohyurebda
mwvaniT dafenils mTisa kalTebsa.
mze gadaxrili jer kidev srulad
mTisa gadaRma ar dasuliyo
da mTis wverzed, viT cecxlis borbali,
irgvliv sxivgaSliT anTebuliyo.
cisa laJvardi, viT nakverCxali,
wiTlad da yviTlad mzisgan hRuvoda,
da gamsWvaluli misiT Rrubeli
Sors aTas-ferad sxivebSi hTrToda.
ama ubiwo diadis xilviT
wartyvevnil iqmna ganyenebuli
da viT cxovels xats RvTis didebisas
Sescqerda mzesa gancvifrebuli.
(WavWavaZe 2007: 145)


150


swored es gancvifrebaa pirveli qvecnobieri skepsisi sakuTari msofl-
mxedvelobrivi mrwamsis mimarT, ramdenadac poemis am epizodSi gandegili
pirispir aRmoCnda xiliuli realobis sidiadesa da mSvenierebis winaSe:
buneba, _ miuxedavad imisa, rom isic arasrulyofilia (uecrad astyda ram
niav-qari, [...] da myinvaridam viTa veSapi Savi Rrubeli daiZra mZimeT...), iseve
rogorc wuTisofeli, kacTa saaqao cxovreba, _ gandegilis winaSe warmoC-
nda swored rogorc RvTis qmnileba, rogorc RvTaebrivis amqveyniuri ema-
nacia, anu buneba, rogorc RvTaebrivi, ucvleli Rirebulebis matarebeli
mocemuloba.
mwyemsi qalis xorcieli silamazec aseve RvTaebrivis amqveyniur emana-
ciad moevlina gandegils:

TviT madls trfobisas rom moesurvos
xorcsxmulad vlena odesme qveynad,
ukeTess saxes ver inatrebda
Tavis sicxovlis gamomsaxvelad.
maSinac vin sTqvas, _ vin vis aSvenebs,
madli am saxes, Tu saxe madlsa!..
TviT Suri, mtroba ver upovida
qals mSveniersa verafers naklsa.
...................................................................
vis ar moimxrobs, moinadirebs
yovlad Zlieri mSveniereba!..
Tqmula _ mxecic ki gaafTrebuli
mis win datkbeba da dawynardeba.
da dauwynarda Zals Svenebisas
igi mwirica mwyrali, gulmSrali,
da ucodvelis gulis-tkiviliT
qals SeaCera tyvedqmnili Tvali.
(WavWavaZe 2007: 148-149)

aq ukve gandegils `ucodveli gulistkivili~ ipyrobs, anu misi cno-
bierebis aprioruloba, rac xiluli sinamdvilis calsaxa uaryofas da uxi-
lavi sinamdvilisadmi, anu wminda ideisadmi swrafvas gulisxmobs, ukve
gandegilis cnobierebaSi nel-nela warmoqmnis sakuTari dualisturi mrwam-
siT gamowveul tragizms, rac kulminirdeba mis cnobil frazaSi: `xsna yvel-
gan aris... xolo gza xsnisa eseTi mergo me... ubedursa... (WavWavaZe 2007: 153).
Cemi azriT, gandegilis es fraza ara afeqtSi myofis mier gaucnobiereb-
lad wamosrolili frazaa, aramed igi momdinareobs qvecnobieridan da
vlindeba rogorc xangrZlivi cnobieri fiqrisa da Wvretis Sedegi (epizo-
diseuli konteqsti _ mwyemsi qalisa da gandegilis polemika da beris mier
frazis warmoTqmis momenti _ swored am garemoebaze miuTiTebs). aq isic ar
unda gamogvrCes mxedvelobidan, rom ilia, rogorc realisti avtori re-
alizmis esTetikisa da realisturi mxatvruli teqstebis poetikis princi-
pebis mimdevaria. xolo realisturi mxatvruli teqstebis poetikis erT-
erTi umTvaresi maxasiaTebelia personaJis qcevisa da azrovnebis motivire-
bulobisa da mizez-Sedegobriobis principi. aqedan gamomdinare, gandegilis
fraza motivirebulia ara mwyemsi qalis erTi SemTxveviTi gamoCeniT mis
mRvimeSi, an Tundac masTan polemikiT, aramed xangrZlivi fiqris Sedegadaa
motivirebuli (gavixsenoT, gandegili ukve mravali weli, Tu aTwleulia
asketobis gzas adgas _ `ar vTvli welTa-svlas~ _ da am RvawlSi myofi,
151


Sesabamisad mudmivi sulieri meditaciebisa da fiqris procesSia, romlis
drosac xandaxan kritikuli da skeptikuri azrebic gamokrTis xolme). sxva
mxriv ulogiko da SemoqmedebiTad araadekvaturi da aramotivirebuli iqne-
boda, rom sulierebis iseT simaRleze myof asket bers, romlis locvansac
mzis sxivi iWers, ase uceb, ase erTbaSad _ mwyemsi qalis mis senakSi gamoCe-
nisa da masTan cxare kamaTis Sedegad dangreoda msoflmxedvelobrivi ide-
alebi. es iqneboda swored realisturi mwerlobis poetikis principebis
ugulvebelyofa. xolo aseTi SemoqmedebiTi araadekvaturoba ilias, ro-
gorc wesi, ar axasiaTebs. amgvarad, gandgilis es cnobili fraza misi xan-
grZlivi cnobieri Tu qvecnobieri Wvretisa da fiqris Sedegad eqspliciti-
rebiuli logikuri frazaa da ara afeqtSi myofis gaucnobiereblad wamos-
rolili sityva.
fraza `gza xsnisa~ ar unda gaviazroT wmindad eklesiuri da saRvTis-
metyvelo gagebiT, rogorc codvebisagan ganwmendis gza, aramed pirvel
rigSi unda gaviazroT filosofiuri Semecnebis TvalsazrisiT, rodesac
Semecnebis procesSi Semmecnebeli subieqti cdilobs TviTdadginebas yofi-
erebasTan mimarTebaSi da sakuTari arsebobis WeSmariti azris mopovebas. am
procesSi ki Semmecnebeli subieqtis Semecnebis gza imTaviTve idealurisa
da realuris, ideisa da empireis, zemiwierisa da miwieris, RvTaebrivisa da
materialuris, amqvevniurisa da imqveyniuris, sulierisa da xorcielis
diqotomiis winaSe aRmoCndeba. Semecnebis procesi am ori dapirispirebuli
sferos dualizmis daZlevis, an ver daZlevis fonze gaivlis, rac Semdgom an
ar warmoSobs, an warmoSobs cnobierebis ubedurebas, anu Semecnebis obieq-
tis miuwvdomlobiT gamowveul tragikul gancdas. Tavisi cnobili fraziT
ki gandegili amJRavens swored Semmecnebeli subieqtis mier idealis ver-
wvdomis tragikul gancdas, Tavisi fraziT gandegili aRiarebs sakuTari
Semecnebis gzis aramarTebulobasa da arasrulyofilebas:
`ubedureba yovelTvis naklovanebis gancdaa: ubeduria adamiani, romel-
sac aklia raRac misTvis Zvirfasi, Rirebuli. wamocdena _ `me... ubedursa~
_ aSkarad laparakobs imaze, rom mwirs aklia raRac misTvis Rirebuli, rom
mas uaRresad mniSvnelovani moTxovnilebebi darCa daukmayofilebeli~
(buaCiZe 2005: 600).
es daukmayofilebeli moTxovnebi ki upirvelesyovlisa ukavSirdeba ara-
marTebul msoflmxedvelobriv arCevans, araWeSmarit xsnis, anu Semecnebis
gzas. gandegilma Tavis frazaSi swored sakuTari Semecnebis gzisa da msof-
lmxedvelobrivi arCevanis araWeSmariteba da aramarTebuloba gaacnobiera.


gandegilisa da mwyemsi qalis dialogi gevevlineba swored Semecnebis
ori saxeobis _ dualisturisa da sinTezuris dapirispirebad. gandegili-
sagan gansxvavebiT, mwyemsi qali aRiarebs, xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvilis,
soflisa da zesTasoflis ara SeuTavseblobis apriorulobas, aramed maTi
sinTezis apriorulobas: e. i. mwyemsi qalis cnobiereba xilul samyaros swo-
red RvTaebrivi samyaros emanaciad, RvTaebrivi bunebis Semcvelad, RvTis
qmnilebad moazrebs:



Sdr. T. vasaZec swored gandegilis aramarTebul msoflmxedvelobriv arCevanze amaxvi-


lebs yuradRebas: `gandegili msoflmxedvelobrivi tragediaa, tragediaa adamianis, ro-
melsac mrwamsi daemsxvra~ (vasaZe 2010: 65).
152


lamazi iyo am dRis saRamo,
ra-rig hSvenoda mze damavali!
Sevxede Tu ar im mzes, im casa,
gavSterdi, veRar movsxlite Tavli.
RvTis saxesaviT gars Suqmosxmuli
mTis wverzed didi mze brwyinvalebda
da sakvirveli is sanaxavi
TvalTana erTad gulsa mtacebda.
(WavWavaZe 2007: 149)

Sesabamisad, amqveyniuri cxovreba, xiluli sinamdvile mwyemsi qalisaT-
vis borotebis, araWeSmaritebis sfero ki ar aris, aramed RvTaebrivis,
WeSmaritebis sferoa, sadac xilulSi vlindeba RvTabrivi arsi. misTvis xi-
luli qveyanac RvTis qmnilebaa:

gana swyins RmerTs, rom kaci Sehxaris
qveyanas, RvTiTve dabadebulsa?
vfiqrobdi: neta maS risTvis morTo
ese lamazad wuTi-sofeli?
gana misTvis, rom adamianma
SeaCvenos da aiRos xeli?
(WavWavaZe 2007: 152-153)

amgvarad, mwyemsi qalisa da gandegili beris dialogSi mocemuli msofl-
mxedvelobrivi dapirispirebis fonze ilia nel-nela gamokveTs asketi beris
mcdar msoflmxedvelobriv pozicias, sadac aSkaraa, rom gandegilis
daRupvis, anu msoflmxedvelobrivi marcxis mizezi ara garegania (mwyemsi
qalis erTjeradi gamoCena mwiris mRvimeSi da Semdgom asket berSi mwyemsi
qalis xorcieli silamaziT aRZruli xorcieli vnebebi), aramed Sinagani _
gandegilisave msoflmxedvelobrivi arCevani. gandegili wminda ganyenebu-
li ideisadmi dualisturi swrafvis msxverplia, xolo wminda ideisaken, am
SemTxvevaSi sulieri srulyofisaken da RvTaebrivi samyaros damkvidrebisa-
ken es dualisturi swrafva, rogorc wesi, moklebulia xolme zogadeTikur
sayrdens, rac gamoixateba adamianis arsSi umTavresi RvTaebrivi eTosis, um-
Tavresi RvTaebrivi bunebis ukugdebiTa da uaryofiT, kerZod, universalu-
ri siyvarulis ukugdebiTa da ignorirebiT. swored siyvarulia is RvTaeb-
rivi niWi da amavdroulad Semecnebiseuli mdgomareoba, rac subieqts, erTi
mxriv aniWebs RvTaebrivisaken swrafvis moTxovnilebas, xolo, meore mxriv
aRavsebs mas RvTis qmnilebebisadmi _ adamianisadmi, bunebisadmi, saerTod,
xiluli samyarosadmi _ siyvaruliT (buaCiZe 2005: 603-604; vasaZe 2010: 69).
aqedan gamomdinare, ganyenebuli wminda ideisaken swrafvam gandegilSi Cak-
la moyvasis universaluri siyvarulis saRvTo niWi. mwyemsi qali masTan di-
alogSi swored amaze apelirebs:

nuTu Tvistomi, toli da swori
yvela gulidam amogiRia?
nuTu naRveli, dardi da javri
Tan aravisi wamogiRia,
ar gagondeba arc mama, deda,
an Zma, anu da, an saxli, kari?
nuTu mis-dReSi ara gyolia
mokeTe, gulis Sematkivari?!
rogor moSordi?..
(WavWavaZe 2007: 153)
153


aseve mivaqcioT yuradReba, Tu rogor wuxs mwyemsi qali saxlSi marto
darCenili mamis gamo _ `TviTon cxvars maSin rodi vCiodi, me mama-Cemi
mebraleboda, mamis-erTa var, mamas vuyvarvar, vwuxdi rom CemTvis Sewux-
deboda~ (WavWavaZe 2007: 150).
amgvarad, gandegili sakuTari solifsisturi cnobierebis, solifsis-
turi Semecnebis procesisa da sakuTari TavisaTvis dawesebuli monadisebri
mdgomareobis wyalobiT CaZirulia mxolod sakuTari TviTSemecnebis pro-
cesSi, igi mxolod ganyenebuli wminda ideis WvretiTaa Sepyrobili, misi
cnobiereba rCeba mxolod ganyenebuli wminda ideis farglebSi, riTac igi
mowyvetilia empireas, gamocdilebas, sicocxles. xolo amgvari swrafva
wminda ideisaken iwvevs gaucxoebas adamianuri sazogadoebis mimarT, iwvevs
dehumanizacias, ramdenadac am SemTxvevaSi ganyenebuli wminda ideisaken
swrafvas gamoclili aqvs universaluri eTikuri sayrdeni _ siyvaruli.
amitomac, ilias Tanaxmad, wminda ideisaken da siyvarulze ardafuZnebuli
sulieri srulyofisaken narcisistuli swrafva imTaviTve msoflmxedve-
lobrivi da moraluri marcxisTvisaa ganwiruli, risi simboluri gamoxatu-
lebacaa swored gandegilis sikvdili.
amgvarad, gandegilisa da mwyemsi qalis personaJTa konstelaciis fonze,
da saerTod, mTeli poemis teqstis diskursSi ganviTarebulia wmindad on-
tologiuri problematika _ subieqtis mimarTeba yofierebisadmi da
subieqtis mier am yofierebaSi TviTdadginebis problema. aq ori msoflxed-
va upirispirdeba erTmaneTs: erTi mxriv, dualisturi, romelic uaryofs
xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvilis sinTezis SesaZleblobas da ukuagdebs
Semecnebis procesSi cdiseulis, empiriulis aucileblobas; meore mxriv,
sinTezuri, romelic aRiarebs xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvilis sinTezisa da
dialeqtikuri mTlianobis aucileblobas. Semecnebisa da cnobierebis pir-
vel saxeobas poemaSi ganasaxierebs gandegili beri, xolo meore saxeobas _
mwyemsi qali. mwiris sikvdili ki, erTi mxriv simbolurad ganasaxierebs yo-
fierebis Semecnebis gandegiliseuli gzis araWeSmaritebasa da arasrulyo-
filebas, xolo, meore mxriv am gzis avtoris mxridan principul miuReblo-
basa da uaryofas.
3
aq ki cxadi xdeba, rom iliaseuli msoflxedvisaTvis misaRebia samyaros
mTliani modelis dasaxva, romlis farglebSic xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvi-
le erTmaneTs ki ar upirispirdeba, rogorc SeuTavsebeli mocemulobebi,
aramed isini erTmaneTs avsebs da erT dialeqtikur mTlianobas qmnis. aq ki
ilia miyveba swored im msoflaRqmasa Tu msoflgancdas, im kulturfilo-
sofiur magistralur xazs, rasac qarTuli qristianuli kulturis sivrce-
Si saTave daudo fsevdodionise areopagelma (petre iberma), da rac srul-
yofili saxiT SoTa rusTavelis `vefxistyaosanSi~ gamovlinda, sadac warmo-
Cenili da gadmocemulia samyaros Semecnebisa da aRqmis sinTezuri gza, rac
xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvilis, soflisa da zesTasoflis ara gaTiSvasa da
dapirispirebas, aramed maT harmoniul mTlianobad moazrebas niSnavs. swo-
red es iyo qarTuli qristianuli kulturis ideali da msoflmxedvelob-
rivi fundamenti (TvaraZe 1985: 282; vasaZe 2010: 74; jamburia 2002: 177).




154


II. `gandegili~ kulturologiuri TvalsazrisiT

rogorc ukve aRiniSna, `gandegili~ dRes aseve sainteresoa wmindad kul-
turologiuri TvalsazrisiTac, kerZod, qarTuli literaturisa da kul-
turis konteqstSi misi adgilis TvalsazrisiT. rogorc cnobilia, msgavsi
wmindad filosofiuri Tematikisa da problematikis mxatvruli teqsti
ilias Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi srul gaugebrobad iqna aRqmuli (baqraZe
1984: 96-97; minaSvili 1995: 320), vinaidan imJamindeli qarTuli kritika da
mkiTxveli sazogadoeba `miCveuli~ iyo ZiriTadad patriotul da socialur
Temebze Seqmnil mxatvrul teqstebs.
4
marTlac, arc imJamindeli qarTuli
kritika da arc mkiTxveli sazogadieba `gandegilSi~ dasmuli fundamenturi
filosofiuri sakiTxebis aRsaqmelad da gasaazreblad mentalurad mzad ar
iyo, misi interesebi ufro metad `miwieri~ TemebiT Semoifargleboda da
yoveli mxatvruli teqstisagan socialuri Temebis (miwa, glexi, janyi, soci-
aluri Cagvra, egzekucia) mxatvrul asaxva-gadmocemas moeloda da moiTxov-
da. ilias mier `gandegilSi~ mocemuli problematika ki zogadfilosofi-
uria da ara socialuri. aq sinamdvilisa da samyaros, adamianis arsis mxat-
vrul gaazrebas socialur-politikuri da istoriuli konteqsti ki ar
udevs safuZvlad, aramed filosofiuri.
rogorc zemoT ukve aRiniSna, yofierebisa da adamianis arsis gaazrebis
sakiTxSi ilia miyveba qarTul kulturaSi SemuSavebul samyaros mTlianob-
rivi aRqmis models, romelsac qarTul kulturul sivrceSi fsevdo-
dionise areopagelma daudo saTave da Semdgom es xazi gaagrZela da umaRles
xarisxSi ganaviTara rusTavelma. kerZod, am msoflmxedvelobrivi koncef-
ciis mixedviT samyaro aRiqmeba da moiazreba ara rogorc urTierTadapiris-
pirebuli xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvile, aramed rogorc harmoniuli mTli-
anoba, sadac xiluli realoba (empirea) uxilavi saRvTo realobis (transcen-
denturoba) emanaciad da RvTaebrivi impulsebis matareblad moiazreba. es
Tezisi poemaSi swored mwyemsi qalis piriTaa gacxadebuli, xolo implici-
turad mTeli poemis teqsts moicavs:

gana swyins RmerTs, rom kaci Sehxaris
qveyanas, RvTiTve dabadebulsa?
vfiqrobdi: neta maS risTvis morTo
ese lamazad wuTi-sofeli?
gana misTvis, rom adamianma
SeaCvenos da aiRos xeli?
(WavWavaZe 2007: 152-153)

aq ilia mwyemsi qalis piriT TiTqos rusTavels exmianeba _ Cven, kacTa,
mogvca qveyana, gvaqvs uTvalavi feriTa. es SemTxveviTi araa, ramdenadac
samyaros, yofierebis Semecnebis TvalsazrisiT ilia swored rusTveliseul
xazs miyveba.
5

amitomac, gandegilis sikvdiliT iliam simbolurad mianiSna msoflxed-
vis im formis _ rogorc asketikuri qristianobis, ise zeidealisturi fi-
losofiis _ gardauval marcxze, romelic yofierebis dualistur Semecne-
bas afuZnebs, TiSavs sofelsa da zesTasofels da maT SeuTavsebel da
imTaviTve dapirispirebul mocemulobebad moiazrebs. amis sapirispirod
iliasaTvis misaRebia da misTvis ideals warmoadgens am ori mocemulobis _
soflisa da zesTasoflis, empireasa da transcendenturobis, xiluli da
155


uxilavi sinamdvilis, imqveyniurisa da amqveyniuris _ harmonia da sinTezi,
risi SesaZleblobis winapirobac pirvel rigSi cnobierebiseuli nebeloba
da universaluri siyvarulis unaria. aqedan gamomdianre, `gandegilSi~ ilia
swored areopagituli qristianobis ontologiur da anTropologiur tra-
dicias aviTarebs, misi msoflmxedvelobrivi mrwamsi areopagituli qristi-
anobis tradicias eyrdnoba.
swored am kulturologiuri monapovris _ areopagituli msoflxedvis
_ kvlav xelaxali moxazvisa da ganaxlebis cdaa mocemuli `gandegilis~
teqstSi, riTac iliam kvlav Seaxsena Tavis Tanamedrove qarTul sazoga-
doebas qarTuli qristianuli kulturis msoflmxedvelobrivi ideali da
amvdroulad garkveuli kulturologiuri orientiric moniSna momavali
Taobebis qarTuli sazogadoebisTvisac.
6


daskvna

1. ilias poema `gandegilSi~ ukufenilia wmindad fundamenturi filoso-
fiuri da kulturologiuri problematika da am WrilSi iliam gadmosca
sakuTari religiur-filosofiuri msoflxedva: kerZod, ontologiuri
TvalsazrisiT, poemaSi ilia gvTavazobs xiluli da uxilavi sinamdvilis,
Sesabamisad, transcendenturobisa da empireis, sinTezis princips, romlis
Tanaxmadac xiluli realoba moazrebul da Semecnebul unda iqnas, rogorc
RvTaebrivi samyaros emanacia. aq ki impliciturad vlindeba areopagituli
qristianobis xazi, romelic ilias cnobierad da qvecnobierad SeTvisebuli
aqvs rogorc rusTavelisagan (jamburia 2002: 177), aseve, Cemi azriT,
nikoloz baraTaSvilisaganac.
2. Sesabamisad, zogadanTropologiuri TvalsazrisiT, poemaSi adamiani
moiazreba ara rogorc dapirispirebul sulier da xorciel sawyisTa Sem-
cvel arsad, rodesac sulieri srulyofisa da transcendenturobis wvdo-
mis procesSi apriorulia adamianis arsSi mocemuli am ori sawyisis SeuTav-
sebloba da ukugdebulia adamianis xorcieli buneba, aramed poemaSi adami-
ani impliciturad moazrebulia iseT arsad, romelic harmoniulad iTavsebs
sulier da xorciel sawyisebs. gandegilis sikvdiliT simbolurad swored
es ontologiuri da anTropologiuri dualizmia ukugdebuli da miniSne-
bulia am dualisturi Tvalsazrisis aramarTebuloba.
3. xolo kulturologiuri TvalsazrisiT `gandegilis~ teqstSi qvecno-
bierad Tu cnobierad ukufenilia, Tu kidev erTxel gansazRvrulia qarTu-
li qristianuli kulturis magistraluri xazi, rac Tavis mxriv areopagitu-
li qristianobis pirvelsawyisebs (fsevdo-dionise areopageli, rusTaveli)
eyrdnoba: anu, es aris samyaros mTliani modelis dasxva da yofierebis Tavis
mTlianobaSi aRqma da Semecneba, rac niSnavs soflisa da zesTasoflis erT
dialeqtikur mTlianobad moazrebas.


156


SeniSvnebi:

1. am TvalsazrisiT CemTvis misaRebia g. qiqoZis miniSneba: `gancalkevebuli adgili
uWiravs ilia WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi mis poemas `gandegils~, romelSiac zogadka-
cobriuli, zneobrivi problemaa dasmuli~ (qiqoZe 1947: 137).
aseve, konceptualuri TvalsazrisiT misaRebia l. minaSvilisa da n. Citauris
dakvirvebani:
`...ilia xelovani TandaTan iZireba movlenebSi, igi ufro Rrmad iazrebs adamianis
arsebobis azrs, rogorc misi `gamovlenis garegani, aseve Sinagani mxriT~ (hegeli).
magram poeti axla Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi simwifis xanaSi xelovanis Tavisufali xed-
viT Wvrets adamianis mTel Sinagan da garegan sauflos, swored aseTi SemoqmedebiTi
interesebiT avsebuli, Sinaganad gawonasworebuli qmnis Tavis ukvdav `gandegils~
[...]. rogorc aRiniSna, sakuTriv religiuri asketizmis aseTi Tu iseTi Sefaseba araa
ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli amocana, aramed am legendis safuZvelze adamianis arse-
bobis azris, misi sazogadoebrivi qmedobis uzogadesi da yoveli droisaTvis metad
mniSvnelovani problema ainteresebs mas. [...] asketis cxovrebis Suqze ilia saerTod
adamianis arsebobis, misi adgilis zogadsayovelTao ideas datrialebs Tavs~
(minaSvili 1995: 330, 331, 342).
`Cveni azriT, ilias `gandegili~ romelime konkretul epoqas, mwerlis sazogado-
ebrivi xasiaTis gulistkivils an mis patriotul suliskveTebas ar ukavSirdeba.
masSi ar Cans saqarTvelos cxovrebis alegoriuli asaxva aranairi TvalsazrisiT, po-
emaSi ar aris warmodgenili arc aqtiuri da pasiuri cxovrebiseuli poziciis dapi-
rispireba da arc eris sulieri dacemis suraTia gamovlenili. `gandegili~, iseve,
rogorc msoflio literaturaSi arsebuli ramdenime nawarmoebi da maT Soris
iliasave Targmnili germaneli mwerlis g. ebersis romani `rameTu kaci var~, garSemo
utrialebs maradiul `wyevla-krulvian~ sakiTxs, sulisa da xorcis Widils adamianis
sulier samyaroSi. warmogvidgens gandegili beris fsiqologiur portrets am
Widilis procesSi. ilias nawarmoebTa umetesoba xom misi didi erovnuli satkivaris
gamomxatvelia. Cveni azriT, savsebiT SesaZlebelia es erovnuli satkivari `mgzavris
werilebis~, `bednieri eris~, `kacia-adamianis~ da sxvaTa wakiTxvis Semdeg gandegilSi
ar veZioT (Citauri 2001: 229).
2. miuRebelia ak. baqraZis debuleba, TiTqos gandegili saqarTvelos tragikuli
bedis simboluri asaxva iyos. konceptualurad aramarTebuli da xelovnuria `gande-
gilis~ teqstis sazrisis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli TematikiT `datvirTva~ da
poema `aCrdilTan~ sazrisiseuli paralelebis daZebna da am ori poemis ideuri gam-
Tlianeba (baqraZe 1984: 108-111):
`gandegilis alegoriuli xasiaTi marjori uordropma SeamCnia da aRniSna, poema
saqarTvelos cxovrebis simboluri asaxvaao. es marTalc asea. [...] iqneb es gandgoma
Tavis Tavis gadarCenas gulisxmobs da ara qveynis xsnas? ase ar aris. aq unda gavix-
senoT, rom gandegili myinvaris beTlemSi cxovrobs. saqme is gaxlavT, rom beTlemi
aris `saxli cxovrebisa, gina siwmindisa~ (saba). myinvarwveri im uzenaesis sacxov-
risia, romlis Tvali darajobs saqarTvelos:

da momevlina me kaci didi,
myinvarzed mdgomi moxucebuli;
viTa qveyana _ is iyo mSvidi.
uZravi, uxmo, dafiqrebuli (`aCrdili).

es didi kaci mimarTvas saqarTvelos _ `marad da yvelgan, saqarTvelov, me var
SenTana... me varo Seni Tanamdevi, ukvdavi suli~. gandegilma miaSura saqarTvelos uk-
vdav suls da mis wiaRSi eZebs rogorc sakuTar, ise qveynis xsnas~ (baqraZe 1984: 108, 111).
rogorc es zemoT ukve aRvniSne, `gandegilis~ problematika wmindad fundamentur
filosofiur problematikas moicavs, kerZod, adamianis arsisa da misi arsebobis
raobis problematikas, da ara erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel an socialur-sayofa-
cxovrebo problematikas.
157


3. m. niniZe Tavis naSromSi `dacarielebuli beTlemi. wminda ilia marTlis poema
gandegilis Sesaxeb~ (niniZe 2000) poemis interpretaciisas gamoyofs or sibrtyes:.
maTi azriT, poemaSi, erTi mxriv, intencirebulia wmindad asketikuri problematika
da am WrilSi gadmocemulia erTi asketi beris tragikuli marcxi asketikis gzaze
(niniZe 2000: 23-64); meore mxriv, poemaSi asketi beris asketuri cxovrebisa da misi
tragikuli aRsasrulis fonze alegoriulad gadmocemulia erovnuli problematika,
kerZod, ilias Tanamedrove saqrTvelos da qarTveli eris dacemuli zneobrivi yofa,
romelic moculia amao da warmavali amqveyniuri materialuri Rirebulebebisaken
swrafviT (niniZe 2000: 64-85, 92-97): `amgvari axsna nawarmoebis Sinaarsisa (anu,
`gandegilis~, rogorc wmindad asketikuri da erovnuli problematikis Semcvel
mxatvrul teqstad interpretacia _ k. b.), romelic mraval mecniers filosofiur
poemad miaCnia, sruliad ar akninebs mis mxatvrul Rirebulebas. poets araCveuleb-
rivad aqvs warmoCenili nawarmoebis orive plani _ zedapirulic, erTi beris su-
lieri gardatexa, misi tragedia; da igavur-mxatvrulic _ eris sulieri dacemis su-
raTi, eris tragedia. orive maTgani ise Rrmad da safuZvlianad aqvs gaazrebuli av-
tors, rom berisa da qveynis kerZo saxeebSi amasTanave Cans zogadadamianuri, sakacob-
rio problemebic~ (Tumca, mTels naSromSi aqcenti mainc pirvel or planzea gadata-
nili, anu `gandegilis~ teqsti gaazrebulia erTi mxriv, rogorc asketi berisa, da me-
ore mxriv, rogorc saqarTvelos tragedia, xolo mesame plani, anu gandegilis zo-
gadfilosofiuri sazrisi mainc interpretaciis miRma darCa _ k. b.) (niniZe 2000: 98).
ra Tqma unda, `gandegilis~ teqstis aRniSnul doneebze interpretacia SesaZlebe-
lia, magram, Cemi azriT, es iqneba teqstis mxolod nawilobrivi da arasrulyofili,
da saboloo jamSi konceptualurad gaumarTavi interpretacia. Sevecdebi davasabu-
To Cemi hermenevtikuli pozicia:
I. Tuki `gandegilis teqstis ZiriTad sazriss mxolod erTi konkretuli asketi
beris tragikuli istoriis doneze gavigebT da ganvmartavT (niniZe 2000: 23-64), maSin
ilia, rogorc realisti avtori warmoCndeba rogorc realizmis poetikis principe-
bisa da SemoqmedebiTi meTodis ugulebelmyofeli Semoqmedi, ramdenadac aq ukve
teqstSi dasmuli problematikis yovelgvari ganzogadebis saSualeba ispoba. cxadia,
pirvel rigSi swored ganzogadebis xarisxis maCvenebliT gamoirCeva realisturi
tipis mxatvruli teqsti, problemis ganzogadebis unaria misi umTavresi Tviseba.
xolo `gandegilis~ interpretacia mxolod erTi persionaJis (asketi beris) tragedi-
is WrilSi teqstis sazriss ganzogadebis saSualebas uspobs. arada, ilia, rogorc
realisti mwerali da qarTuli realisturi mwerlobis umTavresi warmomadgeneli,
mudmivad avlens Tavis Tavs rogorc SemoqmedebiTad adekvaturi, avtori misi
nebismieri teqsti swored SemoqmedebiTi adekvaturobiT gamoirCeva, igi arasdros
Ralatobs realizmis poetikisa da SemoqmedebiTi meTodis principebs. Sesabamisad,
mis mxatvrul teqstebSi ara ama Tu im persionaJis calke aRebuli problematikaa
mxatvrulad gaazrebuli, aramed zogadad sazogadoebis, qveynisa da eris aqtualuri
problematikaa esTetikurad ganzogadebuli (`luarsab TaTqariZe~, `sarCobelazed~
`oTaraanT qvrivi~, `mgzavris werilebi~, `aCrdili~ da sxv.).
II. xolo, Tuki poemis teqsti iZleva ganzogadebis saSualebas, da es marTlac asea,
maSin warmoiqmneba xolme hermenevtikuli cTomileba, rodesac xSirad xdeba
`gandegilis~ problematikis aprioruli mibma ilias mTliani Semoqmedebis ZiriTad
problematikaze, kerZod, erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel problematikaze. Semdgom
swored am WrilSi xdeba `gandegilis~ saxismetyvelebisa da ZiriTadi sazrisis gan-
marteba-gageba. Sesabamisad, gandegili beri warmoCndeba, rogorc eris sulieri
ganaxlebisaTvis moRvawe pirovneba, mwyemsi qali _ rogorc qarTveli eris sulierad
dakninebuli cxovrebis simbolur gansaxiereba, beTlemis mRvime da myinvarwveri _
rogorc saqarTvelos sulierad amaRlebuli heroikuli istoriuli warsulis
simbolo, xolo, yovelive aqedan gamomdinare, gandegili berisa da mwyemsi qalis
urTierToba _ rogorc qarTveli eris Sinagani brZola sulier da xorciel
sawyisebTan. Sesabamisad, gandegilis marcxi asketikis gzaze alegoriulad gaiazreba,
rogorc qarTveli eris zneobrivi dacema, rac gamowveulia qarTvelobis
materialuri Rirebulebebisadmi, wuTisoflis sacTurisadmi ltolviT da eris
158


sulieri cxovrebis dakninebiT, razec poemis finali mianiSnebs (niniZe 2000: 64-85, 92-
97).
[unda aRiniSnos, rom poemis finali marTlac Semzaravia: `da iq, sad wmindanT udi-
debiaT // RmerTi msjavris da WeSmaritebis, // iq, sad uwiravT uflisa mimarT //
msxverpli qebisa da RaRadebis, // aw Soris nangrevT da natamalTa // marto qariRa
dadis da qSuis, da gamomfrTxali Weqa-quxiliT // mun Sexvewili nadiri Rmuis...~
(WavWavaZe 2007: 159). aq TiTqos nicSeseuli `RmerTis sikvdilia~ poeturi intuiciiT
nagrZnobi da gacxadebuli, rac sruliad Seesabameba XIX saukunis meore naxevris
saqarTvelos sulier yofas, ramdenadac qarTveli eris cnobierebasa da qarTveli
eris yoveldRiur yofaSi RmerTi marTlac mokvda. SemTxveviTi araa, rom poemis
finalSi intencirebuli es nicSeanuri winaTgrZnoba swored konkretuli istoriuli
kataklizmebiTaa Sepirobebuli, rac, rogorc cnobilia, ganviTarda ilias Tanamed-
rove saqarTvelos istoriaSi: ruseTis imperiis mier saqarTvelos samociqulo avto-
kefaluri eklesiis gauqmeba, ramac sulieri da erovnuli TvalsazrisiT gamoiwvia
qarTveli eris sulieri da kulturuli dezorientacia, da ramac SemdgomSi didad
Seuwyo xeli saqarTveloSi aTeistur-materialisturi msoflmxedvelobis uswrafes
gavrcelebas marqsizmis formiT _ mesame dasis gamosvala.]
TavisTavad, `gandegilis~ teqstis interpretacia pirvel donezec SeiZleba da
meore donezec, magram, Cemi azriT, `gandegilis~ problematika kidev ufro Rrmaa,
vidre es teqstis sazrisis konkretuli personaJis (asketi beris) asketur moRva-
weobasa da poema `aCrdilis~ tipis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel Tematikasa da pat-
riotul eTosze reducirebaa. `gandegilis~ teqstis sazrisiseuli diskursi pirvel
rigSi wmindad zogadfilosofiur problematikazea mimarTuli, sadac amavdroulad
ikveTeba qarTuli qristianuli kulturis msoflmxedvelobrivi orientiri da avto-
riseuli religiur-filosofiuri mrwamsi. Cemi azriT, `gandegilis~ hermenevtika
swored am mimarTulebiT unda warimarTos (risi cdac aris kidec Cemi satatia), ram-
denadac poemis teqstis ZiriTadi WeSmariti sazrisi swored esaa da ara erTi kon-
kretuli gandegili beris asketuri gzisa da erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli proble-
matika. saboloo jamSi poemis teqstis am doneebze interpretacia meoradi amocanaa,
ramdenadac es iqneboda teqstis mxolod fsiqologiur da moralur, an sociologi-
ur doneze interpretacia, rac interpretaciis process aacdenda teqstis ZiriTad
sazriss, teqstis umTavres zogadfilosofiur sazriss, kerZod, adamianisa (subieqti)
da samyaros (obieqti) urTierTmimarTebis ontologiur problematikas, rac qmnis
kidec teqstis ufro siRrmiseul sazriss _ teqstis mesame sibrtyes, rac iZleva
gandegilis~ teqstis mesame doneze interpretaciis, anu filosofiur-aRyvanebiTi
(spiritualuri, gonismieri) interpretaciis saSualebas.
4. kita abaSiZe Tavis `etiudebSi~ detalurad gadmoscems `gandegilze~ ilias
Tanamedrove kritikisa da sazogadoebis reaqciebs:
`sakvirveli bedi gamoiara i. WavWavaZis zemoxsenebulma poemam. kargad maxsovs, rom
quTaisSi am poemis gamo didi miTqma-moTqma iyo. [...] ilias kalamma umtyuna, uazro
Txzuleba dagviwerao, ambobda erTi, aba ra Svilia, gaiZaxoda meore, ilia gviqada-
gebs, berad SedeqiT, sawuTro ese sazizRaria da sulis mSvidobas mxolod romelsame
udabnos senakSi moipovebTo. saSinlad swyindaT, avtorma `kacia-adamianisa~ da `kako
yaCaRisam~ aseTi ram rad dagviwerao. amgvari azris dabadeba quTaisis sazogadoebaSi
unda mieweros, udrood daRupuls, niWier kritikoss est. boslevels (mWedliZes). ai,
rasa swerda maSin gansvenebuli est. bosleveli gazeT `Sromis~ meTvramete nomerSi
(1883): `unda SevniSnoT, rom es poema TiTqo axal xanas iwyebs il. WavWavaZis poetur
moRvaweobaSi. am poemidan sCans, rom Cvenma erTma ukeTesma poetTaganma, TiTqo
mianeba Tavi cxovrebisaTvis kiTxvebis gamoxatvas poeziaSi, TiTqo cxovrebasac Ses-
wyra da mis avsa da kargs gverdi auqcia. amgvar faqts Cvens literaturaSi da cxov-
rebaSiac ki aqvs, rasakvirvelia, Tavis gasamarTlebeli sabuTi, magram amas mainc ver
davarqmevT Cveni mwerlobis fexis winwadgmas. piriqiT, Zalian samwuxaro iqneba, Tu
Cvenma niWierma poetebma realur cxovrebas, rogorc erT rasme Wirians Tvali aari-
des da gansveneba eZies `gandegilisTana~ poemaSi~ (abaSiZe 1962: 157-158).
159


5. ilias `gandegilSi~ areopagitul qristianobaze dafuZnebuli rusTveliseuli
msoflxedvis ukufenaze marTebulad miuTiTes T. vasaZem da k. jamburiam:
`ilias mier asketizmisTvis dapirispirebuli sicocxlismoyvare msoflmxedvelo-
ba, romelsac amqveyniuri sinamdvilis arsad RvTiuri sikeTe da mSveniereba esaxeba,
axlosaa `vefxistyaosnis~ gammsWvalav msoflgagebasTan _ boroteba ararsia, amqvey-
niuri samyaros arsi aris sikeTe da mSveniereba, romelic RvTaebrivia Tavisi warmo-
mavlobiT da bunebiT. [...] rusTvelis poemaSi da optimistur, amqveyniuri silamazis
moyvare da damfasebel nacionalur msoflaRqmaSi poulobs ilia WavWavaZe asketiz-
mis damZlev pozitiur mrwamss~ (vasaZe 2010: 74).
`amTaviTve sagangebod unda aRiniSnos, rom areopagituli azrovnebis nakadi ilias
mxatvrul samyaroSi Semodis ara uSualod, aramed `vefxistyaosnis~ gziT, romelsac
saerTod Zalzed didi adgili eTmoba mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi. misi publicistikis
Seswavla imis gacxadebis safuZvels iZleva, rom ilia `vefxistyaosnis~ saukeTeso
mcodnea Tavis epoqaSi. [...] mas imdenad aqvs miRebuli da gaTavisebuli rusTveluri
sibrZne, rom Tavisuflad da SemoqmedebiTad iyenebs mas Tavisi mxatvruli samyaros
agebis dros~ (jamburia 2002: 177).
6. aRsaniSnavia, rom areopagituli qristianobis nakadi aseve ukufenilia akakis
poemaSi `Tornike erisTavi~, kerZod, es TvalsaCinoa Tornike erisTavisa da kaTali-
kosis dialogSi, sadac kaTalikosis piriTaa gacxadebuli qarTuli qristianuli
kulturis msoflmxedvelobrivi ideali:

`magram me mainc msurs Segagono,
rom Semcdaria Seni goneba:
nuTu Sen, marTla, rame ggonia
cariel sityviT RvTisa dideba?
gana Rvawlia xorcielisgan
ama soflisa krZalva-rideba?
da es qveyana mSvenebiT savse,
Semoqmedebis gamomxatveli,
nuTu mitom gvaqvs moniWebuli,
rom Cvenis nebiT aviRoT xeli?
vinca iwunebs TavmoyvarebiT
am miuwvdomel didsa qmnilebas
da uarsa hyofs kanoniersa
bunebis yovlgvar moTxovnilebas,
is uarsa hyofs TviT Semoqmedsa!
sabarlo aris is da Semcdari,
radgan ar icis, Tu qveynierad
rad mogvevlina Cven macxovari!~
(wereTli 1978: 349-350).

aSkaraa, rom qarTuli qristianuli kulturis magistraluri xazis recefciis
TvalsazrisiT ilia da akaki erT poziciaze idgnen.


damowmebani:

abaSiZe 1962: abaSiZe k. etiudebi XIX saukunis qarTuli literaturis
istoriidan. Tb.: Tsu, 1962.
baqraZe 1984: baqraZe ak. ilia WavWavaZe. Tb.:` nakaduli~, 1984.
buaCiZe 2005: buaCiZe T. ilias `ubeduri~ gandegili da hegelis `ubeduri
cnobiereba~. _ buaCiZe T. filosofiuri narkvevebi. t. II, Tb.: Tsu, 2005.
vasaZe 2010: vasaZe T. `yovlad Zlieri mSveniereba~. _ vasaZe T. literatura
WeSmaritebis ZiebaSi. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2010.
160


zandukeli 1976: zandukeli m. Txzulebani. t. II, axali qarTuli literatura.
Tb.: 1976.
TvaraZe 1985: TvaraZe r. areopageli da rusTaveli (gv. 255-286); _ TvaraZe
r. TxuTmetsaukunovani mTlianoba. Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1985.
kalandariSvili 1982: kalandariSvili g. asketizmis problema ilia WavWavaZis
`gandegilSi~. `macne~. enisa da literaturis seria. 4, Tb.: 1982.
kotetiSvili 1965: kotetiSvili v. rCeuli nawerebi or wignad. wigni I. axali
qarTuli literaturis istoria (XIX s.). Tb.: 1965.
metreveli 1993: metreveli f. `gandegilis~ problematika. `religia~, 2, Tb.:
1993.
mecleri... 2008: Metzler Lexikon literarischer Symbole, hg. von G. Butzer, Metzler,
Stuttgart/Weimar, 2008.
minaSvili 1995: minaSvili l. ilia WavWavaZe. cxovreba da SemoqmedebiTi
aspeqtebis daxasiaTeba. Tb.: Tsu, 1995.
niniZe 2000: niniZe m. dacarielebuli beTlemi. wminda ilia marTlis poema
`gandegilis~ Sesaxeb. Tb.: 2000.
qiqoZe 1947: qiqoZe g. qarTuli literaturis istoria (XIX s.). Tb.: 1947.
Citauri 2001: Citauri n. kvlav ilias `gandegilis~ Sesaxeb. literaturuli
Ziebani. XXII. Tb.: 2001.
wereTeli 1978: wereTeli ak. qarTuli poezia. t. 8. Tb.: `nakaduli~, 1978.
WavWavaZe 2007: WavWavaZe i. qarTuli mwerloba. t. 11, Tb.: `nakaduli~, 2007.
jamburia 2002: jamburia k. `RmerTi siyvaruli ars~. sjani, 3, Tb.: 2002.


Konstantine Bregadze

Ontology of the Relationship Between World and Heaven in the
Georgian Realistic Writing (according to Ilia Chavchavadzes The Hermit)

(Summary)
1. Against the whole background of I. Chavchavadzes (1837-1907) poetry, The
Hermit (1883) is set off as a marginal piece, as an abstraction from the overall context,
since the conceptual discourse of the poem, and the issues posed therein deviate from the
mainstream of the national patriotic and liberating content, rhetoric and narrative that serve
as the determining feature for the majority of Ilyas lyric or epic-lyric texts (e.g. the poetic
works Elegy, I hear; Spring, Lines to a Georgian Mother, Bazaleti Lake, My
Dear Country , My pen , Happy Nation, The Poet, Since the time that ...,
The Shadow, Demetre the Devoted). Contrary to this, through the character
constellation featuring an ascetic monk and a shepherdess, Ilia addresses anthropological,
existential and ontological issues, i.e. purely fundamental philosophical issues, and from
this perspective attempts to reason (and consequently, derive conclusions) on the ever-
standing problem of dualism of world and heaven in the format of a literary text.
2. When conceptualizing the issue of relationship between the visible and the
invisible worlds, Ilia follows the Rustvelian line, which on its part is related to the pseudo-
Dionysian (Peter the Iberians) interpretation of Christian teachings, widely adopted in the
Georgian culture, whose ontological concept treats the visible and invisible reality, the
transcendental and the empirical, without dualism, admitting to their synthetic nature. As
concerns the anthropological perspective, the Areopagitic studies regard a human as a
161


being incorporating in itself bodily as well as spiritual proto-origins and further cultivating
their synthesis.
3. This fundamental ontological and anthropological line adopted and actualized in
the Georgian Christian Culture - Peter the Iberian Giorgi Merchule (George the
Theologian) Rustaveli Saba Guramishvili Baratashvili - is reinterpreted and
refreshed in Ilia Chavchavadzes poem The Hermit, where the ascetic monk personifies
incomplete interpretation of the Christian teaching, according to which the visible reality a
priori embodies the domain of demonic, evil spirits. Hence, in terms of this ascetic
Christianity, the visible reality is the realm of the untruthful, while the shepherdess of the
poem personifies the Areopagitic line of the Christian teaching, which treats the visible
world as a likewise divine creation and develops the principle of synthesis of the visible
and the invisible, and consequently, of world and heaven, where the ontological dualism of
ascetic Christianity is overcome.
4. In this connection, I believe that this literary text by Ilia Chavchavadze should be
interpreted as an attempt to re-adopt and revive the Areopagitic Christian values in the
writers contemporary Georgian culture, which, by that time the second half of the 19
th

century had deviated from the above-mentioned mainline of the Georgian Christian
culture.
5. From the culturological perspective, Ilias attempt to revive this conceptual
discourse in Georgia of the 1880s-1890s, when the nation was almost fully isolated from
the European cultural and political environment and was a mere colonial supplement to the
Russian Empire, when the development of the Georgian culture had deviated from Peter
the Iberians and the Rustavelian line of world outlook, and when Marxist and socialist
ideas started to spread (the appearance of the Third Congregation (Mesame Dasi),
against this background, the fundamental ontological ideas posed in the poem were set off
as a marginal discourse.
6. The problem of dualism of world and heaven developed in The Hermit was
likewise fully abstracted and incoherent with the immediate context of the Georgian
literary process of that period: when The Hermit was published, the tendencies typical of
naturalist and psychological prose and themes featuring social life (G. Tsereteli, E.
Ninoshvili, Sh. Aragvispireli, etc.) were being gradually established in the Georgian
literary narrative, and for this kind of literature the ontological issues challenged in The
Hermit were a priori alien and unacceptable.
7. Meanwhile, the Georgian social and political reality was becoming increasingly
gripped by Marxist and materialistic ideas that treated a human as a purely biological
being, whose existence was basically determined by exploitative propensities (being
determines consciousness), while in ontological terms, Marxism foregrounded monistic
and materialistic understanding of being.
8. Considering the existing weltanschauung and the cultural context, the text of The
Hermit may at first sight appear completely anachronistic and marginal. However, in the
overall historical context of Georgian literature and culture the text will appear not as a
marginal literary piece, but as the continuation of the mainstream weltanschauung inherent
with the Georgian Christian culture - Peter the Iberian Merchule Rustaveli Saba
Guramishvili Baratashvili.
9. Therefore, Ilias The Hermit is to be perceived as an attempt to continue this
culturological mainline in the field of aesthetics. I believe that the poem is significant
162


exactly from this perspective and will serve as an orientative paradigm capable of pointing
to the Georgian cultural weltanschauung in the future as well.
10. Today this text is also to be perceived as Ilias philosophical creed and world
view where anthropological and ontological problems are considered in the light of
Georgian Christian weltanschauung (Peter the Iberian, Rustaveli).
11. Thus, if we today raise a question on the significance and relevance of the The
Hermit, two important circumstances should be singled out that determine these two
values of the text in the context of Ilias literary works as well as on a broader scale the
overall background of Georgian literature and culture:
a. In the text Ilia unfolds his own Christian-philosophical creed;
b. The text re-determines and re-defines the mainline of the Georgian Christian
culture.
12. Therefore, although the poem is abstracted from the context of Ilias literary
works as well as from the social and cultural environment of the period, this lyric-epic text
never loses its appeal, relevance and significance exactly in terms of Georgian cultural
context, as it appears as an attempt to revive in a literary text the mainline of the Georgian
Christian culture (Peter the Iberian, Rustaveli), restore the cultural identity and outline the
future spiritual and cultural orientative contours for the Georgian nation in the 19
th
century
colonial Georgia.
13. Hence, today Ilias poem appears as an attempt to revive and preserve the
ontological and anthropological vision formed at an early stage of Georgian Christian
culture and developed in the Middle Ages (the 12
th
-13
th
centuries) in Ilias contemporary
disoriented Georgian socio-cultural environment, which had lost its identity.


163


venera kavTiaSvili

ilia WavWavaZisa da hainrix haines Semoqmedebis
tipologiisaTvis

gasuli ori saukunis manZilze samyaro Zlier `dapataravda~. sakomuni-
kacio saSualebaTa daxvewam, teqnikurma revoluciebma kulturaTa Soris
dialogebic gaaqtiura. jer kidev goeTe werda: `dRes erovnuli litera-
tura bevrs verafers ambobs, dRis wesrigSi dgeba msoflio literatura da
yvelas valia, daaCqaros am literaturis meufebis epoqa~ (goeTe 1988: 125).
Tu amas imasac davumatebT, rom me-19 saukunidan antikuri sinTezuri
xelovnebis aRdgenisaken swrafvas (r. vagneri) Cvens epoqaSi erovnul
literaturaTa kvlevebSi interdisciplinaruli da multiinterpretaci-
uli meTodebis SemoWrac daemata, gasagebi xdeba, ra perspeqtivebis winaSe
dgeba komparativistuli kvlevebi. magram aqve Tavs iCens gavlenebis winaSe
SiSi, rac literaturis mkvlevarTaTvis yovelTvis gansakuTrebuli intere-
sis sagans warmoadgenda. Tumca iseT gavlenian (CvenSi ityvian, elitarulio)
kritikoss, rogoric harold blumia, miaCnia, rom `nebismieri leqsis kompo-
ziciaze gavlena garduvalia, Tumca am dros winamorbedis namuSaveri Zalze
mkveTrad sxvaferdeba~ (abramsi 2004: 238). ilia WavWavaZe ki miiCnevda, rom
xSirad winamavali teqstebi ise Rrmad iWrebian adamianis sulSi, ise gaTa-
visdebian, rom garkveuli azri Tu poeturi saxe gulwrfelad sakuTari ggo-
niao. igi, rogorc didi eruditi, kargad icnobda Tavis Tanamedrove mecni-
erebis miRwevebs, didi interesiT swavlobda ekonomikur da politikur
moZRvrebebs; xelovnebis, literaturis da esTetikis sakiTxebs; safuZvli-
anad icnobda pegelis esTetikasa da ipolit tenis xelovnebis filosofias;
volteris, monteskies, Jan-Jak rusos nawerebs; hiugos, valter skotis,
Tomas murisa da Zveli da Tavis Tanamedrove evropuli literaturis met-
naklebad mniSvnelovani warmomadgenlebis Semoqmedebas, magram evropuli
literaturis, misi kulturis, misi sazogadoebriv-politikuri cxovrebis
safuZvlianad mcodne iliasaTvis sruliad gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba
hqonda germaniasa da germanul kulturas, mis literaturas, radganac man
arsebiTi roli Seasrula ilia WavWavaZis myar erovnul niadagze aRmocene-
buli ideur-msoflmxedvelobrivi da esTetikuri mrwamsis Camoyalibebis
saqmeSi. amas Tavisi obieqturi mizezebic aqvs: erTi is, rom ilia WavWavaZem
umaRlesi ganaTleba peterburgSi miiRo (Tu ar CavTvliT imasac, rom ymaw-
vilobisas hakes pansionSi swavlobda da germaneli kaci Tavis saswavlebelSi
germanuli kulturis propagandasac gaswevda), xolo misi peterburgSi gan-
swavlis wlebi daemTxva im periods, roca ruseTis liberalur-Tavadazna-
urel banaksa da revolucioner-demokratebs Soris metad mZafri da gada-
uwyveteli winaaRmdegoba warmoiSva. aseT pirobebSi literaturul-publi-
cisturi saqmianoba, rogorc arasdros, sazogadoebrivi da politikuri
brZolis ferxulSi Caeba, xolo germanuli klasikuri filosofia da lite-
ratura rusuli mowinave azrisa da literaturis yuradRebis centrSi mo-
eqca, rasac ar SeiZleba, gavlena ar moexdina ruseTSi ganaTlebamiRebul
mweralze da meorec: ocdaaTwliani omebisagan politikurad daqucmacebu-
li da ekonomikurad dakninebuli germaniis mdgomareobas, miuxedavad spe-
cifikuri viTarebiT gamowveuli mniSvnelovani gansxvavebisa, tipologi-
164


urad esadageboda ucxoelTa gamudmebuli SemosevebiTa da bolos ruseTis
uRelqveS mgminavi saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi cxovreba. swored tipolo-
giuri msgavsebiT unda aixsnas germaniis savalalo mdgomareobis tragiku-
lad ganmcdeli holderlinis mier samSoblos mdgomareobis daxasiaTebisa
da ilias mier saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis Sefasebis analogi-
uroba: `me ver warmomidgenia sxva xalxi, romelic ufro dafleTili
(zerrisner) iyos, vidre germanelebia. xelosnebs xedav aq, magram ara adamianebs,
moazrovneebs, magram ara adamianebs, moZRvrebs, magram ara adamianebs,
batonebsa da msaxurebs, axalgazrdebsa da moxucebs, magram ara adamianebs~
(holderlini 1953: 635). ilia ki Tavis gulistkivils ase gamoxatavda: `arian
Tavadni, aznaurni, mRvdelni, vaWarni, glexni, Cinianni da uCinoni yvelani
arian, magram qarTveli ki arsad aris~ (WavWavaZe : 73).
germanul klasikur literaturasTan ilia WavWavaZis mimarTebaze msje-
loba hainrix haineTi unda daviwyoT, radgan marto Cveni survili ki ar aris
aseTi, aramed ilias mimarTebas goeTesTan da gnebaT lesingTan da SilerTan
is esTetika da msoflmxedveloba gansazRvravda, romelic haines zemoqme-
debiT Camouyalibda mas. es arc aris gasakviri. haines gavlena aSkarad
igrZnoba belinskis, gercenis, CerniSevskis, dobroliubovis, pisarevis,
mixailovis, minaevis da sxvaTa naazrevze, anu im wreze, romelic `sovreme-
nikis~, `russkoe slovos~ da `kolokolis~ garSemo ikribeboda. am wres ekuT-
vnodnen peterburgSi saswavlelad wasuli qarTveli studentebi ilia
WavWavaZis CaTvliT, romlebic, TviT ilias TqmiT, Rameebs aTenebdnen
`sovremenikis~ kiTxvaSi. swored dasaxelebuli organoebi iTvlebodnen
haines naazrevis useriozules popularizatorebad. Znelia daiZebnos saz-
RvargareTeli mwerali, romelsac iseTi ganuzomeli avtoritetiT esargeb-
la imdroindel ruseTSi, rogoriTac haine sargeblobda. ilia WavWavaZemac
misi Semoqmedeba arsebiTad pirvelad aq gaicno da rogorc Cans, igi zed-
miwevniT icnobda haines mxatvrul Semoqmedebas da publicistur-kritikul
Tu filosofiur-esTetikuri xasiaTis nawerebsac. amis dasturia ilias mier
calkeul movlenaTa iseTi analizi da ganzogadeba, rac mas tipologiurad
aaxloebs hainrix hainesTan. orive mwerali sworad warmosaxavda arsebuls.
isini maxvili satiriT, Rrma analiziTa da gamosaxvis araCveulebrivi niWiT
uaryoTdnen imas, rac aferxebda cxovrebas, amcirebda adamianis Rirsebas,
xolo meore mxriv im perspeqtivasac saxavdnen, rasac unda Seecvala Zveli.
amitom iyo, rom maTi mZafri dacinva erTnairad xmianobda literaturasa da
publcistikaSi. gavixsenoT Tundac haines pamfleti graf platenze da
ilias `oriode sityva...~ da `pasuxi...~ (oriveSi enis sakiTxsebisa da siZveliT
gadaWarbebuli gatacebis kritikaa mocemuli); an kidev, haines cnobili
lirikuli Sedevrebi: `Sesxma ludvig mefisa~, `axali aleqsandre~, `amomrCe-
veli virebi~, `CineTis imperatori~, `safrTxobela~ da ilias `kacia-adamiani?!~
hainem Tavis publicistur naSromSi `religiisa da filosofiis istori-
isaTvis germaniaSi~ pirvelma wamoayena debuleba, rom germaniaSi revolu-
ciis ideuri wanamZRvrebi ukve Seqmnilia, axla ki droa filosofosobidan
moqmedebaze, sityvidan saqmeze gadavideTo. haines es sityvebi rusma revo-
lucioner-demokratebma aitaces da TavianTi praqtikuli saqmianobis devi-
zad gaixades. dobroliubovma naTlad gamoxata es ideali, roca ganacxada:
`frazam dakarga Tavisi mniSvneloba, TviT sazogadoebaSi daibada moTxovni-
leba saqmisa~ (dobroliubovi 1972: 74). am sakiTxs man leqsic uZRvna ("
", iqve, gv. 434). rac Seexeba ilia WavWavaZes, misi gamosvla
165


SemoqmedebiT asparezze Taviseburi `Sturm und Drang~-is dasawyisi iyo Cveni
imdroindeli cxovrebis pirobebSi. sityvis magier cocxali, praqtikuli
saqmianoba ilias idealsac warmoadgenda. `mgzavris werilebSi~ samSoblo-
saken momavali poeti fiqrobs, Tu rogor Sexvdeba Tavis qveyanas, ras etyvis
axals; SeZlebs Tu ara, rom Tavisi sityviT tkivili dauamos da a. S. bolos ki
SeniSnavs: `...magram amas sul sityvebze vlaparakob, saqme ki saqmeSia. Senma
qveyanam saqme rom mogTxovos, maSin rasa iqm? _ vkiTxe Cems Tavs da gavCerdi
kidec. vigrZen, rom am kiTxvam Sewyvita is zemoxsenebuli fiqrebis feradi
grexili~ (WavWavaZe 1988: 14). sxvagan ki ilia gadaWriT acxadebs: `Cveni saqme
saqarTvelos xalxis cxovrebaa. misi gamomjobineba Cveni pirveli da uka-
naskneli survilia~ (WavWavaZe 1991: 129). amitom iyo, rom misi poeturi kredo
Sors idga `wminda xelovnebis~ Teoriisagan, rac ase mkafiod gaamJRavna
Tavis Wabukobisdroindel leqsSi `poeti~:

misTvis ar vmRer, rom vimRero,
viT frinvelma gareganma,
ara marto tkbil xmebisTvis
gamomgzavna qveynad cama.
me ca mniSnavs da eri mzrdis
miwieri zeciersa,
RmerTTan misTvis vlaparakob,
rom warvuZRve wina ersa...
eris wyluli maCndes wylulad,
mewodes mis tanjviT suli,
mis bediT da ubedobiT
damedagos mtkice guli...

es sityvebi gamoZaxilia haines sityvebisa.

