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BAO B NHA CHO THC PHM,

THC UNG V AN TON CHO


NGI TIU DNG
Chu PhmNgc Sn, PhmTh nh, Dip Ngc Sng
Hi Hahc TP H Ch Minh
CngtyDch v KHCN Sc KHi ng
HI THO BAO B V AN TON THC PHM- 04/03/2014
Bao b thc phm, thc ung, gi chung l thc phm, c
nhimv:
bo v thc phm i vi nhng bin i l, hahc, sinhhc ca mi
trng bnngoi
gi c luthc phm khngb hng, giplu thngphnphi trong
nc vgia ccnc thc phm cnnguynvn khi n tayngi
tiudng.
Mt khc, iu cc k quantrng lchnhbaob phi gi nguyn c
cc c trng dinh dng v cmquan ca thc phm, phi bo m
thc phm an ton, khngc gyratrongthc phm cha trongbaob
nhng bin i dnh, khhay khngpht hin c bng gicquan
thngthng, nhng cth nh hng xu n sc khe ngi tiudng.
Nhiu loi bao b thc phm hin ang c s dng:
* hp carton
* ccvt cha bng nha, bng thy tinhhay kimloi,
* ccmngbc bng giy trngnha hay bng nha,
c nguy c thi nhim ha cht vo thc phm cha, mc
thi nhim ty theo:
* bn cht ca baob,
* bn cht ca thc phm,
*hmlng cht thi nhim trongnn baob
* iu kin lu tr,
* cchthc chun b, ch bin thc phm
* cchs dng.
Mt s ha cht ny c kh nng tch ly lu di trong c th
ngi thng qua dy chuyn thc phm v c nguy c gy
ng c mn tnh thng thng rt kh lng trc c
Bo co ny s cp n:
ccbaob thc phm bng nha hin ang c s dng ph
bin trongnc :
* polyethylene, polypropylene (cc loi bao b,
* polystyrene ( Hp xp polystyrene, hp cha cng, nh loi expanded polystyrene )
* polyvinyl chloride (hp, nha trong bc thc phm, giy tm nha gi ph mai , b),
* Polycarbonate (chai sa cho tr con) ,
* polyethylene terephthalate, (chai l cho thc ung)
* nha melamin (chn a hp cha, khay cha)
* giy bc trng nha,
* cc mng bc nha loi PVC c cht ha do)
ng quan tmnhiu nht l: polystyrene, PVC, polycarbonate, melamine, PET
nhng hacht cth thi nhim vothc phm,
*cch o t, nh gi mc thi nhim cho tng cht hoc tng mc thi nhim
theo cc tiu chun quc t v Vit Nam
* nhng cch thc s dng sao cho mc thi nhimnu c phi di mc cho
php, mbo an ton cho ngi tiu dng.
Cc ha cht thi nhim t bao b:
-hp xp polystyrene thi ra toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes,
styrene
- bao b PVC, cc mng bc PVC c th thi ra DEHP hay
DEHA, DINP, nu cc cht ny c s dng lmcht ha do
cho nha
- bao b polycarbonate c th thi ra monomer Bisphenol A,
diphenyl carbonate cha phn ng, mi quan tm ln hin nay
l cc bnh sa cho tr con.
- nha melamine-formaldehyde c th thi ra melamine hay/v
formaldehyde cha kp phn ng v b nht trong nn nha
- PET c th thi ra acid terephthalic v phn no acid
isophthalic
Ngoi ra cn lu n cc kimloi nng c th thi ra t bao b
ti ch, bao b c cht n lmc.
MI NGUY HIM CA CC HA CHT
THI VO THC PHM
*Ni chung, cc cht thi vo thc phm thng khng nhiu
c th gy ng c cp tnh.
*iu ng quan tm l kh nng tich ly lu di ca cc ha
cht ny, c th gy ng c mn tnh thng l nguy him,
kh lng trc c. Tc nhin ng c mn tnh cn ty
thuc c a ca ngi b nhim.
