Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 83

2

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

3
)
ZM
g Z kg ZgzZ ~y~ Zi Wq
-

[x **

~ m,
Zy

'

~iz9Wz6,

Y 2009
-+G
9224185819~X "
Z]
.Zz

)

-i
8

1000

70X ~z/gzzZsZ

**

+919892235381

Zg

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

a p ] mvi
~

g Z kg ZgzZ
]

~ m,
Zy
1j 1 1
Cx ZgZ e 1xzg} ZX 4/,
kzZsZ /
70X ~( z) vg Z! sZ ( .)

~ezgZTg  ,
4-e,A
/

o9^ nm] ]
( .)Cx ZgZ e 1xzg} ZX 4
70X ~ ( z) vg Z! sZ
www.islamicawarenesssociety.com

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

t] ^  j

g2
+az/

[^
OZ

u n ^_ n:]|zLg
mvZ G*9g ~ !*
Wu

)]|~ Zi W@W
Z G
!Z f *Z
Z
mvZ G*9g k ^u u

Iqg{ ZP<ggc
r
#

Z`Z{ )]|Im,g

( g7 ug IBZ G
!Z !*
)
gzZ

{
!*
z]|WZg~z ( 8 -g7ug IBZ G!Z dZ { Z'
,
u)

g ZyZ

x HZz}gzZ]'
,
znA

gZ ` Z)ZyY Z}g gzZ


$
o
mvZ G*9g ~ m,

^

v

gzZ
x **
VgyZ
] ^i] 1 ] 1 7`q
!6n (n 7^n^e ' 1e 1 1 p ] o
: ]
pm u] ^n

M'
,
Zz
#
t ZgzZPt~~gze
${]
. {Zz)Hz~ ,
mZ[
X V;gq] X7t \W

~ m,
Zy

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

}p
z

10
12
15
16
18
20
21
23
24
25
28
31
32
34
35
38
43

x Zf:x  1
(BZ G
!Z)kIr
# g$+?**
)]| 2
kI#
r xsZgp **
3
Y  :x  4

( ~xsZZg)r
# [J 5
( ~xsZZ ~ )X WXI[J 6
yZgZz
(:x  7
(~^kZa^gzgZxsZZ],
ZeZg'OZzgZ})~gyZWz6
,8
( ~ ;'
,
Y)wD ZWz6, 9
( ;gE-~zgZg)Zr
# Wz6, 10
( ;gE- !*
Wgzg Z)Wz6, 11
( !*
Wg;gE-6zg Zg)HWz6, 12
( ~-Zzg Zg) MZ e 13
( ~ c Z+k
,
$) iz9Wz6, 14
( ~Zg') ~g Z]
.Wz6, 15
( c Zk%g)Z
Z e 16
( ~
)
L **
izgi
+Z )w[J 17
( ~Z
N*
zg Z)
L **
izgR,
g7gr) ~g Ztzg [J 18
)l 19
7 20

t@
Z
Z,j}gzZ q]Z W,
@*
x yZg ZZgzZ o[kZ
x H[ (Zg 'O Z zg Z }) r
# ~ g yZWz6,x H{
+k
,
$) iz9 [ ( ~ c Z 6,`g Z ) r
# Z e
[xZvz( ~ c Z )r
#
Z eWz6,
gzZ ( ~ c Z
r
# '
,
]| m<!*
V g ]yZ B B V g Z*]
G
(:X
~ V X '
,#
Z !*
!*
xsZ]|gzZ r
# Z ]|
X c*
0*
x t

~ m,
Zy

8
86
87
88
90
91
93
95
96
96
96
97
102
105
122
125
127
127
129
130
134
135

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~ !*
,
'
Vzg 42
0z6,
Vz`
@*43
~ !*
,
'
(y*zyV;Vzm,
Z 44
BVE*zyZ$
+Vzm,
Z 45
rz
e
$gZz
V;Vzm,
Z 46
~]5IZVzm,
Z 47
lz;{ 
g 48
,~ !*
Wha) 49
)**
gzZ] z) 50
M F,

z) 51
:s Vzm,
Z 52
zz :s Vzm,
Z 53
b&{ iVzm,
ZgzZ W,
Z : 54
~ !*
,
'
V{gzZVgV { 55
Zk
,
zV{gzZVg 56
x ZY f@Wg**
Py~ Zi Wq
- 57
~ {gi W+Zg? 58
~ !*
W Z%Ze
$**
59
Zg{ 
vZZ)]|WZL 60
y{vZx**
61
-Z$
+Z;)]|xsZ@W 62

7
48
48
50
51
53
55
57
58
58
59
59
62
62
63
68
68
71
75
79
81
86

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~ Zi W ]
KZ 21
7IvZ **
xV
KZ 22
Z~ Zi W~xsZ 23
nY ~ Zi W
KZ)**
g vZgtzg /]| 24
wm Zr
# 25
:y~ Zi Wq
- 26
g @*
~wX
c*
g 27
zV{~gzZgzZY!zZ ` Zu 28
B Vzm,
k
Z !zZ ` Zu 29
k
B 30
Y 1799X Y 1766ygzZZg[Z 31
/g \V ZxzgzZy 32
H Za ~ Zi W/_
.~x Zy 33
/WzgzZ/_
.z~ Zi W 34
ygzZZg[ZZzXZ
Zg~y*zy 35
]Z W,
@*
Vzm,
Z6,
] y 36
Y xzY fq
-~
(gzZ ` y 37
yZ y 38
V;Vzm,
Z ~ !*
,
'
y*zy 39
(c*
y*zy)I
m
WVzm,
u
Z *zy 40
~ !*
,
'
Vzg
zV 41

10

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x

136

ou^f f gu^ ^ e oj^ lu

138

( 8-{
/WZgg I;gE-,
-BZ G!Z?T
$**
)

141

136

~uu {z [ **
g Z kg ZgzZ ~y ~ Zi Wq
- L L

144

e
$',
',
gzZ ~
/c gzZ ~ Zi Wx **

3 #
gzZ

147

gZVz yZ fZ
+xsZ m<!* Zz + xsZ n kZ @*
I

154

Eg X [Z1Z Z xsZ <


Vz gzZ ~ Zi WX Zg
/6,
g

u"gZVz yZ xsZ X x **
]gzp h 3Z a

gZ { 0*
yZ J
-#
gzZ TggzZ g V
~ rz

X g D J m
yZz6,

9*6,zw!*
kZ @*
Bc*
y*zy o Zg
m

o ]gxm,
Z, ZtXDg6c {:w

y*zyd
$
z(gzZwe:ZgKZ}}gzZ4Z~

g66,gZ
/0
+
i mZpzxZ*zygzZ 1 ~6,
zH,
xZ LZxZ
~ZiWIVE*zy Vzm,
Z}} H7'6,ZgzZc*

Qx`
Iq
-Z {sZIf[Z~`q
-u0*
**
8

M
s Vzm,
Z n ~ZiWIgzZ Y sZ I f
VZzgu X}7,~yZy6,VyYKZ KZc*
]z


zux**
~!*
Wha)~YfZzg77w

145
151
158
162
165

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~w'
,
y{Zg { 

~zgZe
$?
~ ZPvZg **

0 Z**
C

Z
**

;]**

Zi WxZ1Z **


~A
$%{
/
Zi W**

bVzm,
Z6,
Y f~y~ Zi Wq
-

/c,:GZa ( a6,
)zBkg Z
?zzW6,
kg Z
[Z q)kg Z~q)

63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74

12

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x
ou^f f gu^ ]n;^ lu
8- m ` Z$uawz@*
6,
xsZ
)
ZxZg Z :f *Z

11

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

GE
4hX3Z f}uz {zyZ
gx
/
u~ yZy:t
K:
yZ
ZzA
$%g@*
~ZiWk
B , ~R,
gzZZZ(,
g@*
p
& ee
"0
+!*
u6mq
-Z
Z ~ZiWk
B ~g74E
$.g
~(,
gzZ tZZBg@*
tXgZp#Vzm,
Z,0

1 V8gg zc kZgzZ g wg !*
kZ g + xsZ
$
BgE
kZ kg ZgzZ D E
ugg gz6,LZ ~]
.)yX

F,
Z}
.X 70]g@*
&X{HV,Z1X c*
$
+

X D3 Zg WVF,
{ 0*
kZ~V{2X f
e]xZg

BZe {6,
6,]g@*
v,ZX CYWtk
,

r
gz:Z

` 
KZ Iz <
&
/Z% ( {kg Z ]
.)) VxsZ
XV Z ! fyZ Z'
,
X gWgzZ klzx H~ Vz
ezg !*
` W *gzZ ;gm[ Z 
z!u +
M
KZ VHz !
jgzZ 0*
,
k
W,
k0*
~ * V- !*
,gzZ VnyZ ~96,
'
wZ e1 :kZ ` k0*
TgzZ (:gzZ I**
X 7`
VAVzg Z} (,} (,
* Z
# 4; Zz^Z eX
Hc*

',

ixsZ !*
zxsZVrZ Yc*
0*
16,
b)7g *, Y7
xsZx *~ F,
z+
M
KZ, D7d` Zy

X$
7 b)yZkZ {zp F,
*X Y7
Yi])z b)+
M
KZ0 @*
W7x (Z {z xsZ=
]',z nA m
F,
z ( xsZ, t e ( g k
B )**
izg ) X
" ~
/c keZ z
/Z% ]xsZ z xsZ1@*
YHg[ Z

hZ[ | wgzZ}
.H g@*
CY w Z
#

~g, ]!*
kZ k\Z B Z X 7]!*
]
85zY f~ZiW@WgzZZz+@W~ZiWk
B g *zy

-Z ~$
q
L]Z7Z[_k
,
i\WX _iZ0
+Z
hZ~[kZ HtsZmmZr
# Xk
,
CgzZCgZ

VLZ~gZoxs,
Z
HH"
$U*
~T X
Hc*
Cb
&
eC
~e
$VgzZVzgz$o ~ 7(E

~m,
yX c*
ZwJVZzzgzZ c*

ge0 V
/
pc*
$
+N6,
gZp{!*
Z0
+{Iq
(J
~q]X AXF
-sZhIZg@*
g@*
gzZ ueZ gwZe
fZz iNs m,
Z x X gq
GE
4hX3Z
X qk
,
KZ n7]o`Zy

~Vg!*

h hVx\vZ,V gzZVgI6,yZ7Z~
E
X 
] G
hgzZG
g
G36,

14

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

y ~ Zi W L L"" ( } Z ! * Z ) ~ m,
Z y [J IM
] }
.y Zi W+@W0 ~
/<
Z Gh]Z g Z zkg Z~

13

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~ VZ p
*gzZX Icg/i u 0*
**
x **
+} x ZZ
$
C
V0
+W #ZX IgzZ OC,a
xsZgzZX pZ

~ysXj[c*
**
n z IZgzZ Zy

'

,
i~
I f
+ vg )
, 22 ]x~)z I G
0kIb

xsZ~Herose of the World[KZbg ^#8 g-g

/k
,
zWsZ ^
Z c*
+Z wWX {Zm Z) g
&
$Z

/Z ,g Z- xsZ L,
L q~ [Z0] ZZ
C"\g- #

FX g ~ xg P sZ w gzZ

X '_+X $
7I~iVz/V-'VAZ

Vz \X gwz +
Wzd` Zy

[ ZzDI T]>

wzg ~ ieZ sZ z Y f~ ~ Zi Wq
- y*zy z }g

Zz Z 6,!*
zf ~gp

L L L L? "kZ
E
I
X G
0kB+E
x @*
zx wJb [Z0 ]Z Z
ZE
0Btz! KzmZ{ O}W

7Z~` KZyXCc*
z
M F,
sZkg Z0X ;g

ou^f ]n;

,g IDziz'
,
| 1430x ZZxB 14
///

X HgzZ 7{7xg ZZC


BVg F,
x KZ xsZo~

;{ 

g { hy
W X!Vc*
g Z)f ZV g
yZy VMXg ~ !*

Wha)
Zg
uV Z~ Zi W
) !*
TX HKY :
Zi W Z Z Vzm,
Z }g @zg |0
+!*
6,
Z
**
C
0 Z**
V{vZx**
{ 
vZZ **
X 1x Z
iz~ Zi Wq
-zt X y{)z Zi WxZ1ZgzZ ;] **

}gzZ} 7,~ v Wk
B r Zl
m Z r
# sZ kg Z0
Zi W ` WgzZ c*
Z Zi W wY Vzm,
Z kZ { Zz6,"
X g0
+
i~y*zy
X N Zkzgg@*
+@Wy ZiWzIZ, n
Zg

16

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

15

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x

x
X WXIZ e

{ C " V 6,_ ~ Zi W g @*
y*zy o }g

~ Zi Wx Z Sg Z~
/
%~~ Zi Wo VMA f VE!*

}: }t, x g @*
~ Zi W+@Wx yZX Hg Z a
(uZz q ]xsZsZ kg Z X g g

q q= Z Z & "* ~ m,
Z y [

g Z kg ZgzZ ~y~ Zi Wq
-L L{zF
F6,g @*
-ZkZ
q
Z vZ Y
KZ ~ m,
Z y ~ T gzZ !q
-Zt X Zg*

$ q ZgzZ yW
g
~ [ kZX g kZ 6 g [x
ZsZm Z r
b
# gzZ ~ Zi W, "
$U*
]!*
t} Zj
*
@- { g fC z {

C wD ZwL L

Z.
} ~Vg

M
+
KZgzZ c*
kg F,
gzZDkZY +
M
KZ xsZX

gzZ V*!*
V ~]