Sen RuRuni rodi gmarTebs, rogorc verTers,
sicocxle rom oxvriT lotas Sealia...
_ da simRera maxviliT unda JRerdes,
nu iqnebi uwyinari salamuri,
uSfoTveli sulis nazi idilia;
mamulisa iyav dafi da naRara...
(`tendencia~, Targmani a. gelovanis)

da erTgvari pasuxi erTi mxriv puSkinis leqsze:

,
, ,
,
. (`~)

xolo, meore mxriv, goeTesi:

Ich singe, wie ein Vogel singt,
Der in den Zweigen wohnet
("Wilhelm Meister")
(ise vmReri, rogorc Citi
gareT xis totze rom cxovrobs.)

Tu, ilias azriT, puSkini ganerideba brbos, rogorc `wminda xelovnebis~
qurumi, xolo goeTes moWikWike Citebis laRi xmebi itacebs, hainesa da
iliasaTvis poeti xalxis Svilia, romelic marto `tkbil xmebisTvis~ ar mov-
166


lenia qveyanas; igi eris aRzrdilia, misi winamZRoli, `maxvili da cecxlia~
xalxTa bednierebisaTvis brZolaSi. sainteresoa erTi momentic: orive
poeti xelovnebis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb TavianTi mosazrebebis gamoTqmisas
kritikis obieqtad goeTes iyeneben. _ haine miniSnebas akeTebs goeTes
`axalgazrda verTeris vnebanze~ (Sen RuRuni rodi gmarebs, rogorc ver-
Ters), ilia ki mis `vilhelm maisterze~ (ise vmReri, rogorc Citi). poeturi
kredo, romelic aRniSnuli leqsebiT gamoxates, arc hainesa da arc ilias
arasodes SeucvliaT. eris mware yofa, fiqri da ocneba, istoriuli qartexi-
lebiT Sepirobebuli, maTive mware yofa, fiqri da gansacdeli iyo.
haines es ideali naTlad warmoCnda mis pirvelsave prozaul TxzulebaSi
`mogzaurobis suraTebi~ (mxedvelobaSi maqvs upiratesad misi pirveli nawi-
li _ `mogzauroba harcze~), xolo iliasi aseve mis pirvelsave prozaul
tiloSi _ `mgzavris werilebi~. orive Txzuleba naTeli magaliTia ara
marto mxatvrul prozasa da publicistur diskursTa Soris sazRvrebis
moSlisa, ara marto problemaTa urTierTgadaZaxilisa, aramed teqstualu-
ri da mxatvruli saxeebis Tanxvdomis TvalsazrisiTac.
Tu haines TxzulebaSi mTeli simZafriTaa warmoCenili mwerlis kriti-
kuli damokidebuleba imdroindeli usamarTlo cxovrebisadmi da am kriti-
kis gverdiT naTlad gamosWvivis misi udidesi sulieri tkivili germaniis
daqucmacebulobis gamo, rasac ironiis momarjvebiT warmoaCens avtori:
`vaxSmobis Jams TavSeqcevis moyvaruli var da amitom patriotul kamaTSi
Cavebi. graifsvaldeli im azrisa iyo, rom germania unda daiyos ocdacamet
sadroSod. me ki, piriqiT, vamtkicebdi, rom saWiroa misi ormocdarva olqad
dayofa, radgan maSin SesaZlebeli iqneba ufro sistematuri saxelmZRvane-
los Sedgena germaniis Sesaxeb~ (haine 1956: 53), ilias qveynis damoukideblo-
bis dakargviT gamowveuli erovnuli katastrofis saSiSroeba ukodavda
guls: `migixvdi Cemo moxevev, ra nestariTa xar naCxvleti: `Cveni Tavi
Cvenadve gveyudneso~ _ Tqvi Sen da me gavigone, magram gavigone Tu ara,
raRac uecarma tkivilma tvinidan gulamde Camirbina, iq gulSi gaiTxara
samare da daimarxa~ (WavWavaZe 1988: 32).
haines gesliani satira mimarTuli iyo filisteruli gonebaClungobisa
da yoyoCuri Sovinizmis winaaRmdeg. igi sastikad akritikebda tevtomanobas,
rogorc adamianis Rirsebis damamcirebel movlenas. tevtomanis tipiuri
saxe warmoaCina man TxzulebaSi, roca aRwera graifsvaldelsa da Sveica-
rels Soris gamarTuli kamaTi. graifsvaldels, am, haines sityvebiT rom
vTqvaT, `naturalur sidideSi mocemul briyvs~, Tavi ilia WavWavaZis `rusis
aficeriviT~ ganaTlebul, niWier kacad miaCnia da, Turme, nacionalur-
gmirul poemaze muSaobs, romelSic qebaTaqebas umReris hermansa da mis
brZolas romalebTan. haine dascinis ra mas, ironiiT SeniSnavs: `me mas ara-
erTi sasargeblo rCeva miveci am eposis mosamzadeblad... rom patriotuli
sinatifis momaswavebeli iqneba, Tu igi variussa da mis Tanamemamuleebs ga-
uval sisuleleebs warmoaTqmevinebs~ (haine 1956: 54). ilia WavWavaZis satira
ki mTeli simZafriT mimarTulia qarafSuta `rusis aficrisaken~, romelsac
qarTveli kacis yofna peterburgSi saocar movlenad, xolo peterburgTan
SedarebiT Tbilisi `witian~ qalaqad miaCnia. isic graifsvaldeliviT mwer-
lobs: `me mwerali gaxlavarT. gTxovT, rom micnobdeT. egre ki nu miyurebT.
me davamtkice, rom peterburgia mTeli ruseTis guli~ (WavWavaZe 1988: 16).
167


garda imisa, rom am or qmnilebaSi ideaTa erTianobaa, orive mwerali
erTnair msoflmxedvelobas amJRavnebs calkeul pasaJebSic: vTqvaT, dRisa
da Ramis SedarebaSi,- brokenis mTisa da myinvaris asociaciur gaazrebaSi.
dRe da Rame TiTqos simbolurad ganasaxiereben adamianuri cxovrebis
keTilsa da borot sawyisebs. haine gmobs bnel Rames Tavisi sizmrebiTa da
moCvenebebiT. gavixsenoT goslaris sastumroSi gaTeuli Rame, roca `bolos
kari gaiRo da oTaxSi fexakrefiT Semovida gansvenebuli doqtori saul
aSeri. civma Jruantelma damiara tanSi, verxvis foToliviT vkankalebdi da
Tvali ver gamesworebina moCvenebisaTvis~ (haine 1956: 33). an kidev msgavsi
situacia brokenis sastumroSi: `Zalian cudad meZina. koSmaruli zmanebebi
mqonda. yurebSi medga fortepianos partia dantes `jojoxeTidan~ (haine
1956: 57). samagierod, mzis uaRresad did gamanayofierebel Zalas grZnobs
avtori. `rodesac norteni davtove, mze maRla idga da brwyinavda. mas Cem-
Tvis keTili surda da magrad mixurebda Tavs, raTa masSi savsebiT
momwifebuliyo yvela umwifari azri~ (haine 1956: 13). msgavs emociebs iwvevs
mkiTxvelSi ilias msjeloba dRisa da Ramis Sesaxeb `mgzavris werilebSi~.
adgilis SezRudulobis gamo citirebas moveridebi, mimaCnia ra, rom igi
TiTqmis yvelasaTvis cnobilia. mxolod SevniSnav, rom dRisa da Ramis
dapirispireba haines `mogzaurobis suraTebSi~ mxatvrul saxeebSia gaxsni-
li. ilia ki, TiTqos daskvnas ukeTebs haines mosazrebebs, mkacri msjelobis
Semdeg dasZens. `ara, wariReT es bneli da mSvidobiani Rame Tavisi ZiliTa da
sizmrebiTa da momeciT me naTeli da mousvenari dRe Tavisi tanjviTa,
wvalebiTa, brZoliTa da vaivaglaxiTa~ (WavWavaZe 1988: 24).
simptomaturia isic, rom TviT mTa raRac erTnair asociaciebs aRuZravs
orive mwerals, raSic naTlad ikveTeba maTi msoflmxedvelobrivi
monaTesaveoba:
haine: _ `mTasac (laparakia brokenis mTaze _ v.k.) aqvs raRac mSvidi, gam-
gebi, momTmeni, albaT imitom, rom mas sagnebis ase Sors da ase naTlad Wvre-
ta SeuZlia da rodesac aseTi mTa axels Tavis bumberazul Tvalebs, SesaZ-
loa, igi ufro mets xedavs, vidre Cven, masze mcocavi kacunebi... marTalia,
igi motvlepil Tavs zogjer nislis TeTri CaCiT ifaravs, rac filisterul
iers aZlevs mas, magram rogorc zogierT did germanels, masac es wminda
ironiiT emarTeba~ (haine 1956: 47).
ilia: _ `myinvari!.. didebulia, myudro da mSvidobiani, magram civia da
TeTri, ... Ziri Tumca dedamiwaze udga, Tavi ki cas miubjenia, ganzed gam-
dgara, miukarebelia. ar miyvars arc magisTana simaRle, arc magisTana gan-
zed gadgoma, arc magisTana miukarebloba... myinvari did getes magonebs~
(WavWavaZe 1988: 23).
rogorc vxedavT, haines maRali mTa ironiul gandgomilad esaxeba, ilias
ki civ da miukareblad da orives `did germanels~ agonebs igi.
rogorc haine germaniaSi, ise ilia WavWavaZe saqarTveloSi Seufaravad
amxelda Tavisi eris nakls, miuTiTebda mis mankier mxareebze. oriveze
erTnairad SeiZleba ganvavrcoT ilias sityvebi: `me yizilbaSoba arc myva-
rebia da arc miyvars. me rogorc mesmis, ise vlaparakob da pirdapir veubnebi
kacs. es cudia da es kargia meTqi~ (WavWavaZe 1991: 51). raki haines saaSkaraoze
gamohqonda qveynis cudi mxareebi da kritikis qarcecxlSi atarebda yvelas,
vinc ki ukan eqaCeboda isedac sulTmobrZav mis samSoblos, bevrma mas sam-
Soblos moRalatis `etiketi miakra~ da misi interesebis gamcemad Seracxa.
mas xSirad uxdeboda aseTi adamianebisagan Tavis dacva da axsna-ganmarte-
168


bebis micema, rom `sxvisi kargis qeba da sakuTari cudis Zageba es kidev ar
niSnavs Ralats~ (haine 1962: 434). satiruli poema `germaniis~ winasityvaoba-
Si, mimarTavda ra `Sav-wiTel-yviTel livrSi~ gamowyobil germanel farise-
vel laqiebs, romlebmac mas `pativi dasdes~ da `samSoblos mtrad da fran-
gTa megobris saxeliT monaTles~, werda. `damSviddiT! Tayvansa da pativsa
vcems Tqvens ferebs, roca isini amas daimsaxureben, roca marto sazeimo
saTamaSoni aRar iqnebian isini. aswieT Sav-wiTel-yviTeli droSa germanuli
azrovnebis simaRlemde, aqcieT igi adamianobis emblemad, maSin Cemi gulidan
saukeTeso sisxls misTvis gaviReb... me frangebis megobari var iseve, ro-
gorc yvela sxvisa, vinc Wkviani da kargia~ (haine 1962: 434).
iliamac araerTi sayveduri daimsaxura crupatriotTagan, `Cveni eris
WuWys mourideblad gamohfenso~. umal haines zemoT moxmobili sityvebi
gvaxsendeba, roca ilia aseTi adamianebisagan Tavis dasacavad ambobda:
`saqarTveloSi Tu sadme ors an sams uyvars qarTveli, Cven imaTSi ukanas-
kneli ara varT. es ki unda vsTqvaT, rom Cven qarTvelSi gviyvars mxolod
misi sikeTe, sicude ki yvelgan sazizRaria, qarTveli iqneba misi meqoni Tu
anglieli~ (WavWavaZe, 1991, 132). an kidev:

Cemzed amboben: `is siaves qarTvlisas ambobs,
Cvens cuds ar malavs, eg xom cxadi siZulvilia~.
briyvni amboben, kargi guli ki maSinve scnobs,
am siZulvilSi raodenic siyvarulia.
(`Cemo kalamo~)

mankierebis mxilebaSi hainesaTvis Tu ZiriTadi sabrZolo iaraRi ironia
da sarkazmia, es arc iliasaTvis aris ucxo. 1881 wels ilia `iveria~-Si werda:
`sul gadamaviwyda, rom adamians sityva azrisaTvis ara aqvs miniWebuli,
aramed imisaTvis, rom didma sTqvas: `me Sen gibrZaneb da xma unda gaikmindo~
da pataram miugos: `maqvs pativi mogaxsenoT, rom ena mucelSi Camivarda
brZanebisaebr Tqvenisa~ (WavWavaZe 1955: 77).
iliasaTvis haines Txzulebebi metad maxlobeli rom iyo, es iqedanac
Cans, rom kritikul-publicisturi werilebis werisas xSirad mimarTavda
xolme maT. ase magaliTad: icavda ra Tavisi basri kritikis meTods, `pasuxSi~
ilia haines iSveliebda: `Cems ganxilvas lanZRvas isini daarqmeven, visac ...
marTali sityva, pirdapiri naTqvami ar gaugia Tavis dReSi. aba waikiTxeT
graf platenis leqsebis ganxilva saxelovan heinesi~ (WavWavaZe 1991: 51).
ilia gulisxmobs haines `lukas wylebs~ (`mogzaurobis suraTebidan~),
romelSic poeti ebrZoda leqsis klasikuri formebis motrfiale da xalxu-
ri formebis ugulvebelmyofel platens. haines Sexedulebebi iliasaTvis
misaRebi aRmoCnda, radgan igi, rogorc haine germaniaSi, CvenSi ebrZoda
siZveliT gadaWarbebul gatacebas. rogorc cnobilia, ilias oriode sity-
va...~ da `pasuxi~ CvenSi iqca axali Taobis sabrZolo programad. amave dros
aRniSnulma literaturul-kritikulma werilebma gamoiwvies iseTive mZaf-
ri literaturuli skandali saqarTveloSi, rogoric ufro adre haines
`lukas wylebma~ germaniaSi.
moxmobili magaliTebi kidev erTi naTeli dadasturebaa imisa, rom msgav-
si socialur-politikuri viTareba msgavs ideebsa da asociaciebs aRuZravs
SemoqmedT.
169


ilia pirveli iyo, vinc haines leqsebi qarTulad Targmna. sakiTxs imis
Sesaxeb, icoda Tu ara iliam germanuli ena, adre araerTxel SevexeT

. amje-
rad mxolod imas vityviT, rom mas SeeZlo yvela saxis literaturis kiTxva
am enaze. misi Targmanebi originalidan Sesrulebuli Cans. yovel SemTxve-
vaSi, sakontrolo Sedareba mainc unda moexdina dedanTan. amis Tqmis saSu-
alebas gvaZlevs is dacilebebi, rac rusul Targmansa da ilias Targmans
Soris arsebobs dedanTan miaxloebis xarjze. rusul SesaZlebel wyarod
aRebuli gvaqvs mixail mixailovis Targmanebi, jer erTi, imitom, rom gav-
rcelebulia mosazreba, TiTqos ilia Tavis TargmanTa wyarod mixailovi-
seul rusul Targmanebs iyenebda da meorec, maSindel TargmanTa Soris
yvelaze srulyofilad swored mixailoviseuli Targmanebi iTvleboda. gar-
da amisa, mixailovi Jurnal `sovremenikis~ mier mTargmnelobiT saqmianobaSi
avtoritetad iyo miCneuli

da CerniSevskis ojaxTanac daaxloebuli. Tu


mxedvelobaSi miviRebT imasac, rom bevri qarTveli samocianeli da maT
Soris ilia WavWavaZe garda imisa, rom aRniSnuli Jurnalis erTguli mkiTx-
velebi iyvnen, daaxloebulic yofilan CerniSevskis ojaxTan, sruliad
SesaZlebelia, rom piradi nacnobobac hqonodaT m. mixailovTan.
SedarebisaTvis movuxmob adgils haines leqsidan `roca Sevyureb Sensa
Tvalebsa~.
haine: Wenn ich in dein' Auge sehe,
So schwindet all' mein Leid und Wehe.

mixailovi: ,
.

ilia: roca Sevyureb me Sens Tvalebsa,
gminva da texa gulis dumdeba.

rogorc vxedavT `Leid und Wehe~ (sevda, wuxili da tkivili) mixailovs
Targmnili aqvs `~-d, maSin, roca ilias `gminva` da `texa~ zustad Seesa-
tyviseba original. garda amisa, haine da ilia aTmarcvlian leqss iyeneben da
JReradobiTac maqsimalurad arian daaxloebuli. mixailovi ki rvamarcvli-
ani leqsiT Targmnis, ris gamo tempic daCqarebulia.
originalTan miaxloebis cdebia mocemuli ilias mier haines meore
leqsis _ `loyiT moepyar Cemsa loyasa~ Targmnisas. leqsis bolo ori stri-
qoni ase hqonda ilias Targmnili:

gadagexvevi ra oriv xeliT,
movkvdebi tanjviT da netarebiT

.

es varianti Jurnal krebulSi (krebuli 1871: 118) asea dabeWdili: stri-
qoni _ `gadagexvevi ra orsav xeliT~ adrindel xelnawerSi (U) 108 (B) ki
ase: `me magrad movxvev Sens tans ra xeliT~. aq aSkarad Cans Targmanis

ixileT `kalmasoba~, 15, 2007; wignSi `etiudebi germanul-qarTuli literaturuli


urTierTobidan~, gamomc. `mecniereba~, 1991; gaz. `Tbilisi~, 1987,

aRniSnulis Sesaxeb ixileT `sovremeniki~, 1858 w., 5, gv. 63.

ilia WavWavaZis akademiuri gamocemis III tomSi, 1988 w., gv. 23, Semdgenlebs swored am
saxiT SeutaniaT leqsis es monakveTi.
170


dedanTan maqsimalurad miaxloebis mcdeloba, radgan haines leqsis aRniS-
nuli adgili ase JRers.

Und wenn dich mein Arm gewaltig umschliesst
Sterb ich von Liebessehnen.

ilias `magraT~ Semoutania TargmanSi, rogorc `gewaltig~-is Sesatyvisi,
xolo `mogxvev... xeliT~ `Mein Arm umschliesst~-is zusti Sesatyvisia. Cans, es
varianti ar moewona da krebulSi Secvlili variantiT gamoaqveyna. saerTod,
mTeli leqsi ilias dednis sizustiT uTargmnia da originalis ganwyobile-
bac mTlianad SeunarCunebia.
ilias haines mibaZviT dauweria sami leqsi. `meca mqonia kargi mamuli~,
`sixaruli hgavs~ da `vixile satrfo~.
mibaZvasa da gadmokeTebas gasul saukuneSi xSirad mimarTavdnen xolme
Cveni mwerlebi. ai, ras wers ilia WavWavaZe, roca Targmansa da gadmokeTebas
exeba: pirvel SemTxvevaSi `sxvisi cxovreba, xasiaTsa da zne-CeulebaSi gamo-
Tqmuli, naCvenebi unda iyos utyuarad da Seucvlelad~. meore SemTxvevaSi
ki, ilias azriT, `ucxo xati sxvisi cxovrebisa cotad Tu bevrad Cvenis
cxovrebis xatad gardaiqmneba da ramdenadac es gardaqmna didia, imdenad
naSromi kargi da mosawoni... gadmomkeTebels ufro meti sagzali unda, ufro
meti Rone sWiria, ufro meti niWi, vidre mTargmnelsa, gadmomkeTebels is
Ronec unda hqondes, rac mTargmnels da amas garda, TviTmoqmedi Zalic
Semoqmedebisa~ (WavWavaZe 1953: 125).
ilias pirvel mibaZvasac (`meca mqonia kargi mamuli~) cota ram aqvs
saerTo originalTan. igi auRia haines leqsebis ciklidan _ `ucxoeTSi~.
haines es leqsi (`Ich hatte einst ein schnes Vaterland~), miuxedavad imisa, rom masSi
naTlad Cans samSoblodan gandevniT gamowveuli sevda, arsebiTad satrfi-
alo xasiaTisaa. igi Tavisi SinaarsiT `ucxoeTis~ ciklis pirveli da meore
leqsis gagrZelebaa (TviTon es leqsi mesamea), gamoZaxilia Semdegi
sityvebisa:
Die Liebe, die dahinten blieb,
Sie ruft sich sanft zurck.
(siyvaruli, romelic iq (samSobloSi v.k.) damrCa,
kvlav mixmobs nazad).

TviTon saanalizo leqsi ki ase JRers.

Ich hatte einst ein shnes Vaterland.
Der Eichenbaum
Wuchs dort so hoch, die Veilchen nickten sanft,
Es war ein Traum.
Das ksste mich auf deutsch, und sprach auf deutsch.
(Man glaubt es kaum
Wie gut es klang) das Wort "Ich liebe dich".
Es war ein Traum.

(erTxel mec mqonda kargi mamuli, ase maRla rom izrdebodnen muxis
xeebi, kdemiT Tavs mikravdnen iebi. es iyo mxolod sizmari. germanulad
mkocnidnen da gemanuladve meubnebodnen (ver warmoidgenT, ra kargad
JRerda) sityvebs: `me Sen miyvarxar~. es iyo mxolod sizmari.
171


iliam Rrmad Caixeda haines sulSi. am siyvarulis miRma samSoblos gan-
SorebiT gamowveuli didi sevda dainaxa, Sedeg ki Tavis samSoblos Wir-va-
rams miusadaga da leqsSi erovnuli tragediis ganwyobilebam Seqmna mTavari
paTosi:
meca mqonia kargi mamuli,
Turme scxovrobda iq siyvaruli,
Turme iq hfenda bedi mRimari,
exla kia es marto sizmari.
Turme iqaca brwyinavdnen dReni,
iqac scxovrobdnen erTgulni Zeni,
Turme gaeRoT maSin ciskari,
exla kia es marto sizmari.



rogorc vxedavT, ilias Tavisi STagonebis wyarod gauxdia haines leqsis
pirveli striqoni _ `Ich hatte einst ein shnes Vaterland~ _ `erTxel mec mqonda
kargi mamuli~ da refreni _ `Das war ein Traum~ _ `es iyo sizmari~ da Seuqmnia
Rrmad patriotuli leqsi.
ilia WavWavaZes leqsi _ `siyvaruli hgavs~ mibaZviT wyarod gamouyenebia
haines `lamentaciebis~ epigrafis pirveli strofi. didxans gaurkveveli
iyo, romeli avtoris mibaZviT dawera iliam es lqsi. irakli kenWoSvilma
sworad miakvlia, rom igi `haines leqsis mibaZvaa~ (kenWoSvili 1962: 4), xolo,
rac Seexeba imis mtkicebas, TiTqos ilias Tavisi mibaZvis wyarod mixailovis
Targmani gamoeyenebinos, Cven gansxvavebuli mosazreba gvaqvs. SedarebisaT-
vis movuxmob haines, mixailovis da ilias variantebs.

haine: Das Glck ist eine leichte Dirne,
Und weilt nicht gern am selben Ort,
Sie streicht das Haar dir von der Stirne
Und ksst dich rasch und flattert fort.

(msubuqi qcevis gogonas hgavs sixaruli, ar uyvars erT adgilze
dayovneba, Sublidan Tma gadagiwevs, swrafad gakocebs da gafrindeba).

mixailovi: ,
,
-
, .

ilia: sixaruli hgavs gzis pirad gazrdils,
gavliT mowyvetil surnelsa yvavils,
romelic xelSi didxans ar grCeba,
mcire xans gatkbobs da mere Wkneba.

rogorc am magaliTebidan Cans, mixailovs mTlianad gamotovebuli aqvs
mesame striqoni _ (Sie streicht das Haar dir von der Stirne) `Sublidan Tma gada-

`akakis krebulSi~ (1871, 4) mocemuli saxiT gamoqveynebuli es leqsi ilias TxzulebaTa


akademiur gamocemaSi odnav Secvlili saxiT aris dabeWdili. kerZod, meore striqonSi
sityva `scxovrobda~ Secvlilia `sufevdaTi~, xolo bolodan meore striqonSi `Turme
gaeRoT~ _ `Ria qoniaTi~. Cans, es leqsi ilias kidev gadaumuSavebia da akademiuri gamo-
cemis Semdgenlebs gadamuSavebuli xelnaweris varianti gamouyenebiaT.
172


giwevs~, xolo originalis meoTxe striqoni gadanawilebuli aqvs mesame da
meoTxe striqonSi, rac movlenaTa ganviTarebis temps sagrZnoblad aCqarebs.
formiTac, SinaarsiTac da JReradobiTac (ritmiT) mixailovis Targmani sag-
rZnoblad gansxvavdeba originalisagan. ilia ki movlenis aRweris mTlianad
hainesebur manerasa da ritms inarCunebs. garda amisa, ilias meoTxe stri-
qoni `mcire xans gatkbobs da mere Wkneba~ azrobrivad (da ara sityvieri qso-
viliT) mTlianad Seesatyviseba originalis meoTxe striqons _ `swrafad
gakocebs da gafrindeba~, rasac mixailovi or striqons uTmobs. xolo ilias
mesame striqoni _ `romelic xelSi didxans ar grCeba~ _ msjelobis Tu
dayovnebis forma _ srul SesabamisobaSia haines leqsis mesame striqonis _
`Sublidan Tmas gadagiwevs~ _ aseve dayovnebis formasTan, rac mixailovis
TargmanSi sulac gamotovebulia. ase, rom ilia WavWavaZis es mibaZva ver
CaiTvleba mixailoviseuli Targmanis mibaZvad. igi pirdapir dednis mibaZvaa.
rac Seexeba ilia WavWavaZis leqss _ `vixile satrfo~ , _ dRemde poetis
originalur leqsadaa miCneuli da Sesabamisad, calkeul Tu akademiur
gamocemebSi originaluri leqsebis rubrikiT ibeWdeba. arada, Cven didi xnis
win aRvniSneT, rom igi aris haines leqsis `Ich hab im Traum gerweint~-is (`ZilSi
vtirodi~) mibaZva. sanimuSod movuxmobT hainesa da ilias leqsebs da haines
leqsis ioseb baqraZiseul Targmans, ramdenadac igi srul sityvier mimar-
TebaSia originalTan:

haine: Ich hab im Traum geweint,
Mir trumte, du lgst im Grab.
Ich wachte auf, und die Trne
Floss noch von der Wange herab.

Ich hab im Traum geweint,
Mir trumt', du verliessest mich.
Ich wachte auf, und weinte
Noch lange bitterlich.

Ich hab im Traum geweint,
Mir trumte, du bleibest mir gut.
Ich wachte auf, und noch immer
Strmt meine Trnenflut.


ioseb baqraZe: ZilSi vstirodi, me damesizmra,
viTom Sen saflavs iyav mdebare.
gamomeRviZa da Tvalebidan
vera Sevwyvite cremli mduRare.

ZilSi vstirodi, me damesizmra,
rom Cemzed guli gagciveboda,
gamomeRviZa da Tvalebidan
didxans mduRare cremli mcvioda.

ZilSi vstirodi, me damesizmra,
rom kvlav erTad varT bediT damtkbari,
gamomeRviZa, mainc Cems Tvalebs
vera Sevswyvite cremli mduRari.


173


ilia: vixile satrfo, igi cremls Rvrida
beds da siyvaruls moTqmiT dastirda,
mis cremli damWknar vards dascvioda
da mec Sors misgan cremli mcioda.

movida sxva dRe, ganqra mis dardi,
mas xelTa epyra sxva turfa vardi,
im vards trfobiTa is dahRimoda
da me ki mainc cremli mcvioda.

haineca da iliac moxmobil leqsebSi asaxaven lirikuli gmiris sulier
mdgomareobas sayvarel arsebasTan ganSorebisa da Semdeg, kvlav dabrunebis
dros. orive avtors movlena xilvebSi aqvT gadmocemuli (`me damesizmra~ _
haine da `vixile~ _ ilia. aqve aRvniSnav, rom germanuli sityva `Traum~ _
sizmarsac aRniSnravs da xilvasac). strofebis bolos orive avtori iyenebs
erTi da igive refrens _ `cremli mcvioda~. rogorc vxedavT, didi wuxilisa
da didi sixarulis gamo cremlTa cvena orive poets sruliad erTnair
poetur xilvebSi aqvs gadawyvetili. Cemi es mosazreba, romelic 1978 wels
gamovaqveyne (kavTiaSvili 1978: 39-40), gaiziara d. laSqaraZem: `v. kavTiaSvi-
lis mtkicebisamebr, i. WavWavaZis leqsi _ `vixile satrfo ... warmoadgens
mibaZvas haines leqsisas ... ilias `vixile satfo~ ganwyobilebiT da intonaci-
iT ise axlos dgas haines `ZilSi vstirodisTan~, rom igi, ueWvelia, am leqsis
STabeWdilebiT aris nakarnaxevi. am mosazrebis sasargeblod metyvelebs is
faqtic, rom `vixile satrfos~ Seqmnis dro (1858 oqtomberi) emTxveva peri-
ods, roca ilia, rogorc Cans, gansakuTrebiT dainteresebuli iyo haines
poeziiT. swored am periodSia Targmnili `roca Sevyureb Sensa Tvalebsa~ da
`loyiT moepyar Cemsa loyasa~ (orives Targmani Sesrulebulia 1858 w. dekem-
berSi); TiTqmis imave periodSia SeTxzuli orive mibaZvac: `meca mqonia kargi
mamuli~ (1858 w. ianvari) da `sixaruli~ (1859 w. marti)~ (laSqaraZe 1981: 106-
107). vfiqrob, ilias TxzulebaTa octomeulis redaqcias es momenti ar unda
gamorCenoda mxedvelobidan da aRniSnuli leqsi 1987 wels gamocemuli oc-
tomeulis pirvel tomSi ki ar unda SeetanaT, sadac originaluri leqsebia,
aramed mesame tomSi, sadac Targmanebi da mibaZva-gadmokeTebebia dabeWdili.


damowmebani:

abraamsi 2004: abraamsi m. h. literaturisa da kritikis Tanamedrove prob-
lemebi. sjani, 5, 2004.
goeTe 1988: goeTes saubrebi ekermanTan. baTumi: `sabWoTa aWara~, 1988.
dobroliubovi 1972: . . . ",
". .: 1972.
kenWoSvili 1962: kenWoSvili i. haine da ilia WavWavaZe. gaz. `literaturuli
gazeTi~, 18, 1962.
kavTiaSvili 1978: kavTiaSvili v. hainrix haine qarTul literaturaSi. Tb.:
`mecniereba~, 1978.
laSqaraZe 1981: laSqaraZe d. germanuli klasikuri literatura i. WavWavaZis
SemoqmedebaSi. Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1981.
WavWavaZe 1953-1955: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad. Tb.:
`saqarTvelos ssr saxelmwifo gamomcemloba~, t, III, 1953; t. V, 1955.
174


WavWavaZe 1988-1991: WavWavaZe i. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc tomad. Tb.:
`mecniereba~, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, t, III, 1988; `mecniereba~, t. V, 1991.
haine 1957: haine h. mogzaurobis suraTebi. Tb.: `saxelgami~, 1957.
haine 1962: Heine H. Heines Werke in fnf Bnden. Weimar: "Volksverlag", Bd I, 1962.
haine 1871: haines leqsi `loyiT moepyar Cemsa loyasa~; `meca mqonia kargi
mamuli~. `krebuli~, 3, 4,1871.
holderlini 1962: Holderlin J. Ch. Smtliche Werke. "Grosse Stuttgarter Ausgabe", hg. v. F.
Beissner, 1962.


Venera Kavtiashvili

On the Typology of Ilia Chavchavadzes and Heinrich Heines Creativity

Summary

This paper considers the reasons which might lay (and they did) the foundations for
the formation of Ilia Chavchvadzes ideological and doctrinal outlook germinated on the
solid national ground. For this, we have considered those similarities of social and political
background which were characteristic to Germany and Georgia in the first half of the 19
th

century, on the one hand, and on the other hand, an impact of German literature and
philosophy, first of all on Russia where Ilia got his higher education. Then there are shown
and analyzed the similarities of Ilia Chavchavadzes and Heinrich Heines thoughts which
is in abundance in fiction and publisistic works of these two creators.
While discussing Ilia Chavchavadzes attitude to German classical literature, it is
reasonable to start with Heinrich Heine because Ilias relation to Goethe and even to
Lessing and Schiller predetermined the aesthetics and world perception which had been
formed in him under the influence of Heine. This fact is also emphasized in the paper. In
conclusion, it is stated that similar social and political environment gives rise to the
similarity of the ideas and problems that typologically makes the writers creating in such
environment closer to each other.

175




akaki wereTeli _ 170


juli gaboZe

akakis `xoleras~ Tavgadasavali

1892 wlis zafxulSi saqarTveloSi qoleris epidemia gavrcelda. imdro-
indeli gazeTebi mudmivad iuwyebodnen amis Sesaxeb. akaki saswrafod gari-
debia Tbiliss, saCxereSi `gaqceula~ da iqidan swerda kirile lorTqifani-
Zes: `davemwyveri am cud dros saCxereSi da aRaraferi vici, ra xdeba
qveynierebaze. dros kargaT vatareb, e. i. marto var CemTvis da vswer da
vkiTxulob da Tan saxls vaSeneb nel-nela. avaSeneb-Tqo rom vambob, ese igi
davaqcie da TviTon karavSi var. erTi SemTxveva iyo aq xoleris, jer meti ar
yofila da Tu kidev iqna, oseTSi waval, ase vivli sul ialbuzamdi~
(wereTeli 1963: 56).
imave wlis seqtemberSi quTaisSi daibeWda akaki wereTlis leqsi `xole-
ra~ _ mestviruli Sairebi akakisa tipo-litografia k. n. gamrekelovisa.
wignaki 16 gverdiania, axlavs cenzoris nebarTva . ,
4 . 1892 , - . leqsi Tormet Ta-
vadaa dayofili. zogierTi adgili kupiurebiTaa warmodgenili, magaliTad,
meore Tavidan amoRebulia ori striqoni, III Tavidan _ erTi, XI Tavi mTli-
anadaa waSlili; XII Tavidan ori striqonia amoRebuli.
quTaisis saxelmwifo muzeumis kirile lorTqifaniZis arqivSi Cven mi-
vakvlieT `xoleras~ erT nabeWd cals, romlis yvela luwi gverdi damowme-
bulia cenzoris mier. sworeba wiTeli melniTaa Sesrulebuli da boloSi ax-
lavs aseTi warwera: 12
1892 . . . . aqve SevniSnavT, rom fanqriT gadaSlilia
leqsis gverdebis aRmniSvneli cifrebi da xelaxla fanqriTve gadanomri-
lia, Tumca numeracia iwyeba ara oridan, aramed 43-dan da midis 58-mde. na-
beWd cals muzeumSi miniWebuli aqvs Q972. vidre imis axsnas Sevudgebo-
deT, Tu ratomaa Teqvsmetgverdian wignakze 58 gverdis dabeWdvis nebarTva
gacemuli, mkiTxvels amTaviTve vauwyebT, rom arsebobs am leqsis ori xelna-
weri, romlebic daculia quTaisis saxelmwifo muzeumis kirile lorTqifa-
niZis fondSi: 971 da 976. akakis TxzulebaTa TxuTmettomeulSi miTi-
Tebulia leqsis sami wyaro: nabeWdi `xolera~ (1892 w). da ori xelnaweri
asli: 976 da 971 (wereTeli 1950: 506) TxuTmettomeulis Semdgenlebi weren,
rom leqsis srulyofili saxiT aRdgena SesaZlebeli gaxda ` 976 xelnawe-
ris aRmoCenis Semdeg, romelic pirvelad swored dasaxelebul gamocemaSi
daibeWda~ (iqve). Sesabamisad, leqsis ZiriTad wyarodac es xelnaweria miCneuli.
976 xelnaweri sufTad aris gadawerili, saTaurad wamZRvarebuli
aqvs: `xolera. mestviruli Sairebi akakisa~, qvemoT ki miwerilia rusulad:
.
176


krebulis yvela marjvena gverds boloSi axlavs cenzoris xelmowera,
zogan weria , zogan 4 seqtemberi, bolos axlavs warwera _
cenzori rafiel erisTavi, leqss erTvis akakis xelmowera da grafikuli
niSani, romelsac poeti Cveulebisamebr, dasrulebul nawarmoebs boloSi
urTavda. leqsSi Tavebi cifrebis nacvlad gamyofi xazebiTaa gamijnuli.
xelnawerze Tvalis erTi gadavlebac sakmarisia, rom mivxvdeT _ is sacen-
zuro komitetSi yofila wardgenili. wiTlad gadaxazulia is adgilebi,
romlebic Semdeg nabeWd variantSi veRar moxvda. Cvenc veTanxmebiT TxuT-
mettomeulis Semdgenlebs da vfiqrobT, rom xelwera akakisi araa; kaligra-
fia metismetad lamazia, Tumca teqsti akakis waukiTxavs, ramdenime adgili
Tavisi xeliT Causworebia, bolos ki Tavisi xelmoweriTac daudasturebia.
amdenad 976 aris leqsis avtorizebuli teqsti.
aseve Zalian sagulisxmoa meore xelnaweri 971, romelic gadawerilia
kirile lorTqifaniZis xeliT; igi zustad imeorebs dedans da sastambodaa
momzadebuli. teqsti sruladaa gadawerili, Tavebic danomrilia da is adgi-
lebi, romelic 976 xelnawerSi cenzors wiTeli melniT wauSlia, gadaxa-
zulia da moniSnulia sityviT `aq~. boloSi axlavs warwera _ akaki _ magram
es aSkarad ar aris akakis xeli.
amrigad, leqsis Seqmnis istoria aseTia: akakim gadawera an gadaawerina
leqsi, waikiTxa, Caaswora da warudgina cenzors (xelnaweri 2173/976), am
ukanasknelma ki amoSala calkeuli adgilebi da mxolod ase misca dabeWdvis
neba, amis Semdeg kirilem srulad gadawera leqsi da gaamzada stambaSi war-
sadgenad, Tumca gaiTvaliswina cenzoris SeniSvnebi da gamomcemels mouniS-
na isini. (xelnaweri 2173/971).
1892 wels leqsi daCexili saxiT gamoica.
axla vnaxoT, ramdenad mniSvnelovania Cven mier ukve naxsenebi `xole-
ras~ 972, is nabeWdi cali, romelSic kirile lorTqifaniZis xeliT aRdge-
nilia amoSlili strofebi da SevecadoT, gavarkvioT, ratom gasca cenzorma
nebarTva 58 gverdis dabeWdvaze, roca leqsis nabeWdi cali 16-gverdiania.
saqmis viTareba amgvarad warmogvidgeba:
1892 wlis oqtomberSi akakis Seudgenia xelnaweri krebuli `salamuri~
da gadaucia igi k. lorTqifaniZisTvis, romelsac gadauweria krebuli sa-
cenzuro komitetSi warsadgenad da ganuzraxavs (albaT avtoris surviliT)
masSi sruli saxiT leqsi `xolerac~ Seetana, romelic, rogorc aRvniSneT,
1892 wels damaxinjebuli saxiT iyo gamocemuli. gamomcemels aRar gadauwe-
ria leqsi da usargeblia misi nabeWdi egzemplariT, romelSic xeliT aRud-
genia cenzoris mier amoRebuli adgilebi, Semdeg orive erTad gadaunomravs
(`xoleras~ nabeWdi cali 16gverds moicavs, `salamuris~ xelnaweri krebuli
ki 42-s) da am saxiT warudgenia cenzoraSi. `salamuris~ xelnawers Tavfur-
celze axlavs cenzuris nebarTva: `
~ 7,8,9,13,15,18,45 53~. `12 1892 .
. . ~ (amis Sesaxeb vrcal ix. wereTeli 2010).
amis Semdeg kirile lorTqifaniZes krebuli qarTvelTa wignis gamomce-
meli amxanagobis Tavmjdomare al. jabadarisaTvis uCvenebia, ris Semdegac
garekanze gaCnda Semdegi warwera: `am rveulSi moTavsebuli ocdaeqvsi leq-
sis (garda leqsisa `xolera~) dabeWdvis nebas aZlevs wignis gamomcemeli
qarTvelTa amxanagoba. amxanagobis gamge al. jabadari. 13 dekemberi 1892 w. q.
Tbilisi~.
177















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179


sainteresoa, cenzuris vizis Semdeg ratomRa dasWirda gamomcemels
aleqsandre jabadaris nebarTva? saqmis viTareba amgvari gaxldaT: 1892
wels TbilisSi daarsda qarTvelTa wignis gamomcemeli amxanagoba aleqsan-
dre jabadaris TavmjdomareobiT. amxanagobis mizani iyo qarTvel mweralTa
rCeuli nawerebis gamocema. maT imave wels xelSekruleba gaaformes ilia
WavWavaZesTan da akaki wereTelTan da ganizraxes maTi Txzulebebis gamo-
cema aT tomad (1892 wels gamosces ilias Txzulebanis mxolod ori tomi,
1893 wels _ akakis Txzulebanis aseve mxolod ori tomi). xelSekrulebis
pirobiT, amxanagobis nebadaurTvelad akaki wereTlis nawerebis gamocema
yvelas ekrZaleboda. bunebrivia, aRniSnul xelSekrulebas icnobda
k.lorTqifaniZec da Tavs valdebulad miiCnevda, ecnobebina gamomcemlobis
gamgisaTvis Tavisi ganzraxva da akakis leqsebis gamocemis nebarTva eTxova.
rogorc Cans, al. jabadarma mizanSewonilad ar miiCnia, rom leqsi `xolera~
kvlav aseTi daCexili saxiT gamoecaT, amitomac urCia gamomcemels kre-
bulidan misi amoReba.
lorTqifaniZis fondSi daculi `xoleras~ nabeWd calSi 2173/972
kiriles xeliT aRdgenilia cenzoris mier amoSlili strofebi, amdenad es
aris leqsis avtorizebuli wyaro da mas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eni-
Weba. leqsis es axalmikvleuli nasworebi cali ukve Seemateba akakis Txzu-
lebaTa axal akademiur octomeuls, rogorc avtorizebuli nabeWdi wyaro.
da mainc, ra aris am leqsSi iseTi, rac verc erTxel ver gamoepara
cenzuris maxvil Tvals?
cnobilia, rom akakis saRvTismetyvelo ganaTleba ar miuRia, magram
ojaxsa Tu gimnaziaSi mas zedmiwevniT Seaswavles saRvTo werili. Sesaba-
misad misi Semoqmedeba gajerebulia bibliuri citatebiTa da aluziebiT.
ufro metic, akakim poemebic ki uZRvna qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblebs: andria
pirvelwodebulsa (1884 w.) da wminda ninos (1906 w.). garda amisa, missave
kalams ekuTvnis poema `wminda giorgi da wminda ilia~, romlis ori redaq-
ciaa Semonaxuli (imereTSi gagonili da qarTlSi gagonili).
unda iTqvas, rom akakis SemoqmedebaSi wminda giorgis gansakuTrebuli
adgili aqvs mikuTvnebuli, samas samocdaxuTi dRidan samas samocdasami
wminda giorgisaao, _ ambobs akaki erT publicistur werilSi, leqsSi _
`wminda giorgi da misi razmi~, _ ki wmindani glexkacis mxsnelad da Semwed
gamoiyvana. sainteresoa, rogor aris gaSlili wminda giorgis saxe `xole-
raSi~? leqsSi moxrobilia, rom RmerTi ganrisxda qarTvelebis znedace-
mulobisa da gadagvarebis xilviT, amitomac gadawyvita, maTTvis sasjelad
xolera moevlina. amis gamgone wminda giorgi Sewuxda da sTxova Semoqmeds:
nu dasjida missave Seqmnil ers, magram ufali uarze dadga da didi xvewnis
Semdeg mxolod imis neba darTo wmindans, rom Tan gahyoloda xoleras da
marto avismqnelebTan mieSva igi. daimedebul giorgis, rom aseTi adamiani
bevri ar iqneboda qarTvelTa Soris, jer mdidari, gaqsuebuli mebatone Semox-
vda, romelsac samarTalze xeli hqonda aRebuli da sawyal Raribs ar indobda:

`Sexeda wminda giorgim,
gadaaqnia Tavia...
`es Tavadaznauroba
ra cudi sanaxavia:



180


Tavisi kargi dahkarga,
moimko sxvisi avia,
aRar swams Tavis qveyana
da Tavis salocavia!..~

wmindanma daunaneblad dauTmo igi xoleras. Semdeg mas mTvrali da
uqnara glexkaci Semoeyara, romelsac ufalic daviwyeboda da sakuTari
mSier-titveli ojaxic:

`ewyina wminda giorgis,
muxlze daikra xelia!..
sTqva: `mabezRari da loTi
glexkacaT ra saTqmelia?~

wminda giorgim aRarc is Seibrala:

`aRar var amis mosarCle
da kalTis damfarvelia!
amisi binac aq iyos,
sadac xoleris sTvelia!..~

xoleras ver gadaurCnen verc mRvdel-diakvnebi.
es ambavi moTxrobilia leqsis XI TavSi, romelic mTlianad amoiRo cen-
zuram. Znelia, dabejiTebiT vamtkicoT, ratom Tqva maT dabeWdvaze uari
rafiel erisTavma _ samRvdeloebis saxels gaufrTxilda, Tu imaze miniS-
nebas, rom qarTvel sasuliero pirTa zneobrivi dacema ruseTis dampyrob-
lurma politikam ganapiroba. vnaxoT es Tavi srulad:

mere sTqva: `axla gavsinjoT
mRvdeli da diakonia!..
Rirsi ar Semxvda sxva wreSi,
iq ki vipovni mgonia~.
( etyoba, maTi anbavi
caSi ar gaugonia!).
gamoicvala wesebi,
waxden Jamni da dronia...
sadRaa mRvdeli qarTveli?
sxvagvaraT Tavmomwonia!..
wignebis kiTxva eSleba,
arc esmis tibikonia,
daTvuraT bRavis da hfiqrobs,
rom tkbili iadonia!
xats wminda sanTels ar unTebs,
Sig gareuli qonia,
sawyal mrevls gamoulia
dramiT Zali da Ronia,
sxva gza adgia, magram jer
kidev gasavals fonia!..

(am problemas ara erTxel Seexo akaki sxva nawarmoebSic. `dakarguli
qristianoba~, `sneuli~, poema `asi wlis ambavi~, romelic poetis sicocxleSi
ar gamoqveynebula).
181


bolos SeZrwunebuli wmida giorgi mixvdeba, rom veravis gadaarCens,
radgan mTeli eri warwymedila da muxlmoyrili, tiriliT SesTxovs mama
RmerTs, Seundos codvil ers. mis xvewnas ismens macxovari da daamSvidebs
wmindans, rom saqarTvelo ar ganadgurdeba, radgan RvTismSoblis wilxved-
ria. leqsi imedianad mTavrdeba:

venacva wminda giorgis,
imis TeTr raSs da Subsao!
mTavari aris mZleTamZle,
vin gaubedavs Cxubsao!
ise gaberavs xoleras,
rogorc tikWoras, rumbsao!
maRliT naTeli adgia
imis brwyinvale Sublsao.
am Sairebis gamomTqmels
swyalobdeT TiTo rubsao.

rogorc vxedavT, leqsis finalSi akaki erTgvari iumoriT mianiSnebs
mkiTxvels, rom leqsSi gadmocemuli ambavi gamogonilia, Tumca misi mizan-
dasaxuleba isaa, rom Seaxsenos Tanamemamuleebs: yovelgvari gansacdeli,
maT Soris xoleris epidemiac, RvTis risxvaa, codvebis sanacvlod movleni-
li, da misi Tavidan acilebac SesaZlebelia, Tuki adamianebi marTal gzas
daadgebian.
akaki agrZelebs Tavisi didi winapris; daviT giramiSvilis poetur xazs,
Tumca mis leqsSi ufro xalxuri motivebi sWarbobs Teologiur da filo-
sofiur gansjas (SemTxveviTi araa, rom leqss qvesaTauradac miwerili aqvs
_ `mestviruli~). msgavsi nimuSebi mravlad SegviZlia davimowmoT akakis
Semoqmedebidan (`Tornike erisTavi~, `naTela~, `vaxtang gorgaslan~ `patara
kaxi~), wmindanTa saxelebisa da Rvawlis mxatvruli xorcSesxmis gziT poeti
qarTvelebs uflis mcnebebs Seaxsenebda da gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas
aniWebda saqarTvelos RvTismSoblisadmi wilxvdomilobas, rogorc didi
imedisa da, imavdroulad, udidesi movaleobis niSans.


damowmebani:

alibegaSvili 1999: alibegaSvili g. wminda ninos gza _ gza RvTiSobelTan
miaxlebisa. _ akakis krebuli. Tb.: akaki wereTlis kabineti Tsu gamomcemloba,
1999.
gaboZe 2009: gaboZe j. akakis `salamuris~ gamocemis istoria. _ akakis
TxzulebaTa gamocemebi. Tb.: litinstitutis gamomcemloba, 2009.
gaboZe 2010: gaboZe j. istoriuli anaqronizmi da TviTgameoreba (akakis
zogierTi leqsis adgilis gansazRvrisaTvis). sjani, 11, 2010.
metreveli 2005: metreveli f. liturgiuli cnobierebis gamovlenis zogierTi
aspeqti akakis publicistikasa da pirad werilebSi. _ akakis krebuli, II, akaki
wereTlis kabineti. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 2005.
fruiZe 2002: fruiZe n. akakis poema `andria pirvelwodebuli~. Tb.: 2002.
farulava 2005: farulava gr. akaki wereTlis qristologiuri msoflSeg-
rZnebisaTvis. _ akakis krebuli, II. akaki wereTlis kabineti. Tb.: Tsu
gamomcemloba, 2005.

182


wereTeli 1950: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. t. II. Tb.: 1950.
wereTeli 1963: wereTeli a. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli. t. XV. Tb.: 1963.
wereTeli 2010: wereTeli a. salamuri (dokumenturi gamocema). teqsti
gamosacemad moamzada da gamokvleva daurTo j. gaboZem. Tb.: `inteleq ti~, 2010.
xaCiZe 1999: xaCiZe l. sagalobeli akakisa. _ akakis krebuli. I, akaki wereTlis
kabineti. Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1999.
jagodniSvili 2005: jagodniSvili T. erovnul zepirsityvierebasTan akakis
siaxlovis erTi aspeqtisaTvis. _ akakis krebuli. II, akaki wereTlis kabineti.
Tb.: Tsu gamomcemloba, 2005.


Juli Gabodze

Adventure of Kholera by Akaki Tsereteli

Summary

In 1892 Akaki Tseretelis verse Kholera was published in a small book in Kutaisi.
Censor has extracted a chapter and several strophes from the verse. Kirile Lortqifanidze
tried to publish the same verse in recovered form that same year with Akakis collection
Salamuri. However , forbidden stophes were censored again. This article contains
interesting facts about the creation and publication of this verse.
The verse is based on folk motives. The real events of that time, which are revealed in
the verse, are interpreted by author as the harsh punishment designated by God for
Georgians. Author also mentions that in spite of their depravity Georgians were rescued
once again by their guardian saint - St. George.
The article contains Kholera manuscripts and printed text fragment photocopies.



