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Test for Anion

Anion Reagent Products


decomposition / heating of
NO
3
-
salts

gas O
2
and NO
2
NO
3
-
Brown ring test
(1) DiluteH
2
SO
4
+FeSO
4

(2) Concentrated H
2
SO
4

Brown ring.
Cl
-
diluteHNO
3
/H
2
SO
4
+AgNO
3
Whiteprecipitate,
AgCl
SO
4
2-
diluteHCl @ HNO
3
+
BaCl
2
@ Ba(NO
3
)
2
Whiteprecipitate,
BaSO
4
decomposition / heating of
CO
3
2-
salts
CO
2
gas CO
3
2-
Add diluteHCl @ HNO
3
CO
2
gas

Reagent Anion Observation
CO
3
2-
Whiteprecipitatesolublein diluteHNO
3
Cl
-
Whiteprecipitatesolublein hot water.

SO
4
2-
Whiteprecipitatesolublein diluteHNO
3
Pb(NO
3
)
2
NO
3
-
-



All anions arenot coloured.
Colour of a salt depends on thecation present.
Colour of cationic solution:
Colourless - Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
, Al
3+
, Zn
2+
, Pb
2+
, NH
4
+
Blue - Cu
2+
Green - Fe
2+

Yellow/brown - Fe
3+

Solubility of salts in water
NO
3
-
salts - All soluble.
SO
4
2-

salts - All solubleexcept Ba
2+
, Pb
2+
and Ca
2+
salts
CO
3
2-
salts - All insolubleexcept K
+
, Na
+
and NH
4
+
salts
Cl
-
salts - All solubleexcept Ag
+
, Hg
2+
and Pb
2+
salts
(solublein hot water)
All K
+
, Na
+
and NH
4
+
salts aresoluble.
Thetypeof gas produced will indicatetheanion present in thesalt.
Effect of heat on salts
NH
4
+
NH
3
gas
CO
3
2+
CO
2
gas +metallic oxide
except K
+
and Na
+
salts.
NO
3
-
K
+
and Na
+
O
2
+NO
2
-
salts

others NO
2
+O
2
+metallic oxide
SO
4
2-
No decomposition except Fe, Zn and Cu SO
2
@ SO
3

+metallic oxide.
Cl
-
stableexcept NH
4
Cl NH
3
+HCl

O
2
/ NO
2
nitrateion CO
2
carbonateion.
Confirmatory tests
Ion Reagent Observation
Pb
2+
KI Yellow precipitate
KCl @ NaCl Whiteprecipitate
K
2
SO
4
@ H
2
SO
4
Whiteprecipitate
NH
4
+
Nesslers Reagent Brown precipitate
Fe
2+
Potassiumhexacyanoferrate (II)
K
4
Fe(CN)
6
Potassiumhexacyanoferrate(III)
K
3
Fe(CN)
6
Light blueprecipitate

Deep blueprecipitate
Fe
3+
Potassiumhexacyanoferrate (II)
K
4
Fe(CN)
6
Potassiumhexacyanoferrate(III)
K
3
Fe(CN)
6
Potassiumthiocyanate, KSCN
Deep blueprecipitate

Greenish brown
precipitate
Blood red solution

Insolublesalt
Na
+
, K
+
,
NH4
+
salt
Not Na
+
, K
+
,
NH4
+
salt
Titration
methodby
neutralization
reaction
(acid+alkali)
Reactions between:
(acid +Solid)
1. Acid+insolublebase
2. Acid+Metal
3. Acid+carbonate
Filtration
(usefiltrate)
Salt solution
- Boiling (
1
/3 of original volume)
- Cooling(Crystallisation)
- Filtration (useresidue)
- Wash/rinsewithdistill water
- dry with filter paper
Salt crystals
Precipitation methodby
doubledecomposition
reaction
(salt solution+salt solution)
- Filtration (useresidue)
- Wash/rinsewithdistill
water
- dry with filter paper
Exampleto prepare:

salt solution+salt solution
insolublesalt +salt
solution
__ __ +__ __
__ __ +__ __

Methodof salt preparation
Solublesalt
Colour of Metallic Oxide fromheating of salt
Whitesalt yellow (hot) and white(cool) Zn
2+
Whitesalt brown (hot) and yellow (cool) Pb
2+

Blue/green salt black Cu
2+

Green/yellow salt brown Fe
2+
/Fe
3+

Test for Cation
Reagent Observation Ion
- No change

NH
3

NH
4
+

- Blueprecipitateinsolublein
excess NaOH.
Cu
2+

- Dirty green precipitateinsoluble
in excess NaOH.
Fe
2+
- Brown precipitateinsolublein
excess NaOH.
Fe
3+
- Whiteprecipitateinsolublein
excess NaOH.
Ca
2+
,
Mg
2+





NaOH
(aq)
CaM PAZ
- Whiteprecipitatesolublein
excess NaOH.
Zn
2+
,
Al
3+
,
Pb
2+
- No visiblechange Ca
2+
NH
4
+
- Blueprecipitatesolublein excess
NH
3
Deep bluesolution
Cu
2+
- Dirty green precipitateinsoluble
in excess NH
3
.
Fe
2+
- Brown precipitateinsolublein
excess NH
3
.
Fe
3+
- Whiteprecipitateinsolublein
excess NH
3
.
Pb
2+
,
Mg
2+,
Al
3+





NH
3(aq)
Ca MPA Z
- Whiteprecipitatesolublein
excess NH
3
.
Zn
2+



Definition
1. A salt is an ionic compound which results when the
hydrogen ion in an acid is replaced by a metallic or
ammoniumion (NH
4
+
) froma base.
2. Qualitative analysis is aseries of tests conducted
on a chemical substanceto identify theunknown
component or components in it.
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SALT
To identify cation and anion in unknown salt X.
Cation : Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
, Al
3+
, Zn
2+
, Fe
2+
, Fe
3+
, Pb
2+
, Cu
2+
, and NH
4
+
.
Anion : NO
3
-
, CO
3
2-
, Cl
-
, SO
4
2-
.
Gas Test
H
2
Gives 'pop' sound when
burning splint is introduced
Cl
2
Turns moist bluelitmus
paper to red then white
O
2
Rekindles glowing splint CO
2
Turns lime water chalky
NO
2
Brown colour and turns
bluelitmus paper to red
SO
2
Turns acidified KMnO
4

frompurpleto colourless
NH
3
/ HCl Formwhitefumes with glass rod dipped in concentrated
HCl / NH
3

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