.z4 ~ Zi W, 7 ~ kZ

VrZ *6,
o}g m,
ZZ
# ,zzX c*
4

Ca KZ ) ( 0
HZh0 ~
/c

z]
. bC
ay ZzZ~*gzZs 0zZz6,
Tc*
qz*
*0z6,
VE*zygzZ Z e ~Vzio}g

#
~ m,
Za~ Zi Wy*zy x ZY frg kg Z6,

a ~ i Z0
+ZiZ }E
+
]uZz ]g @*
yZ ~ ^
gzZ W,
~ m,
ZyV!*
yZX @*
Y { Z e Z kZkgZgzZ

7 d Zy
a " yZ 7Z ~ H "
$U*
~ i Z0
+Z
X Og~g YCZ {z,V@*
gzZX V@*

6,h
ez| m
| (,a~ Zi WoV gzZ c*
} L L :s
g Z kg Z gzZ ~ zy ~ Zi Wq
-L L ~ m,
Z y ~ X c*
gzi

[ t6,
z, Z VMX V@*
7~ !*
ug I6,[6,q

~xsZZg

18

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x
~g yZWz6,
( ~^kXZ a^gzg ZxsZZ],
Z eZg 'O Zzg Z})

17

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

m Zr
# V y WgzZ wVE!*
s sZ LZV

V ]Z|)_[ kZX g Y VZ iZ6,kgZgzZ


V**
g Z]
.Zz!*
W LZ ypgzZ x| m Z r
#

X B~ m,
Zy]Zp( ~XV<Zz

X ;ggzZ Wzq
-Z;{
g@*
ZZ#
z~y*zy

xsZX g ~gZZzggxsZ <


pzz ~
CkZ
gzZ 4z y
KZ {ge BVgB]ZNZgzZxsZ I LZ
]c*
zggzZ]c*
gzBx #
~y*zyX ~
~ **
d
$" *zy +Z q
-ZgzZ3g w V ZxyZ

XCBd
$",~b Zh
+]
.CBd
$" ZyL 0
L
0b
gzZd
$"kZyBrz
d
$",~y*zy
~uz~gWVggzZT sZLZX1z~F,
m,
zgzZ
}gXH Za wj:ZZzgq
-ZBxZ Z]ZNZIvos
Y1Zi%
gzZ gX z]xyZ ZgWVzgZgzZ YfI

,~
c*
$Zh
+
z gzZ sZ X wVq
-Z ~Z Wz kZ V**
Y
X Cg~g~KkZ]:S
V *zytzg Js Vzm,
Z ~ z y*zy
ogzZ _Z Vg sZq
-z Zi WX ;g + fm<!*
gzZ

~xsZZ ~hw

20

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x
wD ZWz6,
( ~ ;'
,
Y)

Zzy t, x }_ g @*
y ~ Zi Wq
-
gzZ u ~ Zi Wy*zy Z X wVzg q
-Z {ge gzZ
ym{C
oa TB~ Zi W Vzi oy
s !*
~ !*
W ha)m{ ;gg Z Z x Zf~ Xg 77
Zi WxZ **
C
0 Z **
Zg { 
vZZ {gi W+Zg?
~ Zi Woq kg Z VM wVq
-Z V*!*
{)z

**
g Y Z7ZX Lx Zf FgzZ ~ V*!*
n

~ m,
Z y { 7t x Zm Z r
# txsZgzZ
X g Z kg ZgzZ ~y~ Zi Wq
-L LyZ>[ c*
VZxYZq
-Z
X V@*
7~ m,
y]Zp(KZ~
wD Z

19

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

X Hl] x Y{ ~ Zi Wq
-fVzg ZD
X #~
g X ;gzgZ
/ Vzi !*
VY y~ q
-kZ y Zi W
z z gZ ~ Vg }gXz Z q

-w zg
X H7IL~Ic~ogzZ ~I] bgzZG Za Y f
VM q
-Z ~ VzeZ yZ0 }g r
# ~ m,
y

gzZ Hmpzg m kg ZgzZ ~I c ~ i Z0


+Z zc
$E
{gzZi Z0
+Z
y*zy[k
,
ityZX Zg ZV1KZ0+G
-Z gzV Zz Y ; m V gzZ xsZ ~
q
X  gI}g {zakZgzZ [x

22

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

`Y f #
~ m,
Zzz TX c*
O ~ Zi W~ o}g
7 " Y f1~ tf ZyZ=g f V ZwvgzZ ~ M `
X Z 7 Zi Wot, J
-Z
# g ~g Y J
-
z kZ4 z]
.KZ VrZgzZ
_m,
+Z]|~ x ZY f Zzh
ez| m
| (,~y ~ Zi Wq
-

21

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x
Zr
# Wz6,
( ;gE-~zg Zg)

Z%Ze
$**
~ Zgi W+Zg?~ !*
Wha) ~

Cg
/ iZ%Z wZziz `z~ g @*
!{a KZ0#
Z

;]**
Z
**
C
0 Z**
Zg{ 
vZZ)~ !*
W
I
E
\
4G
5{B Z v z Zi WxZ1Z **
Vz X rg kZ 0 G
gzZ

sZX wVg Z dZgzZgZ


KZ dZs~uzgzZ J
-

kg Z=g fV26,
` Wk\Z1B~ Zi WoVE!*
gzZ

C ~
/c gzZ Z e Z ~
/c 7Zi Z0
+Z !*
xZ

X g )g fc*
zg7
~gzu" a+YVY5g@*
4z]
.xyZ xZYf
~gzakZXYy$
+
6,
/Zz**
g@*
xsZLZ{zeY
XYgz$
+
#mkZxZgzZY6,
]gzZkgZ,
kg Z gzZ ~y ~ Zi W q
-L L[ KZ ~ m,
Z y
0 gz $
+# m gzZ kg Z` 6,
g Z
[g,V@*
gzZV !*
ug I 6,lz kZ yZ ~ d {z
X 
w=zwJZ \
Zr
#

`zx !*
~ F,
~z* sq
-ZX ;g u @*
Z(,gz `zyZ~ kZX g
+
h
zVM[ +Y f{h
+
/
,
'
, Z ~C
g @*
kZ X Z e < cg ]q }'
, }'
,H u~(,
VZe
C0*
x $ZiZb #+
M
KZ q Tg @*
4z]
.b
Z9 x LZgzZ + LZ0#
Z LZ
# gzZ g
-k'
J
,
F V ~ y*zy X mi V@xsZ Y f
{ c*
i
1Z 7,
**
g
/i Z
z Z6,
V#
jg Z0
+

6,y*zy Vzm,
Z W7~ ig EZ ~ '
,wZzi
qgzZ
Z Hu|i **
gzZZ'
,wgzZ b0 ` Z%
` Z% )o gzZ c
eZ #
~ m,
Z + Y f {h
+
/
,
'
X Hg ZkZz~VlzgzZ0#
Z VrZa ~ Zi W
Tq
-! zZ Y 1857 4 z]
.Z kZ X ~rq
-+ZgzZ

24

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

23

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x

x

HWz6,

"
~
Wz6,

c*
+Z !*
&
Wg;gE- 6zg Z:g

c*
+Z !*
&
Wg;gE- !*
Wgzg Z

sz^~ { "z6, n Zj xsZ ) (PO Z

kZ {z X 1 z CZo kZ VrZ Wy*zy Z


# y

y
KDZ6,wzgV ~ y*zygzZ Eg gm{gzZ

X #
}
. z LZ VhZgzZ ~ yz d
$"

= X ~gz **
VZ 6,yZ~:dgzZ ]g @*
~ ]q y ZX g VZ

]g @*
X g 77 {z ~ rz
/_
. ~g Z ZzggzZ ]p Z

gzZEg ,X Za ~g Zd~V ~ekZ, p

V m,
z V bZ ~gz Z e6,, ~

d r
# ~ m,
Z y g Zi g @*
V ~ ~ Zi Wq
-

~ [ KZ ~gZ)ft r
# ~ m,
y X ~gz**
J
-V
+E
X  g I}g {zax dkZX S! pE
L jB

T #
}
.BgzZ ~(, q
-Zt X H7~ [ KZ i Z0
+Z
X t]a}g {za

"
~
Wz6,
HWz6,

26

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

tX BVs gzZ ZzkZ {)zo %ZVYgzZ 6,gzZ


X gZ
i~ Vzg Z Z (x ~gz)gzZ Z)g " nkZgzZ

z s V Zg f 4Z **
7,6,] ]z Y C
Zg Z'
,W,
Z T
N: @*
W,
Z { Zp{ gZ yZX Il *d
$"s

0#
Z1X Il L4'
,
id
$"KZ6,V
E
58u !*
3V G
6,f kZgzZ Z: Zg6,wJZg Z

~TX Z"
$U*
u **
{ c*
i3 Zg {zgzZ $
+3 ZgQVrZ ZX ~ 7,
sZ X h Z[ ]q Z sZ 3 Zg {z X
H z q
-Z 0#
Z

~ Zi W x x m Z r
# z uut : b tb
wy ]q Z
E
!

sp z W - yZQ
Hc*
Z h Z t Z yZ X {)z {6,
gzZ ` Zzi Z
kCq]q Z yZX [% h
+]
.0{zX
E
!

X
Hc*
W - p ZyZ, J
-VwqCgCgQgzZ

LZy,
Ht wqX
Hc*
s Z ZwL Lb ~ L L
z=p ZyZ~i Z0
+Zx ZY fX kC~ci7\ W

yZ kZ q ! x 0 V26,!*
6,f kZ X 7

gzZ d
$"yZ **
SV
/Z, 1 VrZgzZ B0
+
iV+j
V26,!*
XN Y $
lpyX Yc*
uwyZ

yZ
/Z ]xsZ ` Wg, 1kCt

Wq
-Z X Y yW{ c*
igzZ x t Y ~ 8
-u~ V
yZ Z e Z ~
/cx LaVg ZX ~g z ~g Y ` Wx J (,

25

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x
"Z e
M
~ -  ZzgZg


q
-Z L L

-;X1 Z ~
V ~ Zl

LX ;gg { U
n E

+z Y f~gzC
1X6,gg0 z L=g f VgZ~1 L=g f

Xg [Z0 h { c*
io gzZwKZxsZ=6,
f C
xsZ

Qg !*
-Z~x Z Z L xsZ E
q
L 4X~Vz ~*gzZ ~VZzg

xsZ V
KZ x Yx **
]c*
!*
x X ZZ0
\g- M%Z ~ Z ~(,X Zg +
$Y kZ gzZ c*
0*}CZ
J ~g g ! ~(,ZX YH_gN ] xsZ~R'
,
gzZ

~]g?
]V!*
iT W7]uZzxsZ
X
6,f C
!*
X Z qz Z'
,z b {gzZ [X c*
Wt
:gzZ Y7
Z'
,ZV }Q!*
, t Zz p

V gzZ H qz **
;wY Vi kZ ZX Ytgp
VgzZ VjZ X
H\
# ~$
+ kZ6,jgzZ 1 x **
+
$

i a **
6,x **
VZ
/
z6,( R")) R" n; n)g f

28

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

27

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

^a ~"6,VV ~ ]q, ZC
X ;g YH *g Z
& L L~ m,
LG
Zy[ DkCg ZyZX g
yZ X ~ K
M F,
[ q
-Z yZk
,
ig Z kg ZgzZ ~y Zi W

qkZ, ]!*
k Z ]gz ` WX DkCg w k
%NkZ 'X YHg {zY Z6,
o KZ F

x

ZgzZ ~gzkZ ug Z Zz xgzZ Dx,


zX gz

Ziz9Wz6,

fC
gzZ 6C
X Kgz._o gzZwKZ KZ6,q

kZ * ~g7` Wd
$
d
$
X _x i!*
i ` W~
/c
X _ Z|
# KZ~}g
/c V**
ZX ~

CyZ Cc*
F,
g ZzZa k
,
+F,
5
s:
/c
X 7Z]
.
{
zu~X Wt ];0zF~
/cz
k
B ~ Zi WoX ~g ZY #
gzZ: _h Z **
~
X
HHx~
/c
V [ ZX ~ w$
+ p[Z ~
/c ~ V wq
xsZc xsZ @*
{Z @*
f ~
/c }
xsZ ) li X n
pg 7!*
~ gzZ z^I Z
sZg!X VZz VZzg lx **
+~* ~g7 ygzZ
$

u 0*
gzZ
z"Z c*
Sg Z0 ~Z Zi Wy*zy
X gD0^7~y!*
iKZyZt z L X3Z
z ug0
+ZsZI, gz Z i Z [kZ

]q Z , ]!*
kZ ]gzX V gJ
-u]2

~ Zi W , YH7~: sZ 9gzZ z pZ yZ

y ` W H7~ VsyZ 7Z c*
W xs ZX {)z x uuz
? gzZ puugzZx z~xsZ c*
g

gzVP # KZ ', pu" =


{,
6,
6]q ZyZ [z KZ {z,V*
@yZt+
h'~X H

X bw+
$zp~o}g ` WXN VZ
G
=g f zy

usZ
L $x ( kZ yZ ] [g,

! }WYZg
2yZgzZyZgzZ}

"Z e
M

30

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

"kZ KZ ~ m,
y X M
h!lx| kgZgzZ xsZ

29

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

a s
# z n y 0*
gzZ yj
jZt Zt }g X :
K

V**
gZ]
.Zz !*
WLZ, g} (F,
t 5V =gf

yZgzZ g7~ i Z0
+ZxsZ x|

~Ic~ :Zz + yZgzZxsZ,Net *gzZ,


/YZ

X D7kC^~x **
+xsZ
$

X m ~Ic xsZ ~Vwq:gzZ ghZz

y;Zps kZ [ 0 ~ m,
y 6,q

, vZgzZ  gI~ m,
yalzkZKZ

~ m,
y X c*
Z ; V! xsZ qdZ

X D7]}
.KZxsZm<!*
gzZ+
M
KZ" bkZh
+'
{z

S7,n ] s: [t X w= L L[ {g

Ziz9Wz6,

X
M i~~k
,
$~(,
gzZ KgC
Referenceg# CY

( ~ c Z+k
,
$)