183




XX saukunis mwerloba


merab RaRaniZe

vasil barnovi `rusTvelianas~ winaaRmdeg

1929 wlis ivlisis miwuruls vasil barnovi amTavrebs romans `Tamar
mrwemi~, romelic pirvelad xuTi wlis Semdeg, 1934 wels, gamoqveyndeba
avtorisul krebulSi `ferad-feradi~.
nawarmoebis moqmedeba gaSlilia mongolTa batonobis droindel saqar-
TveloSi, me-13 saukunis SuaxanebSi, jer umefobis Jams da Semdgom im wlebSi,
rodesac ori qarTuli samefo taxti upyriaT mefeTa laSasa da rusudanis
Zeebs _ daviT ulusa da daviT narins. romanis erTi epizoduri personaJia
qarTveli warCinebuli SoTa kupri, romelic teqstis pirvelsave gverdze
Cndeba. swored mas elian saTaTbirod sargis Tmogvelis karze, sadac imJa-
mad stumrad imyofeba ambako beric. saidumlo TaTbirze saqarTveloSi me-
fobis aRdgenisa da, Sesabamisad, mefis mowvevis sakiTxi unda gadawydes.
`_ sacaa SoTac Semova, kupri~ (barnovi 1963b: 36), ambobs ambakos
daxvedrisas sargisi. male igi mova kidec:
`_ batoni SoTa mobrZandeba, _ moaxsena msaxurma.
_ kupri, biWo?
_ diaR.
Seegeba Tmogveli stumars. maRali kaci xmel-xmeli, Savad Semwvari. beri
nacnobi gamodga SoTasic: mis sasaxleSi ecxovra ramdensame xans~ (barnovi
1963b: 38).
roca beri ambako Tanamosaubreebs xvarazmeTSi Tavisi yofnis StabeWdi-
lebebs gauziarebs, ragvari mogzaurobac TavisTavad metad saxifaTo unda
yofiliyo, SoTa kupri gaocebas ver damalavs mowesis simamacis gamo:
`_ me magdens ver vitvirTebdi, _ warsTqva SoTam.
_ ufro metic gitvirTniaT, batono! brZolaSi ramdenjer SegixedniaT
sikvdilisaTvis TvalebSi.
_ eg sxvaa, bero: Cemi movaleobaa eg~ (barnovi 1963b: 38).
marTlac, SoTa kupris sabrZolo gamocdilebaca da Seupovrobac sul
male mJRavndeba mis msjelobaSic mongolTa Sesaxeb:
`_ Znelia magisTana xalxis Segubeba. mTlad gawyvetac vera xerxdeba:
mklavi iRleba maTis xocviT, xmali Clungdeba.
_ marTalsa brZaneb, batono SoTa!~ (barnovi 1963b: 40).
Semdgom SoTa kupri aRmoCndeba cxra qarTvel didebulTa Soris,
tfiliss mowveul im sabWos Sekrebaze (barnovi 1963b: 43), romelsac sargis
Tmogveli waruZRveba da sadac qveynis warCinebulni daviT ulus mefed
aRsaydrebas gadawyveten.
sabolood, am didgvarovnis saxeli kidev erTxel _ da ukanasknelad _
gaielvebs, roca taxtis memkvidre, ufliswuli giorgi, daviT ulus Ze, gone-
baSi Tvals gadaavlebs, Tu vis rCevas miendoboda igi, imJamad ukve gardac-
184


vlili sargis Tmogvelis mosaklisebis Semdeg: `SoTa kupri... vuyvarvarT
wrfelad, magram... vin Seedreba exla aq sargiss?!~ (barnovi 1963b: 85).
metjer romanis saboloo, gamoqveynebul versiaSi es personaJi aRarsad
gamoCndeba.
magram barnovis `Tamar mrwemi~, mwerlis sxva nawarmoebTa darad, ramde-
nime versiiTaa Semonaxuli. avtoriseul krebulSi moTavsebuli teqstis
garda, arqivSi daculia Txzulebis kidev oTxi xelnaweri varianti.
gamoqveynebuli versiisagan gansxvavebiT, gamouqveynebel versiebSi
SoTa kupri gakrTeba kidev orjer: erTxel, roca igi, sxva didebulTa Soris,
daviT ulus egebeba (versia C _ barnovi 1963b: 367; versia E _ barnovi 1963b:
442), xolo meorejer, roca avagis mier egarslanis damcrobas SoTa kupri ase
Seafasebs: `_ ara iyo gvari misi, _ warmoTqva kuprma~ (versia D _ barnovi
1963b: 375; an: ~_ ...ara iyo gvari misi, _ warmoTqva SoTa kuprma~ _ versia E
_ barnovi 1963b: 449). sxvaTa Soris, teqstis saboloo, gamoqveynebul ver-
siaSic es fraza SenarCunebulia, oRond misi warmomTqmeli saxeldebuli
aRaraa.
da kidev, erTi detali: maSin, roca romanis dasawyisSi sargisis msaxuri
gamoacxadebs, rom mobrZanebula SoTa, batonis SekiTxvaze, `kupri, biWo?~,
mauwyebeli gawyvetilad, daumTavreblad upasuxebs (rakiRa SoTa, rogorc
Cans, am dros ukve darbazSi Semoabijebs), `diaR, Savgr...~ (versia C, D _
barnovi 1963b: 356; anda: `diaR, Savgremani~ _ versia E _ barnovi 1963b: 435;
amasTanave, igive versia E SoTas garegnobas amatebs erT epiTets: `mxarbeWi-
ani~ _ barnovi 1963b: 435).
rogorc `Tamar mrwemis~ akademiuri gamocemis komentarebSivea aRniSnu-
li (SeniSvnebis avtoria levan WrelaSvili), nawarmoebs safuZvlad udevs
cnobebi `qarTlis cxovrebidan~: `Tamar mrwemi _ ulu daviTis asuli. igi
moxsenebulia qarTlis cxovrebaSi. v. barnovs ubralo istoriuli cnobidan
romani Seuqmnia~ (barnovi 1963b: 493).
marTlac, romanis teqstis pirveli gacnobisTanave cxadi xdeba, rom
Txzulebis werisas mwerali farTod dahyrdnobia im cnobebs, romelic me-14
saukunis TvalsaCino istoriul wyaroSi, _ egreT wodebul `JamTaaRmwer-
lobaSi~, anu `aswlovan matianeSi~, _ moipoveba (TavisTavad es matiane, Cve-
ulebriv, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ klasikur krebulSia CarTuli). swored am Se-
saniSnavi istoriuli qronikis Tanaxmad, mongolTa batonobis droindeli
saqarTvelos erTi gamoCenili warCinebulia hereTis erisTavi _ SoTa kupa-
ri. aRsaniSnavia, rom, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ ukanaskneli xanis gamocemaTagan
gansxvavebiT, im gamocemaSi, romliTac uTuod sargeblobda vasil barnovi,
_ mariamiseuli `qarTlis cxovrebis~ eqvTime TayaiSviliseul publikaciaSi
(1906), _ sami SemTxvevidan orgzis igi moxseniebulia rogorc `kupri SoTa~
an `SoTa kupri~ (qarTlis cxovreba 1906: 634, 641)
2
, ese igi swored ise,
rogorc mas romanSi ewodeba.
Tavad `JamTaaRmwerloba~
3
am SoTas oTxjer moixseniebs da igi yvela am
SemTxvevaSi naxsenebia qarTvel warCinebulTa CamonaTvalSi.
pirvelad SoTas saxeli gamoCndeba, _ da, amave dros, misi zedwodebac
ganimarteba, _ roca, mefe rusudanis gadawyvetilebiT, dampyrobelTa
winaSe despanebs gagzavnian: waravlines mociqulad TaTarTa SanSe, da avag
da varam da hereTis erisTavi SoTa, romelsa manisi ferobisaTs kuprobiT
umobdes (qarTlis cxovreba 2008: 550);
185


meored, roca rusudani sakuTar Zes samefo taxtis dasakaveblad agzav-
nis, xolo mefe-qalsa da mis vaJs Seegebebian qarTveli warCinebulni: `wina-
miegebnes SanSe, avag da egarslan, romeli TaTarTa didad pativiTa Seewyna-
ra, araraTa niWTa da zneTa samamakacoTa mqonebeli, SoTa kupari, gageli
varam, qarTlis erisTavi surameli grigol, samcxis spasalari da meWur-
WleTuxucesi yuaryuare cixisjuareli, Torelni, Tmoguelni...~ (qarTlis
cxovreba 2008: 553);
mesamed, koxtasTavis SeTqmulTa CamoTvlisas: `amaT SfoTTa Sekrbes yo-
velni mTavarni saqarTvelosani koxtasTavsa, imerni da amerni: egarslan,
cotne dadiani, varam gageli, yuaryuare, kupari SoTa, TorRai, [...] sargis
Tmogueli~ (qarTlis cxovreba 2008: 566);
meoTxed da sabolood, tyveobidan daxsnil daviT laSas Zes damxvedrTa
Soris: `miegebnes yovelni warCinebulni saqarTvelosani: SanSe da Ze misi
zaqaria amirspasalari, [...] yuaryuare jayeli, surameli grigol, qarTlis
erisTavi, orbelni, gamrekeli, SoTa kupari, da yovelni mTavarni~ (qarTlis
cxovreba 2008: 569).
ra Tqma unda, vasil barnovi swored am istoriul wyaros efuZneba, roca
Tavisi prozauli qmnilebis personaJad warmoaCens SoTa kuprs rogorc im
drois RirsSesaniSnav qarTvel didebuls. bunebrivia, rom igi romanSic
didgvarovanTa imave wreSi Cndeba, romelsac sargis Tmogveli ekuTvnis.
magram isic aRsaniSnavia, _ rac, Cveulebriv, axasiaTebs barnovis samwerlo
muSaobis meTods, _ rom, marTalia, mwerali nawarmoebis personaJad aqcevs
istoriul pirovnebas, magram uSualod matianiseul movlenebs mainc ar
iyenebs prozaul Txrobad gardasaTqmelad: `Tamar mrwemSi~ SoTa kupris
konkretuli gamoCena Tu moxsenieba arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar Seesabameba
`JamTaaRmwerlobaSi~ mis gamoCenasa Tu moxseniebas (Tundac im epizodSi,
sadac matianis furclebidan dasesxeba yvelaze metad iyo mosalodneli, _
daviT ulus daxvedrisas, _ romanis saboloo versiaSi mwerali, istoriko-
sisgan gansxvavebiT, saerTod, ar CamoTvlis damxvdurebs da amitom sulac
aRar axsenebs SoTas, Tumca Txzulebis adreul versiebSi igi dasaxelebuli
iyo). romaniseuli jer saubari sargisis karze _ Tavad maspinZlis, ambako
berisa da SoTa kupris monawileobiT, xolo Semdgom qarTvel warCinebulTa
TaTbiri saqarTvelos momavali mefis mosaZebnad, dasabruneblad da aRsa-
saydreblad, _ rogorc erTi, ise meore epizodi, _ saistorio wyaroSi ver
povebs dasayrdens.
miuxedavad imisa, rom TviT Tamaris, daviT ulus asulis, Sesaxeb romanSi
moTxrobili ambavic gansxvavdeba istorikosis mier gadmocemuli mefis
qalis faTerakebisagan, mainc, `Tamar mrwemis~ mTeli Sinaarsis gacnoba eWvs
ar tovebs, rom swored `JamTaaRmwerloba~ warmoadgenda mwerlis istoriul
pirvelwyaros, magram rac Seexeba, kerZod, romanis erT personaJad SoTa
kupris warmodgenas, safiqrebelia, rom barnovs Tavisi nawarmoebis mofiq-
reba-Camoyalibebis procesSi es saxeli oden matianis cnobebSi ar eqneboda
amokiTxuli: metad savaraudoa, rom es saxeli _ da sxva CamoTvlil dide-
bulTa saxelebze metad _ mas sxva garemoebaSic eqneboda gagonili.
saqme isaa, rom, roca mwerali Tavis romans werda, 1929 wels, ukve gamoq-
veynebuli _ da farTod gaxmaurebuli _ iyo pavle ingoroyvas naSromi
`rusTveliana~, romelic wignad 1926 wels gamoica, magram manamde, jer kidev
1922 wels, oTxi moxsenebis saxiT gaecno msmenelebs. mkvlevarma am Temaze
Tavisi pirveli sajaro moxseneba _ `SoTa rusTaveli, vefxistyaosnis Tari-
186


Ri da poetis vinaoba~ _ waikiTxa saqarTvelos axali mwerlobis kavSiris
sajaro sxdomaze, 1922 wlis 3 ivniss, Semdgomi moxseneba ki _ `rad ewodeba
SoTa rusTavels manis sefe da kupari~ _ iqve, imave wlis 4 ivliss (ix.
ingoroyva 1926: 379; imedaSvili 1941: 129-130; imedaSvili 1957: 378; ingoroyva
1963: 9), xolo maTi mimoxilva maleve gamoqveynda presaSi, maT Soris, gazeT
`baxtrionSi~ (1922, 1, 2). aRsaniSnavia, rom Tu gazeT `baxtrionis~ 1922
wlis 1-l, me-2 da, agreTve, me-4 nomrebSi dabeWdili iyo angariSi ingoroy-
vaseuli Teoriis Sesaxeb SoTa rusTvelisa da SoTa kuparis igiveobis gamo,
imave wels imave gazeTSi barnovi aqveynebs moTxrobas `Rimi damRupi~ (me-5
nomeri), statiebsa Tu mogonebebs vaJa-fSavelas (me-6 nomeri), besikisa (me-9
nomeri) da ilia WavWvaZis (me-10 nomeri) Sesaxeb da, agreTve, moTxrobas
`saro metyveli~ (me-14 nomeri).
ramdenime wlis Semdeg pavle ingoroyvas rusTvelologiuri koncefciis
calke wignad _ `rusTvelianad~ _ gamocemas mZafri diskusia mohyveba, ker-
Zod, 1927 wlis `mnaTobis~ furclebzec: jer iq ibeWdeba korneli kekeliZis
gamoxmaureba (me-2 nomeri), Semdgom _ masze pavle ingoroyvas gapaeqreba
(me-3-4 nomeri), momdevnod _ isev korneli kekeliZis iribi pasuxi (me-5-6
nomeri), Semdgom, sargis kakabaZis calke kritikuli Sefasebac (me-11-12 no-
meri). gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom am JurnalSi daaxloebiT imave xanebSi vasil
barnovic aqveynebda Tavis nawarmoebebs (moTxroba `dedis xeli~ gamoqveynda
`mnaTobis 1929 wlis me-5 nomerSi; mcire romani `wodebuli~ _ imave wlis me-
7 nomerSi; moTxroba `qali kaxeli~ _ 1932 wlis me-6 nomerSi; esei galaktion
tabiZis Sesaxeb _ 1933 wlis me-5 nomerSi).
magram, albaT, imis ufro safuZvlian dadasturebad, rom vasil barnovs
yuradRebis miRma ar darCenia pavle ingoroyvas rusTveliana da rom,
ukidures SemTxevaSi, igi am gamokvlevas meore xelidan mainc icnobda, Jur-
nal `qarTuli mwerlobis 1926 wlis me-6-7 nomeri gamodgeba, sadac, erTi
mxriv, dabeWdilia vasil barnovis moTxroba `margalitis cremlebi~, xolo,
meore mxriv, sergi gorgaZis oTxgverdiani gamoxmaureba `samagaliTo naSro-
mi: pavle ingoroyvas axali naSromis gamo~ (RirsSesaniSnavia isic, rom pro-
zaikoss guldagul daumuSavebia Jurnalis es nomeri da Tavisi moTxrobis
saJurnalo teqsti mas sagangebod Causworebia _ ix. barnovi 1963a: 523).
zemore Tqmulisagan damoukidebladac, _ icnobda Tu ara, savaraudod,
mwerali ingoroyvaseul Teorias wignad gamocemamde an wignad gamocemis
Semdeg, Tundac masze gamoxmaurebaTa wyalobiT, _ mainc upriani iqneba
kidev erTxel aRiniSnos myari qronologiuri Tanmimdevroba, rom vasil
barnovis `Tamar mrwemi~ 1929 welsaa dawerili, xolo pavle ingoroyvas
`rusTveliana~ ki 1926 wels gamoqveynda. im faqtze yuradRebis gamaxvileba
ki, rom, barnovi, inteleqtualur, wignier mweralTa wyebas miekuTvneba,
albaT, zedmetia...
pavle ingoroyvas wignis ZiriTadi muxti (romelic Tavis dros ar iyo
moklebuli farTo sensaciurobas!) iyo gaigiveba `vefxistyaosnis~ avtori-
sa, SoTa rusTvelisa, me-13 saukunis qarTvel saxelmwifo moRvawesTan _
hereTis erisTav SoTa kuprTan (Tu kuparTan), ris damtkicebasac `rusTve-
lianas~ mravali furceli daeTmo. amave dros, es istoriuli pirovneba da,
Sesabamisad, poeti cxaddeboda maniqeuri moZRvrebis mimdevrad da, kidev
meti, am religiuri dajgufebis adgilobriv meTaurad imdroindel
saqarTveloSi.
mkvlevris mTavari daskvnebi amgvari iyo
4
:
187


`hereTis erisTavi SoTa, hereTis bagrationTa STamomavali, aris igive
SoTa rusTveli, avtori genialuri qarTuli poemisa~ (ingoroyva 1926: 148);
SoTa, hereTis bagrationi (1169-1245), cnobili istoriuli moRvawe me-XII
saukunis damlevisa da me-XIII saukunis pirveli naxevrisa, _ aris igive SoTa
rusTveli, vefxis-tyaosnis avtori. [...] igi yofila maniqeveli, meTauri manis
ordenisa~ (ingoroyva 1926: 201); `SoTa iyo `manis feri~, araqristianuli
ordenis meTauri; amis gamo ewodeba mas `kupari~ _ sarwmunoebidan gandgo-
mili~ (ingoroyva 1926: 215)
5
.
amTaviTve unda iTqvas, rom Tamar mrwemis gulisyuriT gacnoba eWvs ar
tovebs, rom mwerlisaTvis sruliad miuRebeli aRmoCenila mkvlevris
koncefcia.
uwinares yovlisa, SoTas zedwodebis ara marto ingoroyvaseuli Sinaar-
si, aramed Tavad formac ki ar gaiziara mweralma. Tu `rusTvelianas~ avtori
yvela SemTxvevaSi SoTas mxolod `kuparad~ moixseniebs, `Tamar mrwemis~
avtorisaTvis qarTveli didebuli mxolod da mxolod `kupria~

(ix. zemore).
6

Tu `kupari~, ingoroyvas SexedulebiT, `sarwmunoebidan gandgomils~
gamoxatavda (ingoroyva 1926: 214; Sdr. ingoroyva 1963: 125), xolo `manisa
feroba~ `manis religiuri ordenis meTaurs~ mianiSnebda (ingoroyva 1926:
213), romanSi amgvari interpretaciis Crdilic ar SeimCneva. mwerlisaTvis,
rogorc Cans, ufro misaRebi iyo korneli kekeliZis 1927 wels gamoTqmuli
Tvalsazrisi, rom `JamTaaRmwerlis bundovani adgilis wakiTxva ise, ro-
gorc mas kiTxulobs ingoroyva, saeWvoa; ufro misaRebi da gasagebia farsa-
dan gorgijaniZis, vaxtangis komisiisa da Teimuraz batoniSvilis Sexedule-
ba, romliTac aRiniSnul adgilas laparakia SoTas melnisa kupris msgavs
siSaveze da ara maniqevelobasa da urwmunoebaze~ (kekeliZe 1963: 228; kekeli-
Ze 1971: 34). marTlac, barnovi sagangebo yuradRebas amaxvilebs, rom hereTis
erisTavi SoTa kupri ferad Savia: `Savad Semwvari~ (barnovi 1963b: 38), xolo
romanis adreul versiebSi ukiduresi xazgasmiT ganmartavs, rom `kupri~
swored `Savgremans~ niSnavs (`_ kupri, biWo?~, `_ diaR, Savgremani~: versia E
_ barnovi 1963b, 435; `diaR, Savgr...~: versia C, D _ barnovi 1963b: 356)
7
.
amas garda, ingoroyvas TeoriisaTvis metismetad mniSvnelovania, rom,
raki SoTa sarwmunoebridan, anu qristianobidan gandgomili yofila, amis
gamo saRmrTismetyvelo xedviT ganmsWvaluli JamTaaRmwerels axasiaTebs
`mtruli damokidebuleba SoTas mimarT~, rom `es istorikosi gansakuTrebu-
lis siZulviliT aris gamsWvaluli piradad SoTas mimarT da `sruliad
dausabuTeblad ambobs, rom SoTa iyoo _ moklebuli yovelgvar adamianur
Rirsebas~ (ingoroyva 1926: 211). saqme isaa, rom mkvlevris TvalsazrisiT,
swored am TvalsaCino qarTvel didebuls miemarTeba sityvebi, romelic win
uswrebs SoTa kuparis dasaxelebas: `araraTa niWTa da zneTa samamakacoTa
mqonebeli~ (qarTlis cxovreba 1906: 605; Sdr. qarTlis cxovreba 1959: 192;
JamTaaRmwereli 1987: 75; qarTlis cxovreba 2008: 553). ingoroyvaseuli gan-
martebiT, es fraza niSnavs Semdegs: `araviTari adamianuri Rirsebisa da
zneobis ara mqonebeli~, `moklebuli yovelgvar adamianur Rirsebasa da
zneobas~ (ingoroyva 1926: 214)
8
.
`Tamar mrwemSi~ ki, Tundac fermkrTalad, magram mainc metad mkafiod
Cans, rom SoTa Rirseuli da gamorCeuli adamiania: gonieri, yuradsaRebi,
samarTliani, sando da, uwinares yovlisa, uSiSari. `brZolaSi ramdenjer Se-
gixedniaT sikvdilisaTvis TvalebSi~ (barnovi 1963b: 38), _ mimarTavs mas
ambako beri. mwerali sruliad ugulebelyofs, arc ki ixsenebs istorikosi-
188


seul im uaryofiT daxasiaTebas
9
, romelic pavle ingoroyvam am warCinebuls
miakuTvna da rasac mkvlevarma Taviseburi _ konfesiuri _ axsna mouZebna.
magram vasil barnovi araTu ar iziarebs `rusTvelianas~ avtoris amgvar
Sexedulebas, aramed, rogorc Cans, imasac ki ar miiCnevs, rom mematianis es
saaugo sityvebi, saerTod, SoTas miemarTeba. marTlac, es fraza saistorio
teqstis iseT adgilasaa moTavsebuli, advili saTqmeli araa, Tu vis gane-
kuTvneba is: am daxasiaTebis winamorbed avags Tu am sityvaTa momdevno
SoTas (`qarTlis cxovrebis~ mariamiseuli variantis TayaiSviliseul gamo-
cemaSi, romelsac ingoroyvac da barnovic eyrdnobodnen, teqsti amgvaradaa
dabeWdili: `wina: miegebnes: SanSa: avag: romeli: TaTarTa: didad: pativiTa:
Seewynara: ara: raTa: niWTa: da: zneTa: samamakacoTa: mqonebeli: SoTa kupari:
Toreli: varam qarTlis erisTavi~ _ qarTlis cxovreba 1906: 605). rogorc
Cans, romanists gamWriaxma mzeram, Zveli teqstebis mkiTxvelis myarma
gamocdilebam da, SesaZloa, mwerluri wvdomis unarmac ukarnaxa, rom es
sityvebi ar exeboda SoTas. magram, amave dros, Wirda maTi mikuTvneba _
Tundac teqstis logikidan gamomdinare (_ `romeli TaTarTa didad pati-
viTa Seewynara, araraTa niWTa da zneTa samamakacoTa mqonebeli~!) _ avagi-
saTvis, romlis mimarTac istorikosi, zogadad, keTilganwyobili iyo da,
saerTodac, Tanamedroveni mas dadebiTad axasiaTebdnen (Sdr. kakabaZe 1966:
281). Tumca vasil barnovis eWvi xelnawerTa wakiTxvis mimarT moulodnelad
daadastura ukanaskneli xanis arqeografiul-teqstologiurma kvlevam:
`JamTaaRmwerlobis~ Seswavlam farsadan gorgijaniZis saistorio teqstTan
mimarTebaSi sandod daamtkica, rom matianiseuli es sastiki daxasiaTeba
sruliadac ar Seexeba arc SoTas da arc avags, aramed egarslans (ix. kiknaZe
1982: 105-117; JamTaaRmwereli 1987: 224-225)
10
, Tumca manamdec, teqstis tra-
diciuli redaqciiTac, mainc metad saTuo iyo, _ stiluradac da Sinaar-
sobrivadac, _ rom es sityvebi miemarTeboda SoTas, xolo raki ufro metad
sagulebeli iyo, rom es daxasiaTeba exeboda ara SoTa kupars, aramed imas,
vinc mis win imyofeboda CamonaTvalSi, `Tamar mrwemis~ avtorma Tavis
nawarmoebSi swored avagi warmoaCina sruliad uRirs _ da romanis adreul
versiebSi SoTas mier gakicxul _ adamianad.
magram, rac yvelaze arsebiTia, vasil barnovs me-13 saukunis qarTveli
warCinebuli SoTa kupri (Tu kupari) sruliad ar warmoedgina arc rusTavis
patronad da arc vefxistyaosnis Semqmnelad, rogoradac igi `rusTveli-
anas~ avtors miaCnda. miuxedavad imisa, rom varaudi SoTa kuprisa da SoTa
rusTvelis gaigivebis gamo ingoroyvaze adrec gamoiTqva, _ batoniSvilis
Teimurazisa da mari felisite broses mier, _ warmoudgenelia, rom am
wyaroTa Sesaxeb barnovs rame scodnoda
11
. amdenad, roca mwerali ar izi-
arebda ori SoTas gaigivebis Tvalsazriss, amiT igi, ra Tqma unda, cxadad
upirispirdeboda im dros metad gaxmaurebul `rusTvelianas~.
sxvaTa Soris, `Tamar mrwemis~ adreul versiebSi SoTa kupris mier Cala-
parakebuli augi avagis mimarT (`ara iyo gvari misi~ _ barnovi 1963b: 375,
449), romelic anonimurad warmoiTqmeba romanis saboloo versiaSi (barnovi
1963b: 54), sagangebod warmoadgens gavrcelebuli xalxuri gamoTqvamis, an-
dazis nawyvets da arafriT mianiSnebs, rom misi mTqmeli an poeti-Semoq-
media, an, miT umetes, `vefxistyaosnis~ avtori.
gansxvavebiT SoTa kuprisagan, romanis msvlelobisas ramdenjerme gansa-
kuTrebuli yuradReba miepyroba sargis Tmogvelis mwignobrobas, mis mWid-
ro kavSirs mwerlobasTan: pirveli gamoCenisTanave, romanis pirvelsave
189


gverdze, sargiss gverdiT didi rveuli udevs, romelsac igi stumrad
mowveul moweses warudgens da romelic `visramiani~ aRmoCndeba, _ ambako
beri mas `Tqvens visramians~ uwodebs, xolo Tavad sargisi `Cems wigns~
(barnovi 1963b: 36); masTan saubrisas yeenmac ki icis Tmogveli didebulis
mwignobrobis ambavi: `_ arc dagSvendeba did mwignobars daSnis Rereba~
(barnovi 1963b: 51; versia E: `arc SehSvenis did mwignobars da sibrZnis moyva-
ruls xmalis Rireba~ _ barnovi 1963b: 445); romanis adreul versiaSi
sargisis mwignobruli garja kidev ufro TvalnaTlivadaa daxatuli: `gver-
diT sparsuli wigni edva gardaSlili, win muTaqazed rveuli da sawer-kala-
mi ewyo. Tu muSaobda beris mosvlis win~ (versia E _ barnovi 1963b: 434); ro-
manis, aseve, erT adreul versiaSi sargiss pirdapir ewodeba `kaci mecnieri
da ritori~ (versia D _ barnovi 1963b: 360); yuradsaRebia, rom SoTa kupri,
Cans, Soria am swrafvaTagan: simSvenierisa da xelovnebis Sesaxeb sargisis
saubari ambako berTan umal Sewydeba, rogorc ki darbazSi hereTis erisTavi
Semoabijebs (barnovi 1963b: 37-38).
saTuo ar unda iyos, rom `Tamar mrwemis~ saboloo, gamoqveynebuli
versia aranairad ar iziarebs SoTa kuprisa da SoTa rusTvelis igiveobis
ingoroyvaseul Tvalsazriss da romanisti Tavis am uaryofiT pozicias
metad cxadad gamoxatavs, Tumca metad sayuradReboa, rom Tu vasil barnovi
romanis saboloo versiaSi mtkiced uaryofs SoTa kupris rusTvelobas,
romanis adrindel, gamouqveynebel versiebSi aseve mkafiod asaxula, Tu
rogor WoWmanobs mwerali am sakiTxis gamo. iq, sadac gamocemul versiaSi
weria: `sacaa, SoTac, Semova, kupri~ (barnovi 1963b: 36), xelnawerTa monaceme-
bi meryevia, _ B versiis Tanaxmad, SoTa pirdapir saxeldebulia rusTvelad:
`sacaa, SoTac Semova, rusTaveli~ (barnovi 1963b: 354); D versiis mixedviT,
romanists jer dauweria: `sacaa, SoTac Semova, rusTavis baton-patroni~,
Semdeg mwerals jer `sacaa~ gadauxazavs, xolo Semdeg `rusTavis baton-
patroni~ wauSlia da zemoT miuweria: `rusTaveli~ (barnovi 1963b: 354); E
versiaSi ki es fraza amgvaria: `sacaa, SoTac mobrZandeba, rusTavis Tavadi~
(barnovi 1963b: 433).
variantebis es monacemebi yovelgvar eWvs aqarwylebs, iyo Tu ara
cnobili Tamar mrwemis avtorisaTvis Teoria SoTa kuprisa da SoTa
rusTvelis igiveobis Sesaxeb, magram, amave dros, xelnawerTa gansxvavebuli
wakiTxvani moulodnelad adasturebs, rom barnovi, rogorc Cans, romanze
muSaobis Tavdapirvel etapze _ karga xans _ iziarebda am Tvalsazriss,
magram sabolood mis mimarT mkveTrad uaryofiTad ganewyo. Znelia iTqvas,
ram Seacvlevina mwerals Tavisi adrindeli damokidebuleba: SesaZloa,
Tavad mis mierve pirvelwyaroTa dakvirvebulma kiTxvam, SesaZloa, pavle
ingoroyvas Teoriis mkacrma kritikam, gansakuTrebiT, korneli kekeliZis,
barnovis yofili seminarieli kolegis, mxriv, anda iqneb saegebio saubrebma
axalgazrda mkvlevar solomon iordaniSvilTan, barnovis yofil semina-
riel mowafesTan, romelmac Semdgom sagangebo naSromi moamzada SoTa
kupris Sesaxeb, _ `JamTaaRmwerlis erTi cnobis Sesaxeb (`SoTa kupri~)~
12
, _
sadac man kategoriulad gamoricxa ara marto SoTa kuprisa da SoTa
rusTvelis igiveoba, aramed rusTvelis vinaobasTan dakavSirebuli yvela is
Tvalsazrisi, rac `rusTvelianaSi~ `JamTaaRmwerlobis~ cnobaTa safuZvel-
ze iyo ganviTarebuli.
sabolood, es Sexeduleba _ rom hereTis erisTavi SoTa kupari aramc da
aramc araa `vefxistyaosnis~ avtori _ myarad ganmtkicda rusTvelis mkle-
190


varTa Soris (ix. rusTvelologiis saxelmZRvanelo umaRlesi saswavleble-
bisaTvis: `mongolebis droindeli moRvawe, hereTis erisTavi SoTa kupri
ver iqneba poeti SoTa rusTveli im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom igi ar yofila
rusTavis mflobeli (da, maSasadame, rusTveli)~ _ baramiZe 1975: 39).
`rusTvelianas~ pirvel mkiTxvelTa da SemfasebelTa Soris, rogorc
Cans, vasil barnovi erTi imaTgani iyo, vinc ar gaiziara SoTa rusTvelis vi-
naobis pavle ingoroyvaseuli amocnoba, rac mklevars `sabolood gadaWri-
lad~ (ingoroyva 1926: 380) miaCnda. mwerlis am uaryofiTi gamoxmaurebis
naTeli dasturia romani `Tamar mrwemi~.
magram, zogadad, rusTvelis vinaobisa da, kerZod, `rusTvelianaSi~ war-
modgenili Teoriis mimarT vasil barnovis Camoyalibebuli damokidebule-
bis sabolood dasadastureblad, mainc upriani iqneba Tvalis gadavleba im
masalisaTvis, romelic `Tamar mrwemis~ teqsts miRma arsebobs.
`rusTvelianas~ gamocemisa da `Tamar mrwemis~ daweris Semdeg, 1930 wlis
miwuruls (saSobaod _ 25 dekembers) romanisti amTavrebs Tavis axal da
ukanasknel romans `pirimze~, romelic Tamar mefes eZRvneba.
giorgi mesamis mier Tavisi qalis, Tamaris, TanaaRsaydrebis didebuli
zeimisas epizodurad gamoCndeba Wabuki SoTa, sadac igi, axalgazrda
mgosani, CaxruxaZis, mefis sasaxlis pirveli mgosnis, Semdeg wardgeba (ix.
barnovi 1963b: 141-142). Tavis xotbas, _ msubuqad saxecvlil `vefxistyaos-
nis~ pirvel strofebs (romelic romanSi TiTqosda `uZvelesi etratidanaa~
damowmebuli), _ aRelvebuli, fermkrTali Wabuki mefe-qalis winaSe warmo-
Tqvams. gamefebuli Tamari mas, leqsis damTavrebisas vaSas grialis gamo
SewiTlebuls, oqros kalams uZRvnis, ris Semdegac `is oqros kalami qudzed
gaimagra mgosanma. aRarc mohSorda samkauli mis naTel Sublsa~ (barnovi
1963b: 142).
Znelad warmosadgenia, _ maSin, roca `Tamar mrwemisa~ da `pirimzis~
damTavrebis TariRebs erTmaneTisagan mxolod weliwadnaxevari aSorebs, _
rom es is SoTaa, romelsac Savgremanobis gamo `kupri~ ewoda da romelic am
gamefebidan 66 wlis Semdeg (Tamaris TanaaRsaydreba _ 1179, daviT ulus
saqarTveloSi Camoyvana _ 1245) momxdurTan brZolaSi CarTvas sakuTar
movaleobad miiCnevs (`Cemi movaleobaa eg~ _ barnovi 1963b: 38). sxvaTa
Soris, `Tamar mrwemSi~ SoTa kupris gansakuTrebuli xnovaneba an, saerTod,
moweuli asaki arsad aRiniSneba, _ misi garegnobis Sesaxeb oden naTqvamia:
`maRali kaci xmel-xmeli, Savad Semwvari~ (barnovi 1963b: 38; versia E: `maRal-
maRali kaci, mxarbeWiani, Savad Semwvari~ _ barnovi 1963b: 435), rac im xanad
_ mefeTa laSasa da rusudanis gardacvalebis Semdgom _ SoTas moxucebu-
lobaze arasgziT ar metyvelebs (Sdr. `rusTveliana~: `SoTas marTlac did
moxucebamdi miuRwevia; igi cocxali iyo Tamaris Svilebis laSas da
rusudanis mefobis dros~ _ ingoroyva 1926: 322).
sxvaTa Soris, `pirimzeSi~ sagangebod aRiniSneba CaxruxaZis mgosnoba,
romelsac `didi mgosani da sityvis xelovani~ ewodeba (barnovi 1963b: 150),
iseve, rogorc `Tamar mrwemSi~ uyuradRebod ar rCeba sargis Tmogvelis
moRvaweobis samwerlo waxnagi, ris sawinaaRmdegodac SoTa kupris rame
kavSiri mwignobrobasTan romanis furclebze arc ki ilandeba.
dabolos, vasil barnovis arqivSi daculia mis sicocxleSi gamouqveyne-
beli esei `SoTa rusTveli da misi `vefxistyaosani~ (barnovi 1964: 160-167),
romelic pirvelad, avtoris gardacvalebis Semdeg, 1938 wels, Jurnal `mna-
TobSi~ daibeWda (1-li nomeri). mwerlis akademiuri aTtomeulis gamomce-
191


melTa mier teqsti amgvaradaa daTariRebuli: `[1924 wlis Semdeg]~ (barnovi
1964: 167), ris gamo Znelia, ganisazRvros ara marto is, Tu rodisaa es teqsti
dawerili _ `Tamar mrwemis~ Canafiqramde, misi Seqmnisas Tu misi damTav-
rebis Semdeg, aramed isic, icnobda Tu ara am dros romanisti `rusTveli-
anas~, romelic 1926 wels gamoica, Tumca pavle ingoroyvas Sexedulebebi
SoTa rusTvelis vinaobis Sesaxeb presaSi ukve 1922 wlidan gacxadda. yovel
SemTxvevaSi, barnovis es teqsti naTlad adasturebs, rom mwerali mTlianad
upirispirdeba am gaxmaurebuli gamokvlevis gamWol koncefcias. jer erTi,
ingoroyvasagan gansxvavebiT, mwerali wers, rom `sCans, rom SoTa iyo daba
rusTavidan, romelic mdebareobs mesxeTSi~ (barnovi 1964: 160), riTac gamo-
iricxeba SoTas hereTis erisTavoba; meore, rom SoTas gvari ar viciT.
rusTveli fsevdonimia~ (barnovi 1964: 160); mesame, rom mwerali arc SoTas,
Zes `arTavazos Zisa~ (barnovi 1964: 161)
13
da arc rusudanis mefobis droin-
del `ereTis erisTav SoTas, romelsa siSavisaTvis kuprobiT uxmobdnen~, ar
miiCnevs SoTa rusTvelad. am uaryofis erTi damatebiTi sabuTi misTvis
isicaa, rom `arc SoTa arTavazos ze, arc SoTa-kupri ritorebad ar ixseni-
ebian, rogorc Tmogveli~ (barnovi 1964: 161). sxvaTa Soris, moyvanili maga-
liTi kidev erTxel naTelyofs, Tu ratom aRiniSneba ase mkafiod `Tamar
mrwemSi~ Tmogvelis samwignobro saqmianoba.
rac Seexeba mwerlis mier eseiSi moyvanil JamTaaRmwerliseul citatebs
(Tu kvazicitatebs), _ oTxive im monakveTs, sadac SoTa kupri moixsenieba, _
isini, faqtobriv, mematianis sityvebis gardaTqmas warmoadgens. barnovis
mier damowmebul frazaSi arc ki Cans rame miniSneba `manisa ferobis~ Sesaxeb,
xolo `kuproba~ mwerlisaTvis oden siSaves niSnavs: `siSavisaTvis kuprobiT
uxmobdnen~ (barnovi 1964: 161). sxvaTa Soris, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ vaxtan-
gisSemdgomi xelnawerebis am wakiTxvas (janaSviliseuli, rumianceviseuli
da sxva nusxebi _ ix. qarTlis cxovreba 1959: 192; JamTaaRmwereli 1987: 75;
qarTlis cxovreba 2008: 550; Sdr. iordaniSvili 1953: 39), Cans, mwerali an
uSualod icnobda, an 1849 wlis broseseuli gamocemiT, anda _ meore
xelidan (SesaZloa, piradad imave solomon iordaniSvilisaganac, romelic
vrclad msjelobs xelnaweriseuli am variantis Sesaxeb Tavis gamokvlevaSi
SoTa kupris gamo). rogorc Cans, barnovma swored es wakiTxva _ da es gageba
_ daudo safuZvlad `Tamar mrwemiseuli~ SoTa kupris garegnul portret-
sac, rasac sxvadasxva mkvlevarTa Semdgomi xanis daskvnebic eTanxmeba
14
.
amdenad, albaT, eWvs ar unda iwvevdes, rom vasil barnovi icnobs pavle
ingoroyvas wigns, magram sruliad ugulebelyofs mas, _ igi ise wers `Tamar
mrwems~, TiTqos `rusTveliana~ arc arsebobdes.
daskvna SeiZleba iyos mxolod erTi: mweralma vasil barnovma ar irwmuna
mkvlevar pavle ingoroyvas Tvalsazrisi SoTa rusTvelis vinaobis Sesaxeb,
magram Tavi aarida am sakiTxis gamo sagangebo msjelobas. `rusTvelianas~
avtori gansakuTrebul mxardaWeras yovelTvis, Tavisi xangrZlivi cxovre-
bis ganmavlobaSi, mwerlebis wreSi eZebda, _ SemTxveviTi arc is iyo, rom man
Tavisi koncefcia pirvelad swored mweralTa Sekrebaze waradgina. magram
saqme ise warimarTa, rom `Ziebani SoTas biografiis aRdgenisaTvis~
(ingoroyva 1926: 243), faqtobrivad, aravin aRiara. ingoroyvaseuli Sexedu-
lebani `vefxistyaosnis~ Semqmnelis vinaobis Sesaxeb ar gaiziara rusTvelis
arc erTma mkvlevarma, da arc mweralma vasil barnovma.



192


SeniSvnebi:

1. romanis akademiuri gamocema moTavsebulia mwerlis TxzulebaTa aTtomeulis 9-
e tomSi (barnovi 1963b: 36-103), sadac nawarmoebis saboloo teqsts daerTvis
winare versiaTa variantuli wakiTxvebis amomwuravi nakrebi (barnovi 1963b: 354-
492). teqstebi damowmebulia swored am wyarodan.
2. sxvaTa Soris, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ da, Sesabamisad, `JamTaaRmwerlobis~ simon
yauxCiSviliseuli gamocemis (1959) Tanaxmad, SoTas zedwodebis aRniSvnisas kidev
ufro meti meryeoba mJRavndeba xelnawerTa wakiTxvebSi: kupari/kupri/kupro/
kuprai/kupra/koprai (qarTlis cxovreba 1959: 195, 215, 219; Tumca es varian-
tuli sxvaobani ar asaxula arc `JamTaaRmwerlobisa~ da arc mTliani `qarTlis
cxovrebis~ bolo akademiur gamocemebSi _ JamTaaRmwereli 1987: 78, 97, 101;
qarTlis cxovreba 2008: 553, 566, 569).
3. teqstebi damowmebulia `qarTlis cxovrebis~ bolo akademiuri gamocemis
mixedviT (qarTlis cxovreba 2008).
4. `rusTvelianas~ teqsti, bunebrivia, damowmebulia im pirveli gamocemis mixedviT
(ingoroyva 1926), romelic, savaraudoa, xelT hqonoda vasil barnovs.
5. Tumca Tvalsazrisi `ordenis meTaurobis~ Sesaxeb `rusTvelianas~ meore gamoce-
maSi ukugdebulia (ingoroyva 1963: 126).
6. sayuradReboa, rom swored es forma _ `kupri~ _ miaCnda marTebulad am
sakiTxis sagangebo mkvlevars solomon iordaniSvils (iordaniSvili 1953: 38-40).
7. Sdr. solomon iordaniSvili: `amgvarad, qarTlis cxovrebaTa am ori redaqciis
xsenebuli analogiuri adgilebis SedarebiT irkveva mxolod erTi ram: aq moxse-
nebulia vinme SoTa, romelsac siSavisaTvis metsaxelad kupri hrqmevia~
(iordaniSvili 1953: 40); aleqsandre baramiZe: `aSkaraa, rom mongolebisdroindel
moRvawe SoTa erisTavs siSavis gamo Serqmeuli hqonia zedwodeba kupri~ (baramiZe
1964: 430; baramiZe 1975: 196).
8. Sdr. sargis kakabaZe: `hereTis erisTavs SoTa kuprs JamTa aRmwereli axasiaTebs,
rom is iyoo `araraTa niWTa da zneTa samamakacoTa mqone, e. i. ara Tu yovlad
uniWo, aramed mamaTmavlobiTac daavadebuli~ (kakabaZe 1966: 281).
9. solomon iordaniSvilis dakvirvebiT, es fraza, saerTod, ar Cndeba zogierT
gviandel xelnawerSi (iordaniSvili 1953: 40).
10. `aswlovan matianeSi~ miRebuli es wakiTxva gaziarebulia teqstis uaxles
gamocemaSic (qarTlis cxovreba 2008: 553).
11. Teimuraz batoniSvili am Tvalsazriss gamoTqvams 1843 wels daweril `vefxis-
tyaosnis~ komentarebSi, romelic xelnawerad inaxeboda da mxolod 1960 wels
daibeWda (Teimurazi 1960: 291), xolo mari broses frangulenovani minaweri
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ miseuli xelnaweris arSiaze mxolod 1959 wels gamoqveynda
(qarTlis cxovreba 1959: 192). Zneli saTqmelia, erTmaneTTan mWidro samecniero
urTierTobaSi myof am or mkvlevarTagan romels ekuTvnis pirveloba igiveobis
am varaudis warmoSobisas, miT umetes, Teimurazi sagangebod aRniSnavs, rom
cnobas rusudanisdroindeli warCinebulis SoTa kupris (Tu kuparis) Sesaxeb igi
farsadan gorgijaniZis saistorio Txzulebidan imowmebs _ da ara JamTaaR-
mwerlobidan! _ da Tanac es wyaro sul cota xniT adre aRmoCenila mis Tval-
sawierSi (`garna aw axlad vpoveT ra moTxroba saqarTvelosa aRwerili farsadan
gorgijaniZisa~). rac Seexeba broses, igi Tavis SeniSvnas miawers `JamTaaRmwer-
lobis~ teqsts, _ kerZod, im monakveTTan, sadac pirveladaa naxsenebi SoTa:
mecniers eWvi uCndeba (`rusTaveli~ _ frCxilebSi da kiTxvis niSniT!), rom es
warCinebuli, SesaZloa, SoTa rusTveli iyos (`es unda iyos Cveni poeti~). advili
araa ganisazRvros, rodisaa miwerili es SeniSvna, radgan Tavad `qarTlis cxov-
rebis~ broseseuli xelnaweri sxvadasxvagvarad TariRdeba: an 1839 wliT (qar-
Tlis cxovreba 1955: 051-052), an 1843 wliT (qarTlis cxovreba 2008: 23), ris gamoc,
albaT, Sesabamisad, _ am an momdevno wlebiT, _ unda daTariRdes broseseuli
minaweric. yovel SemTxvevaSi, ueWvelia, rom `vefxistyaosnis~ 1841 wlis sanqt-
peterburguli gamocemis winasityvaobaSi frangi mklevari poemis avtoris Sesa-
193


xeb amgvarad msjelobda: `magra `qarTlis cxovrebebSi~ misi saxeli sruliad
arsad moixseneba~ (msoflio literatura 1976: 62; Sdr. rusTvelologiuri
literatura 1979: 77). rogorc Cans, broses mxolod amis Semdeg miugnia SoTa
kuparisaTvis `JamTaaRmwerlobaSi~, xolo Teimurazs _ gorgijaniZis istoriaSi.
broses monapovris TariRi ganusazRvrelia, xolo Teimuraziseuli komentarebi,
rogorc iTqva, 1843 wels daiwera. sxvaTa Soris, `rusTvelianaSi~ damowmebulia
Teimuraziseuli Sexeduleba, rom SoTa rusTveli hereTis rusTavis mmarTveli
iyo (ingoroyva 1926: 163), magram araferia naTqvami, rom swavluli batoniSvili
SoTa kupars SoTa rusTvelad miiCnevda (ix., agreTve, ingoroyva 1926: 783). amde-
nad, didad savaraudoa, rom ori SoTas igiveobis Teorias barnovi mTlianad
pavle ingoroyvas miakuTvnebda (Sdr. Teimurazis Tvalsazrisi, citirebuli da damo-
wmebuli korneli kekeliZis mier 1927 wels _ kekeliZe 1963: 227; kekeliZe 1971: 33).
12. solomon iordaniSvilma Tavisi naSromi moxsenebad waikiTxa rusTvelis saxe-
lobis institutSi 1935 wlis 1 aprils (ix. iordaniSvili 1953: 29), xolo Semdgom
is samgzis gamoqveynda: jer Tbilisis universitetis SromebSi (iordaniSvili
1936: 167-181); Semdgom avtoris sicocxleSi momzadebul krebulSi (iordaniS-
vili 1953: 29-55); bolos _ mkvlevris gardacvalebis Semdgom gamoqveynebul
nakrebSi (iordaniSvili 1966: 19-45).
13. es istoriuli pirovneba _ SoTa, Ze arTavaCos Zisa (ix. qarTlis cxovreba 2008:
395), imjerad `SoTa arTavaCes Zis~ saxelwodebiT, gamoCndeba Tamaris mowinaaR-
mdege amboxebulTa Soris `pirimzeSi~ (barnovi 1964: 175-176), rac srulebiT gamo-
ricxavs mis igiveobas SoTa rusTvelTan, romelic romanis calke personaJia
(barnovi 1964: 150). Tumca imJamad gamoTqmuli iyo Tvalsazrisic _ mose janaSvi-
lis naSromSi `Tamar mefis mexotbeni~ _ am SoTasa da SoTa rusTvelis igiveobis
Sesaxeb (gazeTi `tribuna~, 1923, 466-e nomeri; ix. imedaSvili 1957: 389; baramiZe
1975: 48).
14.

ix. zemore, SeniSvna 7.

damowmebani:

baramiZe 1964: baramiZe a. narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istoriidan. IV, Tb.:
`mecniereba~, 1964.
baramiZe 1975: baramiZe a. SoTa rusTveli. Tb.: Tbil. un-tis gam-ba, 1975.
barnovi 1963a: barnovi v. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad. tomi VIII, Tb.:
`literatura da xelovneba~, 1963.
barnovi 1963b: barnovi v. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad. tomi IX, Tb.:
`literatura da xelovneba~, 1963.
barnovi 1964: barnovi v. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad. tomi X, Tb.:
`literatura da xelovneba~, 1964.
Teimurazi 1960: Teimuraz bagrationi. ganmarteba poema vefxistyaosnisa.
gaioz imedaSvilis redaqciiT, gamokvleviTa da saZieblebiT. Tb.: saq. mecn. akad.
gam-ba, 1960.
imedaSvili 1941: imedaSvili g. rusTvelologia: istoriul-kritikuli
mimoxilva. Tb.: Tsu gam-ba, 1941.
imedaSvili 1957: imedaSvili g. rusTvelologiuri literatura: 1712-1956
wlebi. Tb.: saq. mecn. akad. gam-ba, 1957.
ingoroyva 1926: ingoroyva p. Rusthveliana, I: vefxis-tyaosnis TariRi; SoTa
rusTvelis vinaoba. tf.: `saxelgami~, 1926.
ingoroyva 1963: ingoroyva p. TxzulebaTa krebuli: Svid tomad. t. I, Tb.:
`sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1963.
iordaniSvili 1936: iordaniSvili s. `JamTaaRmwerlis erTi cnobis Sesaxeb
(`SoTa kupri~)~. tfilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Sromebi, III, 1936.
iordaniSvili 1953: iordaniSvili s. narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis
istoriidan. Tb.: `sabWoTa mwerali~, 1953.
194


iordaniSvili 1966: iordaniSvili s. narkvevebi. Tb.: `literatura da
xelovneba~, 1964.
kakabaZe 1966: kakabaZe s. SoTa rusTaveli da misi vefxistyaosani. Tb.:
`ganaTleba~, 1966.
kekeliZe 1963: kekeliZe k. etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan.
IX, Tb.: saq. mecn. akad. gam-ba, 1963.
kekeliZe 1971: kekeliZe k. rusTvelologiuri narkvevebi. krebuli Seadgina da
gamosacemad moamzada solomon yubaneiSvilma. Tb.: `merani~, 1971.
kiknaZe 1982: kiknaZe r. saqarTvelos istoriis wyaroTmcodneobis sakiTxebi. I,
Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1982.
msoflio literatura 1976: rusTveli msoflio literaturaSi. I, Tb.: Tsu gam-
ba, 1976.
JamTaaRmwereli 1987: JamTaaRmwereli. aswlovani matiane. teqsti gamosacemad
moamzada, gamokvleva, leqsikoni da SeniSvnebi daurTo revaz kiknaZem. Tb.:
`mecniereba~, 1987.
rusTvelologiuri literatura 1979: rusTvelologiuri rCeuli literatu-
ra. I, Seadgina, gamosacemad moamzada, winasityvaoba, SeniSvnebi da komentarebi
daurTo ioseb megreliZem. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1979.
qarTlis cxovreba 1906: qarTlis cxovreba: mariam dedoflis varianti.
gamocemuli eqvTime TayaiSvilis redaqtorobiT. tf.: qarTvelTa Soris wera-
kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis gamocema, 1906.
qarTlis cxovreba 1955: qarTlis cxovreba. tomi I, teqsti dadgenili yvela
ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. Tb.: `saxelgami~, 1955.
qarTlis cxovreba 1959: qarTlis cxovreba. tomi II, teqsti dadgenili yvela
ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. Tb.: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1959.
qarTlis cxovreba 2008: qarTlis cxovreba. Tb.: `meridiani~; artanuji, 2008.


Merab Ghaghanidze

Vasil Barnovi vs. Rusthveliana

Summary

One of the charecters of the novel by Vasil Barnovi (1856-1934) Tamar Mtsiri (the
text of the novel was written in 1929, but was published at the first time in 1934) is Shota
Kupri Georgian nobleman of 13
th
century, a prominent and public figure of the period of
Mongolian conquest of Georgia. Shota Kupri is shown or told about him for some several
times during the action of the narrative.
The monographical work by Pavle Ingorokva Rusthveliana was published in 1926,
but the main conseption of the book was familiarized with the members of the Georgian
intellectul circles earlier, from 1922, by means of the public lectures arranged by the
researcher, especially in the Palace of Georgian Writeres. In his lectures and then in his
book Ingorokva identifies the Georgian nobleman Shota Kupri with the Georgian poet of
12
th
and 13
th
centuries Shota Rustveli, an author of Vepkhistkaosani.
Despite the fact that Barnovi writes his novel as if he does not know anything about
Rusthveliana or Ingorokvas conception at all, it is evident that he is acquaint with the
book, and moreover, the writer ambiguously polemizes with the central conception of
Rusthveliana he controverts the theory of the identification of these two persons: Shota
Kupri and Shota Rustveli.
195



miTosi. rituali. simbolo


maia niniZe

realobisa da miTis mxatvruli interpretacia
`baTareka WinWaraulSi~

(teqstologiuri da interteqstualuri dakvirvebebi)

cnobilia, rom guram rCeuliSvilis `baTareka WinWaraulis~ Seqmnis
SemoqmedebiTi impulsi gaxda 1959 wlis agvistoSi mwerlis megobris,
moqandake gogi oCiauris ori monaTxrobi (rCeuliSvili 2004: 384,385). erTi
exeboda kentavris skulpturas, romelsac is im periodSi aqandakebda, meore
ki _ patara xevsuri gogonas TviTmkvlelobas (gogona Turme TamaSSi gaer-
To da dedisTvis samkalSi saWmlis waReba daaviwyda. mamam amisTvis usayve-
dura da man ise mZimed ganicada es, rom Tavi CamoixrCo). mwerali dainte-
resebula, ra erqva gogonas mamas. gogi oCiaurs ar axsovda da upasuxia,
`vTqvaT, baTarekao~. miTi da realoba _ kentavris saxe, saxeli baTareka da
gogonas TviTmkvleloba daukavSirda mwerlis imdroindel fiqrebs cxovre-
basa da Semoqmedebaze da mokle xanSi araCveulebriv moTxrobad iqca. am
SemoqmedebiTi procesis mematianeebi guram rCeuliSvilis avtografebia,
magram ramdenadac zemoxsenebuli Tema mis ufro adreul nawarmoebebSic
aisaxa, vidre xelnawerebs ganvixilavdeT da teqsts sinqronul WrilSi (mo-
Txrobis sibrtyeze) gavaanalizebdeT, sainteresod migvaCnia mcire diaqro-
niuli eqskursic.
cxovreba da xelovneba: guram rCeuliSvili mudmivad eZebda pasuxebs
maradiul kiTxvebze da am Ziebis process paralelurad uziarebda mkiTx-
vels. moTxrobaSi `yvelaze Zalian es bolo suraTi momwonda~ (1957) naCve-
nebia xelovanis gaoreba cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebas Soris. mas ver gada-
uwyvetia, romeli ufro mniSvnelovania misTvis. erT wuTs erTi enatreba,
cota xnis Semdeg ki meore. mZafri cxovrebiseuli gancda uceb aRviZebs
masSi Semoqmeds, Semoqmedeba ki isev aRZravs cxovrebiseul gancdas: `axla
oriveni Sors iyvnen, naxati akademiaSi ido, leila sofelSi... sicocxle
mainc sul sxvaa. uzomod mominda isev leila... isev wamovida axali kompozi-
cia, leila isev idga suraTis kuTxeSi. `sakmarisia aseTi Zlieri gancda, rom
axali naxatis idea momivides. ara, movklav xatvaSi leilas. Tumca, axla
mirCevnia leila iyos aq da moklas xatva...~ (rCeuliSvili 2002: 188) am Sina-
gani monologis mixedviT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom xelovani verc cxovrebise-
uli bednierebis da verc Semoqmedebis gareSe ver Zlebs, orives eswrafvis,
magram orive erTdroulad ver Tavsdeba mis bunebaSi.
momdevno wels dawyebul moTxrobaSi `irina da me~, romelic mweralma
1959 wlis Semodgomaze daasrula, protagonisti _ axalgazrda mwerali
gurami klavs sayvarel qal irinas da Tavis qmedebas xsnis imiT, rom mis
bunebaSi Semoqmedebis survilis mZlavri nakadis SemoWram igi uneblied
CaiTria Tavis uflebebSi, gaaxvia `xelovnebis rkinisebur principebSi~ da
196


wamouyena axali moTxovnebi. guramma Semoqmedebis Tvalsawieridan dauwyo
yureba cxovrebas da misi yoveli moTxovnileba mkrexelobad moeCvena.
Semoqmedebam masSi siyvarulis SeTavsebac ki ver SeZlo. igi sazRvravda mis
grZnobas `maRali azris mxatvruli gadmocemis~ araswori gagebiT~. liriku-
li gmiri am mdgomareobas adrindeli `drostarebis~ gagrZelebas uwodebs
da Tavis gadawyvetilebas _ ukvdavyos mis mier mokluli qali xelovnebis
meSveobiT, Tavadve dascinis: `oo, rogor momnatrebia Cemi oTaxi... iq sxva-
nairia yvelaferi, iqidan supermeni ibereba, mizidavs, nuTu cota xnis win me
Tavis daxrCobaze vifiqre, a?! midi, icocxle, icxovre, were, gamoisyide.
daxrCoba?? ara, jer Sen unda irinas Zegli augo... me mas unda Zegli avugo,
mxolod misTvisve vrCebi cocxali! sibrazis amoxeTqvasaviT imarTeba Cemi
sxeuli Tavisi Tavis winaaRmdeg: guram! iyavi mkvleli, oRond nu iqnebi
matyuara! mxolod sakuTari vnebisTvis, SenTvis, SenTvis unda icxovro Sen,
da ara gaqvs araviTari ufleba, sxvas daabralo es sicocxle; Sen unda iyo,
sanam rame gancdaa, sanam aris rame, saerTod, rasac xedav, grZnob da
gadmoscem~ (rCeuliSvili 2004: 227, 228).
`baTareka WinWaraulSic~ grZeldeba mwerlis fiqri xelovnebisa da
cxovrebis urTierTmimarTebaze da aqac ikveTeba didi Sinagani winaaR-
mdegoba. mudam sisxlis saqmeebSi Cabmuli da CaburZgnulxasiaTiani xevsure-
bi saocrad SemoqmedebiTebi arian. `aq poezia ganukiTxavad batonobs proza-
ze, poezia Tavisi `ulogiko~ vnebebiTa da gamoxatvis Seudarebeli dramatu-
li simSvenieriT. SemTxvaviTi ar aris, rom aq folklori, awyobili xevsu-
ruli leqsiT, Tavisi Rirsebis SegrZnebiT, klasikur simaRlemde adis. yvela
xevsuri, rogorc wesi, poetia; yvelaze kargs ki imaTgan is dawers, romelic
sxvaze metad da RirsebiT itanjeba, vermiRweulis vnebiT Sepyrobili,
leqsis Tqmamde~(rCeuliSvili 2004: 185, 186). bunebiT faqiz adamianTa amgva-
ri gaorebis mizezi, rogorc Cans, cxovrebaa. maT uxeS qcevas ganapirobebs
`rjulze umtkicesi~ Cveuleba, romelsac damorCilebuli hyavs maTi
mgrZnobeloba. kerp-agresiuli xasiaTi ipyrobs da inadirebs yvelafers,
risi fizikuri wvdomac SeiZleba, magram ver `eweva~ suls. am miuwvdomlobis
Rrma gancdam SesaZloa pirovnebaSi gardatexa gamoiwvios da apovninos is
gza, riTac yvelafris wvdoma SeiZleba, anu xelovneba.
am Tematur rkalSi Semodis moTxrobaSi kentavris miTi. monadires, ro-
melsac akrZaluli hqonda irmis mokvla da mainc moiwadina, uceb mSvildis
`mosazidad moxrili mklavi gauSeSda, aeyara ZarRvebi wyrTasa da mxars Sua,
arfis simebiviT gaeba da daeWima. tani cxens Seezarda, rom ar SeCerebuliyo
misi Weneba nadiris saZebnelad da meti simwuxare mieyenebina nadirobis
unars moklebulisaTvis; mxolod saisre marjvena xeli darCa Tavis nebaze
moZravi; Camohkravda am xels simebad qceul ZarRvebs da mReroda, radgan
araferi SeeZlo nadirobisa da im vnebis gamoxatvis garda, romelsac masze
mogonebiT simebs aTqmevinebda~ (rCeuliSvili 2004: 189, 190).
miTosuri interteqsti: miTologiur saxeeebs, maTi mravalferovnebis,
xatovanebisa da tevadobis gamo, aTaswleulebis manZilze ubrundebian mwerlebi.
gansakuTrebiT popularuli gaxda miTosuri aluziebi XX saukunis literatu-
raSi. kentavris Sesaxeb berZnuli miTis interteqstze 1963 wels amerikuli mo-
dernizmis TvalsaCino warmomadgenlis, jon apdaikis cnobili romani `kentavri~
Seiqmna. igi mogviTxrobs ganuxorcieleblad Caklul miswrafebebze, suli-
eri da moraluri Rirebulebebis dakninebasa da uxeS, uRmerTo garemoSi,
socialuri qcevis stereotipebis gavleniT, adamianis mier sakuTari saxisa
197


da cxovrebis arsis dakargvaze. rogorc vxedavT, amerikul romans arsebiTi
saerTo aqvs `baTareka WinWaraulTan~, magram nawarmoebis filosofiuri plas-
tis Sesaqmnelad da personaJis Sinagani winaaRmdegobriobis warmosaCenad am
gaorebuli miTosuri arsebis (naxevrad cxeni da naxevrad kaci) buneba guram
rCeuliSvilma apdaikamde oTxi wliT adre gamoiyena, nafiqri ki amaze kidev ufro
adre hqonda, rasac adasturebs sxvadasxva moTxrobebisa da daumTavrebeli
Txzulebebis calkeuli epizodebi (ix. cxenisa da kacis erTianobis SegrZnebis
Sesaxeb marine rCeuliSvilis komentarebi (rCeuliSvili 2004: 385).
cxenkacebis _ kentavrebis Sesaxeb araerTi berZnuli miTi arsebobs.
isini ufro xSirad asocirdebian instinqtebis tyveobasTan, soflur velu-
robasTan, siuxeSesTan, mrisxanebasTan, nadirobasTan, Trobasa da Zalado-
basTan (aristofanes gadmocemiT, Zvel berZnulSi sityva `kentavrikos anu ken-
tavrulad `siuxeSis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneboda), magram arseboben sxvagvari
kentavrebic, magaliTad herakles, iazonis, aqilevsis, Tezevsisa da eskulapis
aRmzrdeli, keTilsindisieri da gonieri qironi, romelic momaval gmirebs
mSvildosnobis garda liraze dakvrasac aswavlida (homerosi 1990) `baTareka
WinWaraulSi~ kentavrad qceuli monadiris mklavi, romelzedac is ukravs,
rogorc vnaxeT, ara lirasTan, aramed arfasTan aris Sedarebuli, magram
piTagoras filosofiuri moZRvrebis mixedviT, arfac da lirac simbolu-
rad ganasaxierebs samyaros harmonias, xids, casa da dedamiwas Soris.
(enciklopedia)
kentavrTan dakavSirebuli zustad iseTi miTologema, rogoric guram
rCeuliSvils aqvs gamoyenebuli moTxrobaSi, arsad ar gvxvdeba, magram cal-
keuli detalebis msgavseba mJRavndeba sxva berZnul miTebTan da qarTul
folklorTanac. irmis daWris an mokvlis gamo nadirobis qalRemRTis mris-
xaneba araerT berZnul miTSi gvxvdeba. sagulisxmoa, rom rCeuliSvilis
moTxrobis adreul versiaSi monadire ara mxolod umiznebda, klavda kide-
vac akrZalul irems: `..mTel Rames sdia ugonod da diliT mokla. gatexa pi-
ri~. heraklem kerineis mTebSi daWra da daatyveva artemides oqrosrqiani
iremi da qalRmerTis risxvas mxolod imiT gadarCa, rom es ara Tavisi nebiT,
aramed evrisTenes davalebiT gaakeTa (berZnuli miTologia).
keosis velze binadrobda nimfebisTvis miZRvnili umSvenieresi iremi,
romelTanac megobrobda mefiswuli kviparosi. erTxel, rodesac iremi foT-
lovanSi emaleboda mzis mxurvalebas, kviparosma ver icno Tavisi megobari
da SubiT gangmira. am gamousworebeli Secdomis gamo Wabukma apolons
sTxova maradiuli glova daewesebia misTvis da marTlac, igi cremlmdinare
xed iqca (elinuri miTebi 1938).
aqteonis miTSi vxvdebiT artemides risxviT adamianis irmad qcevas. fi-
nikielTa mefis SviliSvili, aqteoni saukeTeso monadire iyo. erTxel, kiTe-
ronis tyeSi nadirobisas igi gadaeyara qalRmerTi artemides mosasvenebel
walkots da naxa SiSveli qalmerTi, ris gamoc misi risxva daimsaxura. ukan
dabrunebul aqteons Tavze irmis rqebi amoezarda, kiseri daugrZelda, xe-
lebi fexebad eqca, Cliqebi gaezarda, mTeli sxeuli balniT daefara da
irmad iqca. Wabuki Tavis ZaRlebs Cveulebrivi iremi egonaT da daglijes
(ovidiusi 1977: 206).
kidev erTi berZnuli miTis mixedviT, artemidem misi irmis mokvlis gamo
agamemnons qariSxali mouvlina da mikenis mefem am risxvisgan Tavis dasaR-
wevad qalRmerTs Tavisi qaliSvilis, ifigenias msxverplad Sewirva aRuTqva.
198


artemidam samsxverploze miyvanili ifigenias nacvlad iremi Seawirina, aga-
memnonis qaliSvili ki Tavis qurumad aqcia (SCeglovi 2006).
irmis sakralizebuli saxe da misi mokvliT gmiris bedisweris ukuRma
datrialeba xSirad gvxvdeba qarTul folklorSic. legendis erT-erTi
variantis mixedviT amiranma mokla iremi, romlis rqebic cas swvdeboda da
roca aRmoaCina, rom mas Sublze jvari hqonda gamosaxuli, mixvda, rom es
danaSauli misTvis sabediswero gaxdeboda: `mivida, bevri itira, ro jvari
naxa rqasao~ (Ciqovani 1981, 21).
irmis, rogorc gansakuTrebuli, sakraluri cxovelis saxe qarTul
werilobiT wyaroebsa da zepir gadmocemebSi kidev bevrgan gvxvdeba: mefe
farnavazi daWrilma iremma miiyvana ganZTan, mefe mirians irmebze nadirobi-
sas daubnelda mze, ramac `ninos RmerTis~ aRiarebamde miiyvana, vaxtang
gorgaslis mier Tbilisis daarsebis Sesaxeb arsebuli legendis erT-erTi
Zveli redaqciiT gogirdovan wyalSi ganikurna mis mier daWrili ara xoxobi,
aramed iremi. irmis saxe idumali da sakraluri mniSvnelobiT gadadis mxat-
vrul prozaSic. ilia WavWavaZis `glaxis naambobi~ irmis monadirebis epizo-
diT iwyeba, Semdeg ki xdeba am faqtis ganzogadeba da dakavSireba adamianis
codvil bunebasTan. `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ gansakuTrebuli mxatvruli da
Sinaarsobrivi datvirTva aqvs Tevdores mier irmis cocxlad `monadirebas~.
guram rCeuliSvili `baTareka WinWaraulSi~ TiTqos krebs da erTmaneT-
Tan akavSirebs sxvadasxva miTologemaTa elementebs: kentavris uxeS xasi-
aTs, qironis musikalur SesaZleblobebs; irmis sakralurobas, masze nadi-
robis akrZalvas, irmis mokvlisTvis adamianis gadaqcevas sxva arsebad (ir-
mad, kviparosad) da qalwulisa da irmis, rogorc msxverplis urTierTCanac-
vlebas (mamis mier irmis mokvlis gamo unda dasjiliyo ifigenia, magram Sem-
deg isev iremi Seiwira mis nacvlad). savaraudod, im mizniT, rom xevsurul
konteqstSi bunebrivad Casvas berZnuli miTosuri elementebi, mwerali sa-
gangebod ar axsenebs sityva kentavrs, aseve cxovelTa mfarvelad ixseniebs
ara artemides, aramed oCopintres (arabunebrivi iqneboda, rom xevsur gogo-
nas berZnul miTologiaze fiqriT daeZina yovel saRamos), magram am inter-
teqstebis wyaroze igi iribad mainc migvaniSnebs: `naxevrad dangreul
Satils vinc naxavs, egoneba, rom berZenma RmerTebma olimpos mitovebis
Semdeg aq gadmoinacvles, am polisSi...~
sxvadasxva simbolologiuri ganmartebebiT iremi mzis, sulis, WeSmari-
tebis Ziebis da saidumlosTan ziarebis simboloa. wminda werilis komenta-
torebi RvTis maZiebel suls xedaven daviT winaswarmetyvelis fsalmunise-
ul mwyurvale iremSic (41: 2). vfiqrobT, rom es mniSvneloba kargad esada-
geba guram rCeuliSvilis moTxrobaSi arsebul miTosur interteqstsac.
monadires akrZaluli aqvs iremze _ sulze nadiroba, kentavrs ki misi _ su-
lis wvdoma SeuZlia musikiT. vfiqrob, rom rCeuliSvilis mxatvruli inter-
pretaciiT monadire Cveulebrivi adamiania, romelsac cxovrebaze pirdapi-
ri zemoqmedeba SeuZlia (aaSenos, daangrios, moklas, gankurnos), magram
`sulis moxelTeba~ _ ara, kentavri ki aris adamiani-xelovani, romelic
suls swvdeba ara isriT da SubiT, aramed bgeriT, feriT da mxatvruli sity-
viT (mas SeuZlia ganacdevinos _ gaaxaros, aatiros, sibraluli an sinanuli
aRuZras).
mwerali ver Secvlis imas, rac cxovrebaSi misgan damoukideblad xdeba,
magram mas SeuZlia, rom momxdaris gancdaSi da am gancdiliT sulier
amaRlebaSi daexmaros mkiTxvels. misTvis mTavari is aris, Tu ras igrZnobs
199