*Styrene, Ethylbenzene tich ly c th. gy ung th cho ngi, IARC xp vo
loi 2B
*DEHA cng nh DEHP, mt s phthalate khc c th gy ri lon h thng
ni tit, gy c ch c quan sinh sn nam gii v gy dy th sm n gii.
V kh nng gy ung th th IARC xp vo hng 3 tc khng c bng chng
gy ung th cho ngi. Phi nhim lin tc c th lm tn thng gan.
Bisphenol A c th nh hng xu n kh nng sinh sn ca c nam v n,
lm thay i chc nng ca h min dch, gy ri lon hnh vi v kh nng
nhn thc. V lu di, n c th gy tn thng no b, gy ra cn bnh
Alzheimer v mt s bnh ung th
*Melamine s gy sn thn nu c s hin din ca acid cyanuric,
formaldehyde lu di c th gy ung th , lm tn thng h h hp,
*Kim loi nng cng l mt mi nguy him cho sc khe
NHNG QUY NH CA VIT NAM V CC NC
NGOI LIN QUAN N S THI NHIM HA CHT
T BAO B THC PHM
Nhn chung nhng quy nh ca Vit Nam v mc thi nhim ca bao
b vo thc phm c nhiu im tng ng vi quy nh quc t.
*Quy chun k thut quc gia QCVN 12-1:2011/BYTquy nh nhng yu cu k
thut v qun l v v sinh an ton i vi bao b, dng c bng nha tng hp
tip xc trc tip vi thc phm.
*Quy chun k thut quc gia QCVN 12-2:2011/BYTquy nh nhng yu cu k
thut v qun l v v sinh an ton i vi bao b, dng c bng cao su tip xuc
trc tip vi thc phm.
*Quy chun k thut quc gia QCVN 12-3:2011/BYTquy nh nhng yu cu k
thut v qun l v v sinh an ton i vi bao b, dng c bng kimloi tip xc
trc tip vi thc phm
V nguyn tc nh gi mc an ton ca mt bao b thc phm,
nn tin hnh 2 bc:
*Th trnvt liu: xc nh hm lng cc cht c th thi nhimtrong nn nha
* o trn thc phm (hay mt nn mu c c tnh tng ng vi thc phm
cha): mc thi nhim ca cht theo quy nh.
Th vt liu Th thi nhim
Ch tiu kim tra
Vit
Nam
Hn
Quc
Ch tiu kim
tra
Vit Nam Hn Quc
Tng s cht bay
hi (styrene,
toluene,
ethylbenzene,
n-propylbenzene)
5mg/g 5mg/g
Cn kh
240 g/mL
(heptane)
240
g/mL
(heptane)
Polystyrene trng
n (dng cha nc
si)
2 mg/g 2 mg/g
30 g/L
(Ethanol
20%, Nc,
acid acetic
4%)
30 g/mL
Styrene v
Ethylbenzene
1 mg/g 1 mg/g
Ch
100 g/g -
1mg/L (acid
acetic 4%)
1mg/L
Lng KMnO4
s dng
10 mg/L 10 mg/L
SO SNH TIU CHUN V BAO B POLYSTYRENE
CA VIT NAM V HN QUC
CCH NH GI MC AN TON CA BAO B
THC PHM V MT S KT Qu
V phn tch cc bao b plastic , cc labo kimnghimda trn:
*quy chun k thut quc gia QCVN 12-1:2011/BYT
*mt s ti liu nc ngoi nh FDA M, i Loan, Hn quc chng hn.
Phng php phn tch:
*Sc k kh/u d FID, Sc k kh ghp khi ph, GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, Sc
k lng ghp khi ph LC-MS, LC-MS/MS c s dng nhiu cho cht thi
nhimhu c,
*Phng php so mu, quang ph hp thu nguyn t, ICP-OES, ICP-MS
thng c dng cho kimloi nng ch, Cd.
O MC THI NHIM T BAO B THC PHM
i vi khu ny, l ra nn o mc thi nhimvo mt thc
phm xc nh th mi nh gi ng c v mc thi nhim
vo thc phm y.