[!*
*q
-Zg ZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWqLL"Dq~m,
y
$E[t X
]c*
W W
bZ
ZX q Z
'
,
i { 0+G
X*.
zgu{z
HH7}WqbTg
$qZgzZ
~ [ {g KZX 'yZ0 5V ~ m,
y
_r yZ {z H VrZt0 VE!*
V gzZ xsZ

X D~i
X H{E
+]}
.gzZVE!*
VoyZ~[KZ VrZ

X g !*
gzZ u ~ZiWk
B 0
{zt X ;g kgZ m
yZ~ m,
y zc*
lZ
!*
7Z gvV
tX {i]{z H7~iZ0
+ZXV**
gyZVo
|7,
{z m,
z*q
-ZaVZzx **
+kgZgzZxsZ[
$

32

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

31

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x

~g Z]
.

x
Z
Z e

g Z kg ZgzZ ~ y ~ Zi Wq
-L L[ ~ m,
Z y

m kgZgzZ B ]k
,
~ [ ~i
/ Vz

w%Zq
-Z [ Z1Z {g @*
~ Zz {z y r
# A
$%'!*
0
7]
Z kZ $
+gzZ
Hc*
> ` W z

LZ ]Z|m<!*
y
KZ x zz T ;g YH{ Zex Z

gg DV!*]{gzZ g Y D**
VE!*
s sZ

z m V ~ r z w X ]Z|) m{
V T ;g YH Z9wj (Zq
-Z kg ZgzZ X ;g YH Za

kg ZgzZ ~
/c g Y Za wj kZC
zsp~
X g Y=g fc*
zh
+]
.~g7Z e Z ~
/c

s0zgzZ VZ'
,#~ ` x**
gzZ |

V c*
:B0zLxsZ V@ZzY

VM
Za},Z\vZHqzz6,
yZ
P ~ZiWV
KZ

uZz Z}
.g ~ZiW~ xsZX ]+ xsZ
6,
g~y
KZ [gY X **
ZiW V ~g ~uz y
KZ
6,
kZ @*
t~ZiWy
KZ}uz y
KZ Z
# akZ H Za ~ZiW
\[gp @*
W7I\vZtkZX@*
xCZZgzZ @*
Je
*V gyiZX~ klyW
V
ogzZ 4Z~y*zym,
ZZ
# zzX :
L 6,
V!~g
7ZX h h N0z6,
yZgzZ H qz **
xCZVE*zy6,
ha) ~ X ]Z|Y f rgsZ kgZ b
ZiWxZ **
gzZ
**
C
0 Z**
{giW+Zg? ~!*
W
x Zf~ZVzgZD
gzZ~V*!*
{C"s b~ m,

Z{)z
LZ 5gzZ
Hc*
lZ
V**
g yZ `W $
+
1 L
# V
r
6, VZ {Z
+ T <Zz**
VE!*
s sZ

~y~ZiWq
-L L[~ m,
ZyX gwZe~zmZ
ZiWo kZ, gC 0 [ C]g@*
-Zg Z kgZgzZ
q
kZX HmZr
# txsZgzZ ;ggZ Z(,H gzZ kgZ~ Z
s sZ LZ5~gm{gz $
+#~x Z_[
{c*
i {c*
i[kZ, ~gzaTX x g@*
VE!*

\[g,V ~aq=[kZX} rz


~V !*
iv
~gZ]
.
XgzZgzi~ m,
ZygzZ}x w=Z

34

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

33

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x

q]xsZkgZXc*
zZiWV>gzZc*
sZV

kgZakZX D:]xsZ.gLZgzZ DC

~zgg
$uzyW
]5zZ
yZV0({z

~
)
L **
izgi
+Z
~fV~}g!*
X {g0}gZZ,Z `Wg
Za g{Ze~}g!*
X,kV-c*
DY0*
g{Ze
B ~ V~f F
5F
a } G
g x **
EgX
T {0
+? gzZ {E
+Z g!*
V\ I ugzZ {Y0*
@*

@*
Z~ V~f yZ sgt pX @*
ZgVjZV'
7: ]g@*
kZgzZ wzg yZ ~ ` g@*
Vg
VgVi~yZg~ Z&w
x Z1Zx ZZx ZX x
~ ZiW4z4 y*zyX ~ w$
+g@*
+
M
KZ VM +
x $ZVc*
;g H {E
+Z yZgzZ Vg yZ ~ Y 1857 I kZgzZ
-Z"k
q
,
i~ m,
yzzZXV DkZ
&gzZ Z
Ze C!*
.)!*
_
6, y X $
Y ]gzg LE
X gq
-ZtX

4z]
.nC
aDkZgzZ +
M
KZgzZs0z

zkZ Z`Z%~m,

Z6,y*zyZ
# zzX c*
xsZ0

# gzZ ~qz iZzWs0z#


Z
~m,
Z xZY f
~ {)z]5IVE*zy VrZ,|(,{c*
iubyZ

sVzm,
ZxZ*zy~];{
gy
s !*
~qzZ
VgzZ gZ xZ m~ZiW W~ yZy{!*
~ Y 1857

c*
wj ~_m,
+Z)]|ag 77a~ZiW

)]|0z#
~m,
ZyZgz[-~KYgzZ

:sVzm,
ZkZgzZ Hy~[LZ ~!*
Wha

}gzzX:gzZkZK\xZY f6,
TX H7
Xqz3ZiZzWa~ZiW~o

7ZaTHx YZ q
-Z7]q ~m,
Z y

A [Z0 wZkZC
Zz"7,
[kZ,yZXV;g7dZy

X DYVZmmZr
# Z6,
V+
$YV26,

0
Z
Ze

( c Zk%%g)

36

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

yZ, zzuZz kZX 7[x~ Vz Zg Z u0*


**
yZ T g D 
ggzZ^y*: ~[Z0
V;z*O ZX ;g @*
Y HgVz z6,{ ZeV!z
~
/c ,
Hc*
hz%h bkZz p kZ L
; q
-Z * kZ X g D Ze kZ z yZg Z'
,X Y
q Y{
M F,
Vz
/c Vg X Yc*
:
KVg
(Z7ZEgq
-Z1yYV ZVg r Zuv6,R~g u

, Hy Z #
g6X CY ~ R,
~
/c V 5 7
X (y
KZg

x **
+
$
6,
gZkgZgzZ 0V!gzZV!*

~(, VrZX c*
~ m,
Z y xm,
[Z0 ZgZq
-Z g D
g Z kgZgzZ ~y ZiWq
-LB
L ~ m,
g tgzZ ]P`

n
pgp]'gzZZ[~A
$%X [ yZ
",
7gzZ J[Z~ qkgZgzZ, YYt
X:%g *
* ]a5gzZ?qZt~
yZ B
o} Z @*
YHwEZ~Vs L L G
a ~ Zi W o
~ !*
W ha **
X Z Zi W
HwEZ~Vs~
/c
/ZX HyZ s Vzm,
Z

35

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x
~g Ztzg
( O ZzgZZg 'gZN*
zgZ)**
izgR,
g7gr)

[ k?gzZf { 0*
g Z kg ZgzZ ~y Zi Wq
-L L
yZ ~0 C0*
x)
,z xiggzZ4 z]
. az D g @*
x Z Z
6,],g @*
gzZ CugZ {z C3 ZgWgT ]
yZ C Z VpyZ x Z Z 0gzZ L0 [ L z [ W
LZ g @*
X Cg ZsW| g @*
X @*
7x ~ ],g @*
=g f A
$%awgzZ]o]q zi}g
/
,VYgzZ o x {z D Z
/
zg g @*
v0X C
X w2u @*
z D sW g @*
0gzZ

kZ, ~ Z P V;b*~ y*zy

Y c*
wZ e {6,6,g@*
VE!*
V ~a o g @*

o
X [ xJ
-u{z~V@yZ
" V o0
Hc*
Zzsv
.]uZzg " yZg @*

LZ {z0z!*
V@w 60*X @*

/YZVE!*
{C

38

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

37

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~ Vs ~
/c ~ Zi Wo}g , kZ ;g Y
~
/c ~ Zi Wo}g , kZ ;g Y HwEZ
x s Z'
,
0 q
C
-Z '!*
{ Zet X

Z eWz6,
M.A., Ph-D, D.H.E. M.S.C.IT

& Z hZk%s W c Z `g Zz6,


( ~d E
5G
Zz)

)l
W0 x **
|]uZz Zz zg~ V- ~g* g @*
| 7,kZ YH7hz%^ g @*
/Z X C { ZgVY Zz

z D ]uZz ]g @*
, ~gzn kZX D **
{ Ze
7 c*
r g @*
YX e
8x ~g Z0
+ZZgzZ ~g Z c*
(
y hZ n kZ |q
-Z g @*
X c*
y ;e bT&
0gzZX }g
/ IZ,Z ~ VZ g @*
, k\ZX e**
YH
q CZ f CZgzZ n e
$]c*
p c*
x 0
]c*
Z*,zz TX HgzZ f
e Z LZ n
XxsZm{ g WM~
L L& { kg sZ L Lm{,q xsZgzZyg ZsZxsZ

X @*
YHs

yZg Z'
,Dq Z WzV!*
4Z xm,
Zy'xm,

[ Z0 kZ ;g Yc*
:
KbTkg ZbZ z

_g[ =OX c*
BV +4'
, h wa{h
+i'gzZ p ]**
ZgzZ

~ g @*
: { GX ~ $Z #
}
.Zq
-Z6,yZ ZgzZg **
$. VrZ
e
X } w{6,
V~f W8
-i Vf 0 Z [ { q
-Z
DVE!*
s sZ}g o_[kZY

6,hC
~F,
zyo ~ Zi Wq
-, Y"
$U*
t B
~ m,
Zyxm,
Q%q
-ZX 
V*!*
{ C" V

f { 0*
0 {g ~ + yg )
, VrZ, V@*
7 g IB
X g
/YZab #IZ c*
0*

40

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

39

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

n+
M
KZgzZ r z
_h0 X c*
y
KZq])q
-Z

46, L Lg Zq
-Z ~ gxsZgzZ @*
YE
g

m,
Z Z
# zz X ~ VZ i ZzWs }'
,gzZ Z'
,
c*
C

-Z { Zex Z7]uZz ]g @*
q
]9gzZ ;g Y c*
:
K6,

U!*
`  *zygzZ} h h N 0z6,yIZgzZ *6,y*zy

g @*
*X ;g Yc*
;(C
` W&X g Y ` V- li 

Vzm,
ZVoW,
Zk
,
ikZgzZ rg kg Z7Z u 0*
**

7
~^}gZ Z~*, x,_

B 15T~CbkZgzZ WWn~ Zi Wy*zygzZ

yzZ(, ~ x =g fVg TX xsZ {z H

ny ~ Zi WX c*
W~ ^ ~ Zi W~gt *Y 1947 ~Z

{z ~z * c*
{z e X g W~ V 0 ` WX H7

x Zo Tq
-+Z q
-Z Y 1857 q
-1X I~C

~gz kZ X : x ;gE- z Z
# ~ V-*X + kg Z

VMX ~ !*
Wha)]|~ Zi W@Wg Z~
/
% #
~ m,
Z

bkZ.g LZTX =g fuZzqEg

~% Z e yYz l0 ~q

-kZX c*
Z9s #
~ m,
Z

6 gzZ Z e
C Vzg Z Z (v z z ;gE- ~ * VrZ, H:

~ m,
Z VMX ~ !*
W ha) ]|~ Zi W@Wg Z ~
/
%

kg Z` Wzz]qX c*
Z96,
{ Zg F,
*=g f]Z XZ

: L Ls #
~ m,
Z n ~ Zi Wy*zygzZ 0z #

kg Z7Z:gz {gJ
-s{zgzZ )]q

Z +Z q
-ZgzZ X qz]z x ~ o ~ 
TX c*

V
KZgzZ > *gzZ +
M
KZy
KZgzZ c*
Zsg VZ

yZX ~ y*zyg e Y c Zi Wq
-Zh Vzi T

X g 9V
KZn~4

Z **
{gi W+Zg? { 
vZZ **
x ZY fv {z

gzZ s ZgzZD +
M
KZ L Lg sZ bZ

x ZY f750000 {z Zi WxZ 1Z **
gzZ ;]**
C
0

o }g m{ X c*
SgZ Z (, ~ b & Z VZ'
,#~ `

X g
M F,
z XX Ln ~ Zi W y*zy

,Y Zz!*
]!*
t BZ e6,y~ Zi W g @*
~~ Zi Wy*zy

kg Z ` W, @*
k\Z1X ~ m Z r
# sZ kgZ

c*
f ~
/c6,yZ i Z0
+Z g ZgzZ VE!*
gzZsZ

~wVkZX c*
S~~ Zi Wy*zyg Z0 gzZsZkg Z
zg r zwyIZ=g fqzgz sZ kg ZX A:

42

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

41

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

o x ZZ bb6,
yZgzZX ggD ~kZyV~

{g Z Z (Z h
+
, x BZ e6,Vzg Z Z (x *X ;g Y

$.lz ~m,
e
y~gz,ZX gY u0*
**
CgZ

BZ e6,
M F,
z Vz
/c X Z:g
/~ x`
rg T

A + YyZg@*
VZz"7,[kZX p.

qV]Z|x tgzZ bZ Z e , x

A ~gY Vo+ZgzZX ;g *
@YH{Zex ZgzZ
Hc*
!*
J
- `WX

yZ V
H7Z e Z ~
/cVzg Z Z yZ6, x`
yZ1?