`CaburZgnulxasiaTiani~ cocxali `baTareka~ am moTxrobis wakiTxvisas, isev
Cawixlavs sakuTari gulis siRrmeSi mimalul sifaqizes da jiutad Seecdeba,
rom yvelaferi, sulic ki, ZaliT daimorCilos, Tu gaiRviZebs da mixvdeba,
rom arafers, arcerT saqmes dedamiwis zurgze fasi ara aqvs siyvarulis ga-
reSe. pavle mociqulis TqmiT: `enaTa-Ra Tu kacTasa da angelozTasa
vityodi, xolo siyuaruli ara maqundes, viqmen me, viTarca rvali, romeli
oxrin, gina winwilani, romelni xmobed. da maqundes RaTu winaiswarmetyu-
elebai da uwyodi yoveli saidumloi da yoveli mecnierebai, maqundes RaTu
yovelive sarwmunoebai, vidre mTaTaca cvalebadmde da siyuaruli Tu ara
maqundes, arave rai var. Se-RaTu-vaWamo yoveli monagebi Cemi da mivscne
xorcni Cemni dasawuvelad da siyuaruli ara maqundes, araraive sargebel
ars Cemda~ (1 korinT. 13, 1-3).
modernistuli literaturis cnobili mkvlevari viki mehefi jeims joisis
`ulises~ analizisas wers, rom gmiris marcxi SesaZloa mkiTxvelis gamococx-
lebis sawindari gaxdes: `teqstis msgavsad, mkiTxveli (furcelia), magram esaa
mTvlemare, Sevsebuli, Sesworebadi furceli, romelsac sxvebis gaRviZebis una-
ri Seswevs. mkiTxvelis axali cxovreba maSin ibadeba, rodesac mas jvarze akraven
sxva mkiTxvelebi an teqsti, an kidev damarcxebuli (da ara warmatebuli) gmiri
(mehefi 2008).
baTareka da monadire: moTxrobaSi SeiniSneba paralelebi baTarekasa da
legendiseul monadires Soris: `aRukveTa mas (monadires) nadiri...~ || `ver
egueba... zamTris umoqmedobas~ (baTareka); `arafris keTeba ar SeeZlo mona-
dires garda nadiris xocvisa~ | `Zlivs mieCvia ojaxs baTareka WinWarauli~;
`dadis axla (monadire), eZebs fsits, niamors, jixvs... sakmarisia Tvali moh-
kras Wiuxis boloSi, rom isini gaqrnen... Camoxma vaJi, gautyda sxeuli~ ||
`Tavisuflad dadian Wiuxebidan qveviT daweuli jixvebi. gminavs baTarek...~;
`mouvida isev nadiri (monadires), aevso xorci, auyvavda suli, amRerda misi
buneba~ || `...CaTba saxlSi (baTareka), TiTqos daiRala da moewona saqalo
saqme~; `arcerTi wamiT ar aviwydeboda (monadires), rom ar unda moekla
xariremi~ || `ar datova arcerTi kuTxe auqoTebel daulagebeli da zemo
koSkSi avida mesame dRes~; `sxivebi qedis gaswvriv gawvnen da daabrmaves
Tavisi simSvenieriT monadire~ || `mzias... quTuToebi ufro gaubrwyinda ma-
mis danaxvaze. guli moulba baTarekas da Tvalebma argamosamJRavneblad
ufro avad daiwyes yureba~; `mTis datexil xerxemalze xeobidan avardnil
xarirems gamoudga (monadire), mTeli Rame sdia gonebagaSavebulma da diliT
miewia~ || `asulis Tvalebis moSorebam Tavisi magnituri wrisgan gauSva is
(baTareka) da... brazis gadmonTxevis saSualeba misca~.
oCopintres mier dasjil monadires da zamTris gamo saxlSi Caketil
baTarekas orTaves saSinlad awuxebs is, rom ver akeTeben Cveul saqmes. Se-
wyalebis Semdeg nadirTmfarveli samoqmedo areals SeuzRudavs monadires
da baTarekac iZulebiT gadaerTveba saxlis saqmeze, magram bolos erTs mzis
sxivis, meores ki mzias gabrwyinebuli Tvalebis danaxvaze axsendebaT, rom
aris raRac, maT saqmeze ufro mSvenieri, magram maTTvis miuwvdomeli da
dabrmavebulebi cdiloben am miuRwevlis ZaliT moxelTebas.
sxvagvari xdeba cxenkacad qceuli monadire. mas nadiris mxolod dev-
naRa SeuZlia, magram ara monadireba, ris gamoc vermiRweulis vneba kidev
ufro uZlierdeba, magram mas axla sxva iaraRi aqvs arfad qceuli mklavi
da simRera. misi tanjva mTavrdeba `amoTqmiT~, magram maSinve axldeba axali
sityvebis, ferebisa da bgerebis adevnebiT.
200


mze da mzia: moTxrobaSi mzias gamoCenis win ase gvamzadebs avtori: `aRar
arian qedebis ZirSi nazi iebi, aRar ikrifeba qedze Sefenili SavSala xili...~
mzia am gayinul garemoSi amosuli martosuli yvavilia lamazi da faqizi.
is aris aRsavse erTaderTi grZnobiT, romelsac `ver arqmevs saxels, albaT
imitom, rom saxels arqmeven sagnebs da movlenebs erTmaneTisgan gansasaxva-
veblad, mzias ki erTaderTi grZnoba hqonda, is erT did siyvarulad aRiqvamda
mTel samyaros da erTi didi siyvaruliT uyvarda irgvliv yvelaferi. mzia ar
aris fsiqologiurad Camoyalibebuli portreti. igi saxe ideaa, romelic
gvexmareba mTavari personaJis baTarekas rTuli xasiaTis gaxsnaSi. ra Tqma
unda, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom moTxrobis saTauria `baTareka WinWarauli~
da ara `mzia~, an raime sxva. mzia aris mze siTbo da sinaTle. is aris siyvaru-
li da sifaqize, romelic Cakla Tavis TavSi baTarekam. amitomac mzia, rome-
lic kibis safexurebsac ki siyvaruliT aRavsebs, ver albobs mamis guls.
baTarekas sayveduri mziasadmi `soflis~ TvalTaxedviT logikuria,
radgan ablabudebi realuria, magram arsebobs ufro maRali, zeadamianuri
logikac, romlisTvisac gulis siTbo ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre gamoyva-
nili tyavi, garCeuli sisxlis saqmeebi da Camowmendili Weri. es logika
misawvdomia mxolod imaTTvis vinc es `ukeTesi nawili gamoirCia~ (luka 10,
42). mzia am logikiT aris marTali. igi yvelaze Zvirfas Tesls _ siyvaruls
Tesavs da misi Tvalebi imdenad aris savse am grZnobiT, rom ablabudebs verc
ki amCnevs.
mzia sruliad gansxvavdeba usiyvarulo movaleobebiT Sekruli im sazogado-
ebisagan, romelic mas gars akravs. `TiTqos ar icnobs mzia soflis mcxovreblebs,
Tavisi ded-mamac ki ar icis rogoria...~ samyaroSi, romelsac igi xedavs, yvelafe-
ri erTmaneTSia areuli: `kacebi, koSkebi, saqoneli, SuRli da TviTon. kacebi am
sazogadoebis dominanturi Zalaa, koSkebi, maTi mosawyeni cxovrebis asparezi,
saqoneli _ sisxlis gamosasyidi, SuRli ki cxovrebis wesi. mzia TiTqos gaurbis
am yvelafers da cdilobs Tavi Seafaros uzarmazar cxvris qurqs.
baTarekasa da mzias saxeebi pirvelad gaCnda daumTavrebel romanSi saTa-
uriT `saidan movdivar, saiT mivdivar, ra minda~. masSi gvxvdeba remdenime moTx-
robis, `baTareka WinWarauli~, `naTela~ da `devebis cekva~ elementebi. avtogra-
fis pirvelsave abzacSi romanis mTavari personaJis, avtoris alter egos _
Tbilisidan xevsureTs Casuli 25 wlis guramis Sesaxeb vkiTxulobT: `...aRgzne-
buli idga mTis wverze. qvevidan amodiodnen rZisferi nislebi... faravdnen yve-
lafers, mxolod mis garSemo Wauxis dakidebuli ferdebi idgnen SiSveli, Savi... is
magrad gaexvia TeTr cxvris qurqSi da gairinda... janRi moedo aqamde SiSvel
qedebsac... netari usurviloba daeufla yvelafers... gauqra yovelgvari ndoma...
daekarga yovelgvari SegrZnebebi, garda amqveyniuri, Tu zedmetad miwieri
netarebisa...~ es imdenad sufTa gancdaa, rom avtori mas dedis ZuZus dawafebuli
Cvilis gancxromas adarebs.
mwvervalze mdgomi, cxvris qurqSi gaxveuli es ymawvili, jer Sav-TeTri fe-
rebis, Semdeg ki Savis sruli batonobis fonze iseve gamoiyureba, rogorc
baTarekas asuli mzia: `dausrulebliv devs Tovli... zis koSkis zemoTa muxlSi
qurqebis SuaSi Camjdari mzia... viwro sarkmlidan iyureba dRe, roca fifqebi
Canan, Rame, roca Tovlic ki Savdeba... simartovisagan gansakuTrebiT kargad
grZnobs mzias sxeuli, rom is unakloa, am SegrZnebis mudmivi Tanxleba, sxvisi
yofnis usurvilobis zRvramde, kargsa xdis mas... mxolod uzarmazari cxvris
qurqi, romelSiac is gaxveula, ealerseba mis sxeuls...~ daumTavrebeli moTxro-
bis siuJetis mixedviT, xevsureTSi Casuli gurami SemTxveviT unda Sexvedroda
201


mzias. Savi avtografebidan moTxrobis saboloo versiamde momxdari uamravi
cvlilebis miuxedavad, calkeuli konkretuli saxeebis SenarCuneba da gadatana
teqstis saboloo variantSi, maT gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobaze unda migvaniS-
nebdes. Savi garemos fonze TeTri cxvris qurqi erT-erTi aseTi detalia. es is
mikrosamyaroa, romelic vnebebs acxrobs da usurvilobis netareba moaqvs.
daumTavrebeli romanis erT monakveTSi pirdapir aris Tqmuli: `didi cxvris
qurqi, romelSiac magra gaxveula gurami, icavs mas gare samyaros zedmeti Seg-
rZnebisgan da sasiamovno harmoniasa qmnis~. am ori epizodis Sedareba sxva mxrivac
aris saintereso. maTi msgavseba migvaniSnebs, rom mzias saxeSi mweralma sakuTari
gancdebic ganasxeula, magram Tu gurams male kvlav uCndeba miuwvdomlisken
swrafvis Jini, mzia mudmivad im qurqSi rCeba. igi Tavis survilebs verc sityvad
da verc saqmed ver aqcevs, mxolod `matylSi Carguli tuCebiT asunTqebs tyav-
sabans~. marTalia, mzias samyaro bolomde TviTkmari ar aris, is elodeba raRacas
Tu viRacas, magram ara cvlilebas, aramed gagrZelebas, gavrcobas. elodeba
misnairs (aseTi Sexvedra misnairTan xdeba `naTelaSi~), radgan raime ucxos,
magaliTad, garemomcveli Suris, mtrobis, mrisxanebis Tundac mcire doziT
miRebis SemTxvevaSi, mzia ukve aRar iqneba is, vinc aris `Seurevneli~ siyvaruli.
kerp-agresiuli garemo yvelgan SeRwevas cdilobs. amitom mzia marTlac dgeba
sulieri `aradqcevis~ saSiSroebis winaSe, risi alternativac xdeba misi
fizikuri sikvdili.
mzias gansxvaveba misi garemomcveli samyarosagan naTlad Cans Tavisi saxe-
lebisadmi damokidebulebaSic. `mzia~ moswons albaT imitom, rom igi mzes,
siTbosa da naTels ukavSirdeba da am yvelafers is realurad grZnobs sakuTar
TavSi, `Tamari~ mTielTaTvis saficari, Rirseuli da saTanadod dafasebuli me-
fe-qalis saxelia, danarCeni ori _ `sandua da buba~ ki aris im yofis anareklebi,
romelic gars akravs mzias da amitomac ejavreba. `isini pataras momaval qmrian
jafaze uyvebian qveSecneulad~, aRniSnavs avtori da Tu moTxrobas Tvals
gadavavlebT, davinaxavT, ra jafa da ra damokidebulebebia is, rac ganizidavs da
aSinebs mzias. mxolod movaleobiT, usiyvarulod gakeTebuli saqme, uazro, sas-
tiki wesebi, cxoveluri instinqtebi. Satileli kacebi: `itaceben saqonels, iRe-
ben sisxls, texen davas da TviTon avalianeben sxvebs... wivisa da vnebis suniT
ivseba mTeli sofeli, bolavs, Jins iklavs, iRvivebs, araysa xdis, ludsa svams da
Rreobs...~
mwerlis dis, marine rCeuliSvilis komentarebidan vigebT, rom saxeli `mzia~
ukavSirdeba guram rCeuliSvilis pirvel siyvaruls (rCeuliSvili 2004 199),
magram, ramdenadac moTxrobaSi xdeba baTarekas asulis oTxi saxelis koncep-
tualuri dapirispireba, vfiqrobT, rom am _ piraduli motiviT gakeTebul _
arCevanSi mwerali ganzogadebul interpretaciasac debs. mzias saxe ukavSirdeba
mzes, naTels. misi msgavsia moTxroba `naTelas~ mTavari gmiri, romelsac mzias
nacvlad hqvia msgavsi konceptis Semcveli saxeli `naTela~. Cveni azriT, savsebiT
SesaZlebelia, rom ara mxolod `mzia~, `naTelac~ ki im realur pirovnebas ukav-
Sirdebodes, visSiac mwerali xedavda sulieri naTlis gansaxovnebas, magram
mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania am saxelTa semantikuri raobac.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, mzia ar warmoadgens fsiqologiur saxe-xasiaTs.
amitomac ar aris masSi araviTari gaoreba. ase rom ar iyos, moTxrobaSi, sadac
kvanZis gaxsna mzias TviTmkvlelobas ukavSirdeba, is mainc iqneboda naCvenebi, Tu
ra ganicada man am sabediswero nabijis gadadgmamde. gmiris fsiqologiuri por-
tretis xatvisas aqcentebi gancdebze ufro keTdeba, vidre qmedebaze, aq ki erTi
sityvac ar aris naTqvami amis Sesaxeb.
202


niSandoblivia isic, rom baTarekas asulma `gamqrali Suacecxlis jaWvze
CamoixrCo Tavi~. qarTuli tradiciiT keriaze danTebuli, Suacecxli, iseve,
rogorc dedaboZze gamosaxuli borjRali, mzis simbolo iyo da imaze mi-
aniSnebda, rom sanam iq cecxli enTo, ojaxs mze da sikeTe ar moakldeboda.
baTarekas ojaxSi mzis simbolo _ Suacecxli da mzia erTad `gaqra~. yove-
live es gvafiqrebinebs, rom simboluria ara mxolod mzias saxe, aramed
TviTmkvlelobis faqtic, rogorc siuJeturi detali.
namdvili, xorcSesxmuli, fsiqologiuri saxe-xasiaTi am moTxrobaSi
baTarekaa. avtors kargad aqvs danaxuli mis gaorebuli buneba. Sinaganad
uxeS Tanasoflelebs sakuTari sastiki yofa problemebs ar uqmnis. igi tan-
javs mxolod baTarekas, romelic bunebiT mgrZnobiarea, magram garemosTan
Seguebam, soflis wesis miyolam Cakla masSi yovelgvari sifaqize da dautova
mxolod movaleobis grZnoba. movaleobis grZnoba, romelic saeWvo zneob-
riv kanonebze iyo agebuli. baTarekas gaorebuli bunebis Sesaxeb avtori
pirdapir ambobs: `bunebiT nazi, avazakiviT uJmuri iyo xasiaTiTa da qceviT
baTarek~. mzia ki Tavad siyvarulia, romelic gauxeSebul garemoSi TavisiT
kvdeba. Cveni azriT, umarTebulo iqneba am personaJis saxis fsiqoanalizi an
misi qmedebis moraluri gansja. qristianuli swavlebiT TviTmkvleloba
momakvdinebeli codvaa, magram dauSvebelia nawarmoebis mxatvruli plastis
sityvasityviTi gageba da masze dayrdnobiT raime daskvnebis gakeTeba.
vfiqrob, rom guram rCeuliSvilis es moTxroba kentavris liris msgav-
sad ufro Sors mwvdomia, vidre monadiris isari. igi xvdeba mkiTxvelis guls
da ar SeiZleba, rom masSi sinanulis grZnoba da siyvarulis naperwkali ar
gaaCinos.


damowmebani:

berZnuli miTologia: , greekroman.ru/leg/ hercules.htm
elinuri miTebi 1938: `elinuri miTebi~, naw. I, Tb.: 1938.
enciklopedia: , sigils.ru/symbols/ arfa.html
mehefi 2008: mehefi v . `jeims joisis kiTxvisas~. Targmna Tamar lomiZem. `arili~, 12
oqtomberi, 2008.
ovidiusi 1977: . . III.
.. . .: " ", 1977.
rCeuliSvili g. 2002: rCeuliSvili g. Txzulebebi eqvs tomad. t. 2, 2002.
rCeuliSvili g. 2004: rCeuliSvili g. Txzulebebi eqvs tomad. t. 3, 2004.
qarTuli folklori 1981: qarTuli folklori. X. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1981.
SCeglovi 2006: .. , . . (), ,
2006.
Ciqovani 1981: Ciqovani m. amiranis Tqmulebis poeturi Canawerebi. qarTuli
folklori, X. Tb.: 1981.
homerosi 1990: homerosi,.`iliada~. XI, 832 ZvelberZnulidan Targmna roman
miminoSvilma. Tb.: 1990.





203


Maia Ninidze

Artistic Interpretation of Reality and Myth in Batareka Chincharauli
(Textual and Intertextual analysis)

Summary

Guram Rcheulishvilis Batareka Chincharauli was inspired by a real fact a Khevsurian
girls suicide. The tragic case was told to the writer by his friend Gogi Ochiauri who was a
sculptor and was carving a monument of a centaur at that time. Two images - one of a coarse
father whose insult made his daughter kill herself and the other of a centaur, mythical hybrid
creature with contradictory, rude nature, penetrated the writers thoughts about art and life and
gave birth to this wonderful story. There are quite vivid parallels between Batareka and the
mythical hunter who shoot the forbidden deer and was turned into a half-horse, as well as between
his daughter and the sun.
Batarekas character is very lively and realistic while Mzia is more schematic and symbolic.
Mzia (Mze in Georgian means the sun) is full of positive spirit and love. She represents the
virtues that were killed by Batareka in himself. Therefore we consider that Mzias suicide is a plot
metaphor and not a conventional plot detail. The story tells us how a person, plunged in seemingly
important daily pursuits and relationship routines kills in himself the most important Love. It
should be noted that Guram Rcheulishvili used the intertext of the centaur myth four years earlier
than John Updike in his famous novel The Centaur.






204


inga milorava

mindias miTis mxatvruli transformacia
modernistul teqstSi

`mindias rkalis~ modernistuli prozis gaazreba aucilebelia miTis
koncefciis Camosayalibeblad. am rkalSi moqceuli moTxrobebi SeiZleba
or qvejgufad davyoT: pirvel jgufSi gaerTianebulia moTxrobebi, romel-
Ta gmirebic bunebasTan TanxmierebiTa da TanaziarobiT ensgavsebian min-
dias, avlenen mindias arqetipTan myar Sinagan kavSirs, magram mainc mwerlis
mier Seqmnili axali miTis struqturis Sesabamisad viTardebian da moqmede-
ben (leo qiaCeli, `jadosani~, `stefane; basil meliqiSvili, `Turmani~,
`geliyari~, `gvelebis tba~). meore jgufSi moqceul nawarmoebebSi xdeba uk-
ve uSualod mindias miTis axleburi literaturuli gaazreba da mxatvruli
transformacia. am jgufSi gaerTianebulia grigol robaqiZis drama da
konstantine gamsaxurdias `xogais mindia~. `xogais mindia~ `tabusTan~ er-
Tad miTis namdvili apologiaa qarTul literaturaSi.
mindias miTs grigol robaqiZe Zalian did mniSvnelobas aniWebda, radgan
masSi moqnil saxeebSi gardasaxuli Semecnebisa da siyvarulis ideebis
TvalismomWrel elvarebas xedavda. misi azriT, miuxedavad imisa, rom `gve-
lismWameli~ sxvaa da `lamara~ki sul sxva, `Tauri~ mainc erTia da es erTad-
erTi safuZveli amave dros qarTveli xalxis zepirovnuli Semoqmedebis
mwvervalicaa. is, rogorc Cans, erT `me~-ze bevrad aRmatebul da mainc TiT-
qmis idealamde asul da uklebliv SenarCunebul isev ,,me-s, oRond `zeme~-s
xedavda. misi azriT, mindia aris arsi, romelSic xorcieldeba ormagi uni-
versaluri idea: siyvaruli qmnis Semecnebas (pavle mociquli) da Semecneba
ki warmoSobs siyvaruls (leonardo da vinCi).
arsebobs xogais mindias miTis sami literaturuli varianti: vaJa-
fSavelas `gvelismWameli~, grigol robaqiZis `lamara~ da konstantine
gamsaxurdias `xogais mindia~. grigol robaqiZem da konstantine gamsaxur-
diam xalxuri versiebi gamoiyenes. maTi nawarmoebebi zepirsityvierebis
prozauli Tu poeturi variantebis gaTvaliswinebiTaa Seqmnili, magram XX s-
is orive mwerlis modernistuli mxatvruli qsovili ZiriTadad mainc
vaJaseuli miTis kosmiur aRqmasTan miaxloebis da ziarebis survils amJrav-
nebs. amasTan, TiToeuli maTgani sruliad originalurad gaiazrebs mindias
saxes. vaJa-fSavelas `gvelismWamels~ aseTi sqema udevs safuZvlad: mindia
Wams gvelis xorcs da Seicnobs miRmur samyaros, zerealobas, romelic
Cveulebrivi adamianisTvis miuRwevelia. amavdroulad igi TiTqos ar swyde-
ba arc realobas, asrulebs Tavis miwier movaleobebs, erTveba adamianuri
yofis ferxulSi, magram aSkarad Cans, rom mindia ar aris Cveulebrivi ada-
miani. igi arsebobs ori samyaros: miwierisa da miRmuris, cxadisa da zmanebis,
realurisa da irealuris mijnaze da cdilobs Searigos es ori samyaro. zma-
nebisa da cxadis sazRvarze dgas aramyari, TiTqos mudmivi qariSxlebisgan
Setortmanebuli mTeli modernistuli mxatvruli sivrce, romlisTvisac
realobaze maRla sadRac, miRma, idealebis sivrceSi an iqneb sulac saku-
Tari sulis ufskrulebSi moTavsebuli (subieqtivizmi), praqtikulad Seuc-
nobeli zesinamdvile dgas. esaa misi filosofiuri safuZveli da mxatvrul
saxeebsa da sistemebSi swored am ideebis emanacia xdeba, ukve `damZimebuli~,
205


Sevsebuli da garTulebulic ki sityvieri qsovilis Cveuli Tu sruliad
moulodneli samkaulebiT. am TvalsazrisiT, am teqstSi vaJa-fSavela Zalian
uaxlovdeba modernistul azrovnebas da usafuZvlod sulac ar Cans misi
pirvel modernistad definicia. Tumca vaJas mindia mainc ar yofs erTma-
neTisgan am or Tvisobrivad gansxvavebul samyaros, mainc cdilobs raRac
saerTo upovnos, isev SeakavSiros, axsnas dafaruli da rigiTi adamianisTvis
sruliad gaugebari, Tavisi saocari SesaZleblobis wyalobiT, Sesamecneebe-
li, Sesabamisad, misaRebad da ufro maRal safexurze ki ukve siyvarulis
warmomSobad aqcios. magram is ganwirulia, marcxdeba, harmonia qreba da min-
diac TviTmkvlelobiT xazs usvams darRveuli Sinagani mTlianobis piro-
bebSi mikrokosmosis, anu erTi ganumeorebeli da gansakuTrebuli individis
farglebSi samyaros arsebobis SeuZleblobas.
grigol robaqiZis `lamaraSi~ mindia ukve Camoyalibebuli zekacia, misa-
ni, faruli codnis gacnobierebulad mflobeli. aseTi monoliTuri saxiT
erTveba igi nawarmoebSi aRweril movlenebSi. erTi SexedviT yofiTi kon-
fliqti Tavisi arsiT filosofiuria da kosmiur simaRlemde adis, rac orma-
gad amZafrebs nawarmoebis tragikul JReradobas. macduri qalis lamaras
trfobas mosdevs ZmasTn qiSpi, Sekruli, monoliTuri fizikur-sulieri
substanciis rRveva, anu `mes~, `egos~ gaZliereba da manamde garesamyaros-
Tvis mTlianad gaxsnili zemZlavri adamianis kerZoobis rkalSi Caketva.
swored zogadis, amaRlebulis, erTianis kerZo `med~ CaSla-dangreva akar-
gvinebs mindias zeadamianur codnas, romlis dabrunebac mxolod kerZoobis
uaryofiT da TavganwirviTaa SesaZlebeli. `Tauris~, sayovelTaos da masTan
Serwymuli da paradoqsulad srulad SenarCunebuli individualizmis
CamoqveiTeba sazrisisgan daclil viwro kerZoobamde sulier jujobad
aRiqmeba da masTan codnas adgili aRar rCeba, imdenad ivseba pirTamde
umniSvnelo, magram damangrevlad mZafri vnebebiT. mxolod TviTSewirviT
ganiwmindeba mindia, daibrunebs Sinagan mTlianobas da kavSirs zerealobas-
Tan, isev moipovebs zebunebriv niWs, unars da sulier Zalas. vaJa-fSavelasa
da grigol robaqiZis Canafiqrebs Soris msgavseba da gansxvaveba sqemebis,
grafikuli monaxazebis donezec Cans, magram umTavresi sxvaoba farul
SreSi _ miTis ganwyobilebis gadmocemaSia mimaluli.
grigol robaqiZem aqcenti misteriaze gaakeTa. mas ainteresebs ara imde-
nad movlenis bolomde amocnoba da misi arsis wvdomiT zusti definiciebisa
SemuSaveba, aramed idumalebis atmosferos, mistiuri ganwyobilebis, arqa-
uli realobis surnelis gadmocema. xdeba miTis ritualuri mxaris gamok-
veTa da misteriaSi TanadaTanobiT gadazrda. gri
gol robaqiZes ar eguleba sxva drama msoflio literaturaSi, romelic
`lamarasaviT~ misteriaSi gadadiodes. TviTonac aRniSnavda, rom `lamara~
erTaderTi dramaa, romelic TiTqmis SeumCnevlad gadaiqca misteriad.
`lamara~ ara marto codnisa da siyvarulis, aramed sikvdil-sicocxlis, sik-
vdilisa da siyvarulis misteriis mxatvruli xorcSesxmacaa. aq kidev er-
Txel gamovlinda sikvdilisa da siyvarulis, erosisa da Tanatosis Sinagan
erTianobis modernistuli Tvalsazrisi: `cxovreba jojoxeTuri manqanaa
maradisobis frTebiT ufskrulisaken rom mieqaneba; am frTebis gaSlisa da
Sekvecis dros eSmaki da angelozi kocnian erTmaneTs, siyvaruli sikvdili
ormagobaa maradiuli~ (kapaneli 1989: 175). grigol robaqiZis dramaSi
gvxvdeba pasaJi, romelic basil meliqiSvilmac gamoiyena ,,gvelebis tbaSi.
aqac mwerals Semohyavs vaJa, rogorc uSualod moqmedi piri. rogorc Cans,
206


vaJa-fSavelas miTiur samyarosTan Sinagani kavSiris gamoxatvis survilma da
TviT am samyaros Tvisobriobam ganapiroba mweralTa mier gadadgmuli es
sarisko nabiji, vinaidan xSirad amgvari `SemoWra~ gemovnebis Tvalsazri-
siTac moikoWlebs da arc teqstis azrobriv da gamomsaxvelobiT velebs
matebs raimebs. Tumca postmodernistuli epoqisTvis aseTi xerxebi ukve
aRar aris ucxo da mas ara marto literatura, xelovnebis bevri sxva dargic
xSirad iyenebs da zogjer arcTu warumateblad.
grigol robaqiZe ki ase xsnis Tavis mxatvrul qsovilSi vaJas CarTvas:
`vsaxavdi mindias, Tvalwin medga misi momRerali: vaJa. gavbede cda: mgosani
`lamaraSi~ misnis Tanamedroved Semeyvana. rogor, istoriuli pirovneba
Tanamedrove zeistoriulis, miTiurisa? avtori gverdiT misi gmirisa/ ra
sakvirvelia, es Seusabamoba vicodi, garna vicodi isic, rom vaJa miTiur
sivrceSi iyo moqceuli, miTosi misTvis dediSobila iyo~ (robaqiZe 1984: 107).
XX s-is modernistuli azrovnebisTvis miTis da vaJas Tanmdevi emociuri
velebi TiTqmis Tanxvedrilia, amiT aixsneba miTis wiaRSi vaJas bunebrivad
warmodgena da gamosaxva. vaJa-fSavelasTvis miTi marTlac organuli
garemoa. igi imdenad Serwymulia miTologiur realobasTan, rom Znelic
aRaraa misi ukve am zerealobis SigniT warmodgena. modernistuli azrov-
nebisaTvis, romelic mudmivad realurisa da irealuris zRvarze meryeobs,
ufro iolia aseTi iracionaluri xatis sinamdviled aRqma da miReba, Tanac
es mxatvruli sinamdvilea da misi damajerebloba ukve sityviT mxatvris
ostatobazea damokidebuli. amgvari erTianoba vaJas mxatvruli samyaros
fesvebs _ zepirsityvierebas ukavSirdeba. vaJa-fSavelaseuli mindia ey-
rdnoba mindias miTosur arqetips, romelsac v. kotetiSvili gaRmerTebis
gzaze Semdgar, miTologiuri nisliT damZimebul da gandidebul saxed aRiq-
vamda. mweralma mindias reliefuri portretis Seqmnisas mravali axali
Strixi daumata miTiuri Tqmulebebidan aRebul xatovan, magram mainc gra-
fikuli monaxazis safexurze darCenil siluets. vaJa upiratesobax aniWebs
im xalxur versias, romlis mixedviTac mindia gvelis xorcs SeWams (da ara
meore variants, romelSic gvelis sisxls alokavs). igi wers: `gvelis mWame-
lis~ araki, rac me gavigone da razec avaSene mTeli poema, Semdegia: xevsuri
mindia Cauvardeba tyved qajebs; maT Soris cxovrebam ise daaRona mindia,
Tavis mosakvlelad gvelis xorci sWama, romliTac qajebi ikvebebodnen,
gvelis Wamam sul sxva nayofi gamoiRo: mindia brZen kacad gadaiqca; misi
sibrZne xalxuri TqmulebebiT sCans mcenareebis cnobaSi, Tu romeli ra
satkivris wamalia, radgan yvela mcenare Tavad iZaxis, ris wamalic aris da
mindiamac am mcenareTa ena kargad icis~ (vaJa-fSavela 1987: 75).
grigol robaqiZis dramaSi gveli yurebs ulokavs mindias da ase aniWebs
misnobis unars:

`ZilSi viRac yurebs milokavda,
nelTbili iyo lokva sisxlis,
raRacas CamCurCulebda
tkbili iyo CurCuli,
gamomeRviZa gvel iyo:
wiTeli, rqanayari, jagarayrili...~.
(robaqiZe 1926: 145)

aseTi xalxuri varianti ar arsebobs, samagierod cnobilia berZnuli
miTi melampusis Sesaxeb, romelsac Zilis dros gvelebi mxrebze Seacocdnen
207


da eniT yurebi gamouwmindes. amis Semdeg mas ukve frinvelTa ena esmoda da
momavalsac winaswarmetyvelebda. gvelebis saxeebma, bunebasTan warmoud-
genlad mWidro, arqaulze aRmatebulma, zedroulma kavSirma, mistiurma sa-
burvelma da miniSnebebma saidumlo iniciaciebsa da ritualebze, aseve
melampusis saxem, romelic dionises kultis damfuZneblad iTvleba, Tavis-
Tavad unda migviyvanos dionisemde (cxadaZe 1997: 43). dionoses mniSvneloba
ki modernistuli azrovnebisaTvis Zalze didia. modernistul teqstebSi igi
mravalgzis gaielvebs, rogorc arqetipi, miniSneba, metafora. am SemTxvevaSi
zogadad miTisadmi modernistuli teqstis damokidebulebaa mniSvnelovani.
romelime erTi, konkretuli, magaliTad, mindias miTis mxatvrul teqstSi
transformirebisas mwerali ar Semoifargleba am erTi rkaliTa da arqeti-
piT da mas Seurevs sxva, Tundac dionises samyaros, Tu Sinagan kavSirsa da
mcireoden SesaZleblobas mainc dainaxavs amisaTvis. xazgasasmelia, rom es
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi xdeba, Tu Serevis bunebrivi, dadasturebuli safuZ-
veli arsebobs. xelovnurad araferi xdeba da amitom sinTezi TvalisTvis
TiTqmis SeumCnevelia, samagierod kidev ufro amdidrebs ama Tu im miTis
universalur, magram miTis wesisamebr mwir sivrces da mas individualuri
Semoqmedebis Sedegad mravalplanian da mravalsaxovan qsovilad gadaqcevis
saSualebas aZlevs, ris Semdegac, SeiZleba iTqvas, ibadeba axali, SesaZloa
zogjer raRaciT gamaRizianebeli, magram damoukidebeli struqturis mqone
mxatvruli sinamdvile.
mindias miTs eyrdnoba da misi mxatvruli transformaciis Sedegia
konstantine gamsaxurdias `xogais mindia~. akaki baqraZe wers, rom moTxro-
baSi `ori siuJeturi ambavia: erTi _ mondias tyveobisa qistebTan, meore _
mindias mogzaurobisa gugulebis qveyanaSi. pirveli saTavgadasavlo Tqmu-
lebaTa Janrs ekuTvnis, meore _ miTologiur-filosofiurs. isini erTma-
neTs acseben da erTad qmnian moTxrobis azrobriv Sinaarss~ (baqraZe 2004:
284). aq nawilobriv gamoyenebulia is mxatvruli xerxi, romelic sxva nawar-
moebebSic _ demna Sengelaias `guram baramandiasa~ da niko lorTqifaniZis
`keriasaTvis~ _ Cans: realur qsovilSi miTiuri an zRapruli elementis
SemotaniT ganisazRvreba teqstis mTeli struqtura, Sinaarsi, ganmartebu-
lia movlenaTa arsi, mxatvrul saxeTa mizandasaxuloba da moqmedebis Sem-
dgomi perspeqtiva (`guram baramandiaSi~ am rols arulebs emuxvaris le-
genda, xolo moTxrobaSi `keriasaTvis~ _ keriis qvis zRapari).
aseTi dinamiuri xerxis gamoyenebisas ukve TvalnaTliv Cans miTisa da
realobis SemaerTebel `miTis xazze~ moqceuli gmiris Sinagani gaoreba, ori
samyaros mijnaze gaxevebuli zemZlavri pirovnebis tanjva da sulieri
tkivilebi. `xogais mindiaSi~ swored CarTul, e. w. `gugulebis planSi~ xdeba
mindias gamisneba. konstantine gamsaxurdia misdevs gvelis xorcis Wamis
xalxur da vaJa-fSavelaseul versiebs: `moxarSes gugulebma TeTri gvelebi,
aWames mindias da daaZines. meore diliT naxa mindiam rom iRlia gamobuS-
toda. gaWres gugulebma da sami oya tili gamoyares iqidan.
mzes Tvali Seaswro, caze amomavals, eucnaura cac da myarica. mxarmar-
jvniv gaixeda xogais mindiam, arsad sCanda arc natamali, win gaixeda xogais
Zem da win edga eSmakis sxeuli.
idga, iRimeboda nadirTa mwyemsi, Txisebr wvers isresda frCxilebiT.
SeekiTxa oCopintre, Tavs rogor grZnobT, xogais mindiav?
208


aqasmde Zlivs avdiodi mTebze, gadavevlebodi axla Tund roSkis mwver-
vals, qistebs Zlivs veweodi aqamdis, axla xarjixvebs mivewevio fexdafex~
(gamsaxurdia 1980: 426).
gvelis xorcis WamiT bunebis enis Secnoba farTodaa asaxuli sxvadasxva
qveynis folklorSi. zRaprebisa da xalxuri Tqmulebebis personaJebi kala-
sikuri miTebis simaRles Znelad aRweven, gind xasiaTis siRrmiT, gind maT
irgvliv datrialebuli movlenebis simZafriT an mxatvruli saxeebis filo-
sofiuri ganzogadebis SesaZleblobiT, magram axal mxatvrul realobad
transformirebuli miTis qsovilSi `Canergvisas~ isini damatebiT azrobriv
da mxatvrul datvirTvas da Rirebulebas iZenen da nawarmoebis ZiriTadi
saTqmelis srulad gamoxatvas uwyoben xels. am Tvalsazriss iziarebs mwe-
rali. man Semoiyvana kidev erTi folkloruli personaJi _ oCopintre. am-
gvari fantastikuri saxeebiT aRwevs mwerali Sesabamis efeqts, qmnis misti-
urobis, nawarmoebis mxatvruli sivrcis sruli iluzorulobis gancdas
mkveTrad gamoxatuli moqmedebebis dinamiur fonze da es paradoqsamde
misuli idumali realoba iZens mxatvrul damajereblobas. msgavsi movlena
konstantine gamsaxurdias `tabuSic~ gvxvdeba.
`xogais mindiaSi~ konstantine gamsaxurdiam mindiaze arsebuli yvela
zepirsityvierebiTi da literaturuli varianti gaiTvaliswina. gamoiyena
Tqmuleba `nadirTpatronze~ da bibiliur simboloebsac mimmarTa (mag.,
TeTri kravis epizodi). man moTxroba sam mTavar wertilze aago: mindias
gamisneba gvelis xorcis WamiT; qalis sabediswero roli da ori samyaros
Serigebis SeuZleblobis gamo gmiris daRupva. grigol robaqiZis `lamaraSi~
qali macduri, gveli, sulieri harmoniis msxvrevis mizezia. mindias pirov-
nebis mTlianoba da sulier ZalTa Tvisobrioba da xarisxi masTan qaliT
gamoicdeba. vaJas `gvelismWamelSi~ mindias ojaxi aiZulebs `mglureb~ moiq-
ces. aqac, ufro sustad, magram mainc qalis (colis) sabediswero motivi Cans.
rac Seexeba koinstantine gamsaxurdias `xogais mindias~, qali qistebis
mzisferi asuli xadiSaT aseve sabediswero rols asrulebs, magram igi ar
aris macduri, anu Segnebulad, gaazrebulad mzakvrulad moqmed destruq-
ciul Zalad ar warmosdgeba. xadiSaTi Tavisdauneburad xdeba mindias da-
Rupvis mizezi, radgan igi, rogorc siyvarulis abstraqtuli cnebis ukve
gansxeulebuli yvela konkretuli saxe, Tavis wil msxverpls moiTxovs siy-
varulisa da Semecnebis, siyvarulisa da sikvdilis maradiul erTianobaSi.
xadiSaTis sikvdili mindias TviTmkvlelobis impulsi xdeba. man dakarga
pirvelqmnili simSvide, zebunebrivi Zalis momniWebeli codnis madli. misi
xelebi jixvisa da xadiSaTis sisxlSia gasvrili da es maSin, roca manamde
nebismieri sulieris xma, kvnesa da tkivili esmoda. mindiam ver Seariga ori
samyaro, ver aRadgina harmonia. igi, rogorc gansxvavebuli, araordinaluri
pirovneba miuRebelia erTgvarovani masisaTvis da brbosac Cveuli sisas-
tikiT gamoaqvs ganaCeni: an unda emsgavsos maT, an unda moikveTos. xor-
cielebis usaxurma mZime talRam mindias xelebi umanko sisxliT gasvara. man
dakarga sakuTari Tavi da TiTqmis SvebiTac ki mieaxla siyvarulis wiaRidan
amozrdil mxsnel sikvdils. konstantine gamsaxurdiam, grigol robaqiZi-
sagan gansxvavebiT (`lamaraSi~ mindia Tavs swiravs), gaiTvaliswina vaJaseuli
`Tavismokvlis~ versia. mindias sikvdili moTxrobaSi kosmiur elfers iZens
da apokalifsis asociacias aRZravs: `saTofesken ukuiqca xogais mindia.
ukan miixeda. Tvali mohkra Tu ara sakuTar lands, satevari gaiZro da mar-
cxena ZuZus qvemoT daica vadamdis. asiode wlis Semdegac mRerian xevsurebi
209


xogais mindias leqss da igi iseve iwyeba, rogorc unda gaTavdes Cems mier
naTxrobi:

`mze wiTldeboda, wyreboda,
xogais mindi kvdeboda,
Camodioda varskvlavi,
mTvare ukuRma dgeboda~.

sisxlnasvami mze oqros obobasaviT wamosjdomoda myinvarwveris Tavze,
xolo mTvare, RamenaTevi, mTvare mruSi laqebiT ise datvifruliyo, ro-
gorc xevsuruli spilenZis fari~ (gamsaxurdia 1980: 457). TavisTavad nebis-
mieri adamianis sikvdili erTi samyaros dasasruls niSnavs, radgan is ganu-
meorebelia da masTan erTad gaqreba yvelaferi is da iseTi, rogoric mxo-
lod masSi da mis gamo arsebobda. da miT umetes roca kvdeba aRmatebuli
Zalis, codnis, zerealobasTan yvelaze ufro miaxloebuli personaJi da es
tragikuli movlena aisaxeba modernistuli azrovnebis mier erTiorad mniS-
vnelobagazrdili da dafasebuli individualobis pirobebSi, gasagebia, rom
mindias dasasruli TiTqmis samyaros dasasrulad gardaisaxa, rasac xels
uwyobs modernistuli moTxrobisaTvis niSneuli stili. mTlianobaSi ki
sabolood moqmedebasa da movlenebze ufro mniSvnelovani ram gadmodis
wina planze _ ibadeba idumali, aramiwieri codnis, siyvarulis, WeSmarite-
bis eniT auwereli sinaTlis _ miTis uSualo SegrZneba.
konstantine gamsaxurdias `xogais mindia~ yovelTvis qarTvel mkvlevar-
Ta yuradRebis centrSi iyo moqceuli (d. benaSvili, d. TevzaZe, s. sigua, ak.
baqraZe, n. mamacaSvili da sxv.). arcaa gasakviri, radgan es moTxroba SeiZ-
leba CaiTvalos miTis yvelaze ufro `sufTa~ JReradobis mqone literatu-
rul variantad. `xogais mindia~ miTis mxatvruli transformaciis umaRlesi
safexuria. Tu ra mniSvneloba hqonda konstantine gamsaxurdiasTvis miTs,
miTosuri samyaros originalurad gaazrebasa da mxatvrul xorcSesxmas,
naTlad gamoCnda moTxrobaSi `tabu~. `tabus~ mTeli Sidasivrce miTis suli-
Taa gamsWvaluli. masSi gamovlinda modernistuli moTxrobis miTis kon-
cefciis TiTqmis yvela ZiriTadi niSan-Tviseba: a) miTis arseboba ara marto
Sinaarsobriv, aramed gamomsaxvelobiT doneze. igi vlindeba miTis qsovilis
melodiurobaSi (ritmuli proza, ZiriTadi Temis lirikuli variaciebi, Se-
locvebis monotonuri melodia, xvaramzes sabediswero gamijnurebis
mgrgvinavi Tema); ferTa gamaSi (wiTuri SavCoxiani ucnobi, Savi morieli);
sivrceze miTiuri saxeebis ganlagebis da moZraobis dinamikaSi (xvaramzesa
da `ucxos~ rokva); peizaJis arqaulobaSi, iluzorulobasa da mistiurobaSi
(soflis sanaxebi, oreulTa Sexvedra, sasaflaos suraTi); b) mwerlis mier
ukve arsebuli elementebis SerCevisa da Sexamebis safuZvelze axali miTis
SeqmnaSi, romelSic did rols TamaSobs gamonagoni; g) qmedebis TandaTa-
nobiT gadazrda misteriaSi (moTxroba mTavrdeba morielis milursmvis sak-
raluri aqtiT); d) xasiaTebis arqetipulobaSi; e) realur planSi (mTxro-
belis nadiroba) miTopoeturi planis (naWyvedis legenda) SemoWrasa da misi
meSveobiT nawarmoebis koncefciis warmoCenaSi.
swored `tabuSi~, uSualod msjelobis doneze, gamovlinda miTis udide-
si mniSvneloba modernistuli mwerlobisaTvis. is erT-erTi qmediTi saSu-
alebaa, romlis meSveobiTac gamoisaxeba modernistuli azrovnebis filo-
sofiuri safuZveli: xiluli samyaros miRma absoluturi ideis arseboba,
adamianis meryeoba cxadisa da zmanebis mijnaze. amasTan miTi upirvelesi
SemoqmedebiTi impulsi, mwerlis aqtiuri SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobis piro-
210


ba, erTgvari gamarTleba xdeba. umiTod yofna mwerlisTvis niSnavs umZimes
sulier da SemoqmedebiT kriziss:
`...da Tqven iciT ra Znelia poetisaTvis krizisi? krizisi Cveni sulis
gamofxizlebaa zmanebisa da miTis jadosgan.
krizisi?
umiTod yofnaa.
CvenTvis: aryofnaa.
dadixar am qveynad zedmeti kaciviT. gazarmacdebi. melnis suni SegZag-
deba. rogorc nabaxusevze Rvino kaxuri da TviTve gikvirs, rom odesRac
suli gedga miTebis mTxzveli da adamianebis sityviT daeleqtroneba SegeZ-
lo~ (gamsaxurdia 1959: 92). mxolod miTTan mibruneba dasZlevs kriziss.
is, rasac konstantine gamsaxurdia miTis Sesaxeb ambobs `tabuSi~, SeiZ-
leba gavrceldes mTel XX s-is I naxevris qarTuli prozis da kerZod, moTx-
robis, miTopoetur seqtorze da epigrafadac waemZRvaros miTis mxatvrul
transformaciaze daweril nebismier naSroms. aq miTi mTeli arsebiT, mZaf-
radaa nagrZnobi da moqnilad, naTlad gadmocemuli:
`... pirvelTaganve iyo miTi. am qveynad yovelive miTiT Seiqmna, rac ki ram
Seiqmna. miTi win uswrebda adamianis yofnas.
miTi iyo upirvelesi ganzraxva RmerTkacisa da xelovnebisa. da roca
yovelive ararad iqmneba, darCeba albaT: miTi~ ( gamsaxurdia 1959: 92).
modernistulma azrovnebam marTlac srulad gamoiyena miTis SesaZleb-
lobani, gansakuTrebiT ki misi meSveobiT drois daZlevis an gardaqmnis
SesaZlebloba: `miTebis gacocxlebiT profanuli qronologiuri droidan
gadixar da Tvisobrivad gansxvavebul droSi Sedixar~ (eliade 1992: 105).
miTi afarToebs Tvalsawiers, radgan `miTiT gadmocemuli ambavi ezoteru-
li xasiaTis codnas Seicavs~ (eliade 1992: 105). Sesabamisad, miTis mxatvruli
transformaciisas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba rogorc esTetikur mxares, ise
mis SemecnebiT Rirebulebasac. aqedan aucileblad aRiZvris rwmenis saki-
Txic: `miTosuri warmosaxvis Zala mudam gilisxmobs rwmenis aqts. Tavisi
sagnis realobis rwmenis gareSe miToss gamoecleboda sakuTari niadagi~
(kasiresi 1983: 105). yvela am aspeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT Seiqmna neomiTologi-
uri kultura: `neomiTologiuri kultura dasabamiTve warmoadgenda maRal
inteleqtualizebul movlenas, romelic mimarTulia avtorefleqsiisa da
TviTaRwerisaken. aq filosofia, mecniereba da xelovneba iswrafvian sinTe-
zisaken da moqmedeben erTmaneTze gacilebiT Zlierad, vidre kulturis
ganviTarebis wina etapebze. azrovnebis miTologiuri struqturebis ele-
mentebi aRweven filosofiaSi (nicSe, vl. soloviovi, egzistencialistebi),
fsiqologiaSi (froidi, iungi). meore mxriv, miTze orientirebuli xelovne-
ba (simbolistebi, eqspresionistebi) ixreba filosofiuri da mecnieruli
ganzogadebisaken, rac xSirad xazgasmulia epoqis samecniero koncefciebSi
(iungis moZRvrebis gavlena joisisa da 20-30-iai wlebis `neomiTologiuri
xelovnebis sxva warmomadgenlebze)~ (msoflio... 1992: 62). neomiTologiuri
kulturis wiaRSi udgas fesvebi qarTul modernistul prozasac, romelmac
rogorc vrcel tiloebSi, ise SedarebiT momcro nawarmoebebSi safuZvli-
anad daamuSva miTi, mocemul SemTxvevaSi amis naTeli magaliTia mindias
miTi, mianiWa mas esTetikuri fenomenis statusi, aSkara gaxada Tundac sru-
liad axal mxatvrul realobad gardaqmnili miTis SemecnebiTi Rirebuleba
da ganixila miTi, rogorc Semoqmedebis maradiuli impulsi, rwmena da xsov-
na imaze, rac ar yofila, magram mainc iyo.
211


damowmebani:

baqraZe 2004: baqraZe ak. miTologiuri engadi. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli.
t.II, Tb.: 2004.
gamsaxurdia 1959: gamsaxurdia k. Txzulebani. t. II, Tb.: 1980.
gamsaxurdia 1980: gamsaxurdia k. Txzulebani. t. VI, Tb.: 1980.
eliade 1992: eliade m. miTis aspeqtebi. `iveria~, 1, 1992.
vaJa-fSavela 1987: vaJa-fSavela. kritika b. ip. varTagavasi. Txzulebani. Tb.:
1987.
kapaneli 1989: kapaneli k. suli da idea. _ kapaneli k. filosofiuri Sromebi.
Tb.: 1989.
kasiresi 1983: kasiresi e. ra aris adamiani. Tb.: 1983.
msoflio... 1992: . . II, .: 1992.
robaqiZe 1926: robaqiZe gr. lamara dramrbi. tf.: 1926.
robaqiZe 1984: robaqiZe gr. lamara (mokle biografia). krebuli. miunxeni: 1984.
cxadaZe 1997: cxadaZe e. grigol robaqiZis dramaTa warmarTuli samyaro. Tb.:
1997.


Inga Milorava

The Artistic Transformatrion of Mindia's Myth in the Modernist Texst

Summary

The modernistic thinking puts forward the philosophicalaesthetical signifiscanse of
the myth and turns it into yhe foundation of the hole artistic system of the work of art.
When the enternal world of the modernistic text is mythopoetical, we can see perfectly and
clearly expressed synthesis of reality and space such a text has a double nature. There
are connected the sensation of existance beyond the borders of the time and space and
signs of absolutely concrete time and space the visible images of narratives time and
space.
We can piak out some steps of transformation of Mindias Myth in modernistic texts:
- There is given only the senssation of the myth in the text. There is reconstructed the
emotional image of Mindia, as the main personage of the story. In this version. in such a
case the artistic time is a time of first creation;
- Mindia and the other mythological images - as the insertions, which explain and
give some colour to the narrative;
- The Mindias myth as an main stream and the plot of the hole work. Also it
becomes a subject for aesthetical and philosophical discussions.
There are analyzed the dramatic works and stories of the famous georgian writers
Vaja-pshavela,K. Gamsaxurdia and Gr. Robackidze, also the folklore versions of the
legend in this article. There is given the philosophical and aesthetical aspects of the Myth
of Mindia in this article too. We can see, that this myth has a great influence on the
structure of the modernistic text, in wich the myth gets a new indepedent life.