Nh nu trn, mc thi nhimph thuc vo nhiu yu t: nn thc
phm, nn nha, hmlng cc cht c th thi nhimnmtrong nn
nha, hmlng monomer cn tn ng, nhit , thi gian tip xc ca
thc phmvi bao b.
Tuy nhin th nh vy th va phc tp, va kh quy nh
chung mc thi nhim ti a cho php.
Do ngi ta thng dng mt mi trng ph hp c nhng c tnh
chung ca thc phm(simulants):
*i vi thc phmt bo nhiu nc c th dng nc hay dung dch
nc 20% Ethanol trong 30 pht 60
o
C.
* Vi thc phmnhiu bo c th dng n-heptane 25
o
C trong 1 gi.
CC DUNG DCH SIMULANT THEO DIRECTIVE
97/48/EC ngy 29/7/1997
Loi thc phm Dung dch Simulant Gi tt
Thc phm c nc pH > 4,5 Nc ct Simulant A
Thc phm c nc c tnh
acid pH 4,5
Acid acetic 3% trong
nc
Simulant B
Thc phm c cn Ethanol 10% trong
nc
Simulant C
Thc phm bo Du oliu hay simulant
khc cho thc phm bo
Simulant D
Thc phm kh Cha c
Thi gian d kin bao
b tip xc thc phm
Thi gian th
thi nhim
Nhit tip xc khi
s dng
Nhit th thi nhim
t 5 pht 5 pht T 5
o
C 5
o
C
5 pht < t 0,5 gi 0,5 gi 5
o
C < T 20
o
C 20
o
C
0,5 gi < t 1 gi 1 gi 20oC < T 40oC 40oC
1 gi < t 2 gi 2 gi 40
o
C < T 70
o
C 70
o
C
2 gi < t 4 gi 4 gi 70
o
C < T 100
o
C 100
o
C hay T hon lu
4 gi < t 24 gi 24 gi 100
o
C < T 121
o
C 121
o
C
t > 24 gi 10 ngy 121
o
C < T 130
o
C 130oC
130
o
C < T 150
o
C 150
o
C*
T > 150oC 175
o
C*
THEO DIRECTIVE 97/48/EC
*Ch s dng cho simulant D. Vi simulant A, B, C, c th o thi nhim nhit hon lu
vi thi gian = 4 ln thi gian 100
o
C hay nhit hon lu ca simulant
SIMULANT TNG NG VI D CHO THC PHM BO
THEO 97/48/EC
CC DUNG DCH SIMULANT THEO EU 10/2011
Simulant A : Ethanol 10% (v/v) choccthc phmcnc
Simulant B: acid acetic 3% (w/v) choccthc phmctnhacid
Simulant C: Ethanol 20% (v/.v) choccthc phmccn
Simulant D1: Ethanol 50% (v/v) chothc phm bo
Simulant D2: du thc vt choccthc phmbo
Simulant E: Tenax PPPO [ poly(2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene) oxide] , 60-80
mesh, l xp 200 nm cho cc thc phm kh
Cc vt dng cha mi loi thc phmth nn th thi nhimvi
A, B,
Thi gian d kin bao
b tip xc thc phm
Thi gian th
thi nhim
Nhit tip xc khi
s dng
Nhit th thi nhim
t 5 pht 5 pht T 5
o
C 5
o
C
5 pht < t 0,5 gi 0,5 gi 5
o
C < T 20
o
C 20
o
C
0,5 gi < t 2 gi 2 gi 20
o
C < T 40
o
C 40
o
C
2 gi < t 6 gi 6 gi 40
o
C < T 70
o
C 70
o
C
6 gi < t 24 gi 24 gi 70
o
C < T 100
o
C 100
o
C hay T hon lu
1 ngy < t 3 ngy 3 ngy 100
o
C < T 121
o
C 121
o
C *
3 ngy < t 30 ngy 10 ngy 121