6,
kgZzm{gzZc*
SgZ~
/
%~~ ZiWy*zywVM

._KZ y
KZ ?VYx ZZt 6,kg Z X q V

~ m,
Z y X A ~ N
WWg@*
[Z0 j]ZZZzZ

wqX M
h76,
}g Z ZgzZ c*
;gE- kZ)f T @*

VrZ~[kZyZX i**
=6,
X
z}u~Vz
/
yZ}

Y kZgzZ :z6,9g
/~} / V `
d IZg '~

kZ X c*
7t x ZV ZP
w%Z g@*

wjZ Y
t, xrg Vt, A {)z

R@[[c*
**
zg**
-Z6,
q
q L
L m{ FVrZ

` gzZwjZY o}g 6,
x`
kZyZ H q
M F,
z

d
$ZzkeZR ZZ, c*
bkZ[Z0 {VKZzZ6,

]gzZKZxtY7?Y Z e Z ~
/c

V LZ ;Zu[ kZ s: `"z egx W;gE- szczg{z

kg Z bZ 74 Vzg Z Z (~ TX Hx`
t6,

pg f k&Z z ~yX z B ~m,


n
Z y X ~ ( ~ ~k
,
$

Y X
HZ7
/c kg Z J
- ` W, { Z g @*
X n


wJVz yZ [g, ~X TgqaIz oX

rg kZt[ZX CY~ +gzZ+


M
KZ 7~
/cV

X Za _[V [ v [kZgzZ

._LZ c*
}6,]xEgq{z,n

n ~ZiWo Z]
.Z z!*
W yZ, x7Z ~ V m{
XHx mZr
# ~xsZh
+'
~V*!*
H

X 7wzNEg6,
kZX}gZ*0
+
i
gzZ ~y ~ZiWq
-L LyZ>[ ~m,
Z y Z
/
/

,Zq
-Z
/
}, pN[~g
/
g Z kgZ
gz`Wm{X ~gz e
$. **
Q|T c*
VZ 6,q

44

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Vzm,
Z !zZ ` ZuyZ c*
: 7ZZmd
$i8
-gzZ
,k\Z1X ~: ~g Z {g YZ yZg yLgzZ x 6,

43

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Vzm,
Z ogzZ X L]7xt zg ~g Z Vzg Z

g@*
Vog sZ {e Z ~
/cEg gzZ ~
/c

` W L LV Zg ]6,]y k w, 6X
H` ~

~ * ~g7 x ZZ {"
C" nkZ, x Ze6,

qz**
h h N 6,z IZ D 0*
6,o Vzm,
Z
Zg y*zy

sZ XX g ;)gf c*
z gz gzi } (,v
6,

g !*
zg Kg q
-Z o }g H{ nuVrZ
X c*

*~gVM kgZ{ztX 7 Zw0*


kVog

o}gX @*
Z'
,
Z'
,
VkzgZs WJ{z@*
ABzg ~

ns ZzZ~*X c*
2+
M
KZV
KZX H D

XD Z~y} kZKg~wX
c*
g

V
KZ X H7yp CZ n gZ
/0
+
i ._ ]
KZy
KZ

k#Zz "
$^Vzm,
Z&X @*
Y c*
y*zyzz Z
m

/Z
Z 4Z~gzCc*
F,
~ ZiW0
+
i
gzZ

kZVzm,
Zd
$"^Ig W~o}g V-X c*
wZ e~

!*
M
+
KZ~* ~g `Wzz XXsZ kgZgzZ {z *
@Yu

Vzm,
Z {z X @*
Y**
{g Z y Z z Z o 0, H {g 0*
{g 0*
b

zkgZ06,
Vz
/
6,

yZy*zyo}g, @*
1X

~ ]g ]Z Y~ o ` W? T, g kZ v W ]

X gQD x ZZ
C"iZ0
+ZV**
gx

,J
-V X Hgz$6,f C
z IZgzZy*zy Vzm,
ZX g W

~ Zi WTx Z*zy ` W, x ,_y g @*


\W

~ m,
Z1 yY Z ~ ]5 I VE*zy VrZ

kg Z z {z5: Zz6, ~ Zi W0 ogzZX gwEZ t LZB

$Zg ~& c*
~g Y wEZ k g ,Z #

Zzq
-C
~ Zi W,B \W ,_y Zi W g @*
X +

**
'X Vl
gzZg0 =
+Z~ kZX @*
Y

ypLZ VrZX g~ e
$Z ZyZ : y~

X ~]z V0 }~JgzZ _Z uv W]z ! ~w H

yp yVz(Z h
+
oX c*
wZ e~Vzg

{
!*
h~y
W V ` !*
gzZX ~ M } &
+0*
~T

W Y A yZ 4Z ~ o n]g m,
]
Z Z
# X :

46

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

45

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

s !*
y
X IV c*
i6,Y fvgzZ6,yZX
H5 0*
~ !*
Wha)

g ~ Zi W~o ]gz[ZX 1tZ


+ CZ;{ 
g

yZX L~g !*
y z&
+Z ~Vzm,
Z ~ !*
Wha)

oV YZg} (,Lg o { 
g { 
!*
n TX

N Y o m,
Z Z
# ,z ~ !*
W /Z**
0
+
i

ngZ7ZgzZ l0 ~ Zi W~VzIZgzZV X

X b W6,
G~

A+F~y ~ Zi Wq
Lx Zfg ZD
G.@XF
-

x Zf7X I~Vl
MY f((gzZIV1J
-gz?
V ``gzZX
Hc*
~% sZ|~V 3g{0
+
i

#
~m,
Zha)X {~gZ)f~ !*
Wha){
!*
WsVzm,
Z~\LZ-iz'
,
~KY 0z
X G\LZY fW,
Z!*

zkZ6,
TX c*
:gzZk
,

0 V@yZgzZ 4z]
. x **
ZgX H ! W

W Vzm,
Z X @*
Y !*
~#
~ m,
Z p~X
H :
K

g~oz` gzZ +
M
KZ **
y ZzZX}**
:XWZ

w~Z X Z e:|V-k
,
$gzZ { { Eg K

{z: VY mc*
~k
,
!*
i {z e **
eC
n ZZVZ c*
iz

~ Zi W ~q]P`
Z~yyZ Vzm,
Z C
0 Z**
yZgz

D ~ 5 ZgvZ ?,
H HgzZ L LX c*
yW
TX

{
/
gzZ
Hc*
~ ] Zi W**
{ q
-z hg]g Hc_y

}g } Z, 0 { VgzZ Vz% Vg[gz$yZgzZ 7

X
Zi W~V Zzg

(Y
K{g) X vVwkZg gz6,

p ,_y~ Zi W g @*
~zg } ^
,YkZ\W[Z


y 
klyW
gzZtzg #
~ m,
Z

7V*!*
gZ

/KZ6,xC
C
~q
- ~ Zi W V , ,

:{!*
yZX H yLyZ s Vzm,
Z

yZ \WXg G
0 ~ VVzm,
Z {zzz XX

q w~
/
%q
-Z~y~ Zi Wq
-,0 H~g Y ~ !*
Wha)

M F,

z kg Z vZ~ yZ, x B g @*
z yZL

g l0gkZ m Z r
# ~ Vz IZ D ~gYTX

gzZ m Z r
# : ~gZgzZ 46,z sZ kg Z X Cc*

vo :gzZ {zkZX qz **
~ k
B yZy{z,

kg Z{ ~ Zi Wy*zy,zzT ~%6,
z

6,
~g Y :s #
~ m,
Z X G ~g Y V

48

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~ Zi W]
KZ

47

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

` W,k\Z1X c*
t
@CZ z IZvgzZY fZ rg

Zi Wq
-Z y
KZzz ,H Za 6,] Zi Wy
KZ ]+Z [gvZ
X c*
zT
$**
CZZ\[g,=Zt t]
Vzq x , i q
ZZ~]vy
KZ \[g6,Y kZ
gzZng bhZLZ y
KZ, @*
c*
g Z
x(z idnnZ
X @*

*yZ
n h**
zh{zwEZVzqyZ
yZgzZ Hx OZ ~g ZyZ~~ F,
z.gzZ ~]x W zZ X 1
~ EVc*
yZ ~ ] KZgzZ N 
,q { 0*
gzZ %
( 80X LZuZ)

G
'
n}g + sKZ kZ
0 ~}igzZyWX 2

( 13Z ) X c*

]s:y
KZ \[g, Z"
$U*
]c*
W!*
zgq

gzZ ~wEZVzqyZy
KZ, @*c*
Vzqx ]nnZ
X}[g {z~ Zi W~g7

7IvZ **
xV
KZ

gzZ H Za B ] Zi WV
KZ [g \W, 6
y
KZ 
c*
x LZ
# 1c*
Vzq y Wz * n nZ

z {ge gzZ 3g ~g Y~o Vzg Zp#m,


Zu~ m,
Z
kg Z {z, J
-V D hg7 h wq ]g y Z z Z
yc ~
/c Zl
@W g xkZ gzZsZ
YX zg vt 7a6, ~ |X u7Z
]g **
x ZZ6,sZ kgZ ZX M
h v z x ZZ (Z6,Vzg Z Z, Z
c*
;~o}g7 ,a
~ Zi WT **
x ZZ6,WkZgzZy
X c*
+@Wi mYgzZ
~ m,
Zy

50

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Z~ Zi W~xsZ

6,yZgzZ xV
KZ xsZ, Z "
$U*
V Zj!*
zgq
X c*
6,gzZ 0zg W V- H7I!*

ZgzZ ay

6,yZgzZ c*
h ~'
,
Z'
,V6,V xsZ7
X @*

V- yZ
& N @*
u|: Zg^B
w, et0 ~ V ~0
+!*
o B; }gvgzZ ( 1)
vZz yZ6,kZgzZ Y > ~ yZ
/Zz z~ Zi W7Z6,o
( 33XgZ ) c*
?0w

49

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

zgzZ Z ~VziZgzZ heZ, 6 Z e^zg ~~ Zi W


yZgzZ s nZ H7I Lk QnQ \vZ qzV c*
i
Vzi V
KZ x'" gzZ{ ~ Zi W V
KZ u
Z
# , 6 c*

_x ZY m
CZ 6, kZ n ~ Zi W
y
\vZ Gbb6,
yZgzZ c*
xCZy
LZuZ
& c*

_x?Zm .]|n ]$ l gzZ p
@*

yW

yZ c*
,@*
CZVkZgzZX c*
0*
~}i y
" L LX 1

z> \!*
V gzZ ZI:q
- kZgzZz vZgzZ ( 2)

{z" X
rg {0
+
iVgyZgzZ @*
%fVyZgz${z
/q
-Z~

Z(,Zz Z F,
Z @*
W7pvZ" x ~0
+!*
KZ# { ZggzZ

y;gzZ y
gzZ , ~ }i 7ZgzZ N _gZz 7Z z o
G
( 6X 3Z)X {syZ7ZT,3 ~gVzHyZgzZ

^zgzZ gzgzZ k0*


gzZ V0 ZgzZVBgzZ Vzg ZggzZ
( 36X Y Z {g) Zzg
!$
+ yp yZ N Y}g h**
0, n
6,? Zz yZZ} Z ( 3)
nT ]g$
+]ggzZx$
+xgzZ Zi W$
+ Zi W
}g vtZ Z bhZgzZ > s kZ
kZ} C c*
i0kZ g6,?gzZ **
1 Zg v s[g
( 178{Z )X [Zu **
g c
Zi W x6,g}g Vk
H6,VFxsZ7

yZgzZX N ZyZgzZ N 
yZ6,Vzgz$yZ,T e gzZX ~Y

X(18Xy{) zZj}3gxCZ?0VzvZLXL2
3gxV
KZ?
L L: D
tzg/]|(q
-Z
( 86 :m ~iZ0ZX [0/]) ZiW7ZV yZq
It\[g, @*
"
$U*
Zjg @*
z]c*
W Z
!*
zgq
7ZgzZ
h ZgzZ}xz ~ Zi WVz nZ,7
X} ~Vzi

52

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

51

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

zZ ~&
+
T, c*
] ` ZzgigzZq
-Z /]|

0gzZL Ly
yZ
X c*
C6,
ZiWxiV66,VFgzZ

kZ XZ /
]|m{ {Z
+t X $
Y 7 gzZ ~h
+y
{z Y

6,
kZvZgzZg~kZV, 3!$
+kZ}O1yYy

( 171X mx ~O 8t
zg Z ) C|
#
zh
+y

V-&
+
nkZ

( 93X Y Z) X [ZZ(,
3ggakZgzZ6,
kZgzZH

V Z XgH Z 9Z
# +@W{)zg$
+/
]|

[Z0wZ0gWZg(yZk
,
Z %0g]|

gzZX 3gpwZtVrZ ~VZzgg x XgH Z 9'


,
Z'
,
Z

Z}
.wVze{z&, @*
5=ZvZL,
L

ZX s z wzd7Z D Y 7] V {z wq0

zg0<
Zzyc*
ZgzZVzmZw; *gzZN W~uZz
!Z^Z )X ,(~ts ZzwxsZw0
!Zz G
( 49B7 G
G
G

, I, @*
x
/ZX H @*
,;gBV,g Dc*
'
g
6,VyZ Z}
.L,
L +qgzZD c*
**
3B V
z, 5 ` ZgZu
g 3B VX }

gzZX 5Y sV x y Z {z } y Zx x Zg v
( 174X mx ~O 8tzg Z )X **
0*
eZ`
-Z 6,q
q
-Z q
-ZvZ g mZ0z/]|^<
LZ Ug , mZ0 /]|e
$DmZ/]|Zg h**
~^
gzZ c*
{g~^Z/
]| q {z Z
# N YqB
/]|WniZ, Zg kZ D $ Z} ZipkZzg ,
zz cgz W,
Z\ !*
,zg mZ0z/, kZQ
mZ 0z/ /
]| kZ Hg Z kZ1X ]P`
t mZ
7Z V yZqX 3g xV ?
, #

n~ZiW
KZ)**
gvZgtzg/]|
W VrZ 5 f x ZsZgzZ Z
#/
]|
~ sf V BV T ` Zzgg
X g7
&
1Z]|, t {zH0 x Bh
e ~B; L L
J
X Zi W
x ~&
+
v 0 ~ { D
+
% L & D ~ i
( 169X x ~O 8tzg Z )
~[ x} V 0 W] ^
:^
,Y**
xyZ, c*
:Zz^ OY
/
]|
( 170X mx ~O 8tzg Z )