212


saba metreveli

beladi, rogorc mesia, qarTul politikur
lirikaSi

`sabWoTa kavSiri kacobriobis ubrwyinvalesi idealebis ganxorcielebu-
li triumfia. arc erT xalxs dedamiwaze jer ar axsovs iseTi bedniereba,
rogoric mopovebuli aqvs sabWoTa xalxs. arc erT xalxs ar axsovs iseTi
diadi beladebi, rogoric lenini da stalinia. es namdvili xalxuri bela-
debi, xalxis mier didebis SaravandediT Semosili, sabWoTa patriotizmis
udidesi STagonebis wyaroa~ (sulava 1940: 116-117). es sityvebi, SesaZloa,
epigrafadac gamogveyenebina, radgan masSi Zalian kargad Cans maxinji sab-
WoTa komunizmisa da totalitarizmis Tavbrudamxvevi isteriuli siyalbe
Tu TvalTmaqcoba, gaamarTlo da gaaidealo is, rac sinamdvileSi iyo dro
gaiafebuli sicocxlisa, bneli da saSiSi, epoqa _ uRmerTobisa. `mkvdarni
arian yvela RmerTebi: aw visurvoT, raTa zekacma icocxlos~, _ ganacxada
gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi fridrix nicSem da zekacobis msurvelT mimar-
Ta: `RmerTi Tqveni udidesi safrTxe iyo~. RirebulebaTa totaluri gadafa-
sebis epoqaSi uRmerTo adamianebma komunisturi da faSisturi mimarTule-
bis axali religia Seqmnes (kvataia 2010: 402). Cven sabWoTa komunizmze
vsaubrobT!
roca RmerTi ar aris, yvelaferi daSvebulia, amitom kacobriobis am
`ubrwyinvalesi idealebis ganxorcielebul triumfSi~, sabWoTa kavSirSi,
fexqveS gaiTela yvelaze didi Rirebuleba _ adamiani, daiTrguna azri, fiq-
ri, aikrZala ocneba da siyvaruli, rwmena da Tavisufleba... totalitariz-
mis msxverpli gaxda milionobiT udanaSulo adamiani, sruli jojoxeTi
damyarda sabWoeTSi. m. kvataia wers: `v. nozaZis SefasebiT, eklesiis msgav-
sad, marqsizm-leninizmic ukompromisod ibrZoda sakuTari dogmebis dasad-
genad, gadaxrebis winaaRmdeg, rasac mravali adamianis sicocxle Seewira.
werilSi, romelsac `komunisturi esxatologia~ hqvia, Semzaravi statisti-
kaa motanili. nozaZis informaciiT, ruseTis axalma revoluciam imsxverpla
75 milioni adamiani. aqedan 5.600.000 iyo mrewveli, memamule, vaWari, 17 mili-
oni glexi, 1933-37 wlebSi partiul `ganwmendas~ Seewira 798.072 komunisti.
axal marqsistul-leninur religias viqtor nozaZe komunistur esxato-
logias uwodebs da ase ganmartavs: es aris swavla (dogma) ukanasknel nivTTa,
movlenaTa (es-xatos) Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmad, dadgeba dro, rodesac sayo-
velTao bedniereba damyardeba _ komunisturi miTosi, romelsac, mecnieris
TqmiT, ganxorcieleba ar ewera. misive ganmartebiT, amgvari esxatologiis
safuZveli Zveli rusuli Sexedulebaa, romlis mixedviT, rusi xalxi unda
yofiliyo `mesia~, anu `cxebuli~, romelic am qveyanad dakargul samoTxes
aRadgens. es religiuri mesianizmi rusul imperializmSi gadaizarda~
(kvataia 2010: 402).
sabWoeTSi ebrZodnen qristianul religias, zogadad, rwmenas: `marTl-
madidebloba ewinaaRmdegeba proletariatis sworad gagebul interesebs~, _
ambobda stalini (stalini religiisa... 1933: 10). aseTma propagandam sasuliero
wodebis likvidaciis aucilebloba gansazRvra: `partias ar SeuZlia iyos
neitraluri religiur crurwmenaTa gamtareblebis mimarT, romelic
swamlavs mSromeli masebis Segnebas. davTrguneT Tu ara reaqciuli sam-
213


Rvdeloeba?- diax, davTrguneT, oRond ubedureba imaSia, rom igi jer kidev
savsebiT ar aris likvidirebuli (stalini religiisa... 1933: 14). religia
xalxis mteria, samagierod, bedniereba komunizmSia, ar unda gwamdes RvTisa,
magram unda gjerodes marqsizm-leninizmisa, romelic gvaswavlis, rom
religia istoriulad warmavali movlenaa, rom misi arseboba maradiuli ar
aris. marqsi ambobs: `religia es aris Cagruli qmnilebis amooxvra, usulgu-
lo samyaros suli, usulgulo udroobis suli. igi xalxis opiumia~ (fedose-
evi 1940: 24). xalxi masaa, romelic unda daajero, rom ar aris RmerTi, garda
beladisa. `marqsi aris gapirovnebuli RmerTi.. karl marqss hyavs Tavisi
mociquli lenini~ (v. nozaZe: `komunisturi esxatologia~). amgvarive moci-
qulebad Tu RvTaebiTa Tanasworad Seiracxnen sicocxleSive miTologiuri
SaravandediT mosili sxva liderebi. sabWoTa kavSirSi iqmneboda leniniada,
staliniada da... (a. baqraZe); germaniasa da italiaSi xotba-didebiT ixseni-
ebdnen hitlers, musolinis.. (kvataia 2010: 402).
antihumanuri da antibunebrivi bolSevikuri sistema mixvda, rom reli-
giisgan ase ucbad da ase erTbaSad mowyvetil xalxs dasWirdeboda fsevdo-
religiuri, amitom saRvTo werilis, bibliis nacvlad mogvevlina dogma-
turi marqsizmi. binZuri sabWouri ideologiis mesveurebs Segnebuli hqon-
daT, rom damorCileba, moTviniereba, damoneba mkacri doqtriniT miiRwe-
oda, amitom SemuSavda, daixvewa marqsizm-leninizmis, dialeqtikuri materi-
alizmis filosofia, religiis xarisxSi aiyvanes igi da aqcies `zogadkacob-
riul movlenad~. ra formiT, rogor unda gamxdariyo SesaZlebeli dogma-
turi marqsizmis qadageba da damkvidreba? _ aq erTmniSvnelovnad Caanac-
vles eklesia partiiT, RmerTi _ beladiT, da, sabolood, miviReT identuri
struqtura saeklesio ierarqiisa _ komunisturi religia.
qristians swams da uyvars samyaros Semoqmedi RmerTi, totalitariz-
mis epoqaSi RmerTi aris beladi;
eklesiis umaRlesi sasuliero piri aris patriarqi (kaTalikosi), par-
tiaSi _ centraluri komitetis generaluri mdivani;
patriarqi RvTis mociqulia, beladis mociqulia centraluri komite-
tis generaluri mdivani;
eklesiis umaRlesi organoa wminda sinodi, partiisa _ politbiuro;
sapatriarqos daqvemdebarebaSi Sedian eparqiebi TavianTi mRvdelmTav-
rebiT, partiaSi _ adgilkomebi, saqalaqo komitetis mdivnebi;
eklesia aris saxli RvTisa, gumbaTze gamosaxuli jvari migvaniSnebs, rom
aq idideba jvarculi macxovari; kompartias aqvs Tavisi gamorCeuli Senoba _
jvris nacvlad namglisa da uros gamosaxulebiT.
eklesia saubrobs da qadagebs yovladwminda samebis saxeliT (saxeliTa
mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa); komunistebi saubroben da gvmoZR-
vraven partiis, marqsis, leninisa da stalinis saxeliT, saubari, msjeloba,
wigni, gamokvleva Tu werili, rogorc aucilebloba, maTi xsenebiT unda
dawyebuliyo;
kacobriobis mxsnelis, macxovris xati yvela eklesiaSia, beladis suraTi _
yvela partiul da arapartiul dawesebulebaSi;
mkerdze jvari aris niSani qristianobisa; jer oqtombrelis, mere
pionerisa da, bolos, komkavSirelis niSani beladis gamosaxulebiT aucile-
beli gzaa partiis rigebisaken sabWoTa adamianisaTvis. politikuri lirikis
erT `SedevrSi~ vkiTxulobT:

214


`qveynis gaCenis dRea pirveli,
Tu yvelaferi mxolod mesizmra!
momces bileTi komkavSirelis,
bileTi Cemi gadarCenisa~
(qarTuli poeturi 1970: 26)

naTlobis Semdeg qristians eZleva naTlobis mowmoba misi meored So-
bis, sulieri ganaxlebis dokumenti; kompartiis wevrobis wiTelydiani wig-
naki dasturia amqveyniuri warmatebisa;
qristianisTvis aucilebelia saRvTo rjulis swavleba; sabWoTa adami-
anisTvis _ marqsizm-leninizmis kursi;
gamorCeuli sauflo dResaswaulia qristes Soba da aRdgoma, sabWoeTSi
zar-zeimiT aRiniSneba beladis dabadebisa da gardacvalebis dReebi;
saeklesio dResaswaulebi izeimeba litaniobiT, eklesiis irgvliv xate-
biT, droSebiTa da galobiT svliT. stalini ambobs: `dResaswauli aqvT xu-
cebsac da am dResaswaulebis dros isini xotbas asxamen arsebul wesebs,
sadac maSvralni siRatakeSi iRupebian, muqTaxorebi ki fufunebaSi arian
Caflulni. Tavisi dResaswauli unda hqondes muSebsac da am dResaswaulis
dros maT unda gamoacxadon sayovelTao Tavisufleba, yvela adamianis sayo-
velTao Tanasworoba, es dResaswauli aris 1 maisis dResaswauli~ (fedoseevi
1940: 35). sabWoeTSi ewyoba aRlumebi beladis portretebiT, gerbiT, droSi-
Ta da almiT, galobis nacvlad gaismis marSebi da himni;
eklesias aqvs wminda nivTebi, wm. WurWeli: barZim-feSxumi, laxvari,
varskvlavi, dafarnebi, embazi, takuki, odiki... komunizmi aidealebs namgals,
CaquCqs, kombains, traqtors... `ax, traqtoro, me Sens gamWeds, venacvale
yelSiao~ an:
`vin moigona traqtori
vin iyo imis Wkvisao,
rkina aawyo erTurTze
magari foladisao.
samoci cxenis Zala aqvs,
rogorc mindvrebsa mkisao,
kombainebic daxSirda,
gamlewavia Znisao~.
(stalini... 1949: 49)

qristianoba qadagebs saxarebas, qristes moZRvrebas; komunisti _
marqsizm-leninizms;
qrsitianisTvis mTavaria sulieri feriscvaleba, rogorc dasawyisi axa-
li cxovrebisa; sabWoTa adamiani zeimobs gasabWoebis dRes _ axali
cxovrebisa da qveynis dasabams;
wminda qalaqia ierusalimi _ qristes cxovrebis mowame da meistorie,
moskovi _ kremli, rogorc umalResi instancia da absoluturi WeSmarite-
ba; mSromelTa imedi da nugeSi kremlSi zis, mas ekuTvnis yvela warmateba da
sixaruli. poeti amayobs, rom moskovi da kremli imedia mTeli planetisa,
rom komunizmis akvani dairwa Cvens samSobloSi (qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 120):

`magram is mainc sxva ari,
marad sinaTles Cveuli _
Cvenis kacobis Suquri
kremli da mavzoleumi~.
(did stalins 1949: 55)
215


an `kremli dgas, rogorc erTguli grdemli, sadac sWeds folads didi
mWedeli~ (belads... 1939: 97); `ilxine, Cemo samSoblov, Seni mze kremliT
anTia~ (leninis saxe... 1957: 9); `sxvagan qris Cemi goneba, kremlsa evleba
Tavzeda~ (lenini da stalini... 1939: 130); `maS, avamReroT Conguri... da gamar-
jveba waviRoT moskovSi simReriTao~ _ mRerian erT xalxur simReraSi,
radgan am gamarjvebas iq, moskovSi, beladi miegebeba; poeti ki ase gamoxatavs
sakuTar gancdebs:

`dido moskovo, xalxTa imedo,
xsnas Sengan elis mTeli samyaro!
mSvidobasTan gaqvs marad kavSiri,
Sen, komunizmis sinaTlis wyarov!~
(mnaTobi 1953: 23)

qristianuli ikonografiis mixedviT, xatis centrSia wmindani, komunis-
turi ikonografia aseTia: portretebi beladebis xatisebri gamosaxulebi-
Taa, msxvil planSi. lenini _ meloti, halstuxiT, TeTri perangiTa da pija-
kiT an gandidebuli poziT _ oratori, maRla, aweuli xeliT, fexi ukan;
stalini _ ulvaSiT, ukangadaweuli TmebiT, CibuxiT, dabali SubliT; Zalze
gavrcelebuli triada _ marqsi, engelsi da lenini;
arsebobs wmindanTa Tayvaniscemis saeklesio tradicia, momlocvelebi
Cadian da mieaxlebian maTs wminda nawilebs, leninis neSti mavzoleumSia, ar
wydeba adamianTa rigebi mavzoleumis win darsa Tu avdarSi beladis uxrwne-
li neStis Tayvansacemad:

`lenin, Sens Tvalebs Cven ar daavmarxavT,
lenin, Sens Subze miwas ar davyriT~.
(leninis saxe... 1957: 14)

an `de Seinaxos kacobriobam
Seni sxeuli rogorc mumia.
gaivlis Jami mtvreviT, xmauriT,
sul sxvanairi mova cxovreba,
mova sxva xalxi da siyvaruliT
Sens ukvdav saxes eamboreba (iqve: 122)

an `wevs lenini, Sublze Suqi hfenia,
aRar umZims marmarilos sarqveli~
(did stalins... 1949: 122)

eklesia sasoebiT inaxavs wmindanTa nawilebs, garda imisa, rom gvyavs ux-
rwneli wmindanebi. politikur lirikaSi Seqebulia beladis Cibuxi, leninis
qudi. mag., poets moskovSi unaxavs frangebis mier gamogzavanili leninis
qudi:
`aq didxans vCerdebi...
am Zvirfas saCuqars
mtrisagan faravda mzrunveli xeli.
irxeva sarkmlidan lamazi aryis xe,
aryis xe, ase rom uyvada lenins~.
(qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 41)

216


morwmune uflis madlobelia mowyalebisaTvis, kompartias unda umad-
lode, isaa mzrunveli, mfarveli da mowyale;
religiis erT-erTi saidumloa aRsareba, codvaTagan ganwmenda moZR-
vris winaSe, partiaSi ki _ TviTkritika. unda aRiaro danaSauli, Secdoma,
mankiereba _ kompartiis winaSe;
saero dawesebulebebSi mowyobilia salocavi kuTxeebi, sabWoTa epoqaSi
arsebobda leninis kuTxe an wiTeli kuTxe;
eklesias hyavs didi wmindanebi, mowameebi, Rirsi da netari mama-dedani,
kompartias ki _ revoluciur siwmindes Sewirulebi, socialisturi Sromis
gmirebi, wiTeli droSis ordenosnebi...

`xalxo, dideba maTs Zaxilebs gamaRviZebels,
gana vinc mokvda, yvela gvtovebs, yvela mkvdaria?!
Cvengan ganuyrel wulukiZes marad dideba!
igi darCeba Zlevamosil proletariats!~
(qarTuli leqsebi... 1937: 50)
an
`aRarc metexi mdumarebs, _
tyvia vaJkacis mkvleli...
lado cixeSi kvdeboda,
gulSi ekida ali,
ca binddeboda, cxreboda,
exuWeboda Tvali,
da mkerdze gadafenoda
leninis `naperwkali~.
(qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 113-114)

qristianisTvis samoTxe dgeba gardacvalebis Semdeg, sabWoTa ideolo-
gia gvarwmunebs, rom samoTxe, anu komunizmi, cocxalTaTvis damyardeba
dedamiwaze;
arsebobs qristianuli eTika da komunisturi zneoba;
qristianul mwerlobas hqonda agiografiuli Janri, romelic eklesiis
mier wmindanad SeracxilTa cxovrebas, kanonizebulTa Rvawls asaxavda saR-
vTismetyvelo da istoriul-saeklesio aspeqtebiT. agiografiaSi wmindani
sicocxles msxverplad gaiRebda umaRlesi idealebisa da principebis er-
TgulebisTvis, qristes siyvarulisTvis an mTeli cxovreba TavdadebiT,
erTgulad emsaxureboda qristianul idealebs.
komunistur literaturas aqvs agiografiuli Janri _ komunistur
agiografias ekuTvnis leniniada, staliniada, ZerJinskiada (gansakuTrebiT
kinoSi), xruSCoviada, breJneviada... komunisti `wmindanic~ isevea udrekeli,
uSiSari, ucdomeli, rwmenisTvis Tavdadebuli da gautexeli, erTguli,
yovelgvari tanjva-wamebis gadamtani, rogorc qristiani wmindani. rogorc
qristesTvis sikvdili iyo udidesi bedniereba da netareba, aseve marqsizm-
leninizmisTvis sikvdili udidesi bedniereba da netareba~ (baqraZe 1990: 96).
yvelaze mTavari da saTayvano `dadebiTi gmirebi~ sabWoTa kulturis
sivrceSi iyvnen, rasakvirvelia, lenini da stalini. leninis sikvdilma biZgi
misca maTi cxovrebis literaturul diskursSi Seyvanas, rac, pirvel
yovlisa, poeziaSi Camoyalibda, vinaidan poeturi Janri ufro aadvilebda
maT TiTqmis miTiur saxeebad warmodgenas (kiziria 2010: 378).
dasawyisisaTvis Tvali gavadevnoT, rogor iqmneba beladis saxe qarTul
folklorsa da poeziaSi, rogor iqceva beladi mesiad politikur lirikaSi.
217


zogadad, leninianas ubiZga stalinma. qarTul poetur leninianaSi vki-
TxulobT: `sabWoTa xalxi yuradRebiT swavlobs i. b. stalinis rCevas:
`gaxsovdeT, giyvardeT, SeiswavleT iliCi, Cveni maswavlebeli, Cveni
beladi!
ebrZoleT mtrebs, Sinaur da gareSe mtrebs da sZlieT isini
iliCiseburad!
aSeneT axali cxovreba, axali yofa, axali kultura iliCiseburad!
arasodes ar sTqvaT uari mciredze muSaobaSi, vinaidan mciredisagan
Sendeba didi _ es aris iliCis erT-erTi didmniSvnelovani anderZi~
(qarTveli poeturi... 1970: 171).
rogorc miCneulia, qarTul leninianas saTave g. tabiZem daudo leqsiT
`gemi dalandi~, pirveli prozauli qmnileba ekuTvnis d. suliaSvils, ro-
melmac 1917 wels dabeWda `Sveicariidan saqarTvelomde~ (emigrantis STa-
beWdilebebi), dramaturgiaSi pirveli seriozuli nawarmoebi S. dadianis
`naperwkalia~, Tumca ufro adre daibeWda s. wereTlis inscenireba erT
suraTad `lenini aRar gvyavs~-1924 w. da d. CarxiSvilis `lenini barikadebze~
_ 1930 w. ufro dawvrilebiT ix. (qarTuli mxatvruli 1971: 93-133).
rac Seexeba staliniadis bums, amis Sesaxeb poeti i. abaSiZe igonebs, rom
1933 wlidan mweralTa kavSirSi partiis warmomadgenlebs ganucxadebiaT,
rom ukve dadga dro da aucilebloba beladze werisa, `am sityvebma mwer-
lebze ise imoqmeda, rogorc amnistiam... swored amis Semdeg gaixsna namdvili
literaturuli maraToni vin vis~ (abaSiZe 2003: 32), i. abaSiZe imowmebs
T.natroSvils, romlis azriTac, rusul poeziaSi stalinianas saTave b.
pasternakma daudo (amis Sesaxeb ix. cxadaia 2009: 126-127).
qarTul politikur lirikaSi qristianul mwerlobaSi miRebuli saxe-
simboloebiT iqmneba da yalibdeba beladis, rogorc mesiis saxe da Cven mier
moxmobil magaliTebs sagangebo komentari ar dasWirdeba amis naTelsayofad:
beladi mze: xalxur leqsebSi lenins xSirad mzes adareben, `gulwrfe-
lad gjera leninis ukvdaveba mzesTan SedarebiT:

`Sen marto dRisiT gvinaTeb
is ki RamiTac mze ari~.
(benaSvili 1939: 11)

erT leqsSi leninis dabadeba Sedarebulia caze brwyinvale varskvlave-
bis gamoCenasTan... mnaTobi eZebs gmirs (lenins _ s. m.), romelic daixsnis
xalxs... am ZebnaSi Tvals mohkravs Tovlian mTebSi erT qoxs, qoxSi sZinavs
yrmas (iqve: 10). aq gagvaxsendeba bagaSi mwolare qriste da motyinare var-
skvlavs gamoyolili mogvebi.
varskvlavi da mze xSiradaa moxmobili leninis ukvdavebis
gamosaxatavad:

`mzis Casvlas ugavs sikvdili;
cas moswyda erTi varskvlavi,
mnaTobi mTeli qveynisa~.

erT leqsSi mzes mimarTaven:

`ver davijereb Tqven orSi
lenini uwin mokvdesa~.
(benaSvili 1939: 36, 43, 47)
218


mze aris stalinic, radgan isic beladia, amitom qristianuli simbolikis
gamoyeneba Tanabrad nawildeba beladze, sul erTia, lenini iqneba is Tu
stalini, erTi meores Caenacvleba, rogorc poeti ityoda:

`qveyanam icis,
mtermac ki icis,
rom dRes lenini
stalini aris~.
(qarTuli leqsebi... 1937: 138)

an `rodesac vxedavT, vigonebT lenins
da gulSi Seni fici enTeba~.
(stalins 1944: 31)

amitomac xSirad SexvdebiT stalinisadmi miZRvnil krebulebSi leqsebs
leninze da piriqiT. erT xalxur leqsSi vkiTxulobT stalinze:

`dido belado, mzisebr dagvnaTi Tavzeda,
rogorc mze macocxlebeli _ erTi xar qveyanazeda~.
(lenini da stalini... 1939: 131)

lenini mzis momtania, sinaTlis fuZemdebeli, momtani sinaTlisa, mis
sityvebs aRar mokvdeba, rogorc sinaTle mzisao~ (leninis saxe 1957: 9). amave
wignis avtori wers: `lenini, beladi mze sayvareli... poetur emociur
sityvaSi didi leninis saxe gaxsnilia, rogorc masebis sayvareli da maxlo-
beli beladisa, axali qveynis fuZemdeblisa, mzis amomyvanisa~ (iqve, 12).
1934 w. mixeil Ciqovans qobuleTSi Cauweria leqsi leninze: `ori mze~,
rogorc ki lenini gardaicvala, mzem tirili daiwyoo.
stalinic mzea, mTvarec, erTi sityviT, mnaTobi:

`gzas Sen gvinaTeb, belad,
mTvare xar Cveni mnaTobi,
Sen ze xar sxivTa mfinari,
mSromeli xalxis gamTbobi~.
(stalini... 1949: 51)

meore leqsis avtori ufro Sors midis:

`stalin, msoflios mnaTobo,
mzeTa-mzev, cazed maRalo~ (iqve: 56).

stalinis Rimili, gamoxedva aseT astrologiur xatebs iwvevs:

`mzis mosvlas gigavs Rimili,
gamoxedva gaqvs mTvarisa,
gvinaTebs Ramis wyvdiadsac
Suqi wamwamTa jarisa~ (iqve: 79).

dasasrul, beladebis mzismetyveleba xalxur poeziaSi ase dagvirgvinda:
`caze mTvare amosula, varskvlavebi bevriao, Cvens qveyanas anaTeben
stalini da beriao~ (iqve: 108).
219


xalxuri poeziidan beladi _ mze, mzeTa-mze, vaskvlavi, mnaTobi... SeiWra
qarTul sabWoTa poeziaSic:

`dideba marad Sens saxels,
Sens saxels marad dideba,
mze Sengan danaTebuli,
arasdros dagvebindeba~.
(did stalins 1949: 33)

`sinaTle CemTvis gaxda lenini da TviT lenini sinaTled iqca~ (leninis
saxe 1968: 21).
akakis natvra erTma poetma ase daukavSira stalins:

`aRdga, ayvavda saqarTvelo gadanaTeli,
mivida gmiri, rom eZaxda Seni naRara
misi saxeli stalinia, mzeebr naTeli~ (iqve: 51).

komunizmi, kremli da stalini asea gamTlianebuli am leqsSi:

`Cveni mze komunizmia,
mzeSi kremli dgas saliviT _
da migviZRveba mzisaken
Tavad mze didi stalini!~ (iqve: 57).

erTi poeti did belads, gamirTagmirs, suliT Zliers, ase mimarTavs:

`Cauqrobelo brwyinvalebav
mfrqvevo sinaTlis~ (iqve: 75)

an: `Cveni mzec, Cveni varskvlavic stalin, Sena xar!~; (iqve: 125)
an: `Cveni mze aris stalini~ (iqve: 140)

es magaliTebi zRvaSi wveTia imis saCveneblad, Tu rogor daukavSirda
beladi mzes, varskvlavs, mTvares, sinaTles, mnaTobs... rogor eZebda da wva-
lobda poezia, rac SeiZleba meti, amaRlebuli, diadi eTqva da daefiqsi-
rebina; mzeze, Seqmnilze aRmatebulad da ukvdavad warmoeCina beladi. aseTi
iyo damTrgunveli totalitaruli epoqis ironiaSereuli suliskveTeba.
beladi mama: `mSromelTa mamam, leninma, piri gasinja xmlisa~ (lenini da
stalini 1939: 92); `da iRimeba Cems kargs qalaqSi yvela qalaqis keTili mama~
(qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 64); `hqvia beladi, kidev? _ mama da kidev? _
brZeni~ (iqve: 66); `man momirCina Cemi wuxili, Cem simRerebSi gamovlenili, mis
furclebidan SublSuWmuxvnili mesaubreba mama lenini~ (iqve: 68).
stalinic mamaa:

`stalino, dido belado,
mSromeli xalxis mamao~.
(stalini... 1949: 19)

an `stalino, dido belado,
Sen giwodeben mamasa~ (iqve: 40).

220


`scocxlobdes didxans stalini, xalxTa mama da beladi~ (did stalins
1949: 15); `mzed da Svebad aq beladi daibada, xalxTa mama~ (iqve: 88).
beladi mxsneli, kacobriobis gadamrCeneli: `stalin msoflios
gadamrCenelo, stalin poetis yvela leqsSia~ (did stalins 1949: 72);
`dedaqalaqi sunTqvaa Cveni, ...mxsnelsa da imeds iq sZinavs lenins~ (stalins
1944: 67); leninis saxe warmoadgenda simbolos mxsnelisas da qveynis sike-
Tisas. igi mkurnalis xeliT exeboda Svilis cxedarTan momakvdav dedas g.
kaWaxiZis leqsSi `lenini~ (qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 45). o. WeliZe baladaSi
`sworupovari mkurnali~ lenins warmogvidgens rogorc xalxisTvis Tavda-
debuls, mzrunvels, gulisxmiers, ubralos, maxlobelsa da Seudrekel
gulTamxilvels~ _ wers erTi kritikosi (qarTuli poeturi 1970: 37-38). r.
WiWinaZe, romelic ssrk-is umaRlesi sabWos prezidiumis aqtebis gamoqveyne-
bis ganyofilebis qarTuli seqtoris ufrosad kremlSi muSaobda, igonebs,
rom mas evaleboda saqarTvelodan Semosul saCivrebze reagireba: `aTasi
juris mamaZaRli gvwerda werilebs. saocari ambebi xdeboda. zogs isev
sjeroda, lenini cocxaliao da werda: axali mTavrobis araferi mjera, Sen
unda gviSveloo!~ (WiWinaZe 2010: 125).
dideba RmerTs, kacobriobis imedsa da nugeSs, mowyalesa da yovlis-
SemZles _ es cnobili qristianuli damokidebulebaa uzenaesis mimarT,
politikur lirikaSi ki vkiTxulobT:

`lenins dideba! misi naTeli Tavs dagvtrialebs~.
(lenini da stalini 1939: 69)

an `dideba marad Sens saxels,
Sens saxels marad dideba~ (did stalins 1949: 33).

`stalinur xanas vumReriT,
simRera ar mogvwyindeba,
dideba Tavisufrebas!
sayvarel stalins dideba!~ (iqve: 179).

erT leqsSi saukuneTa gadaZaxilidan, daviTisa da Tamaris epoqidan
gaismis:

`TiTqos vxedavde varZiis Txrilebs,
Tamaris koSkebs, daviTis gelaTs,
TiTqos vismende maT daZaxilebs:
dideba belads!~ (iqve: 66).

erTi leqsis mixedviT, TviT rusTavelic ki stalins adidebs:

`sxva Sens garda vin iqneba
dido stalin! Seni qeba
TviTon mziur SoTas uTqvams~.
(belads 1939: 14)

beladi aris gzis maCvenebeli, swor gzaze damyenebeli, romelic
migviZRvis maradisobisken, komunizmis diadi ideisken:


221


`igi mdumare gzas gvinaTebs sxivTa alebiT,
Cven mas SevscqeriT siyvaruliT da mokrZalebiT~.
(leninis saxe 1957: 117)
an
`siTbo gvzrdida, Cven stalinis siTbo gvzrdida
samSoblois ayvavebul droSi,
arasodes gadavsulvarT swori gzidan,
mivdiodiT win, stalinis droSiT~ (did stalins 1949: 82);

an `Cveni droSa xar, miibrZvi da kalTebs miaSrialeb,
Tu gzas gadavcdiT, dagvitev, Zaxils ar dagvigvianeb~
(lenini da stalini 1939: 65).

beladi mowyale da yovlisSemZle: belads mimarTaven ise, rogorc
yovlisSemZle da mowyale RmerTs, roca gagiWirdeba misi saxeli axsene da
geSveleba:

`saxeli igi... axsene mxolod _ da gvalvaSi dauSvebs wvima,
axsene mxolod gzas dagiTmobs mZafri qarbuqi,
axsene mxolod da gaTbebi, rodesac gciva~.
(qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 34)

an `gfaravda marad cadawvdenili
didi leninis frTalaRi droSa~
(leninis saxe... 1968: 26)

stalinis gardacvalebis dReebSi poeti x. vardoSvili werda:

`munjs misca ena, brmas aunTo Tvali naTeliT
da moupova Cagrul monas ufleba kacis,
daimorCila TviT buneba sastiki, mkacri,
gadaanaTa zeca, bneliT gadanaTeli~.
(mnaTobi 1953: 42)

lenini yvelas icnobda. marTalia, saqarTveloSi ar yofila, magram
skolis moxuci daraji poets eubneba:

`is me micnobda, mas geficebi,
Cemi cxovreba zepir icoda,
wiTel droSidan, Zmuri RimiliT,
xeli saSvelad gamomiwoda~ (iqve: 20).
an
`stalinis sulis Wirime,
iman mogviwyo xelia~.
(stalini qarTul... 1949: 152)

beladisgan gamoiTxoven locva-kurTxevasac ki:

`win gviZRvis Seni saxeli
venaxSi, baRSi, kaloze,
kvlavac aRmanTe sagmirod
da siyvaruliT damloce~.
(did stalins 1949: 40)
222


an `gviSvele, stalin, Cvenc gviSvele, Cvenc dagvexmare,
Tvali milula da tkbil natvras exuteboda...
stalinis saxe mas nugeSad exateboda~.
(qarTuli leqsebi... 1937: 40)

beladi zecisa da miwis mbrZanebelia, planetas ki siyvarulis Zleva-
mosili ZaliT ganagebs:

`am uzarmazars, vrcel samyaros, ucxod anagebs
mTlad daeufla misi arsi, ocneba laRi,
zRaprul wigniviT gadaSala man cis wiaRi...
dRes miwis sferos siyvarulis ZaliT ganagebs~ (iqve: 49).

beladi SeuZlebels SeZlebs, axal cxovrebas, gazafxuls moiyvans:

`Sen Segviqmen gazafxuli da naTeli ganTiadi,
mze gveleSaps gamostace, xalxs samSoblo daubrune~ (iqve: 80).

amitomaa, rom samyarom feri icvala, leninis (an stalinis) Rvawlma
planetas, dedamiwas RerZis garSemo brunvac ki Seucvala:

`mas Semdeg miwac brunavs sxvagvarad,
leninis xelis mimarTulebiT~.
(qarTuli poeturi 1970: 56)

axali welTaRricxva qristes Sobidan iwyeba, magram `me welTaRricxvas
daviwyebdi im didi dRidan, roca amqveynad daibada brZeni lenini~ (iqve: 65).
1917 wlis revolucia dauviwyaria, radgan `iqidan modis qveynis naTeli
da mec cxovrebas iqidan viwyeb~ (qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 19).
didi siwmindea beladis azrebi, tomebSi rom gabneula. Tu qristiani
biblias miiCnevs wminda wignad, sabWoeTSi beladTa tomebia siwminde:

`vakisken, institutisken miiCqarian tolebi,
Tan miaqvT didi leninis Suqdafrqveuli tomebi~ (iqve: 18).

an
`me erTi wigni maqvs saxsovrad,
sangarSi maCuqes igi,
naTeli azrebiT naqsovi
stalinis ukvdavi wigni.
brZolaSi, roca mters Sevebi,
ros tyvia daqroda irgvliv,
Tan mqonda vaJkacis mSveleli
ukvdavi simarTlis wigni~.
(stalins 1944: 64)

beladi ukvdavi: yvelaferi beladis ukvdavebaze metyvelebs. leninze
leqsebis didi nawili exeba misi sikvdilis ambavs, radgan igi yvelaze mwvaved
ganicada mSromelma xalxma, erTi xalxuri leqsis avtori mimarTavs bunebas,
iwvevs mas, raTa SeuerTdes adamianTa glovas. bunebac TiTqos Seismens kacis
xmas:


223


`civma dahbera niavma, furceli Camohyarao,
tyeSi xeebma gaiges, totebi daixarao,
mTaSi gaiges frinvelTa, galoba aikrZalao~.
(lenini da stalini 1939: 9)

amis gamo gaismis sayovelTao godeba: `mogvikvda Cveni imedi; Tavisuf-
lebis momgoni veRar dajdeba skamzeo~. xalxur zepirsityvierebaSi uaRre-
sad gavrcelebuli xerxia gardacvlili leninis aCrdilis gamowveva da
masTan, rogorc cocxal adamianTan guliTadi saubari. lenins uamboben Cve-
ni qveynis mSromelebi, rom yoveli kuTxiT gaismis tkbili simReris wkriali
(leninis saxe 1957: 22-23). sainteresoa isic, rom qarTveli poeti a. maSaSvili
leninis gardacvalebas kacobriobis glovad acxadebs:

`Sen CamogvSordi, belado lenin,
da qveyanaze oblad dagvtove~.

leqsSi `lenini~ g. leoniZe mxatvruli damajereblobiT xatavs leninis
ukvdavebis ideas:

`Tu gZinavs, RviZavs Sens saxels,
ufxizles qariSxlisasa,
Tu gZinavs, RviZavs Sens saqmes,
umxness, moqneul xmalisa~.

leninis ukvdavebas aseT poetur ferebSi xatavs S. niSnianiZe:

`msoflios gulSi ganisvenebs msoflios guli,
igi wavida TaobebSi, rogorc simarTle,
rogorc legenda buxrispir Tqmuli.
baRebSi, gzebze, moednebze Cven vxedavT lenins,
xels varTmevT lenins da vmaRldebiT diadi rwmeniT~.
(qarTuli poeturi 1970: 72)

`aseve dResac: Cven Soris vxedavT _ ... kacobriobis ukvdav Svils,
lenins~ (iqve: 93); leninma daamarcxa sikvdili (Sdr. qristem gaimarjva sik-
vdilze), igi amaRlda, viTarca mokaSkaSe mze da mis mier naCvenebi gziT
midian saxelmwifoebi: xalxic arasdros daijerebs leninis sikvdils, rad-
gan yovelTvis moigonebs mis dabadebas~ (iqve: 72-73).
poeti alio adamia patara leqsSi kargad axerxebs gadmoces sikvdilTan
gamarjvebuli lenini, romelic darCa xalxis gulSi maradiul ukvdavebad:

`mere sikvdili gauCinarda, leninTan darCa maradisoba~ (iqve: 42).

an `es rodi iyo gardasuli civi mumia, Cems Tvalwin iwva ukvdaveba~ (iqve: 31).
`rogorc grigali quxda lenini, mas ukvdaveba dauZmobilda~ (iqve: 20).

lenini ar momkvdara, xalxis gulSi CaiZira: `simarTlisaTvis momkvdari,
xalxi ara Cans mkvdarada~ (leninis saxe... 1957: 33).
milionobiT adamiani mTel msoflioSi leninze ambobs:

`lenini cocxlobda, lenini cocxalia, lenini icocxlebs~! (iqve: 28).
224


ukvdavia stalinic, gansakuTrebiT mwvaved igrZnoboda es 1953 wlis
martis susxian dReebSi: `is ar mokvdeba, CvenTan aris, CvenTan darCeba,
rogorc sicocxle, siamaye da gamarjveba~ (mnaTobi 1953: 31) an:

`stalin! damarcxda uRvTo sikvdili,
ver Seasrula ganzraxva avi,
is Sens kubosTan dgas fermixdili,
man Sens winaSe daxara Tavi~ (iqve: 74).

am isteriis fonze stalini moixsenieba, rogorc mzekaci, gmiri, mama
kacTa da xalxTa, brZeni WaRara, SromiT daRlili, axla rom miiZina da sxva:

`Zekaci iyav, mzed gardicvale,
isev CvenTan xar, gana waxveli!
aw mzis magier Sen ibrwyinvaleb,
aw mzes daerqvas Seni saxeli~ (iqve: 46).

beladis ukvdaveba sainteresod aisaxa kinematografSic, g. gvaxaria
mogviTxrobs: `ioseb stalinis gardacvalebam sxvebTan erTad sabWoTa kine-
matografistebic aaforiaqa. 6 marts, gaTenebisas, sabWoTa kavSiris minis-
trTa sabWos Tavmjdomarem giorgi malenkovma kinoreJisorebi kremlSi
daibara, raTa erTad gadaewyvitaT, vin gadaiRebda stalinis dakrZalvis
kadrebs. Tumca, rogorc mogvianebiT gamoirkva, es iyo formaluri Sexved-
ra, radgan kinematografistebma winaswar icodnen: stalinTan damSvidobe-
bis gadaRebas beladis sayvarel reJisors mixeil Wiaurels daavalebdnen.
bedis ironiiT, Wiaurels pirvelad mieca saSualeba firze aRebeWda bela-
di... oRond mxolod beladis cxedari. ar aris gamoricxuli, am sagangebo
TaTbirze WiaurelisTvis `mieTiTebinaT~ Tu rogor unda warmoCndes ekran-
ze stalinis mkvdari sxeuli. Tumca, vin vin da Wiaurelma yvelaze kargad
icoda `ukvdavebis saxis~ Seqmna. filmSi unda SenarCunebuliyo balansi mwu-
xarebasa da imeds Soris, mayurebeli ar unda dabneuliyo. igi unda daer-
wmunebinaT, rom beladis gardacvalebam kidev ufro metad gaaerTiana prog-
resuli kacobrioba, mSromeli xalxi. amave Sexvedraze damtkicda xelovne-
bisa da literaturis gamoCenil moRvaweTa teqstebi, romelic stalinis
dakrZalvis, ufro sworad, mavzoleumSi misi cxedris gadasvenebis dRes un-
da waekiTxaT. gavixsenoT es teqstebi:
dimitri SostakoviCi: `stalinis epoqis adamianebma kvlavac unda vi-
cxovroT da vimuSaoT `stalinis kompasis~ mixedviT... misi sityvebi `wereT
simarTle!~ kvlav unda darCes gzamkvlevad xelovnebis moRvaweTa armiisTvis~;
sergei smirnovi: `xalxis nakadi mis kubosTan Cerdeba... mwuxarebis Jams
Cveni sayvareli saxis nakvTebs vumzerT da vxedavT cocxal stalins,
vgrZnobT mis cecxlovan gamoxedvas~;
aleqsei surkovi: `1953 wlis am yinvian dRes ubedureba SeemTxva sabWoTa
xalxs, progresul kacobriobas... ulmobelma sikvdilma gaaCera guli, rom-
lis feTqvas aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi usmenda milionobiT adamiani
Cvens planetaze~;
evgeni dolmatovski: `svetebian sasaxleSi miZinebuli beladis danaxvis-
Tanave pirvelad atirda Cemi qaliSvili. ver vaimedeb Cems gogonas: igi xom
naadrevad daoblda~.
225


naTelia, rom stalinis dakrZalva unda dadgmuliyo egreT wodebuli
`optimisturi tragediis~ JanrSi da aseve gamoxatuliyo mixeil Wiaurelis
dokumentur filmSi, romelsac `diadi gamoTxoveba~ daarqves. stalinTan
gamosamSvidobeblad martis im civ dReebSi, marTlac, Zalian bevri xalxi
movida, e.i. dakrZalvas TviTmxilvelebi hyavda, amitom dokumentur filmSi
mixeil Wiaureli axals verafers moigonebda, ver dadgamda. amis gaTvalis-
winebiT, suraTSi Sevida yvela is atributi, romelic Tan axlda stalinTan
gamomSvidobebis im sam dRes: maRal potstamentze dasvenebuli wiTeli ku-
bo, yvavilebis gvirgvinebi, warwerebiT - `beladi, maswavlebeli, megobari,
mama~. malenkovi, beria, molotovi _ sapatio yaraulSi. teqsti aucileblad
sakavSiro radios diqtors, iuri levitans, unda waekiTxa, swored im ada-
mians, romelic aqamde mosaxleobas umaRlesi mTavarsardlis brZanebebs ac-
nobda da amitom stalinis xmis asociacias badebda msmenelSi. levitanis xma
imis iluzias qmnida, rom ioseb besarionis Ze aq Tavis sicocxles emSvido-
beba. igi mxolod `maradiulma Zilma moicva~... es winadadeba yvelaze xSirad
ismoda stalinTan gamomSvidobebis dReebSi~ (gvaxaria 2003:).
beladi aris mTiT movardnili CanCqeri, vefxvi sali kldis, arwivi maRal
mTisao, qor-Savardeni, xalxTa genia, gmirobis gamomgonebeli, foladi
daugrexeli, kaci marTali yelamdi, grigali didi xmebisa, yvela Cagrulisa
da mSromelis gulwrfeli megobari, soflad skolebis gamxsneli, prole-
tarebis winamZRoli, mebrZoli Seudarebi, xalxis maswavlebeli, ubralo da
Tavmdabali, rwmena Cveni Tavisuflebisa, `saxeli igi sicocxle rom uwoda
xalxma, nugeSi muSis _ okeanis gamoRma, gaRma~, Cveni sicocxlis Tavi da
bolo, brZenTa brZeni, xalxTa imedi da nugeSi, `legenda buxrispir Tqmuli~,
uudiadesi, uusayvarlesi (g. ZnelaZe), Tavisulebas Sewiruli, bunebis srul-
yofili pirmSo, mTeli msoflios saunje, tkbilSromis mamamTavari, mSrome-
li xalxis gamTbobi, amiran-gmiris damxsneli, bazaleTis tbaSi darweul
akvanSi mwolare, sindisi da samarTali, epoqis sveti, aRmaSenebeli, ukvdavi
saqmiT istoriis damamSvenebeli, kaci maradi, sibrZnisa da sinaTlis dauSre-
teli zRva... da uamravi msgavsi Tu gansxvavebuli wregadasauli xotba bela-
disa xalxur sityvierebasa Tu mwerlobaSi, zogadad, qarTul politikur
lirikaSi.
g. leoniZis poemas `stalini, bavSvoba da yrmoba~ epigrafad wamZRvare-
buli aqvs sofokles sityvebi: `aq hflobs titani cecxlis mimtani, _
RmerTi promeTe~, gr. robaqiZe `stalinis horoskopSi~ ahrimans (sparsul
miTologiaSi borotebis umaRlesi RvTaeba) adarebs kacobriobis belads. am
miTologizebas aSkarad Tavad stalinma misca dasabami, igi ambobda: `vfiq-
rob, rom bolSeviki mogvagonebs berZnuli miTologiis gmirs, anTeoss... maT
yvela Sansi aqvT imisa, rom uZlevelni darCnen. amaSia gasaRebi bolSevikuri
xelmZRvanelobis uZlevelobisa~ (lenini da stalini... 1939: 8). `stalini-
sadmi miZRvnil leqsebSi, ra Tqma unda, pirvelad aris saxotbo lirika, gan-
madidebeli, mere _ miTologizireba (baqraZe 2009). aseTi tendencia, zoga-
dad, damaxasiaTebelia totalitaruli reJimisaTvis, marTebulad SeniSnavs
d. kiziria: `meoce saukunis totalitaruli reJimis mqone qveynebis kultu-
rul diskursebs axasiaTebda miTologiuri azrovnebisa da ritualebis
kultivireba, simbolikis imgvari sistemis Seqmna, romelic Teleologiuri
mniSvnelobebiT itvirTeboda~ (kiziria 2010: 377).
sxvaTa Soris, miTologizeba axasiaTebs am periodis kinematografsac, g.
gvaxaria wers: m. Wiaurelis filmSi `fici~ aris epizodi, romelsac dasav-
226


lelma kinomcodneebma `istoriT kurTxeva~ daarqves. moqmedeba xdeba leni-
nis sikvdilis Semdeg. stalini marto midis daTovlil baRSi, gorakze, sadac
igi ukanasknelad Sexvda gardacvlil belads, jdeba skamze da esmis gar-
dacvlili leninis xma, ris Semdegac zecisken aRapyrobs mzeras. naZvis to-
tebidan kadrSi iWreba mzis sxivi, romelic axali beladis Subls efineba.
Suqi zemodan ecema. stalini bibliur moses emsgavseba (gvaxaria 2003:), ase
Seiqmna kinoSi miTologiuri asociaciebi stalinze.
politikur lirikaSi beladi miTologiuri gmiria, yovelive gmirulis
sawyisia:

`beladi Cveni lenini, gmirobis gamomgonia~.
(lenini da stalini 1939: 89);

an `belado, Seni saxeli
did samSoblozec didia,
uzarmazari msoflio
Sen mxrebze agikidia~.
(stalini qarTul... 1949: 87)

ufro Sors midis am striqonebis mTqmeli:

`dido stalin, Seni saxe
kremlis caze davinaxe~ (iqve: 151);

an `dido belado, gmirTa-gmiro, suliT Zliero,
sibrZniT, simtkiciT Segedreba gmiri romeli~.
(did stalins 1949: 75)

erTi poeti ase mimarTavs `kacobriobis mxsnels~:

`mze gveleSaps gamostace,
xalxs samSoblo daubrune~ (iqve: 80).

an `amiran-gmiris damxsneli, stalin, Sen xar!
bazaleTSi rom arwies, stalin, Sen xar~ (iqve: 125),

an `rogor ar vaxseno saxeli misi
vinc Sexsna zecas meSvide kari~ (iqve: 138).

leninisa da stalinis gverdiT politikur lirikaSi gamoikveTa sxvaTa
saxeebic:

`lenin-stalinis saqmisTvis Tavdadebulo beria,
sakacobriod darCeba Seni waRvawi bevria~.
(lenini da stalini... 1939: 103)

an `saqarTvelos winamZRoli
lavrenti gvyavs beria,
yvelaferSi win mivdivarT,
Sromis droSa Cvenia~.
(stalini qarTul... 1949: 124)


227


`Cven verafers ver dagvaklebs
mefe, xani, faSa,
gaumarjos Cvens did stalins,
Cvens berias vaSa!~ (iqve: 142),
an
`scocxlobdes Seni erTguli,
molotovi da beria~ (iqve: 61),
an
`Sens suraTs wmindad vinaxavT,
veras dagvaklebs mteria,
icocxle, didxans gecocxlos
gverdSi rom gidgas beria~ (iqve: 88).

aqa-iq gamokrTeba orjonikiZis saxelic:

`brZolobda qveynis saSvelad,
Cven Tavi gvanacvalao~ (iqve: 122).

sruliad SesaZlebeli iyo mowinave revolucionerebis xseneba, radgan:

`leninis droSis erTgulni,
stalinis gamowvrTnilebi,
komunizmisken mivdivarT
Tavisufloebis Svilebi~.
(did stalins 1949: 179)

magaliTebi, romlebic Cven moviyvaneT, mxolod mcire nawilia imis
warmosaCenad, rom beladi aris mesia, mxsneli, xorcSesxmuli RmerTi uRmer-
To sazogadoebaSi. ase qmnida qarTuli politikuri lirika yovlisSemZle
beladis saxes, axdenda mis miTologizebas. Zalian Znelia imis Tqma, rom
aRviraxsnil xotbaSi, romelic, saerTod, damaxasiaTebelia nebismieri epo-
qis politikuri lirikisaTvis, yvela imas werda, rasac grZnobda da ganic-
dida, Tumca iseTebic iyvnen, marTla rom swamdaT da jerodaT beladisa! ras
izam, aseTia masis fsiqologia, Tumca am gadasaxedidan komunistur agiog-
rafias aqvs parodiuli paTosi, es udavoa! rogorc akaki baqraZe werda:
`qristianuli agiografosi rwmeniT werda, komunisti agiografosi dafa-
ruli ironiiT~ (baqraZe 1990: 96).
absurdul-parodiulia komentarebi staliniana-leninianas rom gahyveba
Tan, magaliTad, aseTi:
`qaliSvilma satrfos frontze wasvlis win xelmandili Semoaxvia vaJs
yelze da daabara:

Tu daece brZolis velze, dagelios dReni,
mters cocxali ar danebde! _ ase ambobs lenin.

...roca igi gmirulad daeca brZolis velze, moagonda satrfos
saxsovari:

`Camoixsna xlmandili, Senaxuli lxeniT
da zed sisxliT daawera erTi sityva lenin!~
(qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 144)

228


am periodis gamocemebSi aseT anomaliebsac waawydebiT:
`kapitalisturi qveynebis damonebul xalxTaTvis stalini aris imedi,
uZleveli droSa, naTlis sveti, romelic win miuZRvis maT saboloo ganTa-
visuflebisaken~ (qarTuli leqsebi... 1937: 5).
an `xalxi Tavis bednierebas umadlis leninis sibrZnes, misi saqmisa da
sityvis simarTles~ (leninis saxe 1957: 10).
erTi kritikosi werda: `lenini aris mtkice da uSiSari, ubralo da Tav-
mdabali adamiani, xalxis maswavlebeli da guliTadi megobari... iliCi Sem-
qmneli ukvdavebisa, mivyavarT aRTqmul qveynisken Suqs misi CiraRdnebisas~
(iqve: 30).
an `lenini mxolod adamianebisTvis, maTi sikeTisa da bednierebisTvis
gaCnda amqveynad~ (qarTuli poeturi... 1970: 44).
aseTive Sefasebebia stalinis mimarTac, moviyvanT ramdenime magaliTs:
`sosos Tavmdablobis damaxasiaTebelia is umniSvnelo garemoeba, rom,
Tumca yvela mowafeze ufro mcodne iyo, Tavis tol-amxanagebSi ar eZebda
pirvelobas... mecadineoba srulebiT ar uSlida xels bavSvurad ecelqa.
xSirad SeiZleboda dagenaxaT derefanSi, rom soso mihqris Tavisi megobris
Zurgze Seskupebuli da gaiZaxis: foladi var, foladi var! es fsevdonimi
(stalini), romliTac mTeli qveynis muSebi da Cagrulni icnoben soso
juRaSvils, albaT, im Soreul wlebSi gaCnda, bavSvuri celqobis dros~
(luarsamiZe 1931: 3-4); `stalini erTaderTia, rogorc umaRlesi tipis saxel-
mwifo moRvawe da, amave dros, umZlavresi Teoretikosi da publicisti~
(sulava 1940: 12-13); `piradi `me~ misTvis ar arsebobda, saerTo saqmes mTeli
Tavisi arsebiT gamoexmaureboda~ (kapanaZe 1945: 37). niSandoblivia beladze
gamocemul wignebis esTetikac, maTi: `poligrafia bunebrivia, gansakuTre-
bulia. saTauri aucileblad gansxvavebuli SriftiT da feriT gamoyofili;
umetesad, wiTlad. Temebic SeuzRudavia; weren stalinis pirovnebaze,
stalinis saxlze _ gorSi, stalinis wignze, xaliCazec, romelzec misi saxe
iqargeba... cdiloben, sxvadasxva rakursi monaxon. vfiqrob, erT-erTi faq-
tori im uzarmazari `informaciis~ SeTavazebaa mkiTxvelisaTvis, romelsac
igi `udavod~ ainteresebda. iqneboda es personaJis bavSvoba, yrmoba, ymaw-
vilkacoba, Tandayolili Tviseba (gnebavT, vneba daarqviT) sxvaTa, gansakuT-
rebiT ki, ucnobebis daxmarebisa (niSnianiZe 2010: 392).
is xalxi, is adamianebi... romelTaTvisac lenini da stalini aris kacob-
riobis, Cagrul xalxTa mxneli, masaa, upirovno, pirovnebadakarguli, er-
TmaneTTan gaTanabrebul adamianTa erToblioba, mas sWirdeba beladi, ro-
gorc mesia, mxsneli, imedi momavlisa. im bnelsa da daundobel epoqaSi es
masa araa mxolod agresiuli isteriiT Sepyrobili adamianebis erToblioba,
is mozeimea, amitomac bevri ram, gansakuTrebiT folklorSi, guliTaa naT-
qvami, qarTvelebis did nawils, marTlac, ase swamda da ase uyvarda, amis
anarekls SexvdebiT dResac da es aravisTvisaa axali. rac Seexeba rCeul
sazogadoebas, pirobiTad elitas, maTs arsebobas totalitarizmi ar
dauSvebda, magram politikuri lirikis bevri avtori mainc iZulebuli iyo
istoriul-politikuri konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT ase ewera da ase efiq-
ra, amitomaa es poezia parodia diqtatoruli sistemis, fsevdo gmirebisa da
iluzoruli bednierebisa. (xSir SemTxvevaSi sagangebod ar mivuTiTeT
leqsis avtori, imitom ki ara, rom raimes daaklebs maTs saxels, ubralod,
Cven gvainteresebs Tavad movlena da ara saxelebi imis dasazusteblad, vin
ras da rogor werda! im Savbneli epoqis verc erTi poeti verc erT taeps ver
229


dabeWdavda, partiasa da beladze rom ar daewera rame, amitom aranair bral-
debad ar SeiZleba JRerdes am paTosis poeturi striqonebi galaktionidan
moyolebuli XX saukunis bolo meoTxedamde, vis ra da rogor swamda es sxva
saqmea. am faqtebis gamo literatori ar SeiZleba iqces saxelmwifo
bralmdeblad).
miuxedvad mozeime masis aseTi aRtkinebisa, bneleTis mociqulebis aseT
xarisxSi warmodgenisa, mTeli es maskaradi borotebas, Zaladobas, usamar-
Tlobas efuZneba. 1957 wels gamocemul qarTul leniniaSi vkiTxulobT:
`qarTuli xalxuri poeturi Tqmulebis mixedviT, leninma sikvdilis win
madlier xalxs mouyara Tavi da anderZi dautova, mSobliurad daariga: Tu
vinmem rame gabedos, dRe daubneleT Savia!~ (leninis saxe 1957: 22).
22 wlis stalini TviTmpyrobelobasTan brZolaSi daRupuli muSebis
saxsovrad ambobs. `qeba-dideba Tqven, simarTlisaTvis daRupulno! qeba-
dideba Tqven, romelTac Tavi daimSveneT eklis gvirgvinebiT da sikvdilis
Jams mTrTolvare, gafiTrebuli tuCebiT CagvCurCulebdiT: Suri iZieT
sisxliT!~ (sulava 1940: 18). am ideologiis gamoZaxilia xalxur poeziaSi
aRfrTovaneba imis gamo, rom gaanadgures, mospes, daxvrites, CamoaxrCes
Rirseba, adamiani da sulieroba. dRes es frazebi romlebic kargad JRers,
rogorc braldeba am Sav-bneli epoqisa:

`brZaneba gamosuliyo, brZaneba leninisa:
mospeT Tavadi, mdidari, lukma gaxadeT xmlisa~.
(lenini da stalini 1939: 93)

aRarsad ari Zveli dro:
gziri, xati da Rvdelia~ (iqve: 52).

an `ras miqvia eklesia, ras miqvia wirva,
gaumarjos Cven koleqtivs, mZime industrias!~ (iqve: 142).

aseTi sisxliani iyo `sabWoTa kavSiri _ kacobriobis ubrwyinvalesi ide-
alebis ganxorcielebuli triumfi~, is `nanatri, netari dro~, dResac rom
mistirian beladis SuqiT sxivmosilebi, Tumca esec Cveni realobaa, istori-
is avbediTi furceli.


damowmebani

abaSiZe 2003: abaSiZe i. zarebi ocdaaTiani wlebidan. Tb.: `inteleqti~, 2003.
baqraZe 1990:baqraZe a. mwerlobis moTviniereba. Tb.: `sarangi~, 1990.
baraxovi 1976: . . . . . ,
. . , . . . .: 1976.
baqraZe 2009: baqraZe a. staliniada. `arili~, 13, 2009.
belads 1939: belads qarTveli mwerlebi. Tb.: `federacia~, 1939.
gvaxaria 2003: gvaxaria g. gadacema radio `Tavisuflebaze~. ganTavsebulia 03.
03. 2003. misamarTi: http://www.tavisupleba.org/content/article/1526884.html
did stalins 1949: did stalins. Tb.: `sabWoTa mwerali~, 1949.
kapanaZe 1945: kapanaZe p. beladis bavSvoba da yrmoba (mogoneba). Tb.:
sablitgami, 1945.

230


kvataia 2010: kvataia m. beladTa konceptebi qarTul emigrantul teqstebSi.
saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis `totalitarizmi da literaturuli
diskursi~ (me-20 saukunis gamocdileba) masalebi. Tb.: literaturis institutis
gamomcemloba, 2010.
kiziria 2010: kiziria d. tirani, rogorc mesia (giorgi leoniZis poema `stali-
nis bavSvoba da yrmoba~). saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis `totalita-
rizmi da literaturuli diskursi~ (me-20 saukunis gamocdileba) masalebi. Tb.:
literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2010.
lenini da stalini 1939: lenini da stalini qarTul poetur folklorSi.
redaqcia da winasityvaoba d. benaSvilisa. Tb.: ` federacia~, 1939.
leninis saxe 1957: leninis saxe qarTul xalxur poeziaSi. samxaraZe g. Tb.:
saqarTvelos ssr-is politikuri da mecnieruli codnis gamavrcelebeli
sazogadoeba, 1957.
leninis saxe 1968: leninis saxe qarTul sabWoTa literaturaSi. kiknaZe l. Tb.:
sazogadoeba `codna~, 1968;
luarsamiZe 1931: luarsamiZe v. stalini (mozrdilTaTvis). II gamocema. Tb.:
saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, 1931.
mnaTobi 1953: Jurnali `mnaTobi~, 3, Tb.: 1953:
niSnianiZe 2010: niSnianiZe r. wina-mZRvaridan _ beladamde. saerTaSoriso
samecniero konferenciis `totalitarizmi da literaturuli diskursi~ (me-20
saukunis gamocdileba) masalebi. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba,
2010.
padlubnova 2006: .
1920-1940- . ganTavsebulia 17.05.06. misamarTi: http://www.netslova.ru/
podlubnova/comm.html.sulava 1940: sulava al. literaturuli werilebi. Tb.:
litgamomcemloba, 1940.
sulava 1957: sulava al. werilebi. Tb.: `sabWoTa mwerali~, 1957.
stalini... 1949: stalini qarTul xalxur poeziaSi. Tb.: saxelmwifo
gamomcemloba, 1949.
stalins 1944: stalins. leqsTa krebuli. Tb.: `saxelgami~, 1944.
fedoseevi 1940: fedoseevi p. stalini religiisa da masTan brZolis Sesaxeb.
Tb.: saqarTvelos mukis centraluri sabWos gamocema, 1940.
qarTuli leqsebi... 1937: qarTuli leqsebi da simRerebi stalinze. Tb.: `zaria
vostoka~, 1937.
qarTuli mxatvruli... 1971: qarTuli mxatvruli literaturis leniniana.
gozaliSvili S. Tb.: `mecniereba~, 1971.
qarTuli poeturi... 1970: qarTuli poeturi leniniana. samxaraZe g. Tb.:
`merani~, 1970.
stalini religiisa 1933: stalini religiisa da masTan brZolis Sesaxeb.
Sedgenili s. yubaneiSvilis mier. Tb.: saqarTvelos mukis centraluri sabWos
gamocema, 1933.
cxadaia 2009: cxadaia z. poetis werilebi, sityvebi, mogonebebi. `literatu-
ruli Ziebani,~ XXX, Tb.: 2009.
WiWinaZe 2010: WiWinaZe r. gulis qisai nadebi. Tb.: `nekeri~, 2020.







231


Saba Metreveli

The Leader as a Messiah in the Georgian Political Lyrics

Summary

There were created praises and prayers to the Leader. There was not a single Georgian
writer who purposefully or not, did not write and glorify the caring Party and its Leader,
despite the fact weather they believed in him or not, whatever they wrote revealed
principles of Communistic ideology in prose and drama, fidelity to those principles,
boundless appraisal and love of the Leader, worship of the Soviets. These and other
aspects are to be looked for, revealed and thought over in the creative works of
L.Metreveli, S.Talakvadze, K.Lortkipanidze, I.Lisashvili, B.Chkheidze, P.Chkhikvadze,
J.Khoperia, R.Korkia, G. Natroshvili, M. Mikadze, Ts. Mestiashvili and others, generally
in Georgian Leniniada and Staliniada.
First parallels between Lenin and Christ were made in post revolutionary rhetoric, and
in 1918 attack to the Leader made them see in the Leader a man of tolerance, like St
Boris and St.Gleb and St Andrei Bogoliubski. In Georgia Gori became covered with
mystics, it became something like Bethlehem, childhood and youth of the Leader was
represented with thousands of legend (G. Leonidze, K. Gamsaxurdia, D.Shengelaia, etc).
There was thoroughly worked out an image of a passionate, devoted to people, thinking
about their wellbeing and freedom revolutionary and fighter for freedom, a general model
of a positive hero.