o
C < T 130
o
C 130
o
C*
Trn 30 ngy iu kin ring 130
o
C < T 150
o
C 150
o
C*
150
o
C < T 175
o
C 175
o
C*
T > 175
o
C iu chnh T = T tip
xc thc vi thc
phm
THEO EU 10/2011
*Ch s dng cho simulant D2 v E. Trng hp th di p sut cao, c th thc hin
nhit ghi. Vi simulant A, B, C, D, c th o thi nhim nhit hon lu vi thi
gian = 4 ln thi gian 100oC hay nhit hon lu ca simulant
Th thi nhim
Ch tiu kimtra iu kin
ngmthi
Dung dch
ngmthi
Gii hn ti a
Cn kh
25oC, 1 gi Heptane (3)
30g/mL
60oC, 30 pht Ethanol 20 % (4)
30g/mL
60oC, 30 pht (7) Nc (5)
Acid acetic 4% (6)
TRNG HP BAO B PE V PP
(3) pdng chothc phm bo, du n
(4) pdng chothc ung ccn
(5) pdng chothc phm cnc cpH >5
(6) pdng chothc phm cnc cpH 5
Th vt liu Th thi nhim
Ch tiu kim tra Gii hn
ti a
Ch tiu
kim tra
iu kin ngm
thi
Dung dch ngm
thi
Gii hn
ti a
Tng s cht bay hi
(styrene, toluene,
ethylbenzene,
n-propylbenzene)
5mg/g
Cn kh
25
o
C, 1 gi Heptane
(3)
240 g/mL
Polystyrene trng n
(dng cha nc si)
2 mg/g
60
o
C, 30 pht Ethanol 20 %
(4)
30 g/mL
Styrene v
Ethylbenzene
1 mg/g
60
o
C, 30 pht
(7)
Nc
(5)
Acid acetic 4%
(6)
TRNG HP POLYSTYRENE
(3) pdng chothc phmbo, du n
(4) pdng chothc ung ccn
(5) pdng chothc phm cnc cpH >5
(6) pdng chothc phmcnc cpH 5
(7) pdng chovt cha c s dng nhit >100
o
C,
iu kin ngmthi l95
o
C, 30 pht
Th vt liu Th thi nhim
Ch tiu kim
tra
Gii hn
ti a
Ch tiu
kim tra
iu kin
ngm thi
Dung dch
ngm thi
Gii hn ti
a
Vinyl
chloride
1g/g Cn kh 25
o
C, 1 gi Heptane
(3)
150 g/mL
Cresyl
phophate
1g/g
60
o
C, 30 pht Ethanol 20%
(4)
30 g/mL
Hp cht
dibutyl thic
50 g/g 60
o
C, 30 pht Nc
(5)
Acid acetic 4%
(6)
(3) pdng chothc phmbo, du n
(4) pdng chothc ung ccn
(5) pdng chothc phm cnc cpH >5
(6) pdng chothc phm cnc cpH 5
TRNG HP BAO B PVC
Th thi nhim
Ch tiu kimtra iu kin ngm thi Dung dch ngm thi Gii hn ti a
Caprolactam 60
o
C, 30 pht Ethanol 20%
(4)
15 g/mL
Cn kh
25
o
C, 1 gi Heptane
(3)
30 g/mL
60
o
C, 30 pht Ethanol 20%
60
o
C, 30 pht Nc
(5)
Acid acetic 4%
(6)
(3) pdng chothc phmbo, du n
(4) pdng chothc ung ccn
(5) pdng chothc phm cnc cpH >5
(6) pdng chothc phm cnc cpH 5
TRNG HP BAO B NYLON
TRNG HP POLYCARBONATE
Th thi nhim
Ch tiu kimtra iu kin
ngm thi
Dung dch
ngm thi
Gii hn ti a
Antimony
60
o
C, 30 pht (7) Acid acetic 4 %
0,05 g/mL
Germanium 0,1 g/mL
Cn kh
25
o
C, 1 gi Heptan (3)
30 g/mL
60
o
C, 30 pht Ethanol 20 % (4)
60
o
C, 30 pht (7)
Nc (5)
Acid acetic 4 % (6)