54

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

/Z [8HgzZ{ 0*

H L,
L c*

#)(l ~
V \W

53

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

E
( 86B~iZX [ BZ0/]) Zi W

[~nZY) Lg: L~}uz~r:=g0


+Z}x ~

~ TX N W~ xsZ g @*
\ W] uZzg " bkZ


$j~{g\WQ ( 36X 39g
$ula[!*
Z

kZ
/ZgzZX
HzgJ 6,yZgzZ xUV
KZ

lbTvZZ L L vZ gZ

:%n* {z Hg0 V /]|X c*


0*
Zw{z
Hs

\WQgzZ}wZe~V}g{c*
ikZ ,z

VgzZ * ` W, 3 bSZ W,
Z T

(189g
$u=Zbc~gZ) n
'
,
z~

X * z] j Za wr
# } (,} (,~ {z
/
: k0vZ]|X D YGg~ g
$u[Z0 G%M~

$Zzg q
e
-Z ~ 7,~ uu g
$us~uz
~g kZgzZ * **
gZ
/~ uuy q
-Z ~ 5 ZgvZ L
L ~
}( 2892vZx- a[ !*
Z[ ~g Z )
4 Vzq
Hc*

C ',
Z',] VZgg ZD
q
-ZkZ }
Hc*
C'
,
Z'
,pg { izg
Z
/ 
gZ ~
V } g X
Hc*
C=g f ]$G[Z6,kZ }
yY KZ0, e
$Zzg(q
-ZgzZ L{z
HZg ~w LZ0 L L
I
5\{z Y Zg ~
!g Z[
yz L
[!*
GE
K) X G
"
( 4100g
$u GE
0G
zyZgzZ ]$ Vz gzZ s Zz w xsZ =Z
X @*

yZ hf 7
l{6,
Y
Vz%[zgz$yZgzZ7D~5ZgvZ ?,
HH?gzZ (1)
VwkZggz6,
}g,
Z 0{VgzZVggzZ

$e e
$Zzg X f *Z x Z0 **
]|~ ]i YZ
E
( 86~iZ0ZX [ BZ0/
])X Bi

wz E
OL 8

q T{z, 
~ ]
KZtY q ~q
-Zz z
X @*
7{g Zw eZ **
hgZ X @*
Yk kZ {z Lgd
$

V
KZ 7s ]
KZy eZ=Z ]+axsZ
746,z xsZ X @*
cg 9gzZ X @*
0*
]
yZZzL
L CYye
$Zzgq
-Z,J
-VX m Zr
#
( 386g
$uB83mG
E
0kBZWZ )
z
0 {gkZgzZ )(lzLZ~
V wgvZp
,._e
$Zzg k
0Z]|X 0~g
$ qZ 9f kZ

56

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

# z
|
Y ~ VzgZi !*
\g- gzZ yZ]Ypg 0*
m<!*
]
V {g0 ZZag !*q
-Z[ zZ Q~yZ,
yZ y*ygzZ B ~ V; LZ]g y*y {z, TgzZ

55

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

(80YZ)
v
LZ [Yq,~ { ZgvZ,
HHgzZ ( 2)
( 246>Z )
zZ KZgzZz

o}g7 ] s: y*ygzZ Y0gZi !*


n]

yzzLZgzZh
ehCZ yW
b\W

R',)g f vc*
+Z Z m,
&
Z ) +
M kZ X B ~ LZ

T,N C\W[ZX c*
k
B 7 Zhfn

X c*
qz**
;ug nCZ~y*ygzZ4Z~y*y
Y
.)d
$i8
-gzZ]|~Y 1707
C{g0*
{g0*
m]zG
pKZVz3,
ggzZVzgZVYZgV1ZV1gzZV2c*
g Z ZX

+ nZ ;g7wV+Z mZ r
# eZ <
eZ [ <

X Cgz$
gzZ e
$
/
%o TX yZ ~gU

X A 7\ WwVxsZ},_]xZgzZV1

Zo)g fd
$
z(LZgzZ c*
VZ {Z
+g7 kZ Vzm,
Z
:W
t zz T H Za g 3W~ V g V1gzZ V2c*
g
Z6,
c*
gz"q
-Zq
-Ze ~(,
m,
ZgzZ$
+}uzq
-Z~
**
6,o}g Vzm,
Z D*6,o}g D )C
VrZ n kZzg ZzygzZ!zZ ` Zu~{ ZgyZ1

bkZy 7Zh
+y

zgZkZgzZ!zZ ` Zu
X~

gzZ BV0 mZ r
# V gzZ xsZX M
hgZzZz
Zx r Zl
<
~*
/Z\W gt ***
g

:y~ Zi Wq
-

x ZZ CYW c*
Y 1947 ~ZB1 5 D Wt ~ Zi W
Bq
-y ~ ZiWVrgzZ ^I Zz k0*
kW kZ c*
Y 1947
-TY 1947~ZB15, x,_y ZiW g@*
q
# 1X
Z
ZiWo Vzm,
ZgzZ 5: Zz6,
~ ZiZy*ygzZ gZ%~
Za wj (Z~o}gq
-kZX + Y 1857q
-tZg Z
X bSZq
-tX ZiZzW~ZiWo, H
g Ztuy X 4Z)g f]g m,
Z~ y*yR'
,
V gzZ B 6,]g zg0
+Z y*y, ~ kZ `
@*
gzZ

58

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

zV{~gzZgzZY!zZ ` Zu
` Zu kZ6,v%_ X c*
dY CZ!zZ ` ZuZ LZ kZ
e
$Zzg sz w0*
' m,
Z H { W V- i ]e Vzm,
Z !zZ
:zt!zZ ` ZuV{~gzZ._

=Z}
.
/Z gy eZ Za ~o
0 x Z Z %
LL
G
'
x t [Z g
CX gz t ~g +~]i YZ g {0
+
igzZizg

pg ` c*
~ 7Z g
C' + x * 0
+Z g3+
/Z X e
( 147X 146m!zZ ` Zu)
Ho H (Z
/Z b:]i YZ

B Vzm,
k
Z!zZ ` Zu

!zZ ` Zu n
pg giZ x ZY fgzZg Zg V{ ~gz Z
VzD
+n4" Vzm,
ZgzZX 3gB LZx ZY fb **
**
LZ
Xg~
.Zz^eZ9Z
]
# , ZztZpVzm,
Z
[ZVrZgzZ e:[x{z;e**
5BLZyZgzZ VM
!zZ `Zu nZ ~ } q :Z W 9c*
y wq Zg
X k
B y]Vzm,
Z~gzZ,qzVc*
gm6,
e} (,

57

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

g @*
~wX
c*
g

Wd
y
$i8
-gzZ X /wpgzZ !*
W
gzmwX
/~(, kZX
Hc*
gZ/wX y{ % (1704 ) ~ i

kZ~~qzgzZ ~!*
WX H!*
Wx6!*
W%6,
x **
LZgzZ HnzwX
{z HZgzZ~ mwVz`
@*
%
kZX F,
~!gzZ0Z]
{zX c*
WVwPV{%X% Ze6,
kZ"
$gzg

~y, Zst
Wz 6y ( !*
W%), q~ LZ
G-F
4
%)gf]gVzm,
ZX !*
W~!*
W%,7 qz Z
vm,
ZnZgx **
1q[~g!*
gV{
6,7, c*
VzgZi V{ % h
+y

}i n]g
!zZ qV{+Z qZ yZV{%X ,: |
# z
}i
/wX(Y 1440 Y 1739)y{iZ
ug
CkZnZX qwXx **
~gZgzZ z" gZ/T
$**g 0 V{ ~gz Z6,~gmZ1 gZ
gzZqlt X 0gZ/wXpgzZ H7 {
]o x ZZ
gzZ @*
X Vzm,
ZwX y
Wx @*
<Zz bhZ `
@V Z
(
g!*
FX c*
: "(
,
Wxq
-Z ]gVzm,
ZX ;g @*
6,VZ KZ
~ Zzh X[Z1N VZ'gqm7V.Y%Vzm,
Z
X
HwZ~Y 1756#
w 166X I

60

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

gzZ g` { C" yZX Hg n 


V^Z% WV z eg 3,
gX
H5~Y 1758 w3,
g z eg
BLZ Vzg ZgVyZ bkZ 15BLZx gzZ
V7 ygzZ yp~k
B yZyg
oq
-Z5
40
+
iyq
-Z0
+
i!h) L,
L tD
] ~ Zi W+@Wg ZD
12ByZ L~Y 1799#B4
cgq
-Z 16,! g ~ug Z~Y 1799 Vzm,
Z bkZ
n7 ( wV)n g @*
* L L: ~}g !*

'W CgzZ g@*


y*yD: ~g Zx gzZ`Z%
/Z
kZ Z(,
V Vzm,
Z L L:, r
#
-~ s Vzm,
q
ZV Zxx BB { 
{ h
~]i YZ
kZZz :B~q
-Z LZ ;{ 
g {
X Hyb
;Vg~u {
zg Z

59

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

k
B
7 k- m,
Z **
VM
6,z]
.Zz
` ZuX c*
qz **
w wY gzZ ~ qzl Vzg Z}uz
gzZP Q Zg_z BnZ k
,
iz0 Q MY !zZ
gzZ ~g Z [ Z
yZ c*
3,
g [ZTP7
-
!zZ ` Zu[Zn Z X c*

@yZZgzZ;CZB; Vzm,
Z
zz~g ZgzZli 1 H ~Y 1757Vzm,
Z~yZy
X ;g 8 
Z9 Z9{z1` ~yQYX Z 7,
**
o
n ZX c*
L ~g"Br
# [ZVzg ZyZ
gzZg wX $
+ ~g ZQX
H6,wX }g7 Vzm,
Z
gzZX !*
` Z kZ, 5t, ~g ZQX ! Zx W

X c*
l{* kZng ZkZVzm,
Z

Y 1799X Y 1766ygzZZg[Z

g[ZVrZgzZ| (,
AjVzm,
Z
k
B

c*
B
y *y `

y zkZgzZ Z Z}
.Zg[ ZgX H cgs

KZ VgJ
-V ML L~[KZ g wg

kZ~6'
,
gzZ HgzZfZ m,
Z gzZVrZn kZ **
~

"{ 
;
g

1g Z #
~ '
,
[Z Za ~Y 17750

62

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

/g \V ZxzgzZy
Z%y, Hi W kZ B% e#
y y
n~ Zi WgzZ oVz x gzZ VV%yZgz5Z Z Y
ynZ DhZ : yz Vzm,
ZgzZX H
9q
-Z~#
}
.{ 
y*y{
VM sz^~!uVEZ~e
$~+xsZ {t L L
9k,
Z ggZntX *?fq
-Z:[@*
iukZ
~+x{kZDEz6,
xzaZ}
.7]gz{ZkZ~
(182:my)X}SyZgzZ}k
B +=,Zp
{z H7rZ 6,] V Zz3,

4c*
g y {znZ

61

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

ZgX 3gzg "(,+


$Y 6,
zZ#
~ '
,
{~ Zi WgzZ

3n]s #
'
,gB;6,
u 0*
yW
ygzZ
(0 6,gm{ D q
-~ k
BC
B ZgZz LZ
~t ZgzZg@*
]okZf
ep ~(,{z~yZ~Vzm,
Z
X0
KZ y~ k
B kZ ~~ Y 1767 k
B ~ iZg

~ k
B ~uz~Y 1780q
-B` 70000z!*
>
-wz ]z Zz LZ ~ Y 1782gzZ 77 y
J
~0
+~k
,
z ~ !*
W c*
g ~ c*
Zz LZ g ~g Y k
B VrZ
q
-Z ~g7 #W{z kZ Zz ~g0 c*
Z {q
-Z }g )

Za ~ Zi Wl0 ~x Z: rZ6,Vg \ zgzZ zg0


+Z y

X { i Zzgg9x **
Tc*
Za

~kZgzZ c*
Zzy{ i Zzg
y~kZ k
B
Zg { Z'
,
yVzm,
Z~Y 1791
/Ol] x Y ~ k
B ~y
WgzZ a ~ Y 1799 H
$Z Vzm,
Z
\W D Y ~ k
B kZ X 1 px **
CZ ~ V g @*


G
'+
~g gzZ ?Z
# x
zkZ" ~g ZkZ, g VE*zy
X F,
Z Z` Z~oZh{W

X x $Z**
g n
E
~ZiWk
B xZT ZzZy*y G
L 4$iuy

L,

L q =r
zkZ0 (John Anis Trother

kZ k- ZZ zg0
+ZX V;Zp Z Z Z n ~ Zi Wo
yZk
,
Zy j
jZZ
kZgzZzsq ZZ z
X /g ~ [z

H Za ~ Zi W/_
.~x Zy

Sir ) zR
,/Z yYu D s Z Z ~%VZ0 y


HZg 6,
y*yD%kZ nV0 ~g

64

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

( 46my*zy~g gp!Zf4 i Zg)