232




poetikuri kvlevani


maia jaliaSvili

`uZebni Svilis~ poeturi paradigma

besik xaranaulis romanis `samoci jorze amxedrebuli raindi
anu wigni hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa~ mixedviT

`Cvens sinamdvileSi arsebobs iseTi uxilavi ganzomileba, sadac erTad-
erTi da ganuwyveteli procesi mimdinareobs: mama Svils eZebs: Svili mamas,
mkvdari cocxals da warsuli awmyos. mimdinareobs ganuwyveteli ritualu-
ri dialogi cisa da miwisa, sikvdilisa da sicocxlisa da uZebni Svili ki
yvelas aviwydeba.
am ganzomilebaSi Cveni sulebi cxovroben da hRvrian ofls ganuwyvetel
ZiebaSi.
ikiTxavT: _ rodis xdeba es?
gipasuxebT: _ roca uneburad Tavs moikiTxavT, roca uneburad Tavi
gaviwydebaT, roca ar iciT, ras fiqrobdiT, roca ggoniaT, rom dabneuli
xarT, roca raimes moulodnelad miaCerdebiT da ar iciT, ratom...~
(xaranauli 2010: 426), _ wers besik xaranauli axal romanSi `samoci jorze
amxedrebuli raindi anu wigni hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa~, romelSic
es Tema _ Ziebisa _ centraluria.
mwerlisTvis mTavaria, rom ar Sewydes `ritualuri dialogi cisa da
miwisa~, rac gulisxmobs adamianis (eris) harmoniul arsebobas drosa da
sivrceSi. am dialogis Sewyveta adamians (ers) Suaze gaxleCs da daRupavs. es
dialogi aucilebelia, raTa dro iyos erTiani, Torem Tu `droTa kavSiri
dairRveva~, maSin adamiani (eri) Tavgzaabneuli atomiviT daikargeba.
`aba, gaixedeT, yoveli arsi qveyanaze gana Tavisi namdvili gvar-saxelis
saZebrad ar aris gareT gamosuli?! da mec, yvela suleluri mizeziTac ki
Cems Tavs ar veZeb?!
_ dediTa var?
_ mamiT?
_ qariT var moRebuli?
_ Tu hiperbolaTi da metaforiT~? (xaranauli 2010: 51).
amgvari kiTxvebiT avtori gaaRwevs materialuri yofis sazRvrebidan da
gadadis poeziaSi, romelSic igi, sworedac rom, `qariT aris moRebuli~ an
`hiperboliT da metaforiT~. poeturi niWia misi mSobeli, niWi, romelmac is
imad Seqmna, rac Tu vinc aris konkretul dro-sivrces sxeulebrivad mi-
jaWvuli, magram sulierad maradiulobasTan wilnayari. `qariT moReba~ xal-
xuri poeziis xatia, igi, upirvelesad, gamorCeuls gulisxmobs, romlis mama
`realurad~ ar arsebobs. es SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes saxarebaSi dawerils:
`ara sisxlTagan, arca nebiTa orcTaTa, arca nebiTa mamakacisaTa, aramed
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RmrTisagan iSvnes~ (ioane, 1, 13), (axali aRTqma 1991: 177). qari SeiZleba suli-
wmindis simbolodac gaviazroT, `romeli yovelgan ars da yovelives aRav-
sebs madliT~ (`mrwamsi~). ioanes saxarebaSi vkiTxulobT; `sulsa vidreca
unebn, qrin, da ma misi gesmis, aramed ara ici, vina movals da vidre vals.
esreT ars yoveli Sobili sulisagan~ (ioane 3, 8), (axali aRTqma 1991: 180).
mwerali amis Taobaze Tavis dakvirvebas ase azogadebs: `yvela gmiri
oblobiTaa amozrdili. yvela ambobs _ arc ise dakarguli varo, magram
danamdvilebiT aravin icis Tavisi vinaoba~ (xaranauli 2010: 405).
Tu imasac gavixsenebT, rom `qaria saqarTvelo~ (leqsi `sad arian Svile-
bi, Svilebi sad arian~), maSin qariT `moReba~, rogorc saqarTvelos Sviloba,
ise unda gaviazroT.
am wignis mTavari gmiri poetia, romelic sakuTari sicocxlis sazriss
ZiebaSi xedavs. igi zRapris gmiriviT gadis `Sinidan~ da daexeteba usasrulo
dro-sivrceSi mamis, bavSvobis, siyvarulis, sinaTlis, adamianobis... mosaZeb-
nad, Zveli faseulobebis gasaxseneblad Tu axlis aRmosaCenad. es Zieba da-
usrulebelia sicocxlesaviT, radgan am Ziebis procesSi is gadaiqceva sim-
bolod. ase rom, TviTon Zieba, rogorc romanis xerxemali, ganapirobebs
teqstis kompoziciur fragmentulobas da azrobriv siRrmeebs, mis filoso-
fiur-religiur Seferilobas. TviTon Zieba ki `iwereba~ wignad, romelic
igive poeziaa da misi striqonebi arasodes Sewydeba, radgan is mTavari
wignis _ `samyaros wignis~ nawilia.
romanSi `Svilic~ da `mamac~ mravalmniSvnelovani cnebebia. Svili gulis-
xmobs konkretul dro-sivrceSi mcxovreb adamiansac, vTqvaT, TviTon
mTxrobels, zogadad, qarTvels da, imave dros, nebismier adamiansac. mamac
_ xorcieli mSobelic aris, eTnosic, ufalic, zogadad _ kacobriobac,
poeziac. ase rom, es mravalmniSvnelovneba romanSi qmnis erTmaneTze wafe-
nil Sreebs, romelTa konteqstSi es Tema sxvadasxvanairad gaiazreba. SeiZ-
leba iTqvas, es romani palimfsesturia. mwerali Txrobisas gadainacvlebs
siRrmisken da `kiTxulobs~ TiTqmis `gadaSlil~, e.i. daviwyebul teqstebs.
romani jvarsaxovanicaa, rogorc rezo siraZem araCveulebrivad SeniSna:
`jvarsaxovneba met-naklebad yovel teqstSia, sulierebis ierarqiulobisda
Sesabamisad~. `teqstis horizontaluri mdinareba droSi xdeba, sulieri
vertikalis SegrZneba ki myisieri SeiZleba iyos. gaston baSliari werda: `po-
ezia wamieri metafizikaao. igi wamierebas eZebs, is qmnis wamierebas.. da mxo-
lod vertikalur droSi Seyovnebuli wamiT iZens poezia gansakuTrebul
energias. arsebobs wminda poeziis wminda energia da igi ganifineba vertika-
lurad formisa da pirovnebis droSi~ (siraZe 2008: 8). amgvari `energiiTa~
damuxtuli es romani. horizontalur WrilSi avtoris `xorcieli~ Tavgada-
savali warmoCndeba, vertikalurSi ki _ sulieri am orives gadakveTis wer-
tili ki mwerlis gulia, mwerlisa, romelic, rogorc pol valeri wers, `Ta-
visive fiqrebis jvarzea gakruli~.
besik xaranaulis axal romanSi, rogorc aRvniSneT, swored `ritualuri
dialogia cisa da miwisa~, raTa uZebni Svili moZebnos mamam. es ki SeiZleba
moxdes mxolod `wignSi~, romelsac amjerad besik xaranauli Txzavs, raTa
sakuTari Tavi jer TviTon ipovos, da, amgvarad, gaxdes `xiluli~ uflis-
Tvis. mweralma erT interviuSi aRniSna: `me sanam cocxali var, ar Sevwyvet
brZolas imisaTvis, rom gavigo, vina var, saidan movdivar... adamians aqvs
ufleba ecados, meti araferi SeuZlia~ (xaranauli 2010g: 1).
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Tavis povna ki, upirvelesad, gulisxmobs sakuTari Tavis, rogorc eris
`saxis~ gacnobierebas.
`Cemi wigni realobis asaxva araa~, _ afrTxilebs mwerali mkiTxvels da
gulwrfelad gaumxels: imdeni vikiTxe hiperbolebisa da metaforebis
poezia, andrezebi da Txel-Txeli broSurebi da narkvevebi maT cxovrebaze,
rom avad gavxdi. asakmac xeli Semiwyo: sinamdvile veRar makvirvebda. am
wignebma ki sarkiT momitanes warsuli...~ (xaranauli 2010: 427). am sarkeSi
dainaxa man sakuTari Tavi, rogorc uZebni Svili. da radgan `dro ise kargad
araferSi ar inaxeba, rogorc wignSi~ (xaranauli 2010: 427), TviTonac wigni
dawera. `Tu samyaro wignia, adamianic mniSvnelovani nawarmoebia~ (xaranauli
2010: 429). igi sakuTar Tavs, rogorc wigns, ise kiTxulobs, raTa Semdgom es
gaxdes safuZveli `samyaros wignis~ Semecnebisa. mwerali am romans `cxov-
rebaSi Sesatyuebel wigns~ uwodebs, xolo cxovreba gaiazreba, rogorc re-
alobaze aRmatebuli, warmosaxvaSi gamravalferovnebuli da gamdidrebuli.
didi gza gaiara mweralma, rom sakuTari Tavi aReqva, rogorc `uZebni~.
erT interviuSi aRniSnavs: `am bolo wignis gamo gavmecnierdi kidec, imdeni
ram wavikiTxeo~ (xaranauli 2010b: 2). aq `gamecniereba~ ironias gulisxmobs
sakuTari Tavis mimarT, magram Tanve miniSnebasac raRac mniSvnelovanze. ase
`gamecnierda~ erT mSvenier dRes vaJa-fSavelas gvelismWameli mindia da
Seicno sicocxlis arsi.
rogorc aRvniSneT, mraval mniSvnelovan saxeTagan romanSi gamorCeulia
`uZebni Svilis~ poeturi paradigma. Tu gavixsenebT imas, rom yoveli sityva
`poeturi nawarmoebia~ (borxesi 2010: 23), es sintagma `uZebni Svili~ umaR-
lesi rangis poeziad warmoCndeba _ gamoTqmis originalurobiT, xatovane-
biT, simbolurobiT, filosofiuri siRrmiT. poetis mier daweril am `encik-
lopediur romanSi~, romelic `poeziisa da prozis pirSesayarzea~, mwerali
qarTvelTa eTnosis Zirebs Cxreks da aanalizebs.
ram aqcia bibliuri `uZRebi Svili~ `uZebnad~?
uZRebi Svilis paradigma xelovnebaSi da, konkretulad literaturaSi,
Zalian mravalferovnad aris warmoCenili, qarTul literaturaSi amis
saukeTeso magaliTi guram doCanaSvilis `samoseli pirvelia~. misi mTavari
gmiri, domeniko, bolos da bolos, brundeba mamis saxlSi, radgan aseTia
`RvTaebrivi kanonzomiereba~.
besik xaranaulis uZebni Svili exmianeba bibliur paradigmas da, ra Tqma
unda, imeorebs nacnob gzas, magram aq siaxlea, uZRebi (Ze Secdomili) uZeb-
nad iqceva.
es uZebni Svili mwerlis alter egoa, mwerlisa, romelic qarTvelTa eT-
nosis konkretul saxed warmoCndeba romanSi. is jer uZRebia, radgan `davi-
wyebuli~ aqvs `fesvebi~, magram iwyebs gaxsenebas, gaazrebas, Semecnebas da,
amgvarad, daadgeba gzas Sinisaken, magram aq axali dabrkoleba Cndeba, mas
aRar elis `mama~. is dakargulia, Tanac, nagavsayrelze.
`RmerTs uyvars ganwiruli, magram ar uyvars, vinc ganwirulebas egueba.
RmerTma sakuTari gamocdilebiT icis, rom: roca Svili mamas edaveba, mama
Wabukdeba, agreTve icis, cudi Svili _ sayvarelia~ (xaranauli 2010: 135).
uxsovari droidan Tvalmiuwvdomel mermisamde gaSlil dro-sivrceSi
mogzaurobs besik xaranauli da nanax-gancdils-wakiTxul-warmodgenil
STabeWdilebebs saocari gznebiTa da vnebiT gadmogvcems.
igi uamrav `med~ daSlili warmogvidgeba da moxetiale zeistoriulsa
Tu droul sanaxebSi _ qarTveli kacis kulturaSi; zepirsa Tu dawerilSi,
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zRapar-miTebSi, legendebSi, andrezebSi, wes-CveulebebSi, tradiciebsa da
warmodgenebSi. mwerali cdilobs yovelives, realursa da warmosaxuls, mis-
wvdes da moixilos. amis saSualebas mas sityva aZlevs _ metaforebsa da hi-
perbolebSi gacocxlebuli. amitom misi stili am romanSi xatovania, simbo-
luri. es aris poetis dawerili poeturi romani `poeziiisa da prozis
pirSesayarze~.
mTeli wigni mkiTxvelTan dialogia, oRond ara Sefaruli, aramed jiqu-
ri da pirdapiri. da vis igulvebs weriT damaSvrali avtori mkiTxvelad?
yvelas _ poetsac da `mxvnel-mTesvelsac~, visac simamace Seswevs sityvas-
Tan pirispir dgomisa, misTvis TvalebSi Caxedvisa, `azris aReb-micemobisa~
(ilia).
wignis saxelwodeba erTgvari saidumloa, romelic mkiTxvels amocno-
bisken ubiZgebs: `samoci jorze amxedrebuli raindi anu wigni hiperbolebisa
da metaforebisa~. es `anu~ erTgvar sazRvars avlebs am or nawilian saTaur-
Si. igi Tavidanve mianiSnebs, rom saTauris pirveli nawili parodiulia, ra-
indi da jori casa da dedamiwasaviT Seuferebelia, ricxvi samoci ki wignis
kiTxvisas `amoixsneba~. saTauris meore nawili mkiTxvelis gzamkvlevia _ aq
yvelaferi hiperbolebisa da metaforebis saSualebiT iqneba warmoCenili,
ufro zustad, TviT hiperbolebi da metaforebi iqnebian mTavari `gmirebi~,
xan mTxrobelni, xan monawileni. ra Tqma unda, besik xaranaulisTvisac yve-
laze mTavari hiperbola, an metafora TviT samyaroa, cxovreba da adamiania.
TiToeuli ki uamravi hiperbolisa Tu metaforis mravalferovani `nazavia~.
ioanes saxarebis dasawyisi: `pirveliTgan iyo sityva da sityva igi iyo
RmerTi~ adamianis mier aRqmuli hiperbolacaa da metaforac, radgan bo-
lomde ver swvdeba da ver Seimecnebs RvTis arss.
Ziebis suliTaa wigni Tavidan bolomde gamsWvaluli. wignis gadaSlisas
mkiTxveli jer sarCevs xvdeba, romelic ulamazesi, saidumloebiT moculi
WiSkariviTaa, zed amotvifruli ornamentebiTa da niSnebiT. `simRera saTa-
urebisa~ _ amgvaradaa SemoTavazebuli saTaurTa CamonaTvali, romelic po-
eziaa da mkiTxvels winaswar ganawyobs wasakiTxad, cnobismoyvareobas uR-
viZebs da molodins umZafrebs. cisferyanweli sandro cirekiZe werda: `qme-
diTi saTauri Tanabaria TviTon wignis da TavisTavad warmoadgens esTeti-
kur Rirebulebas~ (cirekiZe 2010: 158). am wignSi swored amgvari saTaurebia,
Tanac originalurad SemoTavazebuli. aq aris metaforuli, simboluri sa-
Taurebi, agreTve, saTaurebi _ sentenciebi: magaliTad: `hiperbolebis wi-
naSe civilizacia parodirdeba~, `rac ki arsebobs, analogis ZaliT arse-
bobs~, `sazRvari namcecebisTvisac sazRvaria~, `yvela dro sisxliani iyo~,
`zneoba qariSxaliviT mrisxanea~, `win warsulia~, `adamianebma sityva daam-
Zimes~, `genias ukvirs, rom cxovreba sxvebs ekuTvnis~, `yoveli sityva _ naT-
qvami _ aris mokleba wyvdiadisa~, `poeti moxucia~ da sxva.
wigni eqvsi simRerisgan Sedgeba da TiToeulSi bevri patara ambavia. yo-
vel simReras Tavisi saxelwodeba aqvs, lamazi da originaluri. esenia: 1.
`simRera pirveli _ dawerili uJmuris melniT da xanac muSk-ambr-surnelo-
vaniTa~, 2. `simRera meore _ leqsikonisa, 3. `simRera mesame _ almasis mTe-
bisa, anu kavkasiuri saga besarion gabuurisa~, 4. `simRera meoTxe _ ori xan-
dajmulisa~, 5. `simRera mexuTe _ uZebni Svilisa~, 6. `simRera meeqvse _ av-
torisa, anu cxovrebaSi Sesatyuebeli wigni~.
amgvari kompozicia nostalgiaa uZvelesi wignebisa _ gilgameSiani,
iliada da odisea, simRera nibelungebze. SeiZleba am `simRerebiT~ mwerali
236


mianiSnebs im drozec, rodesac sityva ar iwereboda da mxolod warmoiTqmo-
da, an imRereboda da ase gadaecemoda Taobebs.
sarCevis gacnoba sakmarisia imisTvis, rom Tvalwin warmogidges Janru-
lad ekleqtikuri nawarmoebi, romelSic Zieba mravalmxriv aris gantotvi-
li. avtori erTgvarad azustebs, rodesac, satitulo furclis Sida mxares
mokrZalebulad miawers _ eTnofiliuri romanio. Tumca es minaweri mkiTx-
vels wignis gasaRebadac SeiZleba gamoadges. mTavari ZarRvi, marTlac esaa,
Zieba da moxilva sakuTari eris, eTnosis fesvebisa. am wignSi TiTqos TviT
qarTuli eTnosi gviambobs sakuTar Tavgadasavals. aq aris gadaZaxili ilias
`ukvdav sulTan~, poema `aCrdilSi~ rom esaubreba avtors eris awmyoze, war-
sulsa da momavalze. am TvalsazrisiT, grigol robaqiZesac exmianeba:
`wvdiT cocxal fesvebs saqarTveloisa: mis genialur enas, mis universalur
miToss, mis heroul Tavgadasavals, mis xalas stils sicocxlisa, wvdiT am
fesvebs da fesvebi arwivis frTebad agesxmiT, da am gziT moipovebT Tavi-
suflebas~ (robaqiZe 2009: 319). es fesvebi besik xaranauls, upirvelesad,
fSav xevsurTa folklorSi eguleba, romelsac `RmerTTan nawiliani~ xalxi
qmnida (xaranauli 2010: 37).
yuradRebas iqcevs wignis epigrafi:
`ymaTad nabrZanebi aqvs:
_ momixvidodeTo!
_ ratom ar mouxvalT?!~
pirveli, rasac gaifiqrebs mkiTxveli, es aris is, rom am sityvebSi
simbolurad RvTisa da kacobriobis urTierToba irekleba. RmerTdakargul
adamianebs aRar esmiT mSoblis Zaxili, mwerali ki, rogorc `RmerTTan mo-
laparake~, masTan axlos myofi, `Suakaci~_ fxizlad Tvals adevnebs da ma-
rad Seaxsenebs, rom unda `mouvidnen~. magram es ara marto mama-RmerTis,
aramed sakuTari `eTnosis Zaxilicaa~ (xaranauli 2010: 430). Zvelad ki, sanam
wgnebis daweras daiwyebdnen, adamianebi `sakuTari eTnosis ambavs wignebSi ki
ar eZebdnen, TavSi efurclebodaT~ (xaranauli 2010: 431).
`uZebni~ _ araCveulebrivi sisavsiT gamoxatavs tragedias cxovrebaSi
dakarguli adamianisas, romelic RmerTmac miatova da upatronod darCeni-
li dasaRupavadaa ganwiruli, mas aravin, TviT RmerTic aRar eZebs, rogorc
dakargul cxvars. is araaraobaa, usaxelo da uarsebo. es sintagma `uZebni
Svili~ Tanamedrove kacobriobis sulieri avadobis zust diagnozad
warmogvidgeba.
igi aris `civilizaciisagan gandevnili kulturis Svili~ (xaranauli
2010: 433). rogorc misive personaJi Sio, romelic fiqrobda, rom `wignebi
unda dafrinavdnen~ da ixateba fantasmagoriuli suraTi: fanjridan wignebi
Tavdaxsnili frinvelebiviT mifrinaven, magram `nagavsayarze iyo finiSi~
(xaranauli 2010: 434).
mamis Ziebis gzaze poeti upirvelesad miemgzavreba `bavSvobaSi~, `oqros
xanaSi~ (novalisi), raTa axsnas `dakargvis~ mizezebi da garemoebani.
mTavari bavSvobis erTi Zvirfasi mogonebaa: rogor SeaSina mTxrobeli
samocma, jorze amxedrebulma, gasayidi cocxebiT datvirTulma, raindma.
ra iyo mwerlisTvis bavSvoba: `o, ra laRi da Tamami viyavi. vgrZnobdi siv-
rces, romelSic unda gavzrdiliyavi. yoveli bavSvi xom mravalia, erTi ar
aris, mere Sedenis xolme cxovreba, erTs miakuTvnebs da erTi xdeba~
(xaranauli 2010: 429). swored maSin daikarga, `bavSvobaSi~ da `nagavsayaris
qveyanaSi~ aRmoCnda tyved. bavSvoba mTxrobelisTvis samoTxea, xolo dido-
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ba _ tyveoba, Tanac nagavsayrelze, romelic cxovrebis simboloa. misi az-
riT, civilizaciam qveyniereba nagavsayrelad aqcia. es exmianeba Jan
bodriaris Tvalsazriss: `yvelaze uaresi is ki ar aris, rom Cvens irgvliv
sul nagavia, aramed is, rom Tavad Cvenc am nagvad viqeciT. mTeli bunebrivi
garemo narCenebad iqca, anu gamousadegar, usargeblo substanciad, romel-
sac, rogorc gvams, ver viSorebT~... `Tavad istoria aRmoCnda sakuTar sanag-
veze gadagdebuli, sadac Tavs iyrian ara mxolod Cvens mier ganvlili, ara-
med mimdinare movlenebic~ (bodriari 2010: 1).
unda gavixsenoT, rom cxovreba rogorc nagavsayreli, warmoCenilia
zura mesxis romanSi `spazmebi~, romelSic mTavari gmiris cxovrebis `dama-
xinjeba~ gamoiwvia TavSi moxvedrilma nagvis parkma: ~me maqvs spazmebi. xuTi
wlis rom viyavi, maSin damewyo. maSin daviwye nagvis danaxva da mTeli sidam-
pleebis~ (mesxi 2009: 1).
wignSi Ziebis gzaze Cndeba skefsisic: `Tavis eTnoss dauwyebs Zebnas... da
sadRa aris!~ (xaranauli 2010: 409). es exmianeba oTar WilaZis roman `go-
dors~, romelSic italiidan Camosul elCs saqarTvelo Tavis adgilas aRar
xvdeba.
`nagavsayrelze~ poets `hiperbola da metafora~ gamouCndebian mxsnele-
bad da waiyvanen sicocxlis sxvadasxva Sris mosaxilviled, rogorc dantes
miuZRoda vergiliusi. swored `hiperbola da metafora~ warmoCndebian av-
toris namdvil `mSoblebad~ axal romanSi. ase poeturad ixateba qarTvelTa
eTnosi. swored am eTnosis Svilia igi, magram fesvebs mowyvetili, dakargu-
li da mSobelTa monatruli, maT maZieblad qceuli.
mkiTxvelic avtorTan erTad imogzaurebs `Semecnebis~ gzebze da `aRmo-
aCens~: `sul naqsovia samyaro. dedamiwa abreSumia~ (xaranauli 2010: 46).
nagavsayreli ara mxolod Tanamedroveobis, aramed, rogorc aRvniSneT,
`didobis~ simbolodac SeiZleba gaviazroT, bavSvobis samoTxes upirispir-
deba didoba, rogorc nagavsayreli, amitomac ocnebobs mwerali sakuTar
TavTan, rogorc bavSvTan, Sexvedraze. sxvaTa Soris, amis Sesaxeb saubrobs
erT interviuSi: `erTi suraTi gadamiRo dedaCemma, yelze abreSumis bantiT,
mis mere vexvewebi yvelas es banti momitanon, traqtors mogitanen, magram im
bants veravin mogitans. minda rom is viyo, imas ver davSordebi, dedaCems,
Cems bavSvobas, imis iqiT nabiji ar minda~ (xaranauli 2010g: 1).
radgan `Ziebaa~, uamravi kiTxvacaa, magaliTad, amgvari:
`ratomaa samyaro uTvalavjer ufro mxatvruli,
vidre poetis mier dawerili racginda wigni?~ (xaranauli 2010: 43).
da pasuxic amav wignSia:
`RmerTma mxatvruloba miusaja samyaros, _
rom ar daSliliyo,
rom RmerTma ixmara poeturi sizuste,
rom RmerTma poeziiT gazoma da awona yvelaferi~ (xaranauli 2010: 43).
amitomac misi Semecneba mxolod poeziiT SeiZleba:
`dasabamidan,
sadac ar unda moxvedriliyo adamiani _
zesknelSi Tu qvesknelSi,
zRaparSi Tu andrezSi
an, Tund mTvareze daedga fexi,
yvelaferi, nanaxica da gancdilic,
poeziis eniT gamohqonda~ (xaranauli 2010: 42).
238


TviTonac ase iqceva da samyaros Seqmnis ambavs ase iwyebs:
`dasabamidan iyo hiperbola da metafora. isini iyvnen RmerTis sityvaSi,
rogorc saisreSi.
radgan RmerTi saxe ki ar iyo, aramed _ sityva.
da hiperbola da metafora _ RmerTis sityvaSi,
rogorc saisreSi.
da styorcna RmerTma erTi isari da aRniSna SeuZlebeli
da uwoda mas hiperbola.
meore isriT man aRniSna SesaZlebeli,
da uwoda mas metafora
da uwoda maT ca da miwa.
daasaxla isini erTad,
dauwesa urTierTswrafva
da dauTqva erTmaneTis Seusabamoba... (xaranauli 2010: 41).
es aris besik xaranaulis `patara aRmoCena haeriviT aucilebeli~ misi
axali wignisTvis. es aris miseuli interpretacia `Sesaqmisa~, radgan misTvis
`samyaroc sityvakazmuli usasrulobaa~, romlis gamoTargmaneba yvelaze
ukeTesad poezias SeuZlia. mas sjera, samyaros dangreva iseve SeuZlebelia,
rogorc gilgameSis, homerosis, rusTavelis, dantesa da Seqspiris striqo-
nebisa~ (xaranauli 2010: 42). kidev ra aerTianebs samyarosa da poezias?
`orive miuRwevelia~. `samyaro, broweulis nayofiviT rom damwifda, mere
ganimarcvla~ (xaranauli 2010: 43).
es `ganmarcvla~ aRwerilia bibliaSi, romelic imdenia, ramdenic mkiTx-
veli (borxesi 2010: 22).
legendebis, andrezebis (`andrezi namdvil as, ambavi _ magonil! _ araa
sakvirvel~) (xaranauli 2010: 169). kiTxvam, da saerTod, eTnosis warsulSi
mogzaurobam mwerals Seacnobina sakuTari eris `arsi~, imas, rasac aqamde
poeziaSi idumlad, Seucnoblad ganicdida da gadmoscemda, axla saxeli
daarqva, Tumca Cveulebrivad mainc ver SeZlo `mogzaurobisas~ nanaxi Sta-
beWdilebebis gadmocema da metaforebad da hiperbolebad aRiqva yovelive:
suliernica da usulonic, adamianebica da maT mier Seqmnili ambebic. `Cven
adamianebi aRar varT, Cven varT personaJebi~ (xaranauli 2010: 409).
istoriis gariJraJze, roca qveyniereba iyo bavSvi, yvelafers siwmindis
Saravandedi exvia, maSin angelozebi adamianebs elaparakebodnen.
mwerali xatavs swored saqarTvelos `bavSvobas~, roca iqmneboda miTebi
da legendebi, andrezebi, folklori. wignSi amitomac didi adgili eTmoba
xalxur gadmocemebs, mwerali xan dialeqtiTac hyveba ama Tu im istorias,
raTa musika da surneli SeunarCunos monaTxrobs. aq Cans aRtaceba vaJa
fSavelas eTnografiuli CanawerebiT, mwerali akaki SaniZesac xSirad
moixmobs, radgan misTvis maT mier daweril eTnografiul masalaSia
qarTvelis `bavSvoba~, yvelaze mniSvnelovani da grZeli xana sicocxlisa. aq
postmodernizmisTvis damaxasiaTebel xerxs iyenebs mwrali da am andrezebs
vrcel citatebad CarTavs. es iseTi STambeWdavi ambebia, mraval mkiTxvels,
Tu Txzvis niWi miumadlebia ufals, SeiZleba STagonebis wyarodac eqces.
radgan mTxrobeli Tavs miiCnevs `uZebn Svilad~, nagavsayrelze gari-
yulad, amitom TavdasaRwevad, RvTis dasanaxavad wers im fesvebze, romle-
bic asazrdoeben, konkretulad, qarTvelobas, da zogadad, adamianurobas.
Tomas mani adamianurobas wminda graals uwodebda da Tavisi romanis, `ja-
239


dosnuri mTis~, personaJi hans kastorpi miaCnda mis erT-erT maZiebel rain-
dad (mani 2008: 95). amgvar raindad SeiZleba miviCnioT am wignis mTxrobelic.
uZebn Svilad TviT saqarTveloc SeiZleba gaviazroT. ratom unda
moZebnos mamam `uZebni~ Svili _ saqarTvelo? ra Rirsia `mamis uarmyofeli~
da `nagavsayrels~ Seguebuli?
Tu ratom aris Rirsi, rom moiZebnos, amis Sesaxebaa romani. qarTuli eT-
nosi Rirsia gadarCenisa, imitom, rom misi namdvili saxea folklori, ro-
melSic maTi suli irekleba. TviTonac am eTnosis nawilia da amitomac imis
dasturad, ra `SeuZlia~ qarTvels, Txzavs am romans:
`didi xania minda Severwya Cems eTnoss, Cems xalxs, radgan adamiani verc
maT gareSe gadadgam nabijs sakuTari Tavisken.
`sxva gmiroba~ ginda!
erTi SexedviT, ra cotaa es ~sxva gmiroba~:
_ erTi wigni da erTi saqcieli~ (xaranauli 2010: 100).
avtori STamomavalia kavkasionis mTebSi mosaxle tomebisa, `romelTa
cixe-saxlebi Tu cixe-soflebi Soridan cidan Camococebulebsa hgavda~
(xaranauli 2010: 55.) da vin iyvnen es tomebi? `erTxelac rom vaxseno, maSinve
gaiRviZebs saSineli urCxuli _ istoria da mec SemWams da imaTac-CemSi~
(xaranauli 2010: 55). amitomac arqmevs maT metaforebsa da hiperbolebs:
`mTebze da kldeebze gaZvalda amaT saxeebi~ (xaranauli 2010: 56). es xalxi
sipripilebze (`mwvervalebidan afcqvnili kldis sipebi~) werda Turme Tavis
Tavgadasavals. sul 60 firfita unaxavT. erTze _ morige RmerTis daxazu-
li sofel-labirinTis gegmaa, `aq SemoTavazebulia idea iseTi mega-soflisa,
romelic erTdroulad qveyanac iqneboda, sofelic da qalaqic, warsulic,
awmyoc, momavalic~ (xaranauli 2010: 59). danarCen ormocdacxrametze _
sagmiro, samonadireo, sastumarmaspinZlo da sxva wes-adaTebi ewera. `hiper-
bolebisa da metaforebis qveyana bueras foToliviTaa Camofarebuli saqar-
Tveloze: iqidan ugrilebs da ifaravs bars samiv mxriv~ (389). aqedan iyo
metaforeli poeti foTolaanT mercxala (xaranauli 2010: 391).
avtori warmosaxviT Cahyveba uSoresi drois bilikebs, raTa xelaxla
SeigrZnos kavkasiis, `enebis mTis~, xmebi da surneli. aq yvelaze ukeT Cans:
`mTvare wiwilebiviT gamouZRveba varskvlavebs, romlebic sul raRacas
ikenkebian miwaze mosaxle kacis TvalebSi~ (xaranauli 2010: 49). aqac iyo
`kacobriobis dasawyisi~.
kavkasiis mTebSi Seiqmna zepiri gadmocema, `andrezi~, romelic `ukvdavi
wyaliviT uwyvetlad moedineba samyaros Seqmnisdroindeli myinvarebidan
da araviTar cvlilebebs ar eqvemdebareba~ (xaranauli 2010: 53).
mwerali saocari vnebiT da gatacebiT aRwers, rogori iyo uZvelesi
saxli, Caumqrali keriiT, rogor izrdebdnen `kai ymebi~, fSav-xevsurebi da
Zmani maTni, igive hiperbolebi da metaforebi, rogori Rirseulebi iyvnen,
rogor uyvardaT, rogor ibrZodnen. mwerali, rogorc aRvniSneT, uxvad
iyenebs eTnografiul masalas.
eTnosis motrfialeTagan avtori gamoarCevs ymawvil-metafora vaJa-
fSavelas, romelic gazeT `moambeSi~ aqveynebda hiperbolebisadmi miZRvnil
korespondenciebs. mere dawera `sami genialuri poema, romlebSic aRwerilia
tanjuli idealizmi hiperbolisa da misi Seusabamooba metafiorul sinam-
dvilesTan~. avtori vaJas miiCnevs orsaxovan mTis Svilad; ukidures realis-
tad da ukidures idealistad (xaranauli 2010: 164). romanSi CarTulia sxva-
dasxva `teqsti~, romlebSic Cans ZvelTa sixaruli da gasaWiri. magaliTad,
240


`Wiris wyena~-micvalebulis datireba, saocari feradovnebiTa da emoci-
urobiT gadmocemuli: `Sen oRond codvas nu Caiden da sikvdili _ edemia~
(xaranauli 2010: 67).
`vin iyvnen isini, vidre Cemis wyalobiT hiperbolad da metaforad Se-
iracxebodnen?~ _ kiTxulobs mwerali da mkiTxvels araCveulebrivi xato-
vanebiT uyveba saqarTvelos mTebSi mcxovreb tomTa ambebs. gansakuTrebul
yuradRebas amaxvilebs omaze, Tu rogor Seerwya aq erTmaneTs warmarTuli
warmodgenebi da qristianoba. mwerali detalurad aRwers, rogori iyo xa-
tis nageboba, rogor tardeboda sxvadasxva rituali. sainteresoa misi dak-
virveba xucesis damwyalobnebis teqstze, romelSic `mama Cvenos ~ kvals
amoicnobs (xaranauli 2010: 75).
romanSi ramdenjerme CarTulia `saeposo masala~ _ `jvar-xatis gam-
ZRoebze da xevisberebze~, `tyveebiT vaWrobaze~, `gmirze da mis aCrdilze~,
`xatis maamurebze~.... romlebSic moTxrobilia sxvadasxva ambavi: `ai, aseTebi
iyvnen: erTmaneTs saxels ecilebodnen~ (xaranauli 2010: 88).
mwerlisTvis mTavari sinamdvile ki ara, `jvarcmuli ocneba da adamianis
metafizikuri amboxia~ (xaranauli 2010: 93). TavSi, romelsac `sinamdvlis
winaaRmdeg~ hqvia, poeturad gamokveTilia, ra arCevanis winaSe daayena qar-
Tveli mwerali kulturaTa gzajvaredinze cxovrebam: `vidre kalams xelSi
daiWerdi, am sivrceebSi ukve arsebobda poezia da proza, romlebsac Tavi-
anTi kulturebis saxelebi erqvaT _aRmosavluri da dasavluri.
Sen arc erT am sivrceSi ar dabadebulxar, Seni adgili iq aris, Seni
adgili armosavleTisa da dasavleTis kulturebis pirSesayarzea _ aRmo-
savlur-dasavluri leqsisa da romanis pirSesayarze.
amitomac gauZel orTav sivrcidan momdinare tkbil xmaTa cdunebas,
gaxsovdes upirvelesi mesityvis anderZi, romelmac kargad icoda am orive
Janrs Soris Tavisi adgili:
_ nu miacivdebi erT romelime Janrs,
Seni adgili am Janrebis pirSesayarzea~ (xaranauli 2010: 93).
aq aris gamoZaxili XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi gamokveTili disputisa imis
Taobaze, Tu saiTken unda aeRo gezi axal qarTul kulturas: aziisken Tu
evropisken. orive Tvalsazriss hyavda momxreni, aziisken `dabrunebas~ ar-
Cevdnen vaxtang kotetiSvili, valerian gunia da sxv., xolo evropisken _
valerian gafrindaSvili, konstantine gamsaxurdia, tician tabiZe da sxv.,
Tumca, am diskusiaSi gamoikveTa mTavari _ evropuli da dasavluri kul-
turis sinTezi. jer kidev 1917 wels werda grigol robaqiZe: `qarTuli nadi-
miT vixdiT aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis qorwils, _ da nadimi igi mTavari
hangia Cveni nabeWdi sityvisa~ (`qarTvel mwerlebs~). `saqarTvelo saidumlo
uReltexilia aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis: Cven viwviT aRmosavleTis
fiqrmoreuli SuadRiT, roca mzis ReleTa marmaSSi pani ibadeba mZimed
mTvlemare; Cven verTviT dasavleTis saSiSar sicxades, saca TvalRia fan-
tasmagoriebSi `Zeoba~ ikveTeba Zlevamosili. Cven gvafiqrebs egviptis sfin-
qsi da gvancvifrebs parizis qimera~ (`qarTvel mwerlebs~) `Cven gvwams... Se-
duReba dasavleTis da aRmosavleTis kulturisa~ (Salva afxaiZe, `qarTuli
poeziis perspeqtivebi~, 1919).
romanSi gamokveTilia kavkasionis yinulovan mTebs mikruli kuTxis
Svilebis buneba. maT ar swamdaT sinamdvile, amitomac Seqmnes Seudarebeli
folklori. aq `yvelaferi, rasac miwaze ver moereoda adamiani, rom ar da-
karguliyo, caSi ainacvlebda, anu zRaparSi~ (xaranauli 2010: 96).
241


mwerali gviyveba, rom es `tomebi, anu hiperbolebi da metaforebi...
fxovelebis saerTo saxeliT gvecnobian istoriaSi~ (xaranauli 2010: 104). aq
yvelasa da yvelafers Tavisi saxeli erqva da mwerali CamoTvlis maT ise,
rom gagondeba giorgi leoniZis `muxladi, bedauri... sityva~. mkiTxvelis
Tvalwin gadaiSleba bunebasTan da uxilav samyarosTan harmoniulad Serwy-
muli adamianebis cxovreba. `casac rom ar vekidoT adamianebi da iq ZromiT
ar vsumbuqdebodeT, Cvens simZimes dedamiwa ras gauZlebda!~ (xaranauli
2010: 112).
romanSi warmoCenilia, XIX saukunidan rogor daiwyes `hiperbolebis
Cauxedav wignSi~ cxviris Cayofa aTasi juris mwerlebma, mogzaurebma, eT-
nografebma, geologebma. `warsuli maSin mokvdeba, roca mas ar iTamaSeben
awmyoSi~ (130. am `TamaSisTvis~ avtori romanSi CarTavs a. zisermanis, a.rades,
rafiel erisTavis, a. grenis,, v. potos Canawerebs.
mTis `hiperbolebsa da metaforebs kaxeTis bari kvebavda~ (xaranauli
2010: 141) da iyo harmonia mTasa da bars Soris.
mwerali gansakuTrebul yuradRebas amaxvilebs `qariSxaliviT mrisxane
zneobaze~, romelic am adamianebs awrTobda.
warsuli mwerlisTvis `wmindaTawmindaa~, amitomac aseTi sifrTxiliT
miuyveba mis bilikebs da mkiTxvelsac daatarebs: acnobs istoriamdel Tu
istoriis Semdgom periodSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa materialursa da sulier
cxovrebas, maT miswrafebebs, ocnebebs. is warsuli ar asvenebs mas: `aR-
gvbeWde, gamogvaCineo!~ (xaranauli 2010: 15).
radgan hiperbolebs TavianTi ambebi ara daweril, aramed dauwerel an-
drezebSi aqvT `xatisa da jvris bolomde gauSifrav enaze gamxelili, an leq-
sad naTqvami~ (xaranauli 2010: 163), am leqsebisa da andrezebis labirinTebSi
amogzaurebs mwerali mkiTxvels.
`Tma-yviTeli ruseTis imperiam~ am xalxs Tavisi daRi daamCnia. romanSi
warmoCenilia `hiperbolebis gmiruli brZola TavisuflebisTvis. `namdvil
cixed iqca cxovreba~ (xaranauli 2010: 174).
sakuTari Tavis povnisa da Semecnebis gzaze mniSvnelovania mTis `leq-
sikonTan~ ziareba. mwerlis azriT: `mecniereba imitom gaCnda qveynad, rom
mwerlobam gaqurdos~ (xaranauli 2010: 205). es SeiZleba `Citis codvad~ Can-
des, amitomac meore Tavi romanisa `simRera meore-leqsikonisa~ warmoaCens
qarTuli enis simdidres. aq calkeul sityvis xatovan ganmartebasTan erTad
(sityvebi folklorisaa), CarTulia sxvadasxva ambavic, romlebic am sity-
vebis samyaroSi Sehyavs mkiTxveli. es aris Tavbrudamxvevi mogzauroba `win-
warsulisken~ `uncruaT lekos Zis Sedgenil leqsikonSi~.
kidev erTi personaJia romanSi qarTuli sityvis Semnaxveli _ besarion
gabuuri, romelsac eZRvneba mesame Tavi: `simRera mesame- almasis mTebisa
anu kavkasiuri saga besarion gabuurisa~ (avtori uxvad iyenebs sxvadasxva
masalas, maT Soris, wignisas: `besarion gabuuri "xevsuruli masalebi",
akaki SaniZis redaqciiT).
besik xaranaulis dawerili wigni TviTonvea, romelSic bevr `sakvirve-
lebas~ ixilavs mkiTxveli, maT Soris, gaecnoba `Citis skintlze aSenebuli
qalaqis~ ambebs. jer sityvaa da mere sxva yvelaferi, amitomac, rom gamar-
Tlebuliyo naTqvami: `Citis skintlze qalaqi aSendebao~. mwerali, rogorc
TviTon wers, Zalian `gemrielad~ Txzavs yoveli qveynis, maT Soris, iqneb
saqarTvelos `Sobis~ parodirebul `ambavsac~.
242


mwerlisTvis mTavaria, rom kacs axsovdes `vin aris, sidam mosula, sad
aris, wava sadao~ (guramiSvili), amitomac miiCnevs, dRes axali ambebi ki ar
unda iyos mTavari, aramed dedamiwis Tavs gadaxdenili katastrofebis, ome-
bis, misi ekologiuri mdgomareobis.... Sexseneba.
`yovelwamier garemoSi cxovrobs kaci da iqidan mgzavrobs~(xaranauli
2010: 396).
`yvelaferTan unda mixvide, rogorc pirvelad~ (xaranauli 2010: 400).
`Cven rom samyaroSi SeveSviT, suyvelgan gzas da biliks davtovebdiT~
(xaranauli 2010: 40).
wignis pirveli simRera _ `dawerili uJmuris melniT da xanac muSk-
ambr-surnelovaniTa~ sentenciiT iwyeba: `imisTvisaa adamiani, rom iswavlos,
gana rom icodes~ (xaranauli 2010: 9). es, erTi SexedviT, paradoqsuli azria,
magram dafiqrebisTanave daveTanxmebiT mwerals. marTlac, swavla dausru-
lebeli procesia, sicocxlea TviTon, codna ki dasrulebaa, raRacis sabo-
lood Secnoba, e.i. sikvdili, amitomac aris adamiani mudam mSier-mwyurvali
SecnobisaTvis. sokratec amitom ambobda: `me is vici, rom araferi vici~.
samyaros idumaleba, sibnele miT ufro Rrmavdeboda, rac mets Seicnobda. am
wignSi mwerlis kalami xan uJmurSia Cawobili da xan surnelovan muSk-ambrSi.
surneli maSin asdis kalams, roca Zvel qarTvelebze wers, maT znesa da
adaTebze, Tanamedroveobaze werisas ki es surneli sadRac qreba.
mTeli wigni `swavlaa~, mwerali striqons joxiviT moimarjvebs da ga-
ibilikebs warmosaxvis samyaroSi. warmosaxvaSi eguleba mwerals adamianis
daRupvisa da gadarCenis gzac.
mwerals gmirobad miaCnia adamianebSi cxovreba, magram verc uadamiane-
bod yofna warmoudgenia. amitomac ibadeba paTetika: `RmerTo, nu momaSoreb
me adamianobas, RmerTo ixseni Cemi adamianoba~. mwerali bibliur mcnebaTa
dacvis Zalas sTxovs ufals, oRond erTi ramis damatebiT: `rom sityvas~ ga-
ufrTxildes, radgan `sityvaSi viqnebi da sityva macocxlebs~. aq sityva
ufalia upirvelesad.
mTeli romani `uZebni Svilis~ fiqrTa nakadebia, erTmaneTs rom iwveven,
Sesabamisad, mwerali sxvadasxva mxriv gantotavs Tavis saTqmels: `dedamiwis
sarke misi istoriaa, magram dedamiwa sarkeSi ar ixedeba~ (xaranauli 2010: 15).
es Zieba warmoCndeba, rogorc TamaSi. `yvelaze didi ganwmenda TamaSia~
(xaranauli 2010: 406). `xelovani imTaviTve moraluri ki ara, aramed esTe-
tikuri arsebaa. rom misi arsiseuli instinqti TamaSia da ara sikeTe, diax,
rom is mTeli naivurobiT aZlevs Tavs uflebas, moralis sakiTxTa dasmiTa
da misi antinomiebiT dialeqtikurad iTamaSos mxolod~ (mani 2010b: 1). Ta-
maSi am romansac ironiul elfers hmatebs da xSirad badebs, Tundac, amgvar
paradoqss: `iseTi dawere, rom aravin ar waikiTxos~ (xaranauli 2010: 482). es
gvaxsenebs aseve `moTamaSe~ fridrix nicSesac, romelmac Tavis wigns `ese
ityoda zaratustra~ miawera: `wigni yvelasTvis da aravisTvis~.
sakuTari Tavis Ziebas unda asuldgmulebdes rwmena, rom `Sens xalxs da
Sens enas undixar, adamiani erTenovania~ (xaranauli 2010: 465).
xangrZlivi Ziebis erTi Sedegi romanSi asea gamJRavnebuli: `vgrZnob,
rom orive var _ hiperbolac da metaforac~ (409), ase rom, poeziaa misTvis
erTaderTi realoba, romelSic igi Tavs poulobs. Tumca es pirobiTi `Se-
degia~, radgan `hiperbolaca~ da `metaforac~ kvlavac Seucnobel siRrme-
ebs amxelen.

243


damowmebani:
axali aRTqma 1991: axali aRTqma. bibliis Targmnis instituti. stokholmi: 1991.
bodriari 2010: bodriari J. qalaqi da siZulvili. http://lib.ge/body_text.php?319.
borxesi 2010: borxesi x.. `Cveni mwerloba~, 20, 2010.
mani 2008: Tomas mani. winaTqma `jadosnuri mTisa~. `qarTuli sityva~, .2, Tb.:
2008.
mani 2010b: Tomas mani. xelovani da sazogadoeba. http://burusi.wordpress.com/2010/
10/02/ thomas-mann-7/
mesxi 2009: mesxi z. http://zigota.wordpress.com/2009/05/17
robaqiZe 2009: robaqiZe gr. mimarTva qarTvel xalxs. _ qarTveli mwerlebi
skolaSi. Tb.: `saqarTvelos macne~, 2009.
siraZe 2008: siraZe r. kultura da saxismetyveleba. Tb.: `inteleqti~, 2008.
xaranauli 2010: xaranauli b. samoci jorze amxedrebuli raindi anu wigni
hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa. Tb.: `sezani~, 2010.
xaranauli 2010b: xaranauli b. interviu besik xaranaulTan. `besik xaranaulis
jorze amxedrebuli raindebi da momavlis mkiTxveli~. http://arili2.blogspot.com/
2010/08/ blog-post_5345.html
xaranauli 2010g: xaranauli b. `mTvrali miwismzomeli~. interviu besik xarana-
ulTan. `cxeli Sokoladi~, literatura, 25 ianvari, http://shokoladi.ge/node/ 3071?
page=2, 2010.
cirekiZe 2010: cirekiZe s. `saTauri poeziaSi~. _ `raindTa landebi~. quTaisi:
2010.

Maia Jaliashvili

Poetry Paradigm of Son, Who is Unsearched
(According to the New Novel by Besik Kharanauli)

Summary

According to the Novel by Besik Kharanauli `Sixty Knight or Book of Hyperboles
and Metaphors~.
The main character of The novel is himself a poet, who's sense of life is to seek. He
is like the hero of the tale who goes from home to poetic infinite time and space to find the
father, love, childhood, happiness, kindness, beauty, humanity. He goes, on the one hand,
to find the old values and, on the other hand, in order to find new ideals. By the help of this
search he understands, that his roots are in the richest folklore of his people. That is why
the novel is full of samples of Georgian folklore.
According to the author, there are invisible dimension, where is being the only
continuous process: father looking for son, son - father, dead looking for live and live _
dead, past looking for the present and vice versa. Thus, being the ritual dialogue between
the sky and the ground, death and life, but everyone forgets the son, which no one is
looking for. Our souls that live in this dimension always looking for the lost beauty. When
does this search begin? When you suddenly recognized that you are the man, who is
unsearched, you are lost. When you suddenly start search yourself. This Symbolically
expresses the fact that people are alienated from each other and lonely.
Novel described mystical dialogue between the sky and land, this connection will
never have to maintain. This means, that person (the nation) must harmonious existence
in the space and time.
244


Tamar barbaqaZe

leqsmcodneobis sakiTxebi XXI saukunis
pirveli aTwleulis presaSi



b) ZvelqarTuli leqsi da `vefxistyaosnis~ leqswyoba

profesor levan menabdis dabadebidan 75-e wlisTavisadmi miZRvnil kre-
bulSi `Zveli qarTuli literaturis problemebi~ daibeWda ak. xinTibiZis
werili: `qarTuli saero leqsis genezisisaTvis~. avtori Tezisurad ayali-
bebs qarTuli leqsis istoriis ZiriTad safexurebs da aRniSnavs, rom uZve-
lesi saero poeziis Zirebis kvlevisaTvis Zvirfas masalas iZleva Cvens agi-
ografiul mwerlobaSi CarTuli leqsiTi citatebi, romlebic, ZiriTadad,
Targmnilia ocmarcvliani leqsiT, sadac mTlianad gamoricxulia xalxuri
metrikis gavlena, ise, rogorc, sasuliero leqsisa. am mxriv sayuradReboa,
rom ak. xinTibiZe iziarebs sim. yauxCiSvilisa da ap. silagaZis mosazrebebs.
pirveli qarTuli riTma: ufali-Seuvali, ak. xinTibiZis azriT, rogorc
evfoniurad, aseve semantikurad, maRalxarisxovania. am leqsiTi citatebis
Semdeg qarTuli saero poeziis mniSvnelovani SenaZenia atenis sionis kedlis
warwerebi (IX s.) da `daviT aRmaSeneblis epitafia~ (xinTibiZe 2002: 86).
2002-2003 wlebis mijnaze, TiTqmis xuTi wlis Semdeg, SeiZleba Tamamad
iTqvas, pirvelad Sefasda safuZvlianad cnobili arabistisa da versifika-
ciis mkvlevaris, apolon silagaZis 1997 wels gamocemuli naSromi: `Zveli
qarTuli leqsi da qarTuli poeziis uZvelesi safexuris problema~ (Tsu,
1997) Teimuraz doiaSvilis werilSi: `hipoTezidan Teoriamde~. ap. silagaZis
wigni pavle ingoroyvas xsovnas eZRvneba. pavle ingoroyvas hipoTeza, rom-
lis Tanaxmad, `qristianuli mwerlobis ganviTarebamde didi xniT adre qar-
Tul enaze arsebobda Zlieri tradiciebis mqone warmarTuli saero lite-
ratura, am wignSi mecnierulad dasabuTebuli, logikur-fsiqologiurad
argumentirebuli Teoriis saxes iRebs~ (doiaSvili 2002: 2).
Teimuraz doiaSvili kidev erTxel Seaxsenebs Tavis recenziaSi qarTvel
mkiTxvels saero poeziis pavle ingoroyvaseul klasifikacias da mis safuZ-
velze ganxiluli qarTuli himnografiis saxeebs: 1. e. w. prozaul formebs; 2.
stroful leqss da 3. iambikos.
gansakuTrebiT faseulad migvaCnia: 1) T. doiaSvilis mier sarecenzio
wignSi aqcentirebuli daskvna: `sasuliero teqstebSi SemCneuli sazomebi
Canasaxi ki araa, aramed paralelurad moqmedi erovnuli leqswyobis kvali~;
2) mkvlevris mier sagangebo yuradRebis mipyroba naTargmn prozaSi CarTul
leqsiT nimuSebze; 3) apolon silagaZis mier msjelobaSi Semotanili cnebis:
literaturuli kanonis SemzRudavi normis Taobaze: sasuliero mwerloba,
ZiriTadad, eyrdnoba iambikos, magram specifikur SemTxvevebSi, Tu arasasu-
liero SinaarsTan uxdeba kontaqti, sxva versifikaciuli formis gamoyene-
bis ufleba aqvs; 4) apolon silagaZis koncefciis ganmtkiceba: erTi saleqso
striqonis citirebis tradiciuli xerxis momarjvebiT daiZebnos III-IV-V sa-
ukuneebis ZeglebSi leqsis nimuSebi; 5) T. doiaSvili mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs

werili II. I werili ix. `literaturuli Ziebani~, 2009, XXX, gv. 206-215.
245


ap. silagaZis mier fistikauris aRiarebas qarTuli leqswyobis amosaval
safexurad (doiaSvili 2002: 2) ganxilvisas.
fistikauris Taobaze sainteresod msjelobs T. doiaSvili apolon
silagaZis wignis: `qarTuli literaturis istoria, rogorc sistema da
literaturuli normebis sakiTxi~ (Tbilisi, 2000) ganxilvisas.
T. doiaSvili recenziis dasawyisSive aRniSnavs, rom `ap. silagaZe kvla-
vac erTgulia umTavresi postulatisa, rom literaturis istoria aris sis-
tema anu mTlianoba~, xolo sarecenzio wignSi kvlevis uSualo obieqtia
sakuTriv literaturuli normebis (skolebis, stilebis)) problema.
recenzenti maxvilgonivrulad miiCnevs ap. silagaZis mier gamoTqmul
mosazrebas, am debulebis gansamtkiceblad, `vefxistyaosnis~ e. w. fistika-
uri strofis momarjvebis Taobaze: poemaSi am erTaderTi, gansxvavebuli
strofis SetaniT rusTaveli imdroindeli qarTuli metruli repertuaris
srul realizebas axdens.
recenzenti damajereblad upasuxebs Tavissave kiTxvas: ra niadagze un-
da Camoyalibebuliyo aseTi norma? da aCvenebs, rom Zvel qarTul poeziaSi
cxadad ikveTeba versifikaciuli dapirispireba normebis farglebSi _ es
norma ki iTvaliswinebs Zveli qarTuli sazomebis aRiarebas da axali, ara-
qarTuli warmoSobis sazomis uaryofas, kerZod, iambikos ignorirebas saero
poeziaSi. Semdgom saukuneebSi es norma moqmedebs; amis dasturia besikis
poezia da gr. orbelianis erTaderTi, iambikos formiT dawerili `Cemi epi-
tafia~. daviT aRmaSeneblis epitafia ki ap. silagaZis wignSi inovaciis nimu-
Sad ganixileba _ epitafia Sairis formaSi.
T. doiaSvili sarecenzio wignis avtors sagulisxmo faqts uziarebs Ta-
visi debulebis gansamtkiceblad: nik. baraTaSvilis `vardi da ia~ da `nar-
gizi da yayaCo~ iambikos metriT aris dawerili, SegonebiT _ zneobrivi
Sinaarsisaa da `xmarebis SezRudul areSi~ eqceva (doiaSvili 2003: 98-99).
veTanxmebiT T. doiaSvils, rom sasuliero da saero poezia erTiani
sistemis Semadgeneli elementebia.
recenzenti marTebulad aRniSnavs, agreTve, ap. silagaZis naSromSi
rusTveluri formis inovaciis Taobaze CaxruxaulTan mimarTebisas.
apolon silagaZis gamokvlevebi qarTuli leqsis bunebisa da Zveli qar-
Tuli leqsis Taobaze gansakuTrebiT gaRrmavda XXI saukunis pirvel aTwle-
ulSi. amis dasturia cnobili qarTveli aRmosavleTmcodnis, arabistisa da
leqsmcodnis naSromebi, romlebic man leqsmcodneobis samecniero sesiebze
warmoadgina SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis institutSi 2008-2010
wlebSi da, Sesabamisad, daibeWda kidec axaldaarsebul kr. `leqsmcodneoba-
Si~ (I-2008, II-2009): `qarTuli leqsis kvalifikaciis sakiTxi~ da `ioane-
zosimes akrostiqis versifikaciuli struqtura~.
ioane-zosimes cnobili akrostiqis axal interpretacias gvTavazobs
mkvlevari niko maris (1909), p. beraZisa (1943) da p. ingoroyvas mosazrebebis
(1954) Semdeg. kerZod, ioane-zosimes `anderZi~ warmodgenilia mwyobri ver-
sifikaciuli struqturiT: ornawliani: ori, agebulebiT identuri nawilis-
gan Semdgari struqtura. mkvlevari sruliad samarTlianad miiCnevs, rom X
saukuneSi 4+4 striqonis arsebobis faqti saintereso masalas iZleva qar-
Tuli leqswyobis diaqroniis analizisaTvis.
gundni igi zecisani 4/4
Sen, wmindasa 4
ganwyobiTni... 4
246


sagulisxmoa, rom am teqstis simetriul ornawilianobas: a) zogad
simetrias, damyarebuls ori nawilis funqciur identurobaze da b) kon-
kretul simetrias _ 1997 wels ar aRiarebda arc apolon silagaZe (`moce-
muli teqsti ZiriTadad agebulia orwevrebze (4+4), mwyobri organizaciis
gareSe~). amjerad ki cnobili leqsmcodne gadasinjavs Tavis Tormeti wlis
winandel Sexedulebas da mecnieruli keTilsindisierebiT azustebs, rom
ioane-zosimes `anderZis~ ornawiliani struqtura Seicavs sam-sam strofs
(`muxls~), romelTagan I-II 6-striqoniania, xolo yoveli mesame _ 7-stri-
qoniania; Svidive striqoni ki erTi da imave agebulebisaa: 4+4.
ap. silagaZis azriT, ioane-zosimes `anderZi iadgarisas~ forma unikalu-
ria. garda amisa, X saukuneSi am formis (pirvel yovlisa, 4+4 striqonis
mqone) arsebobis faqti saintereso masalas iZleva qarTuli leqswyobis
diaqroniis analizisaTvis (silagaZe 2009: 143).
`literaturul ZiebanSi~ (XXIII, XXIV, 2002, 2003) gamoqveynda T. doiaSvi-
lis gamokvleva: `qarTuli leqsi XVII saukuneSi~. naSromis SesavalSi mkvle-
vari afiqsirebs Tavis pozicias, rom qarTuli leqsis istoria rusTavelis
Semdeg sagangebo versifikaciul Seswavlas iTxovs, aqve moxazulia am didi
samuSaos ZiriTadi aspeqtebi.
amjerad ki TviTon iwyebs mecnieri am Sromatevadi saqmis aRsrulebas,
rodesac Teimuraz I TxzulebaTa metrul-ritmuli struqturisa da riTmis
analizs gvTavazobs.
Teimuraz doiaSvilis winaswari daskvna: Teimuraz I mtkiced dgas qar-
Tuli klasikuri poeziis magistralur gzaze da uryevad axorcielebs rus-
Tveluri leqsis tradiciebs, eyrdnoba poetis TxzulebaTa metrul-ritmu-
li struqturis skrupulozur statistikur kvlevas: SairiT Sesrulebulia
Teimuraz I 1175 strofi, versifikaciuli gadaxvevebi ki minimaluria _
0,34%.
T. doiaSvili yuradRebas miapyrobs: 1) poetebs, romlebic ver arRveven
Teimuraz I leqsis metrul wesrigs; 2) sazomTa Serevas aramarto naxevar-
taepebSi, rac mTlianad aryevs stroful-metrul struqturas; es faqti ki
mkvlevars avaraudebinebs, rom es aris qarTuli klasikuri leqsis dekadan-
sis pirveli gamovlena: 30 Sairis garda, mecnierma Teimuraz I poeziaSi
aRnusxa 33 ocmarcvliani strofi, romelTagan mxolod xuTia fistikauri,
danarCeni _ SavTeluri; 4) Teimuraz I SemoqmedebaSi aris erTi verlibri:
`Tamaris saxe daviT garejas~, romlis mxolod pirveli strofia dabali
SairiT Sesrulebuli; 5) miuxedavad ak. gawerelias kategoriuli gancxade-
bisa, rom anJambemani anu gadatana qarTul poeziaSi XIX s.-mde ar gvxvdeba,
mkvlevari Teimuraz I-is poeziaSi afiqsirebs gadatanis faqts:

mefeman taxti, gvirgvini, droSa, naRara, qorebiT,
moaRebina yoveli: _ Tqva Wirni maqvso ocnebiT.

