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# 25M SPAN SINGLE LANE STEEL TRUSS BRIDGE

A. INTRODUCTION
Reference
There is a 1.8 m height hand rail at both side of the bridge.
Checked
DESIGN UNIT
The span of the this bridge is 25m , width of the lane is 3.7 m and 1.2 m wide shoulders
both side.
Output
Calculation
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
ARJ Date
Page 01
Date
This design report contains the analysis and design calculations for the single lane steel
truss bridge of span 25m.
Job Code
D
E
C
Designed
EPC DIVISION
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)
B-1. Geometry of the Steel truss bridge
Span = m
Max. Truss Height = m
Spacing between two truss = m
As per Table 1 BS 5400 Part 2 : 1978
B-4 Design Codes ,Manuals and References
BS5400: 1978,British Standard institution Code of practice for bridge design
Road Development Authority (RDA) of SriLanka Bridge Design Manual 1997
B-5 Software used
Modeling, Analysis and Design are carried out using SAP2000 version 9
DESIGN UNIT ARJ
D
E
C CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)
EPC DIVISION Checked
Job Code
Date
Date
Output
Designed
25.0
3.5
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
Reference Calculation
6.0
Page 02
Carriageway width = 3.7m
cl 3.2.9.3.1 Number of notional lanes = 1
Width of a notional lane = 3.7m
cl 6.2.1 Loaded length = 25m <30m
cl 6.2.2 Uniformly distributed load = 30 kN/m per notional lane
Knife edge load = 120 kN per notional lane
Traction or Braking forces
= kN
Uniformly Distributed Live load (per meter) along the bridge = kN/m
Uniformly Distributed Live load (per meter )along a one truss = kN/m
Live load on each joint as Point load = UDL x Spacing between two joints
= 15x3.125 kN
= kN
Knife edge load at the mid point of a one truss = 120/2
= kN
C.2.1. Weight of Deck slab
Consider longitudinally 1 meter length along the bridge lane
Thickness of the concrete deck slab = 280 mm
Density of concrete =
24 kN/m
3
Slab Load as UDL (0.28x 24x6.1) = kN/m
C.2.2. Weight of Asphalt layer
Consider longitudinally 1 meter length along the bridge lane
Thickness of the asphalt layer = 50mm
Density of the asphalt layer =
25 kN/m
3
asphalt layer load as UDL (.05x25x3.7) = kN/m
60
ARJ Date
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT Designed
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code
Date
Page 03
EPC DIVISION Checked
4.625
46.9
40.992
15
Reference Calculation Output
BS5400
Part 2 : 1978
400
30
C.2.3. Weight of guard rail
Consider longitudinally 1 meter length along the bridge lane
Volume of the steel guard rail =
0.1m
3
Weight of the steel guard rail = 0.1x7850x9.81/1000
= kN
Guard rail load as UDL = 7.7/25
= kN/m
=
kN
C.2.2. Selfweight of truss members
Selfweights of members of main 2D truss are taken in to the analysis by softweare itself.
Selfweights of other Other transverce members
1. Bottom cross bracing
Load on a joint of a 2D main truss =
(108 kg/m x 9.81 kgms
-1
/1000x6.0 m)/2
(2/PFC 380 x100 x 54- 6 m length) = kN
2. Bottom chord wind bracing
Load on a joint of a 2D main truss = (8.99kg/m x 9.81 kgms
-1
/1000 x 6.76 m)
(EQA 75 x 75-6.76 m length) = kN
Point load on bottom truss joint = kN
3. Top cross bracing
Load on a joint of a 2D main truss =
(23.9 kg/m x 9.81 kgms
-1
/1000x6.0m)
(PFC 150 x90 x 24- 2.2 m length) = kN
4. Top chord wind bracing
Load on a joint of a 2D main truss = (8.99kg/m x 9.81 kgms
-1
/1000 x 6.76 m)
(EQA 75 x 75-6.76 m length) = kN
Point load on top truss joint = kN
Date
Doc. No.