63

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

(14mZZ}
.g@*
)
nVE*yy*yL,
L c*
{w=t

F,(z c*
g s e#
y kZ bkZ

gzZ x
s Vzm,
Z VM VZx y

kZX ~ ZiWo {zc*


/qT6,
gm{B b & Z Zz

hfe
$W Z
~ kZg T L LyZ gzZX c*
x $Z)**
g

y*zyawZyZgYY6,
y*zy0 m,
Z, H

X Zzn~~g7~i Z0
+Z Zz

tx ZZvaoq ogzZ} Vz!*


x
gzZ]+ ~0*
6,W'
,w +6,aXogzZ
( X 44X 43mg/y~gwz5)X}rz
]g
kZo9yX c*
36,
/q
-Zq
-Zy
{ Zg ZfZL L: q~q
-ZX C7,zg6,ZZ])gzZ ~ ZiW0E
!_
.
D I yZ f Z~ VzKX V 0 VziuVyZ,
[ VWa kZ X ~g Zzg .
**
gzZ J{ c*
i
~ Vz
0gzZ
N Y { nv {o$
+t, @*
X4 xsZ yZ i !*
VY,
E3Bt) X !u ~+gzZ
D{~ kZ u u 448my 0G
{
~XXVg y*kZ y, q
oVz m,
Z, @*
x kZgzZX Z^ y{ gzZ
y kZ VX
rg Z g Z FtX @*
Z6,%
kZ )ZZ kZ z C7,zg6,
~ Zi W0E
!_
.gzZ] Vzm,
Z

( @*
DbVzm,
Zs~X

/WzgzZ/_
.z~ Zi W
# X &ai~ Zi Wz~zg]xsZy
Z
wg (Z !*
qZ
# gzZX]!*
.kZ
_
zkZ { ZP
X c*
Wt wpw} (,

Vzm,
ZZd
0
~ g !*
g LZ d~ Y 1872 kZ
:kZX C?9]!*
.kZkZk
_
,

~X Zz >
YzgzZ #
~X V y
KZHq
-Z ~L L

zX Vg {0
+
iJ
-Z
# , n
Z @*
X g Z .
**
0
+
i
h F,
M
Z ^ v ]az WVzg ZD
X Vg @*
a~ Zi WgzZ
X M
h$
7L] !*
.zr
_
# pX
x{zgzZ ~g ]
.z
z kZ 6,y, y <Z OZZ q
-Z
a w } w gzZ ~y*zy }g \ }} Z L L: u
a } yY ~gzZ yp ZX a } 0z ZgzZ ] ~X

66

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

V6{ = g7gzZ !*
Wg !*
W8
-gzZ X o nkZB
@xX t {z t x **
X) : @*
k
,
~ q
-Z x **
Y xgzZ
# x9z r
r
# T( !*
Wg ) r
# 0Zz r
# = ( !*
W8
-gzZ )

( 517my52( g7)

65

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

] !u *,t wV~y
W ZZ])gzZm Zr
# 0E
!_
.
@*
6,}i6,} g5 L q
-ZgzZ X c*
hg **
6,0*
g e kZ J
( 745my)X
{ ZgZ gzZZp ~g tL L:<5kZkZ u%] c*
WW

5B Z yZ kZX syZ q
-Z ~ Zz #
}
.L L

Dhy
/yZV VM VugzZg Z.
**
yZ,

bC
~ 1**
z VEZgzZ F,
xsZ + \W, @*
Y

,wJ{ Zg SxsZ {z,J


-Z
# g D J
-
zkZX H]z

$qZgz*W
g
]c*
W V>VyZ kZXN ~

V* q y*zy, Z
#
z kZ SX N Yg a tb
c*

kZ D6,kZp\W, yZXHA
$%}!Zj ~
V wg

gzZ w )
,gz$y, 1w {t x kZN Vc*
gz$

{6,
kZuu276338my)X ,
)
Z(

V Vc*
g m X H7rZ6,
ZsVrZX ]

kZgzZXzgu Z c*
g Vzuz yq D

**
i Zg6,z'
,
Wz w V B; 4'
,
izLZgzZ } hz| m
6,V

(G:Zzg gV(C
~y*zyx]**
ZgzZonZ

LZ DEz6,G @*
<
gzZ
Z}
.a kZ X c*
qz

yZyw V]gzZ V{ yZV6{ =V


tk0*
Vzg&
+gzZV **
o z Z9~

( 520mX y) X D6,
x Z

kZgzZ g&
+ Z(,
V{1~ 0 Z^ V{ X ~ ]

eg# yZg7)X ZhfakZtW kZ


kZX Hx ~ )&KZ y yZ kZ ( X
E
{ c*
i,oV6{ =gzZx ZY fX**
Vz3,
ggzZV G3ra

q
-Z kZ
rg W,
Z 6, { 
gzZ
H cg !*
]z

a Vzm,
ZgzZ X YH Za l0 ~ x Z;kZ { c*
i

Zg WZ s Vzm,
Zg Z B])yZ yZ

yx , ~gznu0*
+ LZ}g L L: @*
k
,
~
F,
y$
+y ~+, @*
0
+
i KZ! uVEZgzZ N Y

X YH{ W
yZkZk0*
VW,
Z !*
y*zy c*
gKZs: y

68

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

67

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

0
HH~g Yg Z { izg8q
-Z x **
g Z Y L~zg Z wZX=g f

~gz$ ( ) y*zy:
L Z (,
kZ c*
W
zZ'
,
06,
V Xk
,
+
5

~ VZ} kZX
_~ 46,
ugzZ Z CZ f y

yZ
z kZgzZX $
WQ
z y
Z N Y [Z y
/ZX

0 ~ kZ 2 X C 
e
$Z@ yx **
V3

izg, e**
: Zgg +Z xsZ yZZ ZX n : { C }VEZ
E3Bt) X Vg)t ~
( 332 388my 0G
V9~Z

VZ6,]gzzZ ~ Zi Wk
B gzZ
q zgzZ}p
X ;g @*

w 0*
J
- yg ZtX C 
,k
,

( 497mLy]5)

Zz XZ
Zg~y*zy
ygzZZg[Z

wj u~ Y 1232wEZ T Y 1096 ~ u XZ
Zg
ygzZ Zg[Z
XZ
Zg~ y*zy X Hs
yX Z~]yZyZgzY 1799Y 1750wEZ X
X H
s Vzm,
Z ~ y mwEZ
Zg {!*

g0 Zz ` yZgzZ @*
YH yp ( K u s h o o n s )
Zg
X @*
Y ( Jourks)

]Z W,
@*
Vzm,
Z6,
] y

Vzm,

Z ~ y*y o d Z Z}
.gzZ ] y
O CZ6,y*y {z, ] Z`
yZ
z ZgzZ ! x ~(,

yZkZXoa ]zKZVg )
,
bZ

~XX N ZakZ y{z


wZ Y gzZx ZwZ ~[kZ ( +@Z ) +@Z g
 g @*
)X (F,
V 6,gm{ {z *Zz
( 483X 482mygy] 515m Z Z}
.

a{W6,
VyX +@Zh
+[~uz

\z+{zVZ- 48~ kZX c*


+zD
+]h6
(493mLy])X~(F,
V~[C
X
G y {)z bc ~ kZ +@Z Zi[ gzZq
-Z bZ

gzZ Za bzg ~ x Z
)
Z 6,: e Wz V1 yZX

{W6,z z J
-a kZZa/_
. q Zg Vzm,
Z
X Z`
Z g Zzg Zq
-Z)**
g 0Z ] ~kZX
{zgzZ _ Y~Vzm,
Z S WkZ Z
# ~ Y 1794
W,
q
-Z ~g Z~x Zt, H6,q
-Z kZ sz^~^ui Z

70

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

69

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

,k1g Z0
+
(Z~p V ze Y 1800~gz
B6

y Wk0*
l] y ( Harris) kw

k1kZgzZ 7IkZ~g @*
y*yk1
'
,
i (Z Vzm,
Z

^ja t ZZ:VZg]o
N} i 1
$
~yp
5.\g ) XX1a ]^a
( 56wZz
/Zg Wz0
+ZtZg kz J G

{z 3C
gzZ
HZi Z ]!*
Vzg (gzZ V
Hc*
8
-g I
( 350m Z Z}
. g @*
) 7] Z
~ yZ &
+
7 g-ZZz YG~ `
(435myg@*)Ak&
+
7142902
-Zq
q
-Z ` ~ m,
Z 7g kZ
HN*
w 0 ~ ! u
g ZX ,tf Z bbV-gzZ c*
>Wg 2
+
Vzy X N*
y

y*y g @*
~g L L: q~ q
-Z R,
zZ yYu z eg
V; \ W bkZ)**
g Z(,
gzZg Z0
+

Vc*

( 350m Z Z}
. g@*) V g IwM\ W~6,
0*
x $Z
4&g-ZzkZ^eZ
3E
F
J
-
zkZzgz~y*yV G
(437myg@*
)c*
gZ
ZzZ(,

w gkZ 7e{ c*
i kZ
H 0 ]Zg kZ ._ y z

{ZgVzm,
Z~ y*yL L: ~ ZgV- 6,
kZcgm,
Zq
-Z

kZ LZy n 1CZ 3C
, c*
WB; V3

(47my) VZ
/
>q
-Z~
5!
**
{~y*y#
~ '
,
L L:q~}g!*
G
yYu

~0
+e gzZ] ZC
Z0 7 M~ 5 ZgZ0 N s
XD7n|
# z
~H 3Z
( 434myg @*
)

( 177myg@*
() Lg~0ZkZ{zgzZm{kZ

q~
z LZ {z, CYZkZ z eg

vyZ],
Z e p, z Wz g kZ {],
Z ]q :KZ ~ y*y~,
X,
Zpg n3g6,
y*y
{ kZgzZ ] L L: q~Z%vyZ],
Z egzZ
s }g {W{z, $q
-Z n V Zx *zy v
( 350m Z Z}
. g@*
)
:]Z`

72

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~ Y x} (,
zg yZ :V{g / szc Y*
! ]|
` Zg w m,
Z HgH **
gC 7Z y @*

g @*
X Y 1791 ag B7Zzt ) L D~
( 288my
Zzg - OF,I ze **
:L+Z+
h{ ]|
D H76,nl @*
g \ W~Y 1zZg LZ
\ W
6,Y kZ uZ Z(,~ ] D Kzg ~izg KZp
\ W c*
L} } 6W VrZ 0*
gzZ
( B 19mze **
wY 1zZ g @*
{h
+zYZ e )w~` y
W- OF,
~Ly\Wa :L ]|
w{h
C
+zYZ e6,
CkZ ZLBx **
\ WgzZ
G l] x Y D gzZVg~ ` y\W, H
( B 27mze **
wY 1zZ g @*
{h
+zYZ e )V
z{0
+
i7Zvx ggt:~g ~g Z,
'Z]|
g&
+~ ` gzZ W~ Z Z}
. $jg
X Zz~gCg g Z'
yZ^
,6,
}
" ]|yZ ~Y 1zZg : ~g { vZ E
O B&]|
yZ ^
,6,}} (,~ ` @*
Y Zg x **
Y 1zZu

71

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

YxzYfq
-~
(gzZ`y
Y xzY f~ `y, @*
{iZ0
+Z _ g@*
oY f~yZyJ
-V6{=Z~(,
~ZZ}
.0 Y f bkZ H ZgWZ sVzm,
Z
yZ {znZXgq
-~ V<gzZ VzD
+ygzZ ^
,6,Vz
gzZG Za ]!*
.mZ r
_
# ~ VVzgZD
VMZ~(,Yf
XX
HH7px**
z@WyZ~g@*
1H{W6,
sVzm,
Z
X*
@YHfY fW,
Zr
# P~yZ px**

J
$
~g } (,
_ ZIZmyZ : *
* y{G *
*
g
c*
g )fyZ u ` ]~(,7Z ~]Z`
z
( 502mLy]z311m_Z g @*
)X 0*
]z~
&
Y Zz Y fKa Z Z}
. _ ZIZ :~<X V{Z*
!
g6,#
Vzg Z Z x ~ ! uZg Z @*
g y Z ~
y Z~ ^! gHrg~Y 1808]
( 507mLy])X 0y Z-
$Z6, @*
f
g ~ + Y f} (,
x **
yZ :vZ *
*
~ !u~ | 1223 [ g
/
, 6By] ~
( 405mLy]) HwZ

74

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~: iy (J
-g p*]| yZ D~fgzZ
J$
)f \W#
}
. <X+Zg Z k0*
g 0*
q **
V{ kzg[Z
( 474m_ ZZ g @*
)X
J
$
~x @*
g W~Y fwr
# : *
*GZ*
*
( 502m_ ZZ g @*
) 4\W~g Z !*
W~
gge
$._ Zxm\W:wC{*
*
(337m_ ZZg@*
))f\W#
}
.YZ~

73

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

X L~k
B ~gBVzm,
ZW,
O
*ZygzZfZY dZ~`Zg:y{~i*
*
fZ Y[xq
-Z {z VrZ
M F,
Y Zg[Z
( 503X 502Ly])X{z
X i { c*
i
~ yZyd~ : Z@
Vzm,
Z] yzz kZ ^
,6,{dZq
-Z~ Z Z}
.
L L6,yz Zg yZ~ ~ x c*
ZY 1806 X c*
g
/yZ
qkZ~y!*
i0 [ q
-Z~y!*
ig x **
~gy
K

( ys W+gs W~ F,
) [{Z
+!*6,
J$
E
!*
W~#
:i~V G3rg: *
*L/
gzgz z@igzZazD\W6,
{]YO (S
-**
;I)
( 367m_ ZZg@*
)XgJ
J
$
!*
W~ #
: i ~Y fgt: *
* +Z [~

o d)/y
WX !\ W#
}
. ~g Z ( S
-**
; I)
( 320X 319m_ ZZ g @*
) !*
Wg ( !u
s ZZ(g)gwc*
h~VW,
Z!*
gzZg:Z*
*
( 482m_ ZZ g @*
)
J
J
$
)Z $**
,
'
e
$.} &
+/ EG
vZ (~ : *
*vZ (*
*