Tumca aqve mianiSnebs avtori, rom gadatana aq gacnobierebuli xerxi, albaT,
ar aris, magram metruli pauza rom Seryeulia, amis aRniSvna aucilebelia.
Teimuraz pirvelis riTmaze msjelobisas mecnieri sagangebod ikvlevs
riTmis evfonias da afiqsirebs pirvel konsonansur riTmas XVII s. 20-ian
wlebSi: naTeli _ SemonaTvali.
savsebiT gasaziarebelia Teimuraz doiaSvilis daskvna, rom versifika-
ciuli gadaxvevebi Teimuraz pirvelis poeziaSi mxolod gamonaklisebia,
rogorc metrikis, ise riTmis sferoSi. aRorZinebis xanis poeti rusTvelis
247


xazis erTgulia leqswyobis TvalsazrisiT (doiaSvili 2002: 456). gamokvle-
vis II nawili, romelic arCil mefis versifikacias eZRvneba, `literaturuli
Ziebanis~ XXIV krebulSi daibWda, 2003 wels: `arCili sainteresod moazrov-
nea, magram naklebad Rirebulia, rogorc poeti, Tumca misi poeziis met-
rul-ritmul struqturasa da riTmaSi SeiniSneba zogi ram iseTi, rac yu-
radRebas imsaxurebs~ (doiaSvili 2003: 348), _ aRniSnavs mkvlevari, romelic
sagangebod akvirdeba arCilis ZiriTad metrs _ Sairs da SedarebiT naklebi
sixSiriT arsebul sazoms mis poeziaSi _ ocmarcvleds. CvenTvis gansakuT-
rebiT sagulisxmoa T. doiaSvilis mier arCilis riTmiansa da metrulad
mowesrigebul TxzulebaTa fonze erTi aTtaepiani, usaTauro leqsis `Tana
warhxed...~ miCneva verlibrad da arCilis poeziaSi anJambemanis 30-mde Sem-
Txvevis aRnusxva. mniSvnelovania gamokvlevis daskvna: `arCilis poeziaSi
sruliad aSkaraa leqsis formis iseTi arsebiTi komponentebis dekadansi,
rogoric aris metrul-ritmuli struqtura da riTma. Zalian iolia, es mov-
lena arCilis, rogorc poetis, niWis ukmarisobiT avxsnaT, magram xom ar
dgas formisadmi amgvari damokidebulebis miRma garkveuli pozicia!..~
(doiaSvili 2003: 354).
2003 wels kr. `sjanSi~ (IV) daibeWda akaki xinTibiZis gamokvleva `besikis
riTma~. mkvlevris azriT, besikis saleqso formaTa mravalferovnebis (70)
ZiriTad wyaros gariTmvis sistemaTa mravalsaxovneba (22) warmoadgens;
rusTvelis Semdeg ki, ak. xinTibiZis azriT, galaktionamde riTmiT ise aravis
gauocebia mkiTxveli, rogorc besiks. ak. xinTibiZe axasiaTebs besikis ara-
Tanabarmarcvlian, konsonansur, mravalmarcvlian, omonimur, SeTavsebul,
redifian riTmebs, agreTve, riTmis meSveobiT Seqmnil ramdenime axal sa-
zoms: ormuxlian aTmarcvleds SidariTmiT, romlis erTaderTi SemTxveva XI
saukuneSi borenas sagalobelSi gvxvdeba. `daemxo Zali, pirvel sisxliTa
mTvrali~ (xinTibiZe 2003: 109). borenas sagalobelsa da besikis `samZimars~
ak. xinTibiZem sagangebo werilic uZRvna gaz. `Cvens mwerlobaSi~ da miiCnia,
rom besiki sagangebod unda dainteresebuliyo borena dedoflis xuTstri-
qoniani, mSvenieri sagalobliT, romlis pirvelive riTma: miuzRe vali _
mxevali _ besikis `samZimaris~ pirvelive strofSive iCens Tavs: mTenebad _
samoTxed nebad; Tumca es faqti sruliadac ar afiqrebinebs leqsis gamoc-
dil mkvlevars, borenas sagalobeli rom ar arsebuliyo, `samZimari~ ar
daiwereboda! daiwereboda, magram sxvagvari struqturiT, _ daaskvnis ak.
xinTibiZe da Cvenc viziarebT am mosazrebas.
levan bregaZe kr. `leqsmcodneobaSi~ (I) qarTuli leqsis istoriisaTvis
metad sayuradRebo masalas acnobs mkiTxvels: igi saubrobs rostom erisTa-
vis ori galeqsili epistoles Taobaze.
ortaepediT Sesrulebuli galeqsili epistole, zmaTa meSveobiT gadmo-
cemuli qveteqstiTa da 15-marcvliani sazomis iSviaTi saxeobiT (4/4/2/5)
unikalurad aris miCneuli mkvlevris mier da am azrs uTuod gaiziarebs
mkiTxvelic.
meore epistole 16-marcvliani SairiT aris dawerili, magram gamoirCeva
e. w. Tematuri riTmebiT, rac poeziisaTvis Zalian faseulia. unda dave-
TanxmoT avtors, rom XVIII s. bolos Sesrulebuli, rostom raWis erisTavis
galeqsili satiruli epistoleebi mniSvnelovania ara marto qarTuli leq-
sis, aramed qarTuli literaturis istoriis mkvlevarTaTvisac (bregaZe
2008: 111).
248


venera kavTiaSvilis werilSi `germanuli knitelversi da hegzametri~
saubaria germanul poeziaSi am ori saleqso formis ganviTarebis istoriaze
da hegzametris meSveobiT germanul enaze herman budenzigis mier `vefxis-
tyaosnis~ Targmanis Taobaze: `sainteresoa, rom budenzigi pirvel-or taeps
Targmnis 16-marcvliani sazomiT, rac, erTi mxriv, emTxveva rusTavelis 16-
marcvlian sazoms, magram, amave dros, vinaidan orive taepSi gvaqvs TiTo
grZeli bgera _ Arabien, herrvieler da es `ie~ erT bgerad ki warmoiTqmis, magram
ori bgeris grZliobas `ii~-s uaxlovdeba, amdenad, SeiZleba me-17 marcvlis
warmoTqmis periodad iqnas aRqmuli... Tu daqtiluri hegzametriT buden-
zigi, erTgvarad, dabali Sairis asociacias qmnis, qoreuli terfebis mijriT
warmodgeniT ritms aCerebs da maRali Sairis asociaciur SegrZnebas iwvevs~
(kavTiaSvili 2008: 156-157).
rogorc vxedavT, XXI saukunis I aTwleulis periodikaSi sagangebo adgi-
li daeTmo ZvelqarTuli leqsis sakiTxebs da, `vefxistyaosnis~ fistikauri
strofis Sefasebis fonze, versifikaciul dapirispirebas saleqso formaTa
Soris normebis farglebSi; kvlav aqtualuria `vefxistyaosnis~ germanul
enaze Targmnisas Sesaferisi metris SerCevis sakiTxi.


g) galaktionis leqsi

galatikonis leqswyobis Seswavlis axali aspeqtebi XXI saukunis pirvel
aTwleulSi gansakuTrebiT gamoikveTa SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli litera-
turis institutSi 2002 wels galaktionis kvlevis centris SeqmniT, romel-
sac cnobili leqsmcodne, galaktionologi Teimuraz doiaSvili xelmZRva-
nelobs. 2002-2010 wlebSi am centrma dastamba `galaktionologiis~ 5 krebu-
li (I 2002; II _ 2003; III _ 2004; IV. _ 2008; V _ 2010); TiToeuli maTganSi
galaktionis leqswyobis sakiTxebs mieZRvna ramdenime werili; magaliTad: T.
barbaqaZis `galaktionis `mgzavris werilebi~ (I, 144-151); T. doiaSvilis
`artistuli yvavilebis~ prologi (erTi hipoTezis istoria)~ (II, 41-62); akaki
xinTibiZis, `akademiuri gamocemis gamo~ (II, 376-377); T. doiaSvilis `frTebi
da diadema~ (III, gv. 45-81); r. beriZis `siciliana~ (III, 175-189); misive `Sen zRvis
pirad (erTi leqsis retrospeqtuli analizi)~ (V, 292-303) da sxv.
CamoTvlilTagan sagangebod SevCerdebiT qarTuli leqsis cnobili
mkvlevris, aw gardacvlil r. beriZis werilebze, romlebic galaktionis
myari saleqso formebis poetikis kvlevas eZRvneba. kerZod, mecnieri
ikvlevs galaktionis cnobili leqsis `Sen zRvis pirad midiodi, meri~
versifikaciul `Tavgadasavals~, romelic r. beriZes ase warmoedgina:
1. siciliana _ `Sen zRvis pirad~, Tavdapirveli saTauriT `meri~;
2. pantumi _ xelnaweriseuli Seusabamo saTauriT `rondo uboloo~;
3. mrCobledis pirvelsaxe;
4. mrCobledi savaraudo;
5. mrCobledi _ `Sen zRvis pirad~ (bolo gamoqveynebuli redaqcia) sru-
liad gasaziarebelia roland beriZis Tvalsazrisi galaktionze, rogorc
evropuli myari saleqso formebis poetikis ubadlo mcodneze. `man, leqsis
uebro didostatma, uSecdomod icoda evropuli warmomavlobis myar saleq-
so formaTa asaval-dasavali da maTi Tvisebrivi niSnebi, sulerTia, soneti
iqneboda Tu trioleti, vilaneli Tu tercina, rondeli Tu rondo, egreT
249


wodebuli `franguli balada~ Tu oqtava da misTanani. igive iTqmis sicili-
anazec...~ (beriZe 2004: 179).
2003 wels ak. xinTibiZem gamosca wigni: `galaktioni: 15 leqsi da erTi
poema~, romelSic ganxilulia galaktionis 15 leqsi da poema `mSvidobis wig-
ni~. akaki xinTibiZis mier ganxiluli 15 leqsidan mkvlevris Sefasebas amje-
rad ori Sedevris Taobaze: `mival, gadavkocni~ da `dadga agvisto~ gadmog-
cemT: es leqsebi mecniers erTi principiT dauaxloebia erTmaneTisaTvis:
`sityvaTa silaburi gawonasworebis~ principiT: strofis Semxvedri, urTi-
erTgariTmuli striqonebi (I-III, II-IV) sityvaTa silaburi SedgenilobiT ur-
TierTidenturia: `mival, gadavkocnis~ metruli sqema heterosilaburia: 2/4
da 2/3. es sazomi qarTul poeziaSi galaktionis Semotanilia da, miuxedavad
misi musikalobisa, mxolod erTaderTi leqsiT aris SemorCenili.
Tu `mival, gadavkocni~ mkvlevarma samive strofis urTierTmimarTebaSi
ganixila, `dadga agvisto~ pirvelive strofi iqcevs yuradRebas:

dadga agvisto. ca rideuli
daisicxeba isev dil-diliT,
qalaqs edeba mze TviTeuli
yayaCoebiT, tuxtiT, pilpiliT.

mkvlevari eZebs poetis mier am strofis danarCeni leqsisgan gamijvnis,
disharmoniis saidumlos da poulobs kidec: galaktioni iswrafvis simetri-
isa da wonasworobisaken.
XXI saukunis pirveli aTwleulis dasasruls galaktionis leqsis mkvle-
varTaTvis gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo werilebi gamoaqveyna kr. `leqs-
mcodneoaSi~ (I, II) irine meliqiSvilma.
i. meliqiSvilis werilSi `galaktionis bgerwera. leqsis `qari hqris...~
bgerweriTi struqturisaTvis~ saubaria galaktionis cnobier, gaazrebul
damokidebulebaze enis bgerweriT potenciasTan: `galaktionma TiToeuli
bgeris sazrisi icoda da amas poeturi xelovnebis safuZvlad miiCnevda... mas
SeumCneveli ar rCeba bgeris sinesTezuri aRqmis SesaZleblobebi...
galaktioni sruliad cnobierad iziarebda Tanamedrove Teorias bgeriTi
simbolizmis Sesaxeb, TviTon ikvlevda qarTuli enis SesaZleblobebs da
SemoqmedebiTad iyenebda maT~ (meliqiSvili 2008: 115-116). mkvlevris azriT,
galaktionis yoveli poeturi Sedevri enis ormagi danawevrebis virtuozu-
li flobis Sedegia; galaktionis bgerweraSi gamoiyeneba rogorc fonemuri,
ise diferencialur niSanTa bgerwera. i. meliqiSvili leqss `qari hqris...~
aanalizebs TanxmovanTa da xmovanTa ganlagebis kanonzomierebiT. sagulis-
xmoa avtoris dakvirveba Sesityvebis `...rkalad xris~ Taobaze: rkalad moxra
bgerweriTac aris gadmocemuli: rk da xr erTmaneTTan sarkisebur mimar-
TebaSi arian diferencialur niSanTa doneze: nunismieri-ukananunismieri
< > ukananunismieri-nunismieri: kompleqsebis sarkiseburi asaxviT bgerweri-
Tad CaRunuli rkalis saxe aris miRweuli. mkvlevarma sagangebod Seiswavla
galaktionis ramdenime leqsis xmovnuri statistikuri struqtura da aR-
moCnda, rom saSualo sigrZis leqsi standartul statistikur struqturas
inarCunebs. asea saanalizo leqsSic. `saocaria, magram faqtia, rom xmovanTa
mimarTebebis TvalsazrisiT jvars viRebT... xmovanTa bgerweriTi logika
aseTia: Zieba _ pasuxis miRebis mcdeloba _ kvlavac simartoveSi, izola-
ciaSi darCena, magram mainc simaRlesTan ZafiviT wvrili, faqizi kavSiri~
(meliqiSvili 2008: 122-123).
250


sagulisxmod migvaCnia mkvlevriseuli aluzia saanalizo leqsisa ioanes
saxarebis mesame TavSi, nikodemosis Ramiseul saubarSi macxovarTan, sadac
xmianobs sityvebi: `suli, sadac nebavs, qris~, an: `qari, sadac nebavs, qris~; i.
meliqiSvili fiqrobs, rom `qari hqris~ galaktionis mistikuri mimarTu-
lebis qmnilebebs unda miekuTvnos.
kr. `leqsmcodneobaSi~ (II) daibeWda irine meliqiSvilis aseve sagulisxmo
gamokvleva `palindromi galaktionTan~. avtori galaktionis, rogorc `po-
eti-geometris~ Temas aviTarebs, ganixilavs mis `teqnikur savarjiSoebs~ da
misi e.w. nawilobrivi palindromebis Seswavlas uZRvnis Tavis statias.
mkvlevris azriT, es ar aris mxolod teqnikuri savarjiSoebi da am formas
galaktionis poeziaSi didi Sinagani datvirTva aqvs. irine meliqiSvilis az-
riT, galaktionTan palindromi gaTiSulis gamTlianebis, nawilobrivis
srulqmnis, zenasa da qvenas dakavSirebis funqciiT itvirTeba. xmovniTi
arekvlis nimuSia danaxuli avtoris mier `me da RameSi~: e...a < > a...e, aseve
sarkisebuli asaxvaa: zRvam... aRzarda. palindromulia aseve saTauri:
silaJvarde, anu vardi silaSi, leqsSi `droSebi Cqara~ palindromulia
konsonanturad: droSebi da SeerTdiT. mkvlevari daaskvnis: `palindromi
kongruentuli anu sarkisebuli mimarTebis erTi saxeobaa... poeti, romelic
aseT did yuradRebas uTmobda palindroms, rogorc saleqso xerxs, ar unda
dakmayofilebuliyo mxolod savarjiSoebis ekvilibristikiT da es xerxi
Tavis SemoqmedebaSi unda gamoeyenebina (meliqiSvili 2009: 113).
T. barbaqaZis gamokvleva `riTmebis sasaxle (galaktionis`ucnauri
sasaxle~) eZRvneba `artistuli yvavilebis~ 66-e leqss, romelic uCveuloa
omonimuri da konsonansuri riTmebis originaluri konstruqciiT
(barbaqaZe 2007: 33).
galaktionis monorimis Seswavlis cdas warmoadgens T. barbaqaZis gamok-
vleva `galaktionis monorimi (`ieri~, `ferad-feradi~), romelic eyrdnoba
galaktionis TxzulebaTa uaxlesi gamocemis (gamomcemloba `literaturis
matiane~, 2005) II da V tomebs, sadac, Sesabamisad, 15 da 18 monorimia. avtoris
azriT, `ieri~ da `ferad-feradi~ erTmaneTs enaTesaveba da Tu `ferad-
feradis~ TariRi eWvs ar iwvevs, namdvilad 1938 wels aris dawerili, `ieri~
1928-1938 wlebiT unda daTariRdes~ (barbaqaZe 2008: 111).
galaktionis cnobili leqsis `cxovreba Cemi uankares Rvinis feria~
ucnob sonetur variantze msjelobs T. barbaqaZe. igi fiqrobs, rom am
sonetis I tercetSi galaktioni swored sakuTar Tavs moixseniebs `ucnobad~
(barbaqaZe 2009: 95).
galaktion tabiZis saxeobrivi azrovnebis cnobili mkvlevris, galakti-
onologiis ganyofilebis gamgis, profesor Teimuraz doiaSvilis sayurad-
Rebo gamokvleva `galaktion tabiZis `istoriuli~ balada da misi interteq-
stualuri areali~ literaturaTmcodneobis Tanamedrove problemebisadmi
miZRvnili II saerTaSoriso simpoziumis masalebSi daibeWda. kerZod, mecni-
eri ganixilavs galaktionis baladas `Tasi~, romelic poetis sicocxleSi ar
gamoqveynebula. igi pirvelad poetis akademiuri Tormettomeulis VIII tom-
Si daibeWda 1970 wels. mkvlevari am baladas jer akakis dramatul poemasTan
`Tamar cbierTan~ akavSirebs, xolo Semdeg briusovis erotikul baladebsa
da puSkinis `egviptur RameebTan~, agreTve, goeTes `Tules mefesTan~.
T.doiaSvilis hipoTeza aseTia: galaktionis `Tasi~ puSkinis `egvipturi
Rameebis~ kleopatras ambis dasrulebis Taviseburi cdaa! puSkinis daumTav-
rebeli nawarmoebis `qarTuli gagrZeleba~ (doiaSvili 2009: 196-217).
251


d) XIX-XX saukuneebis qarTveli poetebis leqswyoba

XXI s. pirveli aTwleuli gansakuTrebiT xvavrieli aRmoCnda axali da
uaxlesi qarTuli leqsis versifikaciuli Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT. upirve-
les yovlisa, unda aRvniSnoT akaki xinTibiZis fundamenturi gamokvleva
`qarTuli leqsis istoria da Teoria~ (Tsu gamomcemloba, 2009), sadac sagan-
gebo Tavebi eZRvneba romantikosTa riTmas, romantikosebidan galaktionam-
de qarTuli riTmis Tavgadasavals, galaktionis riTmas da lado asaTianis
riTmas (gv. 247-298).
nikoloz baraTaSvilis leqsis versifikaciuli parametrebis Seswavlas
warmatebiT agrZeleben XXI saukunis damdegs akaki xinTibiZe da Tamar
lomiZe. akaki xinTibiZis werili `nikoloz baraTaSvilis metrika~ lado
asaTianiseuli SefasebiT iwyeba, romliTac man baraTaSvilis leqsi gansaz-
Rvra: `Seni striqoni saakaZis xmaliviT basri~. am `basri striqonebiT~ dawe-
rili leqsebis umravlesoba, ak. xinTibiZis dakvirvebiT, 5/4/5 _ uSidariTmo
besikuri sazomiT aris dawerili (13 leqsi), 5/5 _ rva leqssa da poemaSi
gvxvdeba, 53/53 _ Svid leqsSi, 4/43 _ xuT leqsSi, 4/34 _ sam leqsSi, 55/55 _
sam leqsSi da a. S. `sazomTa ricxvi rom TxzulebaTa ricxvs Warbobs, mis
gamoa, rom zogierTi leqsi da poema ori sazomiT aris dawerili. aseTebia:
`merani~, `SemoRameba mTawmindazed~, `Cems varskvlavs~, `suli oboli~,
`Cvili~, `miyvars Tvalebi~, `qTevan~, `bedi qarTlisa~ (xinTibiZe 2005: 90).
baraTaSvilis metrikas gmorCeulad miiCnevs mkvlavari imis gamoc, rom igi
Seicavs heterosilabur (araTanabarzomier) sazoms, rac axla qarTul
metrikaSi, romelic aqamde izosilabizmis princips eyrdnoboda. imis miuxe-
davad, rom baraTaSvils axali sazomi ar Semoutania, maTi mravalricxovne-
biT, kanonzomieri monacvleobiT, da heterosilaburobiT, baraTaSvilis
mcire moculobis poezia metrikiTac sainteresoa.
nikoloz baraTaSvilis riTmas eZRvneba Tamar lomiZis werili, romelic
qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi sruliad Seuswavlel problemas, paro-
nimul atraqcias, ukavSirebs baraTaSvilis leqss. paronimuli atraqcia
leqsSi gulisxmobs tradiciuli, zusti riTmis Canacvlebas arazusti, ara-
identuri riTmiT. mkvlevari am movlenis Teoriul axsnasac gvTavazobs da
mis konkretul analizsac warmogvidgens nikoloz baraTaSvilis leqsis
safuZvelze.
Tamar lomiZis werili `paronimuli atraqcia nikoloz baraTaSvilis
mxatvrul enaSi~ Sesulia literaturaTmcodneobis Tanamedrove proble-
mebisadmi miZRvnili II saerTaSoriso simpoziumis masalebSi.
T. lomiZis azriT, paronimuli atraqciis sistemuri gamoyeneba, arazus-
ti riTmis msgavsad, nik. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi, aixsneba enobrivi niSnebis
konvenciur mniSvnelobaTa destruqciiT, teqstis semantikis gaorebiT,
`dialogurobiT~, rac uSualo kavSirSia baraTaSvilis poeziis iseT Tavise-
burebebTan, rogorebicaa. lirikuli gmiris `mes~ gaorebuli struqtura,
erTi da imave movlenis ori, urTierTsapirispiro daxasiaTeba da gansxvavebul
TvalsazrisTa Tanabaruflebianoba erTsa da imave teqstSi (lomiZe 2009: 453).
`aliteracia da paronimuli atraqcia~, _ asea dasaTaurebuli Tamar
lomiZis statia, romelic kr. `leqsmcodneobaSi~ gamoqveynda 2009 wels. nik.
baraTaSvilis poeturi teqstebis analizis Sedegad mkvlevarma gamoavlina
gansazRvruli kanonzomierebani da daaskvna, rom poets Semoaqvs axali
teqsti teqstSi, axali semantika Zvel semantikaSi da am gziT migvaniSnebs
252


samyaros krizisze; poeti ormag qmedebas axorcielebs _ uaryofs tradici-
ul formebs, magram ar auqmebs maT, aramed maTsave farglebSi moqmedebs,
cvlis maT da irCevs axal gramatikas, romelic ara imdenad mowesrigebulia,
ramdenadac _ mouwesrigebeli (lomiZe 2009: 105).
XXI saukunis pirveli aTwleuli qarTuli leqsmcodneobis istoriisaT-
vis saintereso iqneba im axali Taobis mkvlevarebiTac, romlebic swored am
dros Seematnen erovnuli leqwyobis SemswavlelTa rigebs. maT Soris
uTuod aRsaniSnavia Sorena qurTiSvili, romelmac 2002 wels daicva sakva-
lifikacio naSromi: `XX saukunis 10-iani wlebis qarTuli metrika~, amave
wels daibeWda misi gamokvleva: `paolo iaSvilis leqswyoba~. S. qurTiSvili
yuradRebas amaxvilebs simbolistur esTetikaze, romlis Tanaxmad, poetu-
ri sityva irealuri samyaros Semecnebis gasaRebad unda iqces; amitomac ka-
nonzomieria is faqti, rom sxva `cisferyanwelebTan~ erTad, paolo iaSvili
sagangebod eZiebda metrikas, ritmul-intonaciur fonze (qurTiSvili 2002:
39). `cisferyanwelebis~ metrikas werili miuZRvna T. barbaqaZem, romelmac
sagangebod Seiswavla: valerian gafrindaSvilis, tician tabiZis, paolo
iaSvilis metruli repertuari (barbaqaZe 2006: 85-97).
rogorc am statiis winaTqmaSi aRvniSneT, 2008-2009 wlebSi gamovida kre-
bulebi: `leqsmcodneoba~ I, II, romlebic, Sesabamisad, mieZRvna: ana kalanda-
Zesa da lado asaTians. ana kalandaZis leqswyobis sakiTxebs ikvleven krebu-
lis avtorebi: akaki xinTibiZe, T. barbaqaZe, S. afridoniZe, m. jiqia, m. gelaS-
vili, q. enuqiZe, T. beriZe, xolo lado asaTianis leqsis metrikisa da riTmis
problemebs mieZRvnas II krebulSi: ak. xinTibiZis, l. bregaZis, i. gadilias,
T.barbaqaZis, q. enuqiZis, T. woworias, n.sozaSvilis, n. cxedianis, m. jiqias da
sxv. werilebi.
samyaros msoflmxedvelobriv krizissa da totalitarizmTan akavSirebs
qarTul poeziaSi verlibris Semosvlasa da damkvidrebas nino darbaiseli
(darbaiseli 2009: 351-361).
`sjanSi~ daibeWda, agreTve, nino darbaiselis gamokvleva: `zviad
gamsaxurdia _ amerikuli literaturis mkvlevari da mTargmneli~. stati-
aSi zviad gamsaxurdias mier Targmnili amerikeli poetebis (uolt uitmeni,
veiCel lindzi, edgar li mastersi, ezra paundi da sxv.) leqsebi versifi-
kaciuli TvalsazrisiTac aris Sefasebuli.


damowmebani:

barbaqaZe 2006: barbaqaZe T. `cisferyanwelebis~ metrika. sjani, 6, Tb.: 2006.
barbaqaZe 2007: barbaqaZe T. riTmebis sasaxle (galaktionis `ucnauri
sasaxle~). _ kr. I saerTaSorsio simpoziumi, literaturaTmcodneobis Tanamed-
rove problemebi (masalebi). Tb.: gamomcemloba `nekeri~, 2007.
barbaqaZe 2008: barbaqaZe T. galaktionis monorimi (`ieri~, `ferad-feradi~).
sjani, 9. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2008.
barbaqaZe 2009: barbaqaZe T. galaktionis cnobili leqsis ucnobi soneturi
varianti. sjani, 10. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2009.
beriZe 2004: beriZe r. siciliana. _ galaktionologia. III. qarTuli literatu-
ris instituti, Tb.: 2004.
bregaZe 2008: bregaZe l. rostom erisTavis ori galeqsili epistole. _
leqsmcodneoba, I. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2008.
253


darbaiseli 2009: darbaiseli n. zviad gamsaxurdia _ amerikuli literaturis
mkvlevari da mTargmneli. sjani, 10, Tb.: literaturis institutis
gamomcemloba, 2009.
darbaiseli 2010: darbaiseli n. Tavisufali leqsi. _ totalitarizmi da
literaturuli diskursi. me-20 s. gamocdileba (masalebi). Tb.: literaturis
institutis gamomcemloba, 2010.
doiaSvili 2002-2003: doiaSvili T. qarTuli leqsi XVII saukuneSi (Teimuraz I,
arCili). _ literaturuli Ziebani, XXIII, XXVII, Tb.: 2002.
doiaSvili 2002: doiaSvili T. hipoTezidan Teoriamde. gaz. `~axali epoqa. Cveni
mwerloba~, 27 dekemberi, 2002 _ 9 ianvari, 2002.
doiaSvili 2003: doiaSvili T.sistema-procesi-norma. _ sjani, IV. Tb.: 2003.
doiaSvili 2009: doiaSvili T. galaktion tabiZis `istoriuli~ balada da misi
interteqstualuri analizi. _ II saerTaSoriso simpoziumi,
literaturaTmcodneobis Tanamedrove problemebi (masalebi). naw. I. Tb.:
literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2009.
kavTiaSvili 2008: kavTiaSvili v. germanuli knitelversi da hegzametri. _
leqsmcodneoba, I. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2008.
lomiZe 2009: lomiZe T. paronimuli atraqcia nikoloz baraTaSvilis mxatvrul
enaSi. _ literaturaTmcodneobis II saerTaSoriso simpoziumi (masalebi), II. Tb.:
literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2009.
lomiZe 2009: lomiZe T. aliteracia da paronimuli atraqcia. _
leqsmcodneoba, II. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2009.
meliqiSvili 2008: meliqiSvili i. galaktionis bgerwera. _ leqsmcodneoba, I.
Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2008.
meliqiSvili 2009: meliqiSvili i.palindromi galaktionTan. _
leqsmcodneoba, II. Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2009.
qurTiSvili 2002: qurTiSvili S. paolo iaSvilis leqswyoba. J. `kriteriumi~, 5,
Tb.: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2002.
xinTibiZe 2002: xinTibiZe ak. qarTuli saero leqsis genezisisaTvis. _ Zveli
qarTuli mwerlobis problemebi. Tb.: Tsu, 2002.
xinTibiZe 2003: xinTibiZe ak. besikis riTma. _ sjani, IV. Tb.: 2003.
xinTibiZe 2006: xinTibiZe ak. nikoloz baraTaSvilis metrika. _ sjani, 6, Tb.:
2006.


Tamar Barbakadze

Georgian Versification in the Press
of the First Decade of the 21
st
Century (2000-2009)

Summary

This paper deals with the research of the issues concerning Georgian versification in
the press of the first decade of the 21
st
century. The first part of this paper has been
published in the Literary Studies, vol. XXX, (2009). This time we make analysis of: a)
the periodicals; b)old Georgian verse and versification of the Vepkhistqaosani; c)
Galaktions verse, d) versification of the 19
th
-20
th
century Georgian poets.
Among the researchers of the old Georgian verse special place is occupied by Akaki
Khintibidze whose paper On the Genesis of Georgian National Verse presents an
254


analysis of the quotations written in verse which are inserted into hagiographical writings
and inscriptions in verse on the walls of the church Ateni Sioni.
The paper also considers T.Doiashvilis views concerning Apolon Silagadzes theory
which represents theoretical conclusion of Paolo Ingorokvas hypothesis. The reviewer
considers to be particularly valuable Apolon Silagadzes opinion on fistikauri as the
earliest stage of Georgian versification. By the same reason Teimuraz Doiashvili explains
the necessity of fistikauri - the twenty-syllable stanza in the poem Vepkhistqaosani.
Old Georgian poetry clearly reveals versification conflict within the norms this
norm envisages the recognition of the old Georgian metre and rejection of the new
metres of non-Georgian origin, namely, the ignorance of iambicon in the national poetry.
This paper also deals with Teimuraz Doiashvilis work: Georgian Verse in the 17
th

Century (Teimuraz Doiashvili).
In the first decade of the 21
st
century the researchers into an old Georgian verse:
A.Khintibidze, Levan Bregadze devoted their papers to Besikis rhythm and Rostom
Eristavis epistles written in verse. Venera Kavtiashvilis paper German Knittel Verse
and Hexameter deals with the translation of the poem Vepkhistqaosani into German
language with the help of hexameter by Hermann Buddensieg.
Against the background of evaluation of the fistikauri stanza of the Vepkhistqaosani,
the question of choosing suitable metre while translating the poem into German seems to
be of topical importance.
The third subchapter of the paper is devoted to the research into Galaktions verse in
the first decade of the 21
st
century. The papers devoted to the versification by
T.Doiashvili, A.Khintibidze, T.Barbakadze, R.Beridze presented in the collection
Galaktionology I-V, have been considered.
In the collective work Versification (I, II, 2008-2009) of particular attention are
the letters on Galaktionis verse written by Irina Melikishvili. She applied completely
new method to Galaktions euphony Kari Hkris (Sweeping Wind) and achieved
significant result.
Galaktions rhythm on the example of one verse (A Strange Palace) and
Galaktions monorim are studied by T.Barbakadze and Galaktions ballad Tasi (The
Cup), and its intertextual analysis are offered by Teimuraz Doiashvili.
The fourth subchapter of the paper deals with the letters published in the collective
work Versification (2008, 2009) devoted to the versification of Nikoloz Baratashvili,
Paolo Iashvili, Ana Kalandadze, Lado Asatiani, etc. Nini Darbaiselis letters on vers libre
and peculiarities of versification of the American poets translated by Zviad
Gamsakhurdia are also considered.



255




literaturuli meridianebi


manana kvataia

grigol robaqiZe italiaSi _ epistoluri aluziebi

yoveli ucnobi teqstis, wyaros Tu dokumentis gamovlena axal Strixs
matebs mweralsa da mis Semoqmedebas. es gansakuTrebiT grigol robaqiZeze
iTqmis, miT ufro, Tu mikvleuli masalebi misi emigraciaSi cxovrebis
periods asaxavs.
jer kidev idumalebiTaa moculi wlebi, roca germaniaSi iZulebiT emig-
rirebuli qarTveli mwerali wers da aqveynebs hitlerisa da musolinisadmi
miZRvnil skandalur Txzulebebs. am periodis naklebad cnobil detalebs
azustebs gr. robaqiZis 1938-1939 wlebiT daTariRebuli piradi werilebi,
romelTa adresatia cnobili rusi moazrovne, mwerali da mecnieri
viaCeslav ivanovi (1866-1949).
am baraTebis dednebi daculia romSi, viaCeslav ivanovis arqivSi. isini
pirvelad peterburgelma mkvlevarma tatiana nikolskaiam saTanado komen-
tarebiT gamoaqveyna (nikolskaia 2002). am publikaciis qseroasli mogvawoda
mimdinare wlis ivlisSi italiidan saqarTveloSi mivlinebiT Camosulma
profesorma andrei SiSkinma, romelic romSi moRvaweobs da iq viaCeslav
ivanovis Semswavlel centrs xelmZRvanelobs. misi saqarTveloSi vizitis
mizani iyo, Cvens siZveleTsacavebSi daeZebna viaC. ivanovis baraTebi gr.
robaqiZisadmi. amave dros, mkvlevars qarTveli mwerlis arqivis bedic
ainteresebda. a. SiSkinis informaciiT, grigol robaqiZis zemoxsenebuli
werilebi uaxloes xanSi ganTavsebuli iqneba viaCeslav ivanovis saitze, ro-
melic misma centrma moamzada (ix. interneti: ivanov).
imdroindeli rusuli azrovnebis metrs qarTveli mwerali Rrma pati-
viscemiT epyroboda: viaC. ivanovi misTvis udidesi avtoriteti gaxldaT. gr.
robaqiZe, `pirveli mociquli simbolizmisa, sityvierad qadagebda moder-
nizmis saxarebas~ (t. tabiZe). amave dros, is piradad icnobda rusuli sim-
bolizmis winamZRolebs: viaCeslav ivanovs da balmonts, andrei belisa da
mereJkovskis (nikolskaia 1991: 117).
tatiana nikolskaias dakvirvebiT, gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi viaC.
ivanovis mier wamoyenebulma ideebma robaqiZe ramdenime aTwleulis manZil-
ze STaagona. am gatacebis piki 1910-iani wlebis Sua xanebze modis, rodesac
qarTul presaSi mwerlis mravali statia daibeWda, romlebic ase Tu ise
dakavSirebuli iyo simbolistur problematikasTan da, pirvel rigSi, anti-
kuri miTis simbolistur ganmartebasTan. `am statiebSi qarTveli kritikosi
Rrma piitetiT moixseniebs saxels viaC. ivanovisas, romlis nawerebSi uCve-
ulod Rrmadaa nagrZnobi elinuri miTologia, mocemulia `elinuri miTis
poeturi filosofiuri aRqma~ (nikolskaia 2002: 173).
peterburgeli mkvlevari viaC. ivanovis gavlenas gr. robaqiZis origina-
lur SemoqmedebaSic xedavs. mis leqss `kocons~ (1916) kritika ivanovis `mena-
256


das~ adarebda. am ideebiTaa nasazrdoebi dramebi `londa~ (1919) da `jvari
vazisa~ (1923), romlebic TbilisSi warmatebiT daudgams k. marjaniSvils.
rusi moazrovnis gavlena 1920-1930-ian wlebSi daweril robaqiZis romanebsa
da eseebSicaa.
m. xomerikis azriT, `gvelis perangSi~ asaxuli dionises misteriis gage-
baSi ivanovis dionise da winaredionisobaufro gvexmareba, vidre Tavad
nicSes naSromi. mkvlevari moixseniebs viaC. ivanovis mier damowmebul or-
fikul Sexedulebas gvelsa da xars Soris mistikur kavSirze, romlis
Tanaxmad, xari cocxalTa samyaroSi iqceva gvelad miwisqveSa samyaroSi. am
TvalsazrisiT, mravlismTqmelia `gvelis perangSi~ CarTuli cezar borjias
epizodi, romelSic xari, gvelis msgavsad, reinkarnaciis simboloa
(xomeriki 2010: 23).
gr. robaqiZis piradi werilebi viaC. ivanovisadmi naTlad aCvenebs
qarTveli mwerlis guliTad damokidebulebas misadmi: `eWvi nu SegeparebaT
Cems siyvarulSi Tqvendami.. im mcirericxovanTa Soris, romelTac me samya-
ros saidumloebebs maziares, erT-erT pirvel adgils Tqveni saxeli ikavebs.
amas Cemi wignebi mowmobs~, _ wers robaqiZe ivanovs 1938 wlis 6 ivniss. sxva,
1939 wlis 14 aprils daweril baraTSi is aRiarebs: `Tqvenma sasiamovno stri-
qonebma me didi sixaruli momitana~. imave wlis 1 ianvris werilSi mwerali
auwyebs viaC. ivanovs: `romanSi `graalis mcvelni~ Tqven Tqveni sibrZnis
nakvalevs naxavT~. sainteresoa erTi detali gr. robaqiZis 1939 wlis 14 apri-
lis epistoledan: `vmuSaob axal wignze `Atlantischer Traum~. masSi Tqven Tqvens
genialur winaswarWvretaTa kvals naxavT: am SemTxvevaSi me mxedvelobaSi
maqvs Terror antiquus~ (aq saubaria robaqiZis dRemde miukvlevel Txzulebaze
`atlanturi zmaneba~).
viaCeslav ivanovi aRtacebuli iyo italiiT. jer kidev 1892 wlidan,
roca man maradiuli qalaqi pirvelad ixila, is am qveyanas da mis dedaqalaq
roms axal samSoblod Tvlida. poeti rusul enaze Targmnida dantes,
petrarkas, antikur avtorebs, qmnida originalur leqsebs italiaze. 1924
wels man moaxerxa, ojaxTan erTad am qveyanaSi emigraciaSi wasuliyo. viaC.
ivanovis ucxoeTSi yofnis 43 wlidan daaxloebiT 30 weli italiaze modis
(ix. interneti: russinitalia). 1938 wlis ivlisSi is romSi grigol robaqiZes
Sexvedria, rac zemoxsenebuli baraTebidanac irkveva.
aqamde Cven Zalze mwiri informacia gvqonda qarTveli mwerlis italiaSi
mogzaurobis Sesaxeb. xsenebuli epistoluri masala am vizitis naklebad
cnobil detalebs gvacnobs.
nikolaus zombartis mogonebiT, `adolf hitleris~ gamoqveynebis Sem-
deg gr. robaqiZes daavales, wigni daewera musolinize da am mizniT is
italiaSi miuwveviaT. `robaqiZes romSi audiencia gaumarTes. omis dros kvi-
reebis ganmavlobaSi cxovrobda kaprize, italiis mTavrobis xarjze. aq man
dawera musolinize wigni~ (kakabaZe 1992: 227).
italiaSi grigol robaqiZis imdroindeli viziti misi viaC. ivanovisadmi
gagzavnili werilebiTac dasturdeba, Tumca aq erTi detalic zustdeba:
rogorc Cans, qarTveli mwerali kaprize meore msoflio omamde, 1938 wlis
zafxulSi imyofeboda da, savaraudod, `musolinize~ muSaobda. am wignis
furclebs italiaSi da, kerZod, kaprize mwerlis mogzaurobis uSualo
STabeWdilebebic aRubeWdavs.
robaqiZis xuTi epistole viaCeslav ivanovisadmi saintereso cnobebs
gvawvdis, Tu rodis da romel adgilebSi umogzauria italiaSi Casul qar-
257


Tvel mwerals, rogori iyo am dros misi Sinagani ganwyoba, zustdeba misi
saqmianobis detalebi.
pirveli baraTi florenciaSia dawerili da 1938 wlis 6 ivnisiT TariR-
deba. masSi gr. robaqiZe viaC. ivanovs axsenebs 1910 wels peterburgSi, Tav-
ridis 24-Si maT Sexvedras (t. nikolskaias komentariT, es jer kidev 1907
wels unda momxdariyo, rasac adasturebs robaqiZis erTi adreuli baraTi,
romlis Stempelze 1907 wlis 8 dekemberia dafiqsirebuli. peterburgSi
myofi axalgazrda mwerali viaC. ivanovs daxmarebas Txovs nicSes erT-erTi
frazis TargmnaSi).
1938 wels italiaSi Casul robaqiZes mouwadinebia, romSi kvlav moenaxu-
lebina viaC. ivanovi, misi romauli misamarTi ki germaneli poetis _ fro-
melisagan Seutyvia. rogorc Cans, qarTveli mwerlis baraTis miRebis Semdeg
viaCeslav ivanovsac gamouTqvams masTan Sexvedris survili da mas weriliT
Sexmianebia. amas gr. robaqiZis meore epistole gvauwyebs: is ukve mouTmen-
lad elodeba maestrosTan Sexvedras. es nanatri momentic damdgara: am or,
sulierad monaTesave pirovnebas erTmaneTi romSi, 1938 wlis ivlisSi uxi-
lavT, rasac robaqiZeze waruSleli STabeWdileba mouxdenia (es misi 1939
wlis 27 ianvriT daTariRebuli werilidanac ikveTeba). irkveva, rom am
Sexvedras eswreboda viaC. ivanovis megobari qali a.o. Sori.
amave epistoleebidan vigebT, rom robaqiZis vizitis Semdeg italiaSi
gamgzavrebula misi meule nina fialkina, romelic orjer Sexvedria viaC.
ivanovs. Tavad gr. robaqiZec isev apirebda italiaSi gamgzavrebas 1939 wlis
agvistoSi Tu Semodgomaze da winaswar tkbeboda viaC. ivanovTan momavali
Sexvedris siamovnebiT, raTa masTan erTxel kidev piTagoreulad esaubra.
Cans, meore msoflio omis xanZarma mas es gegmebi CauSala.
zemoxsenebuli piradi werilebis monacemebiT Cven SevecadeT, italiaSi
gr. robaqiis imdroindeli vizitis detalebi SeZlebisdagvarad dagvedgina.
1938 wlis 6 ivnisiT daTariRebul werilSi gr. robaqiZe viaC. ivanovs auwyebs:
`erTi kviris win florenciaSi Camovedi~. e.i. mwerali italiis am qalaqs 1938
wlis maisis bolos swvevia. iqve vkiTxulobT: `aq kidev erT kviras davrCebi,
Semdeg kunZul Capri-ze mivdivar~. e.i. florenciaSi robaqiZe 1938 wlis
ivnisis Sua ricxvebamde unda darCeniliyo, Semdeg ki kunZul kapris swveoda.
imave werilSi kidev erTi detali zustdeba: `ukana gzaze daaxloebiT
ivlisis meore naxevris dasawyisSi _ romSi gavCerdebi da, Tu inebebT, Seg-
xvdebiT~. am fragmentis Tanaxmad, kaprize mwerali erT Tveze met xans unda
darCeniliyo. 1938 wlis 21 ivniss viaC. ivanovisadmi gamogzavnili Semdegi
baraTi ukve kaprizea dawerili (Capri, Villa Floridiana).
gr. robaqiZe viaC. ivanovs Sexvedria romSi, 1938 wlis ivlisSi, rasac 1939
wlis 17 ianvars misi berlinidan romSi gagzavnili baraTic gvauwyebs: `Cemi
Sexvedra TqvenTan romSi gasuli wlis ivlisSi Cems mexsierebaSi uqrob alad
darCeba~, _ wers robaqiZe ivanovs.
rogorc zemoxsenebuli epistoluri masala mowmobs, gr. robaqiZe ita-
liaSi TiTqmis ori Tvis ganmavlobaSi _ 1938 wlis maisis bolodan ivlisis
dasasrulamde darCenila. Cans, mwerali am periodSi `musolinize~ muSaobda,
Tumca zemoxsenebul baraTebSi amaze araferia naTqvami. is paralelurad
`atlantur zmanebasac~ werda.
irkveva, rom italiaSi mogzaurobas gr. robaqiZeze waruSleli STabeW-
dileba mouxdenia da es qveyana kvlav uxmobda mwerals (SemorCenilia foto-
suraTi, romelzec kaprize, zRvis piras myofi robaqiZea dafiqsirebuli).
258


1939 wlis 14 apriliT daTariRebul weriliT is auwyebda viaC. ivanovs: `ar
gamovricxav SesaZleblobas, rom Semodgomaze isev vixilav italias~. 1939
wlis 8 ivnisis epistoleSi mwerali kidev ufro azustebs: `agvistoSi albaT
romSi viqnebi~.
gr. robaqiZis italiaSi mogzaurobis uSualo STabeWdilebebi naTlad
irekleba `musolinis~ mraval adgilas, romlebic, Cveni fiqriT, mwerlis am
voiaJis erTgvari mxatvruli dRiurebicaa, qveynis ulamazesi adgilebis
mSvenierebiT STagonebuli.
imdroindel gancdaTa da SegrZnebaTa anarekli unda ikveTebodes Txzu-
lebis dasawyisSive, sadac kunZul kaprize saharis udabnodan mqrolavi qa-
ris zemoqmedebaa gadmocemuli: `ai, ukve ramdenime dRea, am adgilebSi saSi-
neli qari qris, fonetikurad esoden STambeWdavi saxeli rom SeurqmeviaT:
siroko. sqeli Jangisferi nisli, _ saharis gavarvarebuli xaxis es bedov-
laTi pirmSo, nel-nela edeba kunZulis SiSveli qarafebis okro-bokro kal-
Tebs, nestian haerSi nisli Zvirfasi, warmavali kosmiuri mtveriviT efineba
midamos.. TviT foTlebic ki ocnebebSi CaZirulan da ise uCveulod TrTian,
TiTqos zed mJava moupkurebiaT~ (robaqiZe 2010: 5). am viTarebaSi mwerlis
gancdebic pirquSdeba: `usaxuri Cans Taursamyaros cincxali sxivisgan
ganZarcvuli kunZuli. qari sunTqvas aZnelebs~ (iqve, gv. 6).
saocrad cocxlad da xelSesaxebad warmogvidgens mwerali legendarul
mRvimes kunZul kaprize. am striqonebsac misi imwamieri gancdebi aRubeW-
davT. virtualur samyaroSi avtorTan erTad Cvenc vmogzaurobT da mis
nakvalevs uxilavad mivyvebiT: `homerosis Crdilis TanxlebiT Sevdivar
mRvimeSi. Zlevamosili kldis napralebidan amomarTul niSas mRvime erT
mTlian daxurul, mfSvinav sivrced uqcevia. talanis ukana kedelze mijri-
li naxevarwriuli scenaa. mis SuagulSi soliseburi formis CaRrmaveba.
erT-erT patara RrmulSi wvimis dros wylis wvrili Wavli Cawanwkarebs _
Zalumi wyaros ornati uxsovari droidan. mRvimeSi jerac naxavT baTqaSSi
myarad Camjdari niJarebisa da marjnis inkrustaciebs. kurTxeul siCumes
irgvliv zRvis Sari-Suri erTvis, nel-nela udardelad rom uCinardeba~
(robaqiZe 2010: 9-10).
mwerali-mogzauri kapris mRvimeSi agrZelebs gzas da es voiaJi masSi
axal asociaciebsa da refleqsiebs iwvevs: `ramden telerul qariSxals gamo-
ivlida kunZuli, vidre mRvimis amJamindeli uzado saxe Seiqmneboda! gaxsen-
deba aq napovni uzarmazari ZuZumwovara cxovelis gaqvavebuli kbili: kapri
xom uZveles droebaSi xmeleTs uerTdeboda! ase ggonia, mRvimes jer isev
asdiso vulkanuri gogirdis suni. Sinagani mzera im sxivad gadaiqceva, sag-
nebs sibneleSi rom ganWolavs. mere es mzera albaT im Taurxatebsac ixilavs,
nacarSi gaxveuli naRverdaliviT rom gayuCebulan~ (iqve. gv. 11).
mwerlis Semdgomi refleqsiebi mRvimis saxelis etimologias ukavSirde-
ba: `xalxi mRvimes `matromanias~ eZaxis da `dedas~ gulisxmobs. swavlulebi
ki mas `miTromaniad~ moixsenieben da gulisxmoben miTras.. es saxelebi er-
TmaneTs ar gamoricxavs, didi deda mSobelia mzis Zisa. ase mgonia, Magna
Mater-is mRvime is kurTxeuli adgilia, sadac mzeWabuki miTra iSva~ (iqve, gv.
12). robaqiZes surs, smeniT Cawvdes mRvimis idumalebas. aq is did simbolos
xedavs: `mze aq Tavis maradiul dabadebas zeimobs. mze anayofierebs dedami-
was. mze logosia, dedamiwa ki _ materia~ (iqve, gv. 14-15).
`musolinis~ teqsts mwerlis imdroindeli marinistuli STabeWdilebebi
cxovlad aRubeWdavs: `qarafis TaRSi gavyureb sivrceSi gawolil, Cumad
259


modgafune zRvas. mSvidi talRebis silurje aramiwierad bzinavs mokaSkaSe
mzis naTelSi. zRvis zedapiris mwvane CrdilSi amotivtivdeba RvTismSoblis
mSvenieri, keTilSobili saxis ovali, _ oqrosa da eTerSi gamokveTili~
(robaqiZe 2010: 17).
Txzulebis zogierTi adgilis kiTxvisas imis SegrZneba gaqvs, rom av-
tors iqve, zRvis piras CauniSnavs sakuTari gancdebi da emociebi: marina
pikolas siaxloves, tirenis zRvis mariliT damZimebul talRebze Tavs ise
grZnob, TiTqos naoWebdayril, moSariSure abreSumze iwve, mSvidad micurav
ameTvistosferi wylis zedapirze: talRa talRze gadadis. drodadro ki
zRva gansakuTrebiT mSvidia, da ase ggonia, uzarmazari foToli TaxTaxebso
garindul haerSi. aq mTeli cxovelmyofelobiT SeigrZnob ferebs~ (iqve, gv. 53).
virtulurad vadevnebT Tvals avtoris Semdgom gzas, TiTqos misi
piradi dRiuris momdevno gverdebs vecnobodeT: `cota xnis Semdeg napirze
brundebi, _ yurSi ukve Cagesmis mzis bubuni. qva sinaTlisken miiltvis.
niCbebis dartymas mxiarulad exmianebian modgafune talRebi da kaSkaSi
gaudiT. ai, iq, mzes momwvano-oqrosferi xvliki mificxebia, es-esaa rom
gamomZvrala kldis napralidan. misi Zalumad mfeTqavi guli gagrZnobinebs
mzis simxurvales~ (iqve, gv. .54).
avtoris subieqturi gancdebi TiTqmis naturalisturad gadmoucia
`musolinis~ sxva fragmentsac: marcxena fexis wvivze moskitis kbenas da
saSinel qavils vgrZnob.. nakbenze gaxurebul riyis qvas videb; qva isrutavs
mwvave tkivils. mze Cem sisxlis mimoqcevaSi SemoiWreba da mec misi nadavli
vxdebi~ (iqve).
mSvenieri mixveul-moxveuli gzebiT mwerali sul zeviT-zeviT adis.
zRvispira peizaJebi mis mzeras kidev ufro atyvevebs: `ai, aq, Crdili wred
Semovlebia xes. sul ufro da ufro acxunebs mze. aqa-iq uzarmazari, utyvi
kaqtusebi moCans.. erT-erT mosaxvevSi vCerdebi da zantad msunTqavi zRvis
zedapirs gavcqeri, romelic sivrceSi cisfrad gawolila da SariSuri
gaudis.. mere siCume niJarebis Srialad gadaiqceva; iodis suniT gaJRenTil
haerSi naperwklebs tkaca-tkuci gaudis.. tanZlieri vazis daSaltuli
svetnaris danaxvaze gaxsendeba, rom aq, sadRac usier CrdilSi, mzis
sxivebiT mTvrali baxusi unda Tvlemdes~ (iqve).
male Cvenc realurad SevigrZnobT, Tu rogor Camowveba ulamazesi daisi
zRvaze. mSvenier wamebs dadarajebuli mwerali maT maradiul sicocxles
aniWebs: `nel-nela inavleba dRe, _ gajerebuli sinaTlis wyaros sisavsiT.
mze ukve solaros zurgs efareba da mTa zRvis zedapirs aRmosavleTiT
uzarmazar Crdils hfens, TandaTanobiT rom farTovdeba da farTovdeba.
talRebi mimoaqceven iribi mzis sxivebs, wylis moCrdiluli sivrcis are ki
isev da isev izrdeba. zedapirze cimcimebs nazi qoba, sinaTlis sxivebs rom
Semovlebia gars. talRebi xarbad nTqaven sxivebs da Tavad iqcevian
sinaTled~ (iqve, gv. 56).
aq ukve zRvari iSleba avtorsa da garemos Soris. robaqiZe sakuTar Tav-
sac ukve sxvagvarad aRiqvams: `me TiTqmis vuCinardebi sinaTlis am miste-
riaSi; uecrad iseTi grZnoba meufleba, TiTqos viRac sxva viyo. vin var me?..
nuTu Cven Cvenive Tavis ukanasknel gamocanas warmovadgenT?~ (iqve, gv. 58).
tirenis zRvis mSvenieri Semogareni mwerlis refleqsiebsac amwvavebs. is
amjerad maradiul problematikas uRrmavdeba: `fiqrebSi viZirebi. axla
ukve warmovidgen, ra gzas gadis adamiani RmerTisken; es igive gzaa, oRond
piriqiT: pirovnulidan zepirovnulisaken mimavali.. adamiani sakuTari
260


Tavis msxverplSewirvas axdens, anu, msxverplad moaqvs is, rac uyvars~ (iqve,
64-65), _ daaskvnis bolos.
kaprize mwerlis vizitis mizani oden mSvenieri adgilebiT tkboba rodia.
aq is legendaruli atlantidis nakvalevs eZebs: `axla, rodesac aq vzivar da
vfiqrob, rom es adgili erT dros xmeleTs uerTdeboda da CaZiruli
tirenis nawili iyo, ase mgonia, atlantididan momaval sios CavisunTqav-
meTqi~ (robaqiZe 2010: 57).
male es wamic dgeba: `tirenis zRvis sanapiroze, mzis gamWvirvale nislSi
uCveulod cimcimebs macocxlebeli eTeri: TiTqos Cumi sio miaqrolebso
CaZiruli kunZulis ukanasknel sunTqvas~.
`musolinis~ furclebze romis ramdenime adgilis mxatvruli aRwerasac
vxvdebiT. via del imperos quCas gr. robaqiZe bunebisa da adamianuri geniis
saocar qmnilebas uwodebs. aq ciuri sfero livliviT ise erwymis sivrces,
rogorc arsad amqveynad.. warsuli aq kvlavac ganagrZobs sicocxles~
(robaqiZe 2010: 79). vfiqrobT, gancdis uSualoba am striqonebSic aSkaraa.
originalurad gaiazrebs mwerali romis simbolikas: `arwivi da mgeli
daWimuli mSvildis es ori lari, _ romSi Tavad bedisweram amotvifra. isini
romis istoriaSi yvelafers mudmivad momnusxvels xdian~ (iqve, 86).
rogorc vxedavT, viaCeslav ivanovis msgavsad, grigol robaqiZec aRta-
cebuli gaxldaT italiiT, misi bunebiT, istoriiT, simboluri misiiT. am
qveyanaSi misi vizitis detalebi ki zemoxsenebul epistoleTa aluziebma
gvamcno. vimedovnebT, msgavsi masala momavalSic gamovlindeba.
amas garda, viaCeslav ivanovisadmi gagzavnil pirad werilebs Semouna-
xavs gr. robaqiZis TviTSefaseba misi iseTi wignebisa, rogorebicaa: `demoni
da miTosi~, `graalis mcvelni~, CvenTvis jerjerobiT ucnobi `atlanturi
zmaneba. sayuradReboa erTi fraza 1939 wlis 1 ianvris werilidan: `am
Tveebis manZilze bevri ram gadavitane~. mwerali konkretul ambebze saubars
erideba. vfiqrobT, aq misi piradi cxovrebis sirTuleebTan erTad is umZi-
mesi gancdebic unda igulisxmebodes, romlebsac masSi gamoiwvevda saqar-
TveloSi im dros datrialebuli sikvdilis kalo, romelmac uamrav sxva
udanaSaulo adamianTan erTad qarTveli mwerlebi, robaqiZis uaxloesi me-
gobrebic Seiwira. es ikveTeba kornelius bergmanis pirad werilSi viaCeslav
ivanovisadmi, romelic t. nikolskaiam gr. robaqiZis zemoxsenebul werileb-
Tan erTad dabeWda: `TqvenTan Sexvedram robaqiZes mZlavri SemoqmedebiTi
impulsi misca. is afrqvevs ideebs da savsea Sinagani gancdebiT. konkretuli
gonebrivi samuSaos wyalobiT rTuli da mtkivneuli gancdebi Semodgomisa,
roca saqarTveloSi man Tavisi megobrebi dakarga, nel-nela ukan ixevs da
yuCdeba~. rogorc am fragmentidan irkveva, viaC. ivanovTan robaqiZis Sex-
vedra qarTveli mwerlisaTvis axali ideebisa da didi nugeSis wyaroc
gamxdara.
Cven rusuli enidan vTargmneT grigol robaqiZis eqvsive piradi werili.
ZiriTad wyarod t. nikolskaias dasaxelebuli publikacia gamoviyeneT.

261


grigol robaqiZis piradi werilebi viaCeslav ivanovisadmi

1
6.12.07.

Rrmad pativcemulo viaCeslav ivanoviC,
statias vwer da aucilebelia, citata movitano nicSedan, magram veraf-
riT gadmovitane Semdegi gamoTqma: Wie in einem gleichnibartigen Traumbilde.
vecade, is amgvarad meTargmna: zmanebiseuli xatis msgavsad. an kidev:
simbolosebr zmanebad. magram vgrZnob, rom ase araa. xom ar inebebdiT,
mamcnoT, rogor gadmovce es gamoTqma.
Tu SeiZleba TqvenTan Semovla da rodis?

Tqveni pativismcemeli g.t. robaqiZe.
novi pereulok. 3, b.5.

2
6.6. 1939.

Firenze via Palestro Pensione Reborata (?).