TRNG HP NHA PET
(3) pdng chothc phmbo, du n
(4) pdng chothc ung ccn
(5) pdng chothc phm cnc cpH >5
(6) pdng chothc phmcnc cpH 5
(7) pdng chovt cha c s dng nhit >100
o
C,
iu kin ngmthi l95
o
C, 30 pht
TRNG HP NHA MELAMINE FORMALDEHYDE,
PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE
Th thi nhim
Ch tiu kimtra iu kin
ngmthi
Dung dch
ngmthi
Gii hn ti a
Phenol 60
o
C, 30 pht Nc 5 g/mL
Formaldehyde
m tnh
Cn kh 25
o
C, 1 gi Heptane 30 g/mL
60
o
C, 30 pht Ethanol 20 %
60
o
C, 30 pht Nc
Acid acetic 4%
i vi mng bc PVC c cha DEHA, DEHP th nn lm3 php o:
* Th vt liu: o DEHA, DEHP trongmngbc,
* o thi nhim 2 trng hp:
- thi nhim trongethanol 20% 60
o
C trong30 pht theo t l 1cm
2
mu mng
bc/2ml dung dch (o mt mt thi nhim) i vi thc phm nhiu nc
- thi nhim trongn-heptan 25
o
C trong1 gi theo t l 1cm
2
mu mng bc/2ml
dung dch (o mt mt thi nhim) i vi thc phm bo, du n
*Lu l mt s nc nh Chu u, Hn quc DEHP v DEHA b cms dng
trong bao b thc phm ngoi tr trng hp chc chn l khng c thi nhim
vo thc phm .
Di-n-butyl phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl phthalate, bisphenol A khng c s dng
sn xut bnh sa , k c nm ngm theo FDA Hn Quc.
*Theo Commision Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 ngy 14/1/2011:
SML(DEHP): 1,5 mg/kg thc phm hay simulant
SML(DEHA): 18 mg/kg thc phm hay simulant
SML(DBP): 0,3 mg/kg thc phm hay simulant
SML(BBP): 30 mg/kg thc phm hay simulant
THI NHIM DEHP, DEHA T MNG BC PVC
THI NHIM KIM LOI NNG T BAO B NHA
VO THC PHM
Trong tt c trng hp:
Th vt liu Th thi nhim
Ch tiu
kim tra
Gii hn
ti a
Ch tiu
kim tra
iu kin
ngm thi
Dung dch
ngm thi
Gii hn
ti a
Ch 100g/g Kim loi nng 60
o
C, 30 pht
(7)
Acid acetic 4% 1g/mL
Cadmium 100g/g Lng KMnO
4
s dng
Nc 10 g/mL
MT S KT QU PHN TCH BAO B NHA
TI CNG TY SC K HI NG
Cht thi
nhim
Bao b Th vt
liu
Gii hn ti
a
Th thi
nhim
Gii hn ti
a
Styrene,
ethylbenzene,
xylenes, toluene
Hp xp
polystyrene
83-215
mg/kg
5000 mg/kg
Bisphenol A Bnh sa 0,5-1,5 g/L 2500 g/L
DEHP Giy trng
nha gi b,
ph mai
15-218 g/kg 2500 g/kg
KT QU PHN TCH MT S BAO B THC PHM
Cc bao b phn tch u t cht lng, mc thi nhim u di mc cho
php. Lu l hmlng bisphenol A thi nhim cc k xa di mc cho
php. M Canada cho rng hmlng ny rt nh v do khng c kh
nng gy hi cho sc khe emb. Tuy nhin Chu u cms dng bis
phenol A trong sn xut bnh sa cho emb (Commission Regulation (EU)
321/2011 ngy 1/4/2011).