76

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

{z,J
-Z
# g D J
-
z kZ HD]z hy
/V
Vc*
gz$V* qy*y,Z
#
zkZ SX ,wJ{ Zg SxsZ
]gzZw )
,gz$y, 1w{t x kZN
|m
6,VV Vc*
g m H7rZ6,kZ s VrZ
c*
qz *
*i Zg6,
z'
,
WzwV B; 4'
,
izLZgzZ } hz
6,x Z <
LZ DEz6,G @*
gzZ
Z}
. n kZ
X D
!n h] nri ^ri o  ] ! m]^m ^m
F ] ]e ] nf o ^ri ^e i
pri l^q m e m !i j ] n
pF!n]] F l^q o fn ^ ^] ^jvi
DMN!ML ]E !gm xj ] !^fvi
[Z u **
g "0 ]g {zVz C ~ H ! Zz yZZ } Z :F,
z yY KZ~ { Zg vZgzZ yZZ6,wgkZgzZvZ ?,t ]g {z X
G
'
j{ k
H}g v{z M
h?
/ZX x +4n }g +t X z w

75

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

yZ y

( Y 1786#B3._~ZB28)
x ZyQ VrZ x Z0V
z~
V Ym
CZ ?{

(
x ZyZxzaZ}
.
zkZX
HWwZzi6,
yZzzT c*
NE

yZ y, @*
D~gY {g !*
z n WV $z \ LZ
X N 0*
$Z@
e
-V x 6,Vh4 4x Z yZ \W, yZ \ W
J
e\W<ZzyC
yZ,t x ZyZYN
,~V x g [" x ZyZ,
6 ] n^e # ^e m m]]i^: u 0*
Z}
.
oFju gjF]]i] m] v] m mm # ] u^ vm
DNUV ej]E!^ m mr]]_m
vZgzZ D 7yZZ 6,y ~y
WgzZ vZ v0 ~ [ IZ :F,
7wJ( xsZ ) + CgzZ Y 7x ZwVzq x ZwwgkZgzZ

~Vzy{ gzZV,1~X}4Z~V!*
yZ"gzZ }

,tb
V; LZ {z,J
-VX z VZ ! ? X D

gzZ Zz C
d
$kgzZ svZ Xn
pg ?T }

VM VugzZ.
**
yZ, fx gzZZp ~g t

qq
-ZgzZ ! x ~(,
tX }4ZV~V!*
Zzg0

X g?fgzZ

78

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

gzZ Zz+ YvZ X VogzZVz


z:
) ZgzZ :F,DMVh]u]E
X Zz
Vz
yZ {z, n
@*
t :Z W
]c*
WyZ6,X6,V yZ
!*
W W~V}gn
pgyZZz6,
b #KZ {

77

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

( X z ~lpV ZzyZZ
yZ , 1{ Zg Z f D qu6,~0
+
zZ}
.x Z yZ
X
Hc*
~yZ
, 6n
pg7kZX,

yZgzZ 4
q {0yZ
qyZ aZ}
.V X N Y

m ^e m n] o] m ] j
DMML V] \ E v] F] ]

n {g Z
/V;z VyZgzZ g~ Z}
.wgzZ z'
,
W

gzZ snV0 (Z {z
/q
-Z ~ ?, egzZ :F,

Y~~q=g f +4{gZ
/7ZV 7q Zg f

Xq Z%zgzZ}IV!*
{h
+I**
gzZ}] !*
{h
+I

~g Y x Zt ~ Z Z}
.~g7 KZ nm{kZ

xsZx Z -ZV C
gzzq
- 4,
, e\W=Z

0] qyZ~ ~g e
8{ C W~ Z Z}
.v0 L L:,

( V ) VyZ SgzZ B zg V yZgzZ , { W


] Fm X >fe
$WkZpyZ
0 Nz

0 h$
+kZ X u:z ( 6,yZ kZ )6,p Z yZ 0
Z}
.0 [xz]'
,
yZgzZ 7!*
ZZ])~kZ, Y

`e o Qm ^ `] ] m ^ ! m]
!em ]^ ^e n h] ^ ] ]

Y C
!*
xsZ {],
Z (ZgzZ g nVz ( LZ

} \ WLZtq D V ZzyZZgzZvZ {z:F,

YHx OZ {gZ
/
yZ, @*
N Y Ug ] ~g7

X ~Vz
g eZgzZ
]] e ] ] ^Qm ] ] ] F ^ o] ^Q i
DNP !NO ]E ]V ] h oe mm oF kn
gzZBvZY
KZ1 Vz~,: V- "
$!*
x gzZ :F,
, yZ,gzZz c*
[g LZ
z kZ W c*
# Y wvZY
Z
KZ ?Z
#

yZvZQ ~g F~VyZX g7kZ kZgzZ g


X [Zu **
g nyZ:
L %1^gzZ ~ J(,
~g F
4Z~#
i 5VI$
+yZgzZ
) ZVz
wZ e1:
X Yc*
t Z}
. Tg~#
Vz
0V yZ=Z
^nu ^n ^ ] ] n^] m^] _i

80

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

J
gWZz ~qz KZ y*y J
-V- : ~ c*
b $
KZS
( 6wzZ.!g) ;g

',
Z',Z s WJ g !*
zg V7 wX L L: q;
Y
]gIg&
+
EZ yL w gzZ J Z (,
yZ,0 Z ;
y*y {0z 7ZX '
,
Z'
,
vc*
+ZZtu g-Z`
&
@*
-Z
q
( 15X 23mwzg V )
zwZzi eg
z
gzZ y**
- Zz 2d
$"\g- L L: q~**
^LZ Hyg
gzZ Z wzg ~ i kZ y*y ~ ]q 1!*
# OZ
Z
~g Yg !*
zg wz } (,} (,sVzg e V Z
/
%
z
}iVXTgw'~g !*
zg LZ LZ]Zgy}!*
V
vg .
gzZ } (,} (,V C Za [p` T&gi e
$.
T Dgw { gzZ% ZgZzZa x { V 0 0q 0
t} (,Y Z yZ x tgzZ [fX C 8
- ~ *
*,
W ]gzpz%gzZq
-'
,{ gkZ} gzZ]VDh
+y

( 13X 22myx!g )X Y7~'


,
Z'
,
Zo
VY c*
y*y,
m
Hx ]uZz ]g@*
P !*
zgq
c*
gzZ H !*
m
,Vzm,
'
Zbo}g [ Z
X yZ

79

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Vzm,
Z y bkZX { Zg n { c*
i kZ= [g Z
X eC
Zx Zs

V;Vzm,
Z ~ !*
',
y*zy
*6,o}g7 W~(,
m,
Z ] y
X c*
qz**
w 0*
d
$"kZ^Zc*
0 y*zyQgzZ
m
gzZ wj *y0 n
pg `Z'
wj 46,gzZ ?m,
Z
~}g!*
kZ sq
-Z **
wJq])& Z !*

h N e
$'
,
,
'
gzZ6,
yIZ D 0*
6,
y*yVzm,
ZX Y7a
X gg6,
gt \W=gf]PVg@*
TZe h
( c*
y*zy) : WVz,
m
mZ u *y ( 1)

* wVkZ og ZtugzZqz e
$.y*y `z~ m,
Z

Z eX gW V i F~o ~qzt X :0
z kZ~

HW,
Z Z"6,wWZg\ pgzZ ]g
z y*y L,
L Zz
?[Z, ` KZ kZ Z: Zzg s y*y yZk
,
Z {z Z
# gzZ
0gzZ Z P

Zz : Vg asy*y }
7 B
z *y kZ ~ yZk
,
Z VrZ
( 21mN*
` Z%~ '
,
6wzZ.!g ) Y

82

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

g {gHq
-Z: Vzg gzZ @'
,]g[Zp@*
7,**
V Zy v
[Zy

gzZhZ c*
[ Zy

`, @*
Y3g7p kZgzZ CY wz
X 7c*
nZ Zy{z, .
kZg
) !*
g ZzZa

81

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

**

*6,o c*
x
/Z :~ *
!,
' Vzg z V ( 2)
4!mZ\ W
GG
4hIG
<X X Y W~6Wo Zg7 Q Y*6,
Z D
o4Z~ y*y ]gHx Vz6Vzm,
Z
4!
GG
4hIG
(Z VyZ nwZ V H qz **
!*
,
'

y~Y 1823, ZtT


HHg(Ziy~~Y 1817
Zhzgegy~Y 1875, k3hzq
-Z(,
Z

c*
hZ `X @*
7,**
Z Z#
~ m,
Z ( L) yV , c*
y

F,
ZgX @*
YHwzyV iz80V~y*y

LZV n Z Z LX @*
7,**
Z Z L{gH~ wqC
[Zy

rgwWZzq

-ZyxgggzZg0gzZ giZ0
+Z6gZi

zz , X @*
7, V i KZ,J
-V ]Zg-i VgY Z wy

{znZ gwzJ
-6550gZzZa kZgX

z~ e ;Y X
H`@*
t~Vz0
+Zk#Zz"
$&Zgi

gZzZa KZZ~VxbkZD7,
ZZ L}uzZ

X q 
~y*y~Y 1909,0 c*
+Z[ Kg 0*
&

v}uz{iZ0
+ZTXZZ7,
g!*
Z6,
Vzg~y*yX@*
7,
b75

V y*y)#
~ '
,
, @*
YH6,
gx L L

X0ZmyyL@*
Yc*
L56,
Wy
/ZM
h

Z Z~: iV
!*
}uzgzZm0 @*
7,
**
Z ZykZ
EG
Ps6,x kZp $
Y bFG3$zh
+ F,
kZ @*
7,**

V X/& **
gzZ ~gg
qy*y, YY H{iZ0
+Z kZ
C U*
6,
yby W#
X@*
Y1L75 756,
gZzZa

Y 1817X Y { i Z0
+Z gzZ rzg, @*
D Y G 7g z ZZ

X"n1V~g0VyZ , @*
Sg

sV ZxkZ,t
q
z kZ c*
W#
k
,
i6'
,~

J(,
yMXYq0*
~y
W
A yZne
/Z

y~: ikZ
HHc_Zs~yVzg x /

100gzZ 7050V 0BV+Z7}gqX*


@Yc*

1xg Xa ~'
,c*
hZg ZzZa kZ y, tiwz

2~V6uzk#Z*y,zz
HHZ~y
(94m:?N*
`Z%~'
,
)X Tg

gzZ @*
{Z
+BVzg #
ChZ`
/Z bkZ *
@Y
#

Z @*
yvVzg A ~: i

84

guJ
-Y 1882Y 1793 @*
YHwz[ ZY| (,k#Z0z!*
{ c*
i

83
gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-
A+F
G
.F
H Z ~ Y 1764 ~y
W wX [ Zy wX /

wX X Hwz y Z~y gzZ} Vzg ZiwX

hzz ~ Y 1794 vc*


+Z Z DDZ1Bzg 0*
&
g ZD

[zg ( 8175 520) ~ Y 1764w ~y


W #
KZ [Z ~y
W

( 94mX ?N*
` Z%~ '
,
)X Hwzjh Z

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

vc*
+Z Z Dq 3h Z g wX p G wz
&
z {
/W{ ~ Y 1802~[zg ( 2 6800000) g y ~ Y 1794

t 5 .
,sf
D O ;g @*
Z ~/C
bkZ
: ]g }g7,

~ V1ZD X 
~ ~g Zc~ m,
Z q HZ |zZ

[zgMhz{,

Y 1856

gzZ @*
Y c*
s g ~ kZ1gHBzg hz ( 1 35 13 470

[zg} hz/Z

Y 1870

&~ ~g Zc~ m,
Z[ Z Y7 kZ CY wz gg

[zg} H ZhzRZ

Y 1880

# U W: hz ( 1 6823090) q HZ yZ~ w
Z

[zg0*
hza

Y 1890

} h1gHZD V;z
z kZ c*
WB; Vzm,
Z ` @*
ZZg '

[zghz

Y 1900

kZ wz [zg k3 hzq
-Z kZ m,
Z ~ V

[zghzwZ

Y 1914

X ?N*
` Z% ~ '
,
)
;g| (,D }i'
,
Z'
,
z
,t0z!*
L L: ~q
-Z~ Y 1717 ~gz
B12vc*
+ZZ i],
&
Z e ( 95
WZzwkZ Q1N 'g " kZgzZ u

Hc*
J (,
yggzZwX~nz6
Fq
-Z C
( w ) E-g L L: VrZ ~ Y 1772 ~gB10 Q
Zp~g , g YB! x bkZ z~
YEH
4X
gzZ Y% u~ !*
Wq
-Z~/kZ L L: qE54h yg Zz

D ~nzZz ;g@*

~Vnz~gZt
(94mX?N*
`Z%~'
,
)gpZZg eg{@
: e
$. Dq { ] Zg (ZZ- Vzm,
Z
gzZv{0zZ,t0z!*
gzZc*
~gY~yZg!*
VZ
/
w
kjw z
zgzZ @*
W73gVzm,
Zwp1 D%2~k#Z
: ] g Wg ~g Yg @*
6,
V d
$Zy~
kZ @*
Y 1y [ T~#
VgzZVzy L L

86

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

X}
6,
Zg Zc*
g {z, .
kZkZgzZ C
gzZ D 1h
+y
g K ` **
Z m,
Z Vzg Zi !*
s ~uz

85

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

yY 1768gy~Y 17710z!*
YZz~k
( 95m?N*
` Z%~ '
,
)
| (,
g

~ m,
#
ZX D F,
Z Zg7 6,VZyZ0 D c*
` **
Z Ve

Dk
,
~ (xZgZ ) N sWk; ~ Y1897 y'
,
gez @z

kZ,zX Ogt \WBVP~ !*


,V V;
'

X
{0zm{&gzZq{n c*
g*yLL:pZsfzgq
Y
Y
+Z ~g ZE ,t x Z6'
,gp
/Z C c*
i ~g ZE ( 1)

X 0~V1 g @*
]uZzZzhw { c*
i
Vzm,
ZB ~ !*
,Vzg :~ *
'
!,
' Vzg ( 3)

, e gH bkZ YWo}i~ kZ, e 7

uy*y L Lq
/ \W g @*
,X H !*
, *y
'

ogzZ kZ 3g ~
kZtu0gzZzkZg

~ yZ g Zi !*
*y X `N ~ I W Vzm,
Z

`tx y*yp]!*
tpn $k0*
kZz{
Y
{ c*
igkZ ~g ZE V 7~g ZcL~ y*y 6,]c*
Z yZ,

?H HVzm,
Z n ZzJ (,
~g
WW
Z LZ e
$z Vz],
Z e vc*
+Z ZY 1769 ag 17 L L
&
x {1g~ wX bC
, k
,
N @*
t~T 5x q
-ZVzgZh
+

%Zt0z!*
gzZ gzO 8 ~gz'
g gzZtu, C
Y
E

100~ ]DZ, CY J (,bkZ ~g Z ,h


e t

e ]~g VzgBBgzZ # e J(,


g ZzZa

X CYVJ
-g ZD
6,
]MZg WSgzZ

g VZ ggzZ We
$z y*y x {1g, @*
# e 0zg

i ~g Z
/w z y z,t n c*
g:
L m{ Zuz ( 2)

V Zz
WZ ,
Hc*
Ctiq
-Z Zg7nkZ Yy*y

gzZ CY wz6,
z g: {gHq
-Z zg T Je
$.