Date
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code Page 04
3.178
0.596
1.407
0.596
Calculation
DESIGN UNIT Designed
Output
D
E
C
EPC DIVISION Checked
Reference
7.70
3.775
2.003
0.31
71.8
ARJ
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN
vc
v = 22.2m/s RDA manual
vc
v = 22.2m/s RDA manual
k1 = 5.3.2.1.2 k1 = 5.3.2.1.2
s1 = 5.3.2.1.3 s1 = 5.3.2.1.3
s2 = T2-5.3.2.1.4 s2 = T2-5.3.2.1.4
vc =
m/s
vc=K1*v*s1*s2 vc = vc=K1*v*s1*s2
pt
q =
N/m
2
q=0.613*vc2
pt
q = 0.741kN/m2 0.613*vc2 q=0.613*vc2
Cd = 2 Cd =1.45 for all live parts 5.3.3.4 T7 5.3.3.4
Bottom chord
A = 0.35 m
2
per meter of chords
Assume height of a threewheeler as 2m
pt = 0.35 x 2 x 0.721
= 0.50 kN/m A = 2 x1 m
2
Top chord
A
=
0.15 m
2
per meter of chords pt = q x A x Cd
pt = 0.15 x 2 x 0.721
= 0.21 kN/m pt(withlive)
Diagnal Bracing = 2 x 1.45 x 0.721
A
=
0.15 m
2
per meter of chords = 2.1 kN/m
pt = 0.15 x 2 x 0.721
= 0.21 kN/m
Nominal Longitudinal wind load is not considered due to small effect to truss bridge
Pv q = 0.671kN/m2 Pv q = 0.671kN/m2
A = 6m
2
/per meter of deck slab A = 6 m
2
/per meter of deck slab
Cl = Cl =
pv = 3.0kN per meter pv = 3.0 kN per meter
Ultimate Limite State
Table 1
Comb 2 =
Servicibility Limit State
Doc. No.
BS5400
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN
Designed
Page 05
Reference Calculation
34.76
0.741
Part 2 : 1978
1.00 1.00
Nominal Transverse wind load (pt)without LL Nominal Transverse wind load (pt)-with LL
BS5400
1.00
Date Checked
Job Code
1.00
Output
1.58
34.76m/s
0.75 0.75
Part 2 : 1978
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)
DESIGN UNIT ARJ Date
EPC DIVISION
D
E
C
1.58
BS5400
Part 2 : 1978
D. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
The main steel truss is analysised
(1) as a 2D truss for load combination1 ( Without lateral-wind forces )
(2) as a 3D truss for load combination2 ( With lateral-wind forces )
D.1 Servisibility Analysis for Deflection
Servisibility analysised is used for checke the globle deflection of the entire bridge.
Maximum vertical deflection at the middle of the truss at 2D SAP model = 38 mm
(For com_ser 1)
Maximum deflection at the middle of the truss at 3D SAP model
(For com_ser 2) Horizontal = 25 mm
Vertical = 50 mm
D.2 Analysised Results for Combination 1
Analysised reasulta are attached as Annex ( i )
D.2.1 Maximun Axial forces values ( Com 1)
Member
Top Chord -
Bottom chord -
Vertical members -
Diagnal members
D.3 Analysised Results for Combination 2
Analysised reasults are attached as Annex ( ii )
Member
Top Chord -
Bottom chord -
Vertical members 48 -
Diagnal members
Tension Compression
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
DESIGN UNIT Designed
Checked
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code Page 07
D
E
C
Date
Date
Output Reference Calculation
All main truss members have axial forces only and no considerable bending moment
generated by selfweight.
ARJ
EPC DIVISION
Tension Compression
kN kN
1335
1221
360 280
159
kN kN
1006
387
612 391
All 3D truss members have axial forces only and no considerable bending moment generated
by selfweight..
E. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
E.1 Top Chord Design
Comb1 is critical for Top Chord
Maximim axial force of Top chord = kN
(Compression)
Length of a top Chord member = mm
Top chord is design as a compression member
Selected section for top chord is 2/PFC 200 x 90 x 30
E.1.1 Section properties
b = mm Back to back space = 10 mm
d = mm
T = mm
p
y =
mm
t = mm
Length of a member = mm
Both ends are pin-joints
E.1.2 Section Classifications
Fig 3
b/T = 90/14 = = (275/275)^0.5
BS 5950
= 1
d/t = 148/(2*7) =
Table 7 Internal element of compression flange
BS 5950
b/T = < 26
i.e.Section is plastic
web with natural axis at mid depth
d/t = <79
i.e. section is plastic
section is Non- slender
Reference Calculation Output
Checked
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Page 08
Date
ARJ
EPC DIVISION
90
7
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT Designed
Job Code
Doc. No.