Zvirfaso viaCeslav ivanoviC,
SesaZloa, Tqven me gaxsovarT. gagicaniT peterburgSi, TqvenTan, Tavri-
dis 24-Si, Tu mexsiereba ar mRalatobs, 1910 wels. me ramdenjerme SegxvdiT
religiur-filosofiuri sazogadoebis Sekrebebze. Semdeg iyo omi, revolu-
cia. 1921 wels Tqvengan werili miviRe baqodan. ori-sami wlis Semdeg Sevity-
ve, rom Tqven datoveT ssrk.
me SevZeli gamomeRwia organizebuli `satanokratiis~ qveynidan 1931
wlis martSi. mas Semdeg vcxovrob germaniaSi, romelmac me, rogorc mwerali,
uzomod guliTadad mimiRo _ (me jer qarTulad vwer, Semdeg ki germanul
enaze vTargmni, mxolod `Dmon und Mythos~ pirdapir germanulad davwere).
germaniaSi gavicani f. stepuni, romelmac Tqvenze mauwya. Sevityve, rom ita-
liaSi sruliad ganmartoebiT cxovrobT. germanul enaze wavikiTxe Tqveni
SesaniSnavi wigni dostoevskize, romelsac rekomendacias vuwev yvelas
winaSe.
me florenciaSi erTi kviris ukan Camovedi. iq am dReebSi gavicani axal-
gazrda germaneli poeti Frommel, romelmac Tqveni misamarTi mauwya. da ai,
vsargeblob SemTxveviT da gwerT: me aq kidev erT kviras davrCebi, Semdeg
kunZul Capri-ze mivdivar. ukan dabrunebisas _ daaxloebiT ivlisis meore
naxevris dasawyisSi _ me romSi gavCerdebi da, Tu TqvenTvis xelsayreli
iqneba, gixilavT.
gigzavniT Cemi wignebis prospeqts: Tu moisurvebT, Tqven dauyovnebliv
miiRebT mas _ me mxolod Cems gamomcemels unda mivwero. amas garda, sxva
gamomcemlobebSic gamovida Cemi wignebi, romelTagan erTi italiurad
iTargmna saTauriT: `Le trecce di Medea~ (Casa Editore Sperling und Kupfer, Milano).
gisurvebT yovelive naTels!

guliTadad Tqveni grigori tites Ze robaqiZe.

262


3
21. 6. 1958.

viaCeslav ivanoviC,
didi madloba Tqveni sapasuxo werilisaTvis. vxarob TqvenTan momavali
Sexvedris gamo. me ukve mivwere Cems gamomcemels da imedi maqvs, is male
gamogigzavniT Cems wigns `Dmon und Mythos~. es wigni me davwere, rogorc
`werilebi~ _ uxilavi Zmisadmi.
gisurveb yovelive naTels!

guliTadad Tqveni grigori robaqiZe.
misamarTi: Grigol Robakidze, Capri, Villa Floridiana.


4
27. 1. 1939.

Zvirfaso viaCeslav ivanoviC,
Cemi Sexvedra TqvenTan romSi gasuli wlis ivlisSi Cems cxovrebaSi
uqrob alad darCeba. me saubarma ise gamitaca, rom damaviwyda kidec mekiTxa
saxeli da mamis saxeli Tqveni megobari qalisa, Tqvens simSvides ase mzrun-
velad rom ufrTxildeboda. guliTadi salami mas. Tqven albaT ukve miiReT
Cemi wigni `Die Htter des Grals~. masSi Tqveni sibrZnis nakvalevsac naxavT. Cemi
meuRle elena rusia (da, Sesabamisad, arieli), dabadebidan fialkina,
Reichschriftumskamer-is wevri. is arielia, apirebs italiis monaxulebas. aqaur
italiur sakonsuloSi, roca is anketis furclebs avsebda, kiTxvaze: ra
SeiZleba misces mas Referenz-ma _ Tqveni saxelic moixsenia. vimedovneb, rom
amis sawinaaRmdego araferi geqnebaT. Tu Tqven SegekiTxebian, SegiZliaT
upasuxoT, rom Tqven me micnobT da Cems cnobebs endobiT. _ am Tveebis
manZilze bevri ram gadavitane. amaze sxva dros. gisurvebT yovelive naTels.

Tqveni grigori robaqiZe.

safosto Ria baraTia. mis wina mxares misamarTia:
Grigol Robakidze. Berlin. W.50, Nahodstr.9.


5
14. 4. 1939.
Berlin. W. 50. Nahodstr.9.

Zvirfaso viaCeslav ivanoviC,
Tqvenma sasiamovno striqonebma didi sixaruli momitana. gmadlobT.
vimedovneb, Paeschke (germaneli poeti m.k.) mogewonaT, cota `Seupovaria~,
mtkice (ZiebaTa sferoSi) _ da es axalgazrdobis gamoa. Cemi coli am
dReebSi italiaSi moemgzavreba. is Tqven moginaxulebT da ruseTis mcire
nawils CamogitanT. is oriolidanaa. me vmuSaob axal wignze `Atlantischer
Traum. masSi Tqven Tqvens genialur winaswarWvretaTa nakvalevs naxavT: am
263


SemTxvevaSi mxedvelobaSi maqvs Terror antiquus. amocana, romelic Cems Tavs
davusaxe, gansakuTrebiT rTulia. me msurs warmovaCino Cveni dReebis
adamiani, romelic sulierad _ da, SesaZloa, rasasTan mimarTebaSic, _
atlantebis STamomavalia. warmateba misurveT _ ise, Sinaganad, usityvod.
araa gamoricxuli, rom Semodgomaze kvlav movinaxuleb italias. cxadia,
rasakvirvelia, igulisxmeba _ maSin Tqven SegxvdebiT. CemTvis aucilebelia,
gesaubroT mraval arsebiT saganze.
gisurvebT wynar, naTel dReebs. Tqveni Grigol Robakidze.
guliTadi mokiTxva Tqvens megobar qals.


6
8. 6. 1939.

Zvirfaso viaCeslav ivanoviC,
gwerT ienidan, sadac stumrad var Cems gamomcemelTan Diederichs-Tan. Cemi
coli ukve dabrunda italiidan. samwuxarod, cudma amindma mas xeli
SeuSala, bolomde damTvraliyo am kurTxeuli qveynis saTaveebiT.. mis
xsovnaSi waruSlelad darCeba ori Sexvedra TqvenTan. is moxiblulia Tqveni
pirovnebiT, rogorc rusi da rogorc adamiani. Paeschke ki mxolod Tqvenze
laparakobs.. Cemma colma gadmomca Tqveni sityvebi: dae, g. t. (grigol tites
Ze m.k.) nu gadamiyvarebs. aman cremlebamde SemZra. eWvi nu SegeparebaT Cems
Tqvendami siyvarulSi. viaCeslav ivanoviC, me bolomde erTguli var maTi,
visTanac Sexvedra CemSi am grZnobas badebs. ar aris ganSoreba, ese igi,
sikvdilic ar arsebobs. im mcirericxovan adamianTa Soris, romlebmac me
samyaros saidumloebebs maziares, erT-erTi pirveli adgili Tqvens saxels
uWiravs. amas Cemi wignebic mowmobs.. vfiqrob, rom adamiani erTaderTi arse-
baa, romelic `gadmogdebulia~ samyaroSi, viTarca SemoqmedebiTi proeqti.
man raRac punqtSi ori nakadi unda ganaxorcielos _ Tqveni gansazRvrebiT
_ es roiaa. RvTaebrivi da araRvTaebrivi. adamiani unda gaxdes zepirov-
nulis pirovnuli xati. _ da amaSia azri samsxverplo gzisa RmerTisa adami-
anisaken, iseve, rogorc ukan, aseve, samsxverplo gza adamianisa RmerTisaken.
am amocanas yvela erTnairad ver xsnis, da amitom yvela araa erTnairad
ukvdavi gonebiT kosmiurad da ara metafizikurad. amaSi me Rrmad var dar-
wmunebuli. aqedan: rogori sixaruli unda ewvios adamians, roca is uecrad
xvdeba vinmes, romelSic es ori nakadi _ misi ZaliTa da monacemebiT ukidu-
resad bolomde amoxsnilia. amaze dawvrilebiT _ piradad. romSi albaT
agvistoSi viqnebi. winaswar vtkbebi TqvenTan saubris sixaruliT _
`piTagoreulad~.
gisurvebT yovelive naTels! Tqveni Grigol Robakidze.

P.S. guliTadi salami Tqvens megobar qals. vici, rom TqvenTvis Znelia
werilebze pasuxis gacema. amitom pasuxs ar veli. mxolod erTi Txovna maqvs
TqvenTan: Rrma ganWvretis wuTebSi xandaxan Cemzec ifiqreT.

264


damowmebani:

kakabaZe 1992: kakabaZe n. grigol robaqiZis germanuli portreti. `literatura
da xelovneba~, 1992, 5-6.
nikolskaia 2002: nikolskaia t. grigol robaqiZe da viaCeslav ivanovi. _
rusul-italiuri arqivi II. Semdgenlebi: daniela rici da andrei SiSkini.
salerno: 2002 (rusul enaze).
nikolskaia 1991: nikolskaia t. saqarTvelos dionise. rusuli enidan Targmna
merab kostavam. `mnaTobi~, 1991, 6.
robaqiZe 2010: robaqiZe gr. musolini. germanuli endan Targmna da komentarebi
daurTo nana gogolaSvilma. Tb.: `artanuji~, 2010.
xomeriki 2010: xomeriki m. `gvelis perangis~ kodi. Tb.: `universali~, 2010.
interneti ivanov: www.v.-ivanov.it.
interneti russinitalia: www.russinitalia.it.


Manana Kvataia

Grigol Robakidze in Italy Epistolary Allusions

Summary

Each revealed unknown text, source or document adds a new trait to the portrait of
Grigol Robakidze as a person and creator. Moreover, these materials reflect the life of
Grigol Robakidze in exile. The less known details from Robakidzes biography in the
period between the years 1938 and 1939 are specified from the personal letters written by
Georgian writer to the known Russian thinker Vyacheslav Ivanov the originals of which
are kept in Rome, in V.Ivanovs archive. They were first published by T.Nikolskaya. The
xerox copies of these letters were kindly provided to us by Professor Andrei Shishkin, the
director of the Centre d'tudes Vjatcheslav Ivanov (Rome). In this paper, the unknown
epistolary allusions are analyzed and the details of G.Robakidzes biography and
creativity are specified. Here we also deal with the relations between Robakidze and
Ivanov, the nuances of their meeting in Italy. On the basis of the aforesaid, personal letters
and analysis of the writers creations, the details of Robakidzes journey to Italy in 1938
have been restored. According to the epistolary material G.Robakdze stayed in Italy almost
for two months from the end of May 1938 till the end of July. At that time he worked at
his essay Mussolini, though in the mentioned letters there is no mentioning of this fact. It
appears that in parallel with this the writer worked at Atlantic Dream (Atlantischer
Traum) the text of which has been unknown till present. The Georgian translation of the
letters written by Robakidze to V.Ivanov in Russian language is attached to the paper.

265


Teimuraz qurdovaniZe

`tragikuli xmis~ lirikosis emigraciamdeli Ziebani

(marina cvetaevas pirveli wignis 100 wlisTavisaTvis)

lirikos poets qmnis sami umTavresi Semadgeneli: Txzvis bunebrivi niWi,
pirovnuli xasiaTi, romelic uciloblad aisaxeba nawerSi da misi cxovrebis
droisa da sivrcis Tanamdevi bedi. marina cvetaevasTan mimarTebaSi es sami
komponenti sruli ZalisxmeviT aris gamovlenili da, vfiqrobT, swored
maTma erTobliobam Camoayaliba marina cvetaevas, XX saukunis didi rusi
poetis, fenomeni. marina cvetaevas ioseb brodskim `tragikuli xmis~ poeti
uwoda da amiT unikalur sinamdvileze migvaniSna. lirikosebs, tradici-
ulad, iSviaTad ZaluZT tragikulis simaRlemde asvla. amaSia misi uCveulo-
bis magaliTic.
niWiereba marinas genetikurad mosdgamda: mamamisi, filologi da xe-
lovnebaTmcodne, moskovis universitetis profesori iyo. manve daaarsa
moskovis natifi xelovnebis muzeumi (axla puSkinis saxelobisa). deda _
gamorCeuli niWis pianisti, rubinSteinis mowafe, poeziiTa da xelovnebiT
gatacebuli qalbatoni.
marinas xasiaTi da individualoba adreul asakSi dastyobia. amitom
gaCenila dedis gamoTqma: marina `aT saxedarze jiutiao~. marinas dedis
xasiaTi gamohyolia. `...marinaSi maria aleqsandrovnam Zalian adre Seicno
sakuTari Tavi, Tavisi romantizmi, faruli vnebianoba. man SvilSi aRmoaCina
is naklovanebebi, rac talants axlavs, dainaxa Tavisi Rirsebac da naklic,
da kidev misic... deda cdilobda moeTvinierebina da daexvewa Svilis xasi-
aTi... marinasTan brZolaSi deda ibrZoda SvilisTvis, Tan gulis siRrmeSi
amayobda, rom ver moaxerxebda masze gamarjvebas!..~ _ ixsenebs ariadna
efroni, marina cvetaevas ufrosi qaliSvili (efroni 1989: 29).
sakuTari SesaZleblobebisadmi rwmena marinas adreul asakSive Zlierad
gamohxatvia. man icoda im dros romeli poeti rogor werda, SeeZlo sinam-
dvilis logikuri da obieqturi gansja da kidev gverdidan danaxva Tavisi
unarisa. 1914 wels marina dRiurSi Cawers: `Seuryevlad mwams Cemi leqse-
bisa~. rwmena sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi Zalisa da, rac mTavaria, momavlis
ganWvretisa, jer kidev 1913 wels gamoxata poetma:

Cems leqsebs, ise adre dawerilT,
ros ar vicodi, viyav mgosani,
ze amoxeTqilT Sadrevnis Wavlad,
cad molivliveT, viTa frTosanni,
eSmakunebad Semovardnilebs
gundrukiT savse naTel taZarSi,
leqsebs sikvdils Tu siymawvileze,
uinteresod SeyrilT RadarSi,
maRaziebis mtverSi gabneulT
(ar Sehxebia aravin wamiT!),
Cems leqsebs, rogorc Zvirfas Rvinoebs,
xval daudgebaT Tavisi Jami.

statiaSi damowmebuli leqsebis Targmani Sesrulebulia Cven mier (qurdovaniZe 2006).


266


marina adre darCa dedis gareSe, magram rogorc mogvianebiT Tavad ity-
vis, dedam moaswro masze `safuZvelCamyreli zegavlenis~ moxdena. Svils
Seayvara `musika, buneba, leqsebi...~ poeturi bunebis mqone mgrZnobiare bav-
SvSi, Cans, am periodidan iCina martoobisagan gaqcevis mcdeloba, romlebic
realobaSi imedgacruebuli dabrunebiT sruldeboda. gangebis nebiT, saku-
Tari Tavis es uSedego Ziebebi poetis am qveynidan gasvlamde ar dasrule-
bula. Tavad marinac mogvianebiT Tavis `srul martoobas~ bedis wyevlad
aRiarebs.
isev marinas xasiaTi vlindeba imaSi, rom Teqvsmeti wlis asakSi miatova
moskovis kerZo gimnaziis merve klasi da gaemgzavra parizSi, sorbonis uni-
versitetSi, sadac moismina Zveli franguli literaturis mokle kursi. am
periodisaTvis marina cvetaeva ukve poetad grZnobs Tavs, wers rusul,
frangul da germanul enebze, ibeWdeba kidec. pirveli poeturi krebuli
`saRamos albomi~ ojaxisgan malulad 1910 wels gamosca. mis debiuts gamo-
exmaurnen cnobili rusi simbolistebi.
valeri briusovma SeniSna poetis udavo niWiereba, yuradReba SeaCera
realur yofasTan mis siaxloveze, moewona misi miswrafeba, Tvali gaeswore-
bina yoveldRiurobis, namdvili cxovrebisTvis, Tan urCia wvrilmanebze ar
gaeflanga niWi (briusovi 1912: 197-198).
nikalai gumiliovma dainaxa marinas bunebrivi niWi, Sinagani originalo-
ba. `bevri siaxlea am wignSi, _ werda igi, _ uCveuloa Tamami (zogjer zedme-
ti) intimuroba; axalia Temebi, magaliTad, bavSvuri trfialeba; axalia
cxovrebis wvrilmanebiT uSualo, gauazrebeli tkboba...~ am leqsebSi in-
stinqturad napovnia poeziis yvela umTavresi kanoni, ase rom, es wigni ara
marto ymawvilqalur aRiarebaTa, aramed mSvenieri leqsebis sasiamovno
wignicaa (gumiliovi 1923: 113-114).
maqsimilian voloSinma leqsiT aRniSna marina cvetaevas debiuti. poeti
gakvirvebiT kiTxulobda: vin daajildova axalgazrda qali aseTi naTeli
ferebiT, sityvaTa sizustiT, ymawviluri alersidan gazafxulis
axalmTvarobis sizmrebamde _ yovelives gadmocemis siTamamiT (cvetaeva
1990: 8).
simbolisturi poeziis metrebis gamoxmaureba, da, rac mTavaria, aRiare-
ba, rom maTi, modernistuli muzis msaxurTa, miswrafebebis sapirispirod,
marina cvetaeva realuri samyaros Sesaxeb sainteresod wers da dedamiwaze
dgas, ukve gamarjveba iyo. miT umetes, im periodSi, roca mTeli rusuli
poezia jer kidev mravalganStoebiani simbolisturi msoflmxedvelobiT
iyo moculi.
am konteqstSi aucilebelia imis aRniSvna, rom arc marina cvetaevas
poetad Camoyalibebis gza iyo sworxazovani. marTalia, xanmokle, magram ma-
inc Ziebis procesSi icvlebodnen kumirebi, Tumca ki ukvalod ara. axalgaz-
rdis cnobiereba swrafad yalibdeboda. cvetaevas mcodneebi gansakuTrebiT
gamoyofen Tavisi eqspresiulobiT cnobil esTet poetesa grafinia de
noailsa da mxatvar maria baSkircevas, Tumca imasac miuTiTeben, rom arc
poeti qalis leqsebi da arc mxatvris intimuri dRiurebi ar miiCneoda ma-
Ral literaturad (orlovi, 1990: 9). marina ki, rogorc irkveva, kiTxulobda
bevrs da sxvadasxva xasiaTis wigns. am periodSic marina isev gatacebulia
al. puSkiniTa (misi `boSebi~ pirvelad Svidi wlisam waikiTxa) da m. lermon-
tovis leqsebiT, uyvars germaneli romantikosebi, gansakuTrebiT goeTe da
haine, aseve baironi.
267


Teqvsmeti wlis poetis sakuTar xmaze amRerebiTa da namdvili adamianu-
ri grZnobebis Seufarav poetur formaSi gacxadebiT marina cvetaevam sazo-
gadoebis yuradReba miiqcia, magram aRiarebis misaRwevad kidev bevri unda
eSroma, rasac didi siamovnebiT akeTebda.
1912 wels marina cvetaeva misTvis esoden sasurvel sergei efronze
gaTxovda. maT Turme kokteblis sanapiroze naxes erTmaneTi. `...sergeis gan-
sacvifrebeli didi nacrisferi Tvalebi naxevar saxes ufaravda da marinam
maTSi rom Caixeda, yvelaferi winaswar ganWvrita. CauTqva: Tu sardions
ipovis da maCuqebs, colad gavyvebi! vaJma vardisferi, Signidan ganaTebuli
mozrdili qva, rasakvirvelia, maSinve ipova xeliscecebiT, radgan ver
swyvetda Tvals marinas mwvane Tvalebs da sardioni xelSi Caudo...~ (efroni
1989: 30).
es iyo erTi naxviT Seyvareba. sergei marinas maradiuli siyvaruli iyo.
igi iqca marinas lirikis erT-erT mTavar Temad, radgan maTi uRrublo
siyvaruli arc ise xangrZlivi gamodga. wuxilis xma ukve 1914 wlis ivnisSi
gaisma. leqsSi ` !~ marina Tavis ganwyobilebas qmris
portretis xatvis saSualebiT gadmogvcems: mdumare piri, daRma damavali
tuCebiTa da mwuxared moWmuxnili warbebiT, Txeli tani, rogorc susti rto
da umSvenieresi, magram usargeblo Tvalebi _ ori ufskruli. aseT mdgo-
mareobaSic marinasaTvis umTavresia leqsis gmiris Rirsebis rwmena. poeti
xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom mowyenil vaJs saxe im raindisa aqvs, visac ar eSinia
sikvdilisa, SeuZlia sabediswero Jams daweros leqsi da mere jvars ecvas.
es poetis idealia. biografebis cnobiT, es leqsi col-qmars Soris xanmokle
ganxeTqilebis gamoZaxilia, magram marina maRldeba am banalur mizezze da
mZafr dramatul suraTs qmnis, axerxebs mkiTxvels SeagrZnobinos gancdis
simZime. am periodSi marina cvetaevas es ukve SeeZlo.
es erTi niuansia, romelmac adreul leqsSi gaielva. ioseb brodskim
marina cvetaevas mTeli Semoqmedebis gaTvaliswinebiT ori fundamenturi
daskvniT gaxsna misi poeziis buneba: pirveli, marina sinamdviles tragiku-
lad aRiqvamda da es tragizmi konkretulma rTulma epoqam an poetis biog-
rafiam ki ar ganapiroba, aramed is marinas Sinagani mdgomareobis gamoxatu-
leba iyo. aman marina bolomde Seurigebeli datova samyaroSi gamefebuli
wesrigis mimarT. da meore, rac ukve stilistikis sakiTxia. cvetaevasTvis
mudam mTavari iyo bgera, iseTi gulwrfeli bgera, rogoric mxolod tki-
vilnarevi yviriliT gamoixateba. misi xmis Tviseba is iyo, rom metyvelebas
yovelTvis iwyebda maRali registris zRvarze oqtavis im bolodan, romlis
Semdeg mxolod daRmarTi, anda, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, plato unda yofili-
yo. Tumca mis xmas imdenad tragikuli tembri hqonda, rom nebismieri xan-
grZlivobis JReradobis drosac uzrunvelyofda zeasvlis SegrZnebas
(brodski 1997: 27,29,63).
marina cvetaevas mgrZnobiare naturas mudam Tan axlavda sulieri
mRelvareba, rasac xSirad poeti tragikulobamde amZafrebda:

ar vfiqrob, ar vCivi, ar vdardob,
ar mZinavs.
mze, mTvare, zRva da xomaldebi
ar mxiblavs.
ver vgrZnob, am kedlebSi ra buRi
dgas cxeli.
baRSi ki elavs mwvane feri.
268


saCuqars, nanatrs da sasurvels,
ar veli.
ar maxalisebs dila, arca
tramvais srbola.
veRar SevigrZnob dRes, ver avdev
drois qrolas.
var sacekvaod dakidebuli
CaWril bagirze.
me var aCrdili sxvisi Crdilis
da bnel mTvareTa mTvareuli
ucxo napirze.

marina cvetaeva ganwyobilebis Seqmnisa da misi mkiTxvelisaTvis sacna-
urad qmnis didostatia. poetis grZnobaTa bunebidan gamomdinare, es gan-
wyobileba maJoruli TiTqmis ar aris:

fxizelo Ramev, Savo, viT guga.
rogorac guga, mSTanTqmelo naTlis _
me Sen miyvarxar!
Sen, simReraTa dambadebelo dido dedao,
vis xelT gipyria sadaveebi oTxi qarisa,
xma momamadle, Segasxa qeba:
roca Sen gixmob,
roca mogiZRvni qebaTa qebas,
sxva arara var, Tu ar niJara,
sad okeane jer ar mdumarebs.
Ramev!
mravaljer momixilavs
adamianTa gugebis siRrme!...
damferfle, Ramev!
Savo mzev _ Ramev!

cvetaeva arasodes erideboda grZnobaTa Tavisuflad gamoxatvas. igi
saerTod mZafrad aRiqvamda movlenebs da Tu Seufaravad arqmevda saxelebs
sagnebs, es imitom xdeboda, rom, rogorc Tanamedroveebi ambobdnen, masSi
`Seupovari sisxli~ Cqefda. Turme, marinas TviTgamoxatvis Tavisufleba da
zogjer Cacmis stilic Soks hgvrida adamianebs. amis magaliTi bevria, maT
Soris, poetis dis, anastasias, saqmrosadmi miZRvnili cnobili leqsi
`momwons, rom CemiT ara xarT avad~, `mcnebebs ar vicav, ara vmdgarvar arc
ziarebad~, osip mandelStamisadmi miZRvnili `saidana gaqvs Sen es sinaze?~ da
kidev mravali sxva.

mcnebebs ar vicav, ara vmdgarvar arc ziarebad.
ver veRirsebi, udavoa, xsenebas lmobiT.
codvilad vrCebi, isev vcodav, rogorc vcodavdi,
vnebaTaRelviT, RvTiT boZebul xuTive grZnobiT.

Tanamzraxvelno! megobarno! Cemno moZRvarno:
Tqvenc rom CemsaviT codvilni xarT, aravis uTqvams?
Rrubelno, xeno, qal-vaJno da caze varskvlavno,
erTad warvudgeT samsjavroze pasuxad ufals.

269


marinas aseTi Tavisufleba miT ufro TvalSisacemi iyo ukve aRiarebuli
poetis, ana axmatovas, kdemamosilebis, gancdaTa gamoxatvis mSvidi maneris
fonze, magram poeziiT gatacebulni marinas mSvenier qmnilebebs mainc ver
uvlidnen gverds. bunebrivia, WeSmariti poeziis mravali damfasebeli xvde-
boda, rom saqme gvqonda ori uniWieresi poeti-qalbatonis temperamentTa
gansxvavebulobasTan.
poetis nacnobebis monaTxrobis garda, leqsebidanac aSkarad ikveTeba,
rom marina cvetaeva arasodes yofila pepelasaviT nazad mofarfate, bum-
buliviT msubuqi mesityve. igi lirikosia, magram mReris ara koloraturu-
li sopranoTi, aramed misi gulidan amodis farTo dipazonis dramatuli
sopranos xma. misi leqsidan mZafr emocias iRebs mkiTxveli da ZneladRa
Tavisufldeba misgan. imavdroulad, roca Zlier siyvarulze (vgoneb, nel-
Tbili misTvis yvelaferi miuRebeli iyo) wers, marinaSi mgrZnobiare, rbili
da mosiyvarule qali iRviZebs, misi leqsebi ivseba ufaqizesi lirizmiT (`
...~ , ` ...~ da sxv.)

marjvena xeli viT axloa marcxena xelTan,
ise axloa suli Cemi Sens sulis bWesTan.

da ros vnetarebT siaxloviT bednierebi,
erTobasa vgrZnobT marjvena da marcxena frTebis.

magram grigali movardeba da ori guli
marjvniv da marcxniv gaiyofa didi ufskruliT.

marina cvetaevas poeziaSi ver SexvdebiT erTferovnebiT daRdasmul
leqsebs. amis mizezi upirvelesad aris poetis TviTmyofadi niWi, Semdeg
piradi cxovrebis mouwesrigebloba, dauwynarebeli sulieri mRelvareba da
amasTan is sazogadoebrivi ambebi, romlebic nebsiT Tu uneblied Tavs exvia
ruseTs da, maSasadame, marina cvetaevas ojaxsac: poetis qmari TeTrgvar-
dielTa rigebSi aRmoCnda da omma ojaxs Camoacila. marina qmris werilebs ar
iRebda, magram esmoda, sikvdilis rogor gzebze atarebdnen maT wiTeli mo-
winaaRmdegeebi... marto darCenilma ukiduresad gaWirvebulma marinam Tav-
SesafarSi miabara qaliSvilebi (umcrosi, irina, uWmelobisgan dauZlurebu-
li iqve gardaicvala). am viTarebaSic, TviTmxilvelebis mowmobiT, marinas
xsna Tavdauzogav SromaSi iyo. miuxedavad yvela sirTulisa, marina
cvetaevas sulis siZliere mraval leqsSia gamJRavnebuli. am mxriv uTuod
imsaxurebs yuradRebas usaTauro ` , ...~
sayuradReboa aseve leqsi ` , ~:

zogi moziles yviTeli TixiT,
sxva ki qvisagan aris naTali,
me vercxlad vbrwyinav, mzisken mavali,
mqvia marina, momwons Ralati,
zRvis qafad movel, var warmavali.

vinc Tixisagan aris nazeli,
vinc gaCenila xorcTa WidiliT,
elis saflavi cremliT, tiriliT.
_ me zRvis embazSi gamnaTles rwmeniT
da qrolva Cemi mTavrdeba msxvreviT.
270


Cems Tavnebobas ar aqvs borkili,
gulebs umal kveTs da kedlebs aqcevs.
Cems Tavqarian lokonebs xedav?
me miwierad ra ZaliT maqcev?

Tqveni granitis muxlebi mamsxvrevs,
magram aRmadgens yoveli talRa!
maS gaumarjos talRis aqoCvras,
da mxiarul qafs, aziduls maRla.

poetisaTvis sruliad gausaZlis periodSi uamravi leqsi mieZRvna qmars.
am monologebSi (maTSi uciloblad igrZnoba dialogis adresati) sxvadasxva
Temaa xmamaRali fiqris sagani. igi aRiarebs: `... didi simware mohyva mzi-
TevSi// Tqveni RimiliT Cems gadacdenas~. amis miuxedavad, ucvlelia marinas
siyvarulis siZliere, mdgomareobasTan Seugueblobis dramatuli simZafre,
sulis wuxili da sicocxlismoyvare martoxela qalis sindisis qenjnaze
miniSneba. angeloziviT raindi TeTri ZegliviT adgas mis mfeTqav guls:

Tavisufali frenisTvis naSobs
meklituliviT midgaxar mcveli.
Sen xar mzveravi CemTa RameTa
cismare dilas zarTa mrekveli...

elena aizenSteinis dakvirvebiT, leqsebSi mkafiod ikveTeba cvetaevas
cxovrebasTan Seusabamoba (amaze i. brodskic miuTiTebs). marinas ar SeuZlia
sxvebiviT uxarodes. misi amqveynad yofna hgavs cxovrebis TamaSs, rolis
Sesrulebas da yvela misi `celqoba~ qvisebr uimedoa, radgan is poetia,
qandakebaa, romelic cxovrebisTvis ki ar aris mowodebuli, aramed leqsTa
TxzvisaTvis (aizenStaini 2000: 15).
didi siyvaruli didi tkivilis Tanamgzavria, magram am mdgomareobis
daZlevaSi poets exmareboda sergei efronis aRiareba, romelic erTma
werilma Semoinaxa: `Cveni Sexvedra udidesi saswauli iyo... mTeli Cveni gan-
Sorebis manZilze _ yoveli dRe, yoveli saaTi _ Tqven CemTan iyaviT, CemSi
iyaviT..~ (qurdovaniZe 2008: 225). amis codnas simSvide moaqvs, magram cxov-
reba mainc Tavisas moiTxovs. leqsSi `~ poeti gvarwmunebs, rom
bedniereba misTvis wamieri sinamdvile, ufro ki warmosaxuli, efemeruli
realoba iyo, romelTanac miaxloebas moaxerxebda Tu ara, igi umal
qreboda:

Zveli slavuri zneobis ZaliT
samarcxvino boZs var milursmuli:
Sublze daRi maqvs, mkerds miwovs gveli.
me ki vamtkiceb: wminda maqvs guli!
CemSi simSvide aris morwmunis,
romelic elis did ziarebas.
ra davaSave, me xom xelgawvdiT
daveZeb mxolod bednierebas...

marina cvetaevas bunebisaTvis martooba mtanjveli realobaa. mas sZuls
es mdgomareoba. leqsSi ` - ~ poeti aRiarebs:
271


`...kvali mebneva // gansakuTrebiT gazafxulobiT // da mainc, vwvalob,
vwrialeb xalxSi, // rogorac ZaRli mTvarian RamiT...~
martoobas ukavSirdeba poetis mier mravalgzis damuSavebuli Ramisa da
uZilobis Temebi. Tavisi winamorbedi simbolistebisagan gansxvavebiT,
marina cvetaeva mistikurad ar Wvrets Rameul samyaros, ar aidealebs sib-
neles da ar gamoTqvams Ramis ukuneTSi SeRwevis survils. poets megobroba
ki ar unda RamesTan, aramed misgan Tavdaxsna, sulis mosaTqmelad vinmesTan
dalaparakeba: `vSfoTav, mZuls uxmo, usulo saxli~, _ ambobs igi da ukan-
mouxedavad garbis quCaSi, raTa iq moZebnos ganaTebuli fanjrebi, romelTa
iqiT SesaZlebel sicocxlesa da sixaruls Wvrets da roca poulobs, uxaria.
Tavad ki mxolod Civili SeuZlia: `simSvide gonebam Cemma versad da veraf-
riT hpova~. vfiqrobT, swored am aRiarebaSi ikiTxeba safuZveli poetis pi-
rovnuli tragizmisa, romelic mis SemoqmedebaSic Zlierad gamJRavnda.
marinas arc mosveneba moswons, radgan misi buneba sazogadod ver egueba
modunebas, umoqmedobas.
marina cvetaevas poeziaSi aqtiuri, moZravi, daumonavi suli mefobs.
aqedan gamomdinare, sworad SeniSna v. orlovma, rom cvetaevasTan siyvaruli
`sabediswero orTabrZolas~ hgavs. davamatebT, rom marina cvetaevas siy-
varuli am brZolis yvela safexurs gadis. poetisTvis siyvaruli yovelTvis
dapirispirebaa da, rogorc wesi, ganxeTqilebiT mTavrdeba. isev v. orlovis
TqmiT, misi satrfialo lirika, mTlianad poeziis msgavsad, xmamaRalia,
farTomasStabiania, hiperbolizebulia, dauokebelia.
marina cvetaevas grZnobaTa bunebas kargad warmoaCens misi erTi leqsis
fragmenti, romelSic poeti dakargul satrfos ucxadebs Tavis nebas: sadac
gind iyo _ mainc gipovi // da simwris gzebiT Tan wamogiyvan. // zRvaTa
ufskrulebs guls amovuReb // da mis fskeridan ze amogiyvan. // cotac
moica! me yvelgana var: // ciskaric var da ganZic miwis qveS, // me purica var
da amosunTqvac. // var da viqnebi da tuCebs Sensas,// rogorc RmerTi suls,
davisakuTreb...
yvelasaTvis cnobilia, rom `vercxlis saukunis~ poeziam gansakuTrebu-
li wvlili Seitana rusuli literaturis ganviTarebaSi. am dros moRvaweob-
dnen poeziis kaSkaSa varskvlavebi da ar aris gasakviri, rom erTmaneTis
mimarT paeqrobis grZnoba gasCenodaT. kritikosebi SeniSnaven, rom moskove-
li poetebi farulad Tu xilulad dapirispirebulni iyvnen `parnaselebTan~
(saakianci 1981: 9). es, bunebrivia, ar niSnavda erTmaneTis poeturi niWis
daufaseblobas. marina kargad icnobda da moxibluli iyo ana axmatovas
poeturi xmiT da Tavisi aRfrTovaneba misdami miZRvnil ciklSi (12 leqsi)
gamoxata. TanamedroveTagan eTayvaneboda aleqsandre blokis poetur da
pirovnul Rirsebebs da Tumca piradad ar icnobda (orjer Sexvda, magram
moerida gasacnobad misvla), 16 leqsi miuZRvna. afasebda osip mandelStamis
da sergei eseninis niWs, moswonda da megobrobda boris pasternaksa da ilia
erenburgTan. marina boris pasternaks Tanamedroveobis saukeTeso poetad
Tvlida, romelmac axali forma ki ar Seqmna, aramed warmoaCina poeziis arsi,
rac axal formasac gulisxmobda. marinas aseve gamorCeuli damokidebuleba
hqonda rainer maria rilkesa da mis poeziasTan.
ilia erenburgi wers: marina cvetaevaSi Serwymuli iyo Zvelmoduri
Tavazianoba da meamboxeoba, harmoniis mimarT mowiweba da sulieri rye-
vebisadmi midrekileba, ukiduresi siamaye da usazRvro ubraloeba. misi
272


cxovreba gonebis gamobrwyinebaTa da SecdomaTa gorgali iyo (erenburgi
1956: 711).
marTebulad aris SeniSnuli, rom marina cvetaevas, poetisa da adami-
anis, sicocxlis vnebiT Sepyrobili suli dapirispirebulia miwier yofiTo-
basTan. igi SedarebiT srulad miwieris zRvars miRma gamoixateba da amas
ukvdaveba hqvia. samanis gadalaxvis da mis iqiT gasvlis swrafva, faqtob-
rivad, Tan sdevs da aerTianebs poetis mTel Semoqmedebas (zubova 1987: 5).
simbolisti poetebi did interess iCendnen wignur-romantikuli warmo-
mavlobis Temebisadmi. isini amuSavebdnen miTologiur da literaturul
siuJetebs da axali interpretaciiT warmoadgendnen gardasul cxovrebas.
es interesi marina cvetaevasTanac SeiniSneba. man daamuSava don-Juanisa da
fsiqes Temebi, gasaocari mxatvruli ZaliT gaaTanamedrova orfeosisa da
fedras istoriebi, Tavisi damokidebuleba gamoxata skviTebisa da ofelia-
hamletis, Tezevsisa da ariadnas ambebis mimarT. Zveli istoriebis gadamu-
Savebisas marina cvetaeva warmoCndeba, rogorc brwyinvale mesityve, azris
sxartad da xatovnad gamoTqmis didostati. ai, hamletis problema, danaxu-
li ofelias TvaliT:

ufliswulo hamlet!
kmara Wiani sabados qeqva...
egeb gijobdeT uyuroT vardebs.
ifiqreT masze, visac cxovrebis
kuTvnili Jami amoswurvia
da Zlivs abJutebs boloRa sanTlebs...

viT Caswvdebian ubiwoebi
biwierebas ugono vnebis?
ufro mZimea codva fedrasi,
Tumc umRerian umankoebic.
da umRereben! Tqven ki, uRonov,
kvlav iavsityveT CxakuniT Zvlebis.

ufliswulo hamlet!
aalebuli sisxlisa gansja,
umwikvlos saiT xelewifebis?..

marina cvetaevam mraval Zvel siuJetTa Soris axali sicocxle da Jre-
radoba SesZina fedras miTs. poetma Tavisi grZnobebis Tanxvedra `aRmoaCi-
na~ fedras gancdebTan. piesis garda, marinam Seqmna ornawiliani leqsi, ro-
melSic tragikuli simZafriT aris nagrZnobi sayvareli kacisagan uaryofi-
li qalis sxeulisa da sulis tkivili.
miTur-literaturuli Temebis safuZvelze axali nawarmoebis Seqmna,
advili misaxvedria, rom Tavad poetis tkivilis gamoxatvas isaxavda miznad.
leqsebis gacnobisas mkiTxveli grZnobs gacocxlebuli qalebis _ evridi-
kes, hertrudas, fedrasadmi poetis solidarobas. sabolood ki, aSkaraa,
rom marina Tavisi sayvareli adamianebis mimarT gamZafrebul (zogjer uar-
yofil) siyvarulze moTqvams.
rogorc Tavad marina ambobda, SemoqmedebaSi simaRle miiRweoda maSin,
roca poeti Zlierad iyo damokidebuli mignebis wyurvilze da mignebis Sem-
dgom saWiroebisamebr iyenebda mas. Tavad amas Tavdauzogavi SromiT aRwev-
da. rogorc ariadna ixsenebs, dedamisi yovel dRe dilidan SuadRemde Tavis
273


oTaxSi iketeboda, Tan Sehqonda ganuyreli papirosi da tolCiT yava da eTi-
Seboda amqveyniur samyaros, misTvis socialurad yovlad mouwyobels, ro-
gorc samSobloSi, ise sazRvargareT.
meCveneba, rom cvetaevas cxovreba da poezia erTi gabmuli wuxilia,
xangrZlivi amokvnesaa SigadaSig Sesveneba-amosunTqvebiT. rTulia Caswvde
am isedac Znelad aRsaqmeli lirikis (gansakuTrebiT 20-iani wlebis Semdeg)
siRrmeebs, Tu ar gaiTvaliswineb poetis grZnobaTa bunebas, mis winaaR-
mdegobriv xasiaTs, imas, rom gamudmebuli Sinagani daZabulobis pirobebSi
Zlieri adamianisTvisac ki ra mZime WrilobebiT mTavrdeboda ocnebebisTvis
Tavis mindobis Semdeg realobasTan dajaxeba.

vzivar uSuqod, upurod, uwylod.
RmerTi gansacdels imad migzavnis,
fiqrobs cocxali Tan wamiyvanos
zeciur samyofs, sanacvlod tanjvis.

vzi. xmeli puris ara maqvs qerqic...

perspeqtiva arcTu naTlad warmosadgeni momavlisa poetisTvis dam-
Trgunvelia. marinas monologebSi gacxadebuli xmamaRali fiqrebi, rogorc
wesi, dialogs gulisxmobs. igi saubrobs masTan, vinc gverdiT ar hyavs, unda
hyavdes ki. mwuxare fiqrebi axvevia Tavs poets da surs ganWvritos xvalin-
deli dRe:

o, Raribulo kerav Cemo! gaciebulo!
vera, verafers Segadareb, mamiseulo!...
dRe ukve dacxra. o, karo Cemo, Carazulo,
hoi, Rameo, uZilov da usiyvarulov...
o, macodina, rom civi zamTris didTovlobaSic
Cemi borcvi isev iqneba yvavilobaSi.

ocnebebi Znelad usruldeboda marinas, an asrulebuli natvra ar iyo
xolme srulqmnili. ojaxma sazRvargareT SeZlo SeerTeba, nanatri vaJic
gauCndaT, magram `bedi mdevari~ axla sxva mxridan axsenebda Tavs. 1933 wels
moweril kerZo werilSi poeti ityobineba: siRatake, romelSic me vcxovrob,
yovlad warmoudgenelia. araviTari saxsari ar gamaCnia, garda werisa. qmari
avad aris da ver muSaobs. qaliSvili qudebis qsoviT Soulobs dReSi xuT
franks, rac oTx kacs unda gveyos (8 wlis biWi myavs, giorgi). vcxovrobT, e.i.
ubralod SimSilisagan nel-nela gvxdeba suli...
isic unda gavixsenoT, rom am dros leqsebs presaSi dasabeWdad Zalian
iSviaTad iRebdnen da marina iZulebuli iyo prozauli nawarmoebebi ewera.
am periodSi, iZulebiTi prozaikosobis xans, marina cvetaevam Seqmna Zalze
saintereso memuaruli, literaturul-kritikuli, epistolaruli memkvid-
reoba, maT Soris dRiurebi, romlebSic zogjer gacilebiT metis amokiTxva
SeiZleba, vidre mxatvrul nawarmoebSi.
araerTgzis iyo SeniSnuli, rom marina cvetaevas leqsi aravisSi agereva.
am Tvalsazrisis warmoqmnas Tavad poeti uwyobda xels, radgan miiCnevda,
rom leqsi poetis `sulis wyobas~ hfenda naTels. marinas umTavresi maxa-
siaTebeli gamoxatul grZnobaTa simZafrea, rac SerCeuli leqsikis parale-
lurad miiRweva gadmosacem ambavTan misadagebuli ganwyobilebis aqcenti-
rebiT. marina yoveli leqsisTvis sagangebo atmosferos qmnis, romelic misi
274


gancdis Tanaxmieria da raki Tavis grZnobas poetur formaSi axvevs, misTvis
samudamo sicocxlis miniWebac uadvildeba. amis dasturia poetis gancdis
simZafris adekvaturad aRqma erTi saukunis Semdegac.
marina cvetaeva gamudmebiT eZiebda formebs. amitom daugrovda mra-
valgvari formis leqsebi. maT Soris gvxvdeba mokle, sxarti frazebiT
agebuli qmnilebebi. isini sxvadsxva Temaze dawerili miniaturebia, romleb-
Sic cvetaevaseuli azri da virtuozuli teqnika srul harmoniaSia
erTmaneTTan.

me var furceli Seni kalmisTvis,
yvelafers vitan, vrCebi ubiwod,
Seni dovlaTis me var damcveli
da dagibruneb ukan uTuod.

me var sofeli da miwa Savi.
Sen CemTvis _ sxivi, sinedle wvimis,
Sena xar RmerTi, meufe Cemi,
me _ miwa Savi. imedi mivis.

marina cvetaeva, rogorc pirovneba, maqsimalisti iyo. mas hqonda Tavisi
pozicia da faseulobebi. amave dros emociurad iyo datvirTuli, rac leq-
sebSi mTeli sisruliT aisaxeboda. poeti werisas eqspresiul metyvelebas
aniWebda upiratesobas. mas erTgan uTqvams `vwer mxolod smeniTo~. es
gamonaTqvami ixsneba meoriT: SemoqmedebiTi wvis procesi aris `cdunebis~
Jami, roca auxsneli Zala gmarTavs. marinas pirovnuli bunebis gamoxatule-
baa misi poeturi azrovnebis procesis eqspresiuloba, zeaRmavali ritmi,
elviseburi tempi. Cans, aseTi ritmis gavlenam aTqmevina andrei belis:
cvetaevas `daumarcxebeli ritmio~.
bunebrivia, yvela leqsi ar aris da arc SeiZleba iyos aseTi ritmisa. sxva
nawarmoebebi azris srulyofilad gadmosacemad SedarebiT mSvid ritms
saWiroebdnen. sadeklamaciod ki igi (STabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad) eq-
spresiuli ritmis leqsebs irCevda. ilia erenburgi ixsenebs, rom marina
`leqsis kiTxvisas waimRerebda, taeps ki sxapasxupiT amTavrebda~ (erenburgi
1923:73).
erTgan marina cvetaevas uRiarebia, rom gulgrili iyo xilvadi leq-
sebisadmi. am gancxadebis sawinaaRmdegod unda SevniSnoT, rom mis poeziaSi
xiluli, advilad dasanaxi xasiaTebi an suraTebi bevrgan gvxvdeba. ar SeiZ-
leba misi leqsis eqspresiulobam ar dabados saxe-xasiaTTa xiluloba, amis
gareSe Seqmnas saWiro efeqti. ufro metic, rogorc SeniSna i. puxnaCovma,
marina cvetaevas xiluli xasiaTebi dinamiuria Tavisi bunebiT da emsgavseba
kinematografiuls (puxnaCovi 1981: 54). naTqvamis simarTleSi advilad
davrwmundebiT:

veRar davexsen saSinel sizmrebs:
modian wiTeli oTxTvalebi...
maT ukan mosdeven Cveni qveynis
qedmodrekili vaJiSvilebi.
yrmas, oqrosTmians, zecisken sweven
mware godebiT dedakacebi.


275


did karibWesTan veeba taZris
alisfer droSas daafrialebs
xeibari TiTebwaWrili, Tan,
viTa nadiri, ise Rrialebs.
ufexo kacis yavarjenze ki
wiTeli tilo burburiT iwvis...

aq vwyvetT leqsis citirebas, radgan, vfiqrobT, suraTi naTelia, ufro
ki imitom, rom gagaxsenoT marina cvetaevas leqsze robert roJdestvenskis
gamonaTqvami: cvetaevas yovel leqss, zomis, riTmisa da xasiaTebis garda,
TiTqos sisxlis mimoqcevis sakuTari unikaluri sistema gaaCnia, romelic
uceb raRac warmoudgeneli gziT uerTdeba Tqvens sisxlis mimoqcevis
sistemas. roca leqsis citacias axdenT, Tqven cocxal organizms kveTT da
Tavadve gtkivaT... gana swored tkiviliT _ warmoudgeneli, araadamianuri
tkiviliT ar aris savse es leqsebi. tkiviliTa da ZaliT.
marina cvetaevas ekuTvnis gamonaTqvami: me ar mjera iseTi leqsebisa,
romlebic wyaliviT moedinebian. momwons, roca leqsi `iglijeba~. aseTi
`daglejili~ leqsi bevria mis SemoqmedebaSi da, vfiqrobT, es marto formis
ganaxlebis mcdeloba ki ara, upirvelesad misi sulieri mdgomareobisTvis
Sesatyvisi Temis damuSavebisas misive mRelvare sulis leqsSi gadmosvlaa.
es marinas unaria, es misi grZnobaTa bunebis gamoxatulebaa. fizikur planSi
es procesi marinas leqsSi cnaurdeba frazis wyvetilobiT, pauzebiT,
ucnauri ritmis SemotaniTa da misi ganzrax aRreviT, asonansuri riTmebiTa
da intonaciaTa mravalferovnebiT (am maxasiaTeblebis gamo misi leqsi sxva
enaze gadatanisas did Zalisxmevas moiTxovs).
marina cvetaevas winaaRmegobrivi xasiaTi mis mraval gamonaTqvamSi Cans.
poetis TeatriT gataceba misdami gulgrilobiT damTavrda. mogvianebiT
Tavad ganacxadebs xmamaRla: `Tayvans ar vcem Teatrs, ar miviswrafi Te-
atrisken, angariSs ar vuwev Teatrs~. es, Cans, cxel gulzea naTqvami, Torem,
rogorc lev ozerovi SeniSnavs, sinamdvileSi cvetaevasTvis Teatri yofi-
erebis metaforaa... misi azrovnebisa da TviTgamoxatvis, samyarosTan urTi-
erTobis dramatizmiT aRbeWdili saSualebaa. mas ar axasiaTebs statika da
idiliuroba... marinas dawerili piesebi da mTlianad poezia _ poetis di-
alogi _ udidesi WmunviT aRsavse dramaturgiuli masalaa (ozerovi 1991: 8).
1921 wels ilia erenburgma praRaSi miakvlia sergei efrons. 1922 wels
marina cvetaeva qaliSvilTan erTad emigraciaSi gaemgzavra sergeisTan.
sxvadasxva dros is cxovrobda germaniaSi, CexeTSi, safrangeTSi. poetma
ucxoeTSi yofnis 17 wlis manZilze didi memkvidreoba Seqmna.


damowmebani:

aizenSteini 2000: . ... ., . `~,
` ~, 2000.
briusovi 1912: . .
. .: , 1912.
brodski 1997: . .: , 1997.
gumiliovi 1923: . . .: `~, 1923.
erenburgi 1923: . . .: `~, 1923.
276


erenburgi 1956: . . , . II,
.: ` ~,1956.
efroni 1989: . . .: ` ~, 1989.
zubova 1987: .
. ., , 1987.
ozerovi 1991: . . .: `~, 1991.
orlovi 1990: . . . . . .
. .: `~,1990.
puxnaCovi 1981: . . . . .:
`~, 1981.
saakianci 1981: . . . , .
.: `~, 1981.
qurdovaniZe 2006: marina cvetaeva. uZiloba. Targmani Teimuraz qurdova-
niZisa. `erovnuli mwerloba~, Tb.: 2006.
qurdovaniZe 2008: `bedis saqanelaze~. rusuli leqsi, moTxroba, esse. anTolo-
gia Seadgina da Targmna Teimuraz qurdovaniZem. Tb.: `mwerlis gazeTi~, 2008.
cvetaeva 1990: . . , . .
.: `~, 1990.



Teimuraz kurdovanidze

Pre-emigratory Search of Tragic Voice Lyric Poetess
(To the Centrary of Marina Tsvetaeva's First Book)

Work is dedicated to the study of Marina Tsvetaeva's pre-emigratory creative search.
Autor describes world preception of lyric poetess, her aspiration for entering of
realistic stream into the abstract themes of symbolistic period of russian poetry, for
discussion of humane relations, for vital problems, for advance of importance of emotions
in persons life.
As J. Brodsky called her, M. Tsvetaeva was poetess of Tragic voice. In her creation
she expressed implacability to that order, which was established in real life. Relating about
her life and emotional expresses, poetess helps us to feel flow of social life of that time,
contradictions which predominate in her country.
M. Tsvetaevas manner to put into words her ocon thoughts is barefaced. Everything
human is for her natural and admissible. Subjects of her verses, her sentimetts and
sharpness of her senses (which is her personal sign), demanded creation of new poetical
style, which she realized suc-cessfully. Her poetry is orientated on the sound, on
expressive increasing rhythm, on splintering of phrase, on pauses. Jt is why reader is
carried fall to thinking and has a sensation of true poetry charm. Sentiments of M.
Tsvetaevas poetry are so humane ang so natural that they remain sensible even to-day
after hundred years.
277


Tamar kotrikaZe

qristine lavantis
msoflmxedveloba da poetika

XX saukunis avstrieli poeti qristine lavanti (1915-1973) uaRresad
sainteresoa ara mxolod rogorc Semoqmedi, aramed, rogorc pirovneba.
lavntis SemoqmedebaSi gamoxatuli misi msoflmxedveloba da poetika, Cveni
azriT, ganuyofelia misi biografiisagan, romelic man SemoqmedebiTad gar-
daqmna da piradi miTosis rangSi aiyvana, amitomac poetis Semoqmedeba da bi-
ografia unda ganvixiloT mTlianobaSi, rogorc qristine lavantis samyaro.
cxadia, yoveli lirikosis biografia ganuyofelia misi poeziisagan, magram
lavantis SemTxvevaSi es kavSiri, albaT, gansakuTrebulad intensiuria.
am Semoqmedis biografia Cven gvesaxeba im centrad Tu im gzajvaredinad,
sadac erTurTs xvdeba da gadakveTs misi samyaros gansxvavebuli ganzomi-
lebebi. am ganzomilebebs Soris pirvel rigSi unda davasaxeloT epoqalur-
nacionaluri ganzomileba, romelic lavants XX saukunis pirveli naxevris
zogadad evropuli, ufro viwrod ki _ avstriuli kulturisa da esTetikis
planSi warmogvidgens. Semdeg modis is ori `kulturul-religiuri~ plasti,
romelic lavantis Semoqmedebis Tematika ganapirobebs: esaa qristianuli da
warmarTul-magiuri ganzomilebebi, romlebic erTimeoresTan mudmiv dapi-
rispirebasa da WidilSi imyofebian. dabolos, davasaxelebT im ganzomile-
bas, romelic ukavSirebs lavantis msoflaRqmas XX saukunis dasawyisis
evropul filosofiur azrovnebas (vgulisxmobT `sicocxlis filosofiasa~
da egzistencializms). es ganzomileba pirdapir kavSirSia epoqalur-naci-
onalurTan. amgvarad isaxeba jvris formis sistema, veli, romlis saxiTac
SeiZleba dainaxoT qristine lavantis samyaro:

qristianuli
ganzomileba

epoqalur-nacionaluri ganz. biografia egzistencializmis ganz.

warmarTul-magiuri
ganzomileba

mTel am vels msWvalavs miTosi, rogorc TiToeuli am ganzomilebis
ganmapirobebeli tonaloba Tu elferi. am sityvas im mniSvnelobas vaniWebT,
romelsac gulisxmobs dmitri mereJkovski, rodesac wers: `unda gavaerTi-
anoT maradiulisa da amwuTieris mniSvnelobebi, unda SevZloT, ar Seura-
cxvyoT warmavali, mokvdavi, da, amave dros, ganvWvritoT masSi da mis miRma
ukvdavi, waruvali~ (mereJkovski 1901: 35). Cveni azriT, swored miTosia is
gasaRebi, is gza, romliTac unda mivudgeT qristine lavantis samyaros.
zogadad `kulturis miTizacia~ (Jerebini 2004: 4) swored is procesia,
romelic XIX-XX saukuneTa mijnaze daiwyo dasavlur azrovnebaSi (am azrisaa
aleqsei Jerebini, avtori wignisa `vertikaluri xazi. avstriuli filoso-
fiuri proza rusul perspeqtivaSi~). swored avstriulobas eniWeba gadam-
wyveti mniSvneloba lavantis Semoqmedebis wvdomisaTvis. es momenti gan-
278


sazRvravs misi samyaros epoqalur-nacionalur ganzomilebas: marTalia,
lavanti XX saukunis 40-50-ian wlebSi moRvaweobda, magram is Sors iyo Tavisi
Tanamedrove avangarduli literaturuli tendenciebisagan, mas bevrad
meti ram akavSirebs swored saukuneTa mijnis iseT avstriel SemoqmedebTan,
rogorebicaa r. m. rilke da georg Traqli. lavantis Semoqmedeba da msof-
lmxedveloba mravali gagebiT maTi mxatvruli samyaros uSualo gagrZe-
lebas warmoadgens.
Tanamedroveobas, rogorc horizontalur xazs, aleqsei Jerebinis az-
riT, hkveTs vertikaluri xazi, romelic, erTi mxriv, gulisxmobs mTeli
istoriuli drois siRrmes, xolo meore mxriv _ RvTiur anu transcenden-
tul sinamdviles, rogorc samyaros siRrmes, romelic adamianur sinamdvi-
les msWvalavs. vertikalis am orive gagebis umZafresi SegrZneba swored
saukuneTa mijnaze Semodis dasavlur azrovnebaSi, is enacvleba wina
saukuneebis `horizontul~ azrovnebas, romlis zedapirulobamac Tavis
mwvervals miaRwia XIX saukuneSi. germaneli mkvlevari, ulrih fiuleborni,
erTmaneTs adarebs da upirispirebs avstriul da germanul Tanamedrove
literaturas: `avstriuli modernizmi, rogorc `yofierebis literatura~
(Literatur des Ist) upirispirdeba germanul `subieqtis literaturas~ (Literatur
des Ich) (Jerebini 2004: 7), romelic `Crdilogermanuli protestantizimidan~
aRmocenda, maSin, roca avstriul azrovnebas fesvebi udgas `avstriuli
kaTolikuri barokos TviTmyofad tradiciaSi~, romlis ayvavebis xanac swo-
red saukuneTa mijnaze mTel evropaSi Seqmnil `individualizmis kriziss~
(Jerebini 2004: 8) daemTxva. `amdenad, yofierebis literaturis~ birTvad
gvevlineba transcendenturi idealizmis impersonalisturi gadafaseba da
mtkiceba iseTi zepirovnuli sferos arsebobisa, yovel calkeul adamians
rom asazrdoebs~ (Jerebini 2004: 8). poet hugo fon hofmansTalis TqmiT,
avstriuli modernizmis wiaRSi `konservatuli revolucia~ (Jerebini 2004:
9) xdeba. a. Jerebini am gamoTqmas Semdegnairad xsnis: `es gonis metafizikuri
revoluciaa, romelic miznad isaxavs istoriaSi danawevrebuli samyarose-
uli erTianobis aRdgenas da sekularizirebuli pirovnebis Cabmas RvTiur-
adamianur kavSirSi~ (Jerebini 2004: 9).
xsenebuli vertikali imTaviTve TvalSi gvecema qristine lavantis az-
rovnebaSi: religia, rwmena, samyaros transcendentul, miRmier ganzomile-
basTan kavSiri mTel mis Semoqmedebas msWvalavs. Cven mier moxazul mis sam-
yarosac religiuri vertikali hkveTs. lavanti swored `konservatuli re-
voluciis~ gagebiT axdens axal kavSirs samyaros transcendentul siRrmes-
Tan da amas im ori kulturul-religiuri sferos saSualebiT axdens, rom-
lebic miseuli vertikalis polusebs warmoadgenen: 1) pirveli swored is
qristianuli tradiciaa, Tavisi barokaluri paTosiT, `avstriuli vertika-
lis~ mTavar maxasiaTeblad rom movixsenieT; 2) meore _ is xalxuri magiur-
mistiuri tradicia, romelic evropis xalxebis uZvelesi warmarTuli kul-
tebidan iRebs saTaves. orive es tradicia lavantis msoflmxedvelobaSi or-
mxrivad Semodis: erTi mxriv, is arasodes daSorebia Tavis mSobliur sof-
lur garemos, romelSic eklesiuri dogmebi da xalxuri gadmocemebi er