Kt qu phn tch caprolactamtrong 50 mu thc phm c bo cha
trong bao b polyamide (Nylon 6) bng LC-MS Vin Quc gia v Sc
khe ca M cho thy 9/50 mu c nhimcaprolactam mc 2,8- 13
mg/kg, di gii hn ti a cho php l 15 mg/kg. Chn mu thc phm
c pht hin caprolactam u cha trong bao b nylon c hp nng.
(Bradley E.L. et al, Food Addit Contam, 2004, 21(12), 1179-1185).
Mt th nghimkhc phn tch s thi nhimvo ethanol 95% (simulant
c php dng thay th cho du oliu hay n-heptane theo European
Directive 97/48/EC ngy 29/7/1997) 60
o
C trong 310 pht ca 40 mu bao
b nylon dng cha thc phmbo nh xc xch, c g, pate) cho
thy i a s u thi nhimcaprolactam, trong c 15 mu vt qu
mc cho php 15 mg/L (17-29,7 mg/L)
DEHA TRONG MNG BC THC PHM PVC
Ngy 29/7/2013, Bo mng Tn Hoa X, Nhn dn ca Trung Quc a tin Knh truyn
hnh CCTV cho bit mng bc bo qun thc phm PVC ti Trung Quc c cha cht do
cm s dng l diethyl hexyl adipate (DEHA).
Theo CCTV, Trung tm t vn k thut bo v mi trng Bc Kinh ly 16 mu mng
bo qun PVC t cc siu th ca Bc Kinh, Thng Hi, Qun Chu kim nghim.
Kt qu kim trachothy co 15/16 loi ccha cht do cm s dng lDEHA. Trong
o, mc thp nht vt ngng chophp0,05% 98 ln, caonht vt ngng 472 ln
(tnhra236 gram/kg mngPVC), bnhqunvt ngng gp 200%.
S mu
phn tch
S mu
pht hin
Th vt liu Gii hn
ti a
Th thi nhim Gii hn ti
a
6 5 7,2 - 28,1 % 0,05 %
12 10 0,12 1,52 mg/L
(EtOH 20%,
60oC, 30 pht)
18 mg/L
12 10 33 117 mg/L
(heptane, 25oC, 1
gi)
18 mg/L
KT QU PHN TCH DEHA TRONG MT S
MNG BC THC PHM
Kt qu trn ch c tnh thamkho, khng c tnh i din (s mu o qu
t), tuy nhin cng cho thy c th s dng cc mng bc ny cho cc thc
phm nhiu nc, nhng phi tht d dt khi s dng cho cc thc phm
nhiu bo, nht l thc phmnng
VI NGH
*Nhin chung nn hn ch dng bao b nha do cha hay gi thc phm
nng, nht l thc phmnhiu bo.
*Hn ch bc thc phmnhiu bo bng mng mng PVC, nht l khi hm
nng hay ch bin trong l vi sng.
*Hn ch cha thc phm trong cc chn bt bng nha melamine-formaldehyde,
chai l bng polycarbonate hm nng trong l vi sng.
*Tuy mt s bnh sa polycarbonate bn trn th trng c phn tch c mc
thi nhim di xa mc cho php , m bo tht an ton cho em b, dng bnh
thy tinh hoc bnh polypropylene th tt hn. Nhiu nghin cu cho thy hm
lng thi nhim tng vi thi gian s dng bnh do s lo ha (SML theo EU
10/2011 l 0,6 mg/kg )
*Cng nn d dt khi dng bao b PET hay polycarbonate cha thc n chua
(c tnh acid) hmnng v polymer c th b thy phn acid di tc dng
nhit lm tng mc thi nhim bis phenol A hay acid terephthalic vo thc phm.
*i vi nh sn xut, khng dng nha ti ch sn xut bao b thc phm
do nguy c c tp cht c th nh hng xu n sc khe. Vi nha ti ch, qu
trnh ch bin to ra nha c cht lng km, c th cha nhiu monomer d thi
nhimvo thc phm.
*Ngi tiu dng ch nn s dng mt ln bao b thc phm.
THNH THT CM N