Date
1324
3125
6.429
10.57
14
200
275
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN
6.43
10.57
3125
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
d
b
T
t
4.7.4. Compression capacity of the member = Pc = Ag*pc
BS 5950
For pc value, Table 27 ( c)
(Rolled channel from table 25)
(d) Calculation of = l
e
/
= 3.125/0.0816
=
(e) pc value
p
c
= N/mm2 (from Table 27( C) ,=38.3 and py=275)
Ag = mm
2
(f) Compression Capacity
Compression capacity of members = pc*Ag
= kN
Maximum design compression = kN
since1324<1825, proposed section is adequate when the compression capacity is considered
Reference Calculation Output
241.1
7570
1324
38.3
1825
Date
Page 09 Job Code
Checked
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT Designed ARJ Date
EPC DIVISION
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)
E.2 Bottom Chord Design
Comb1 is critical for bottom Chord
Maximum axial force of bottom chord = kN
(Tension)
Length of a top Chord member = mm
Top chord is design as a tension member
Selected section for bottom chord is 2/PFC 200 x 90 x 30
E.2.1 Section properties
b = mm Back to back space = 10 mm
d = mm
T = mm
p
y =
mm
t = mm
Length of a member = mm
Both ends are pin-joints
E.2.2 Design of bottom chord
Tension capacity
Pt = Ae x Py
Ae = Anet connected + (3a1/(3a1+a2)) x Aoutstand
use 16mm diameter bolts
a1 =
mm
2
(Anet connected)
a2 =
mm
2
(Anet outstand)
Ae = mm
2
Py = N/mm
2
Pt = kN
Pt > kN
Proposed section is adequate when the tension capacity is considered
1395
275
1212
Page 10
Date
Date
1212
7
cl 3.3.2
EPC DIVISION
Reference
Table 6
3125
90
200
14
Doc. No. SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN
cl 4.6.3.1
4648
5071
3125
275
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT Designed ARJ
Checked
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code
2296
cl 4.6.1
Calculation Output
d
b
T
t
E.3 Bottom cross bracing Design
E.3.1 Special load eveluation for Bottom cross bracing
30 kN/m per notional lane
Knife edge load on a member =
120kN
Live load on member for 1m strip = Udl x spacing between two joints + KEL
Live load on member for 1m strip = 30/3.7x3.125 + 120/6 kN/m
=
=
0.28x24x3.125x6= kN
=
.05x25x3.7x3.125 = kN
=
0.31x3.125 kN = kN
Consider 1 meter of the deck.
= (126.0+14.5+0.1)/6
=
E.3.1.3 Self Weight
Self weight
=
kN/m
Considering 1m of the deck
Self weight
=
108*9.81
=
kN/m
=
= kN/m
= kN/m
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT Designed ARJ Date
EPC DIVISION Date
96.23
96.2
Checked
Reference Calculation
Page 11
1.06
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
BS5400
Part 2 : 1978
kN/m 45.3
126.000
Output
14.453
0.969
23.6
108
kN/m
Selected section for bottom chord is 2/PFC 380 x 100 x 54
E.3.2 Design of Bottom Cross Bracing
E.3. 2.1 Section properties
b = mm Back to back space = 10
d = mm
T = mm
py =
t = mm
Length of a member = mm
cl3.1.2 E
=
kN/mm2
property table Ix
= cm
4
rx
=
cm
Both ends are pinjoints
E.3.2.2 Section classifications
Fig 3 b/T = 100/17.5 = = (275/275)^0.5
BS 5950 = 1
d/t = 315/(9.5*2) =
E.3.2.3 Local buckling check
Internal element of compression flange
d/t = < 79
b/T = < 79
i.e.Section is plastic
Section is non slender
4.2.3. E.3.2.4 Shear capacity check
BS 5950
Pv = 0.6*py*Av Av = txD Pv = kN
= 9.5x380x2
= mm2
d/t = <
1191.3
100
17.5
275
9.5
30100 7.4
ARJ Date
7220
Doc. No. SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN
16.58 63
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)
Designed
Reference Calculation Output
Checked Date
Job Code Page 12
16.6
3125
205
380
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT
EPC DIVISION
5.71
16.58
5.71
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
d
b
T
t
Maximum shear force due to load, Fv
=
=
kN
06*Pv
=
0.6*386.1
=
kN > Fv
low shear
Check is OK
E.3.2.5 Moment capacity check
Since the section is plastic and subject to low shear
Mc = Py x S but PyS <=1.2PyZ
S = cm
3
Z = cm
3
1.2*Z = > S
Mc = P
y
x S
= kNm
BMmax = Design Load x Length ^2 /8
= kNm Mc > BMmax
Moment capacity check is O.K.
514.3
1896
D
E
C
Date
DESIGN UNIT Designed ARJ
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code Page 13
Date
EPC DIVISION Checked
433
cl 4.2.5.
Reference Calculation
1870
1580
714.8
Output
288.7
E.3.2.7 Deflection check
Allowable deflection = span / 360
= 6.0/360
= mm
Actual deflection = 5wL
4
/384EI
E = 205 kN/mm
2
i = mm
i < span / 360
Deflection check is satisfied
DESIGN UNIT Designed ARJ Date
EPC DIVISION Checked
Doc. No. SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN
D
E
C
Output Reference Calculation
cl 3.1.2
Table 5
12.39
16.67
Date
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code Page 14
E.4 Design of diagonals
E.4.1. Compression capacity check.
Maximim axial force of diagonal = kN
(Compression)
Length of maximum compression member = mm
Maximim axial force of diagonal = kN
(Tension)
Length of maximum tension member = mm
Selected section for diaganol is 2/PFC 150 x 75 x 18
E.1.1 Section properties
b = mm Back to back space = 10 mm
d = mm
T = mm
p
y =
mm
t = mm
Length of a member = mm
Both ends are pin-joints
E.1.2 Section Classifications
b/T = 75/10 = = (275/275)^0.5
= 1
d/t = 150/(2*5.5) =
Internal element of compression flange
b/T = < 26
i.e.Section is plastic
web with natural axis at mid depth
d/t = <79
i.e. section is plastic
section is Non- slender
Calculation
Date
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code Page 15
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT Designed ARJ Date
EPC DIVISION Checked
640
408
4650
4650
150
10
75
275
5.5
7.5
Reference Output
4650
7.50
9.27
9.273
d
b
T
t
4.7.4. Compression capacity of the member = Pc = Ag*pc
BS 5950
For pc value, Table 27 ( c)
(Rolled channel from table 25)
(d) Calculation of = l
e
/
= 4.650/0.0615
=
(e) pc value
p
c
= N/mm2 (from Table 27( C) ,=75.61 and py=275)
Ag = mm
2
(f) Compression Capacity
Compression capacity of members = pc*Ag
= kN
Maximum design compression = kN
since408<773, proposed section is adequate when the compression capacity is considered
E.4.2. Tension capacity check
Pt = Ae x Py
Ae = Anet connected + (3a1/(3a1+a2)) x Aoutstand
a1 =
mm
2
a2 =
mm
2
Ae =
Py = N/mm
2
Pt = kN
Pt > kN
since640<729, proposed section is adequate when the tension capacity is considered
Doc. No.
728.8
640
75.61
1170
4550
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Job Code
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT Designed ARJ Date
EPC DIVISION Checked
Output
Page 16
Date
169.8
cl 4.6.3.1
cl 3.3.2
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN
2650
Table 6
275
2560
408
Reference Calculation
cl 4.6.1
773
E.5 Design of vertical members
Maximum axial force of diagonal = kN
(Tension)
Length of maximum tension member = mm
Vertical member is design as a tension member
Selected section for top chord is PFC 125 x 65 x 15
E.1.1 Section properties
b = mm Back to back space = 10 mm
d = mm
T = mm
p
y =
mm
t = mm
Length of a member = mm
Both ends are pin-joints
E.4.2. Tension capacity check
Pt = Ae x Py
Ae = Anet connected + (3a1/(3a1+a2)) x Aoutstand
a1 =
mm
2
a2 =
mm
2
Ae =
Py = N/mm
2
Pt = kN
Pt > kN
Since167<288, proposed section is adequate when the tension capacity is considered
Job Code
287.7
167
SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN Doc. No.
D
E
C
DESIGN UNIT Designed
EPC DIVISION Checked
CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)
1080
1046
Table 6
275
Calculation
65
125
9.5
5.5
275
3500
3500
Date
Date
Page 17
ARJ
cl 4.6.1
cl 4.6.3.1
cl 3.3.2 447.5
Output
167
Reference
d
b
T
t