Zxpg#gzZYHg66,
x~V{g vp b:

, (Z1 t @*
Y Z e6,g 1 kZ @*
yv0 ~ V[Zy

!*
e w$
+
zg ~ kZ {zgzZ YW~B; vg!*
zg , @*
Y zg
X (188N*
`Z%~'
,
)X W
g @*
Q*y yxgY 1832 Y 1815\W
/Z0*
kZ

X @*
7,
8

~kZgzZ Y7
Z'
,
kZg
n wz
6,% \g- , t :
L ZgzZ ( 3)
]x 6, C1 { Zpn
zz X I~Z

88

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

( 442my~ Zi Wq
-g@*
)X @*
Y {zLLgzZ @*
yv

87

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Zz |t X` * b~g7 6,y*y m,
Z B ~

Y(~uz(q
-Zw gzZ K-eQ Vzm,
Z 7

) { W'
, Vz C *zy yxg Y 1832gzZ Y 1815, 5Y

L6,
VzqyZgzZ c*
Z {c*
i~VjwbgHn

Vz C~ m,
ZgzZ {g6,&
+
7 ( 100000)q
-Z &
+
7 ( 1300000

X 7~'
,
yZJ
-Z0 c*

Y 1850X VJ
-&
+
7 ( 400000 )ge| (, &
+
7 ( 36000)g ZD
Wg

T g (Zq
-ZD :~ *
!,
'(y*y V; Vz,
mZ ( 5)

X CkZ y
KZV
KZ0 $
7S
-
gzZzW

~O 8 a eZ @*
Y 5C
!*
w C A6'
,
, t wq ]gJ
X @*
Wy*ys

{z g~y*y
/Z]VCc*
, Z h{t Vzm,
Z

-~y*yJ
J
-VX W,
Ob~'
,]y*y

z gzZ PV VrZ n kZ, +#


~g

Y 1930X VJ
-VY:g 0*
VzuKZ| (,bkZgzZ W"
$

@zuX 1 ~ ~g u~ Y 1838V ix gzZ c*


1**
\
(! G-. Zw[Z0zwZK)X q~c*
+Z'
&
,
k4Z6,

~g @*
wVuyZ L L ( )~}g !*
yZw3,
gp~

yZVy, M
h uzg]!*
kZ b\W H563wZ L L
X:D

~ V Zyy*y Vc*
A V Zz
W Z C L,
L WgzZ wS
X ~ 7,
~)
Vz0Z q(~ wX : 0z ,
6 Vz
`*
@ ( 4)

P }zn, Q7n+Z ~ g @*
KZ ~ w} :[ Z0

~~g Z {g YZ kZ ~g Z {g YZ KZ 6,
VZzgg Cg o

nkZ >

!*
ZgW& Zx6,
o~!*
Whzbg#Z

uzg6,Vvx Y Z Zz !Vzzy c*
V m<!*
,q Vz`
@*

gz IgzZ yZ|@*
N Y Cc*
{z V0

Hg6y Y Z yZCY Y ~ VZ Zz wztZ

V Z3g~okZJ
-[Z=gfTN Y

Zg yZ ~}g!*
XVg Z6,Vzi , ZB V , @*
Y

gzZN Y|(,
wy,
Z gztW,
ZkgZZBZgzZ**
sVzy

YZ Cg Zx OZ TgzZw2TV: Zzg6,
^, ZgzZX C7hZ

(162m?N*
`Z%~'
,
)Y W
KZ7Z

y Y hg6,Vg k **
gzZC
!*
5 ZgX @*
s

90

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

89

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Y ~ !*
,!*
'
$;f VE*y,g n
pg0*
m,
Zzz

7Z yZa gzZ H !*
,VgzZ Vzm,
'
Z6,Y Z

yZgzZN Y +]nC
yZ Y~ : ~g Z(~yZ

LZ bVE*yVrZ nkZ **
q o { c*
i{ c*
i

, @*
Y 3g 2 ~ {)z V- g V- g Z
/#
}
.+F,
+
$

X gFqdZy*ygzZg~ F,
,
'
~g

v ~ Y 1600 :B VE*y Z +
$ Vz,
mZ ( 6)

(yZgzZI$
~Q} hwqX s

0*
]z W WvCc*
Z6,gzZ G: {)z gzZwjZ}uz

ZpgyZ #

nq]i YZ ]g ~y*y

~ Y 1823O
H {gz gz Z **
gzZ
~ y*y sVzg e
E
H
4E E
"
" 3,
4
h
G
5
E
E
W
7~ g
Z c*
.q
-Z yeg Zz pZ .WgzZ Z 5G

HV ZzvsgA
$X gk
,
iX ~ggzZg}

X sf
D kZ T

$zv~[Z0kZ gyg1 egzi


d
+Zu~KZ ?,
X
H5czg m,
gsf
D

~g X ` $;f Vy , t s Z L L

x Z
Z F,
d yZ s: kZ, +Z ]q :

Zpg 4ggzZ Y 3g: 6,x ~g Z)f L L

V gzZ Y xE-Z x ,t
q 1 U Zg f

~ ]i YZ [NZ Vn LZ ng !*
zg LZ ,Y

**
n gz x ZZ kZ 60
+Z Y lZ
g ZzZa $;f

7,~( g Zz ) kZx Z( v)pgY ,: (Z}Y

( 163m:N*
` Z%~ '
,
) e

( 145i Z 23m&
+Z'
,
g @*
)'h
e:ZzBzg
Vz],
Z ev~Y 1676r
# ~g 0*
} (,
~g Z {znZ
Xp Zsfzgq
Z}
.\W~ VzVE*y VCqZ$
+Vi 5\W L L
x\W
/ZkZ ;gx **
+A<
$
\WgzZ CC" Z
~yZ D Wv0 N Y/Vc*
L
+
0
VWyp\W Y

f kZ
Z c*
DZzY 1811 y ZZzeg kZ
izg D, Hg Z
Z~kZgzZyZ],
Z es W^gVrZ,0 `
gzZ rzgzz : I ~ V gzZzy ;gwZziiz'
,
6,gzZN YG ,lg\gzZ g| (,Z`
~i ~
YH ay

Bzg { c*
i

Zpyg 3 kZgzZ k pgx y*y

92

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

bZz)gzZ 
V
!*
y)!*
zgq

91

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

g6,Vz} (,} (,~ y*y,0 Z ~{u


n kZ

D WhgVc*
~yZgzZ Dx YVW
54Xz:iZ]Z*c*
(70mG
+Z'
&
,
) X DVc*

6,
VgzZ

kZ g @*
y*y g ~zg {y #
~y
WgzZ

l$
+z yZ~ y*y, Z"
$U*
V Zjzgq

m<!*
gzZ *: i T g @*

{z 
~ Y 1849

!*
~ z6,VE*y {z, @*
D Yv& Z`
gzZg $
+

T [ ~ yZy]g @*
X ZC
i [ps V

6, f ~g $
+gzZ 46,X (Z H VrZgzZX Og:

V Zz"7,~ wjZ)g fyZ 


~ y!*
i +VF,

6,V {Z
+!*
X H qz **
]" bC
VE*y VrZ

g Z **
]!*
t r
# yZ
Hc*
1
@ #zg s V ~V

X I**
WVgzZVE*y, c*
eg1

0 Vzm,
ZgzZ @*
VYp#

/Zz"7,,
E
E
43{!zyk\Z Z (,
X @*
6,EG
L L: H AyZ @*
VY
G
{z1x]Z G3!gzZ]u]Cx kZ,$

$"^ I y*y :rz $


d
eg Zz V; Vz,
mZ ( 7)

u0*
xyW
gzZ pxx{ ._]c*
Z@ gzZx Z

-Z IWVzm,
q
Z y*y,zz gzZX: Zz Z~ V Zz

X DqzvZp]Zk
,
KZ
{!
4E3E
V , n kZ6,EG
zyr
# Z \ W
XDx Z Z <
ZgzZZ%

y
KZg ZfC
* X wV Z ZgzZ Z {g e g W V-
~ kZ,J
-Z
# Y7F,
-
J
z kZ o , &bhZ
@ 46,

bVzm,
Z, \W[ Z oqzgzZwp Z6,
X c*
Z96,
;nogzZX c*
1
5!
yYu
#
n ) ~g ~o WzgkZ L L:, H G

z wjZV1 nkZ Z
# ~ 7,^Y
z kZ VE*y

gzZx yZ )~(,
0~~g Zc~g ,6,
%ZkZ

kZX H Za ~ y*y t Z Z I T
@{z Y ~(~
H5G
&EG
& ZMeg f yYup& ]!*
w
D M [ z G34G

vt J
-Z
# V~ VgzZ V
gzZ VZ f Z}
) )q
-ZQ

: H 
~g {]5){h
+`
q
-ZykZT C

wx PZx ~g JZ]zJ
-
zkZ g Z]
.bkZ

X }7

94

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

93

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Vzm,
ZZ
# S(,
zkZ]!*

p |0C
XG0z

zy:%q
-Z T 0yDgs m: {~ y*y L L

zVzm,
ZX ~qz Z~]5IVE*y

{gg Z
'
,: $
: #
~g @*
: yDgt
/Z, |q
-Zt gzZ

?V-g0*
|n T c*
qz **
6,VE*y <
LZ 6,

qz~6'
,Vzm,
Z #x~zy, 9t $

g T > Z'
G
,<
Z z ]kly IZ vt ~} ^g

gzZc*
7tb
6,
V)~X }g
/{
!*
kZp
/Z

~ w VE*y v W]s #
~ m,
Z @*
g Zz

DW7]uZztp~NZw W~l0V**
76,
f:

6,x T c*
~gY y
q
-Z #
~ m,
Z yZgz ZgzZ 1

Vzyc*
zy{Zp :kZtZZI~xZ VDo
IGI
4&
F
GF
38E
G
(408mZg
:iZc*
+Z -F
&
yZ)XD 4]6,
sz^~6LZ

;g 1
M s #
~ m,
ZgzZ Zv W]! ~ w D W
X Z 7,
OV]>W

qz~6'
,#x V zy L Leg f yYu
4X3yZ )
GF
38E
G
( 308mZg
i Z c*
+Z -F
&
V ~ i ZZ~g ZcKZwzZwzZ L
L qg ZXyl
Z
V ~VzzykZgzZ
H*
c J (,Vzzy ~
( 247m Y g Z y*y)X ZZ
# ]zZgzZgb!*
0
Hc*
VZ
zgqX
Hc*
~gz o]Z YgzZ ]Zg Zz: ZgZz
g ` W
kZ ]g~gz ~ m,
Z,
Hx ] uZzPg @*
!*
gzZv W46,


6,

!*
~}iuy*y` WW,
Z
C
\ W|n e
$gzZ V+j Vzm,
Z, @*
g } Z
Xt
bb6,
yIZVzm,
Z:~]5IZVz,
mZ( 8)

96

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

mvZ G*9g ~ !*
Wha)
)**
gzZ] z

z !*
WLZ ~ Y 1797 ._Y1212 mvZ G*g9 ~!*
W ha)
xEgzZi~)Y f~!*
WxZa**
]
. Zz\WX Za ~!*
W
G
yk^
,6,{gzZg~ ZgZiZ
u6,zg dZG
0
~_m,
+Z]|gzZDYDWg!*
ggZ6,
0*
gzZ;{z
kZ{o\WX
/
\W{giW+Zg?~Vz)

vZgtzg/]|U*
VTZz(32)A\W,b
!*
)
M ~ y {
**
]|~ \W @*
Y

(202X130my*y

M F,

z~ !*
Wha)

95

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

lz;{ 
g
~ a { 
!*
gzZ g Z( q
-Z ;{ 
g
x Z *y , yZ w r Zl
z 0 yZ0
+{mgzZ
rgw9y;{ 

g X yc*
zy {z e x Z Z.
t
:x **

c*
gy1Zz{ 
g 0 gy{ 
!*
=Z
7**
#
6,y*y Z w oVzm,
Z L L

~ B w yxgZn % o ZZg x
/Z
( 122mZi%i !*
VY) VZgng ZS
n
gzZ]Zg (Z
b, H {gt6,]!*
kZ Vz LZ { 
!*
nZ
yC
gzZ ` C
~ Zi WY Z~ o}g7 l0 ~ Zi Wy*y

Zz\WkZ q x HZz LZDxE \W

)]|~g Z)ft X Bzgzgzi~q


-kZx ZogzZ ~

{
]|gzZ _g Z{ 
]|g!*
g n ^ w r
#
GE G
DWzG
0$zG
0 xEzz%x ~/wB13\WX c*
~ m,
+Z

- ~
q
!*
W a) b, { Z g @* ~ ~ !*
W a

( 145X 141my*y!*
) HyW
~izggzZ { g egzZ
tgLZs)x Z$g izg: u~azD\W
^ o^] ]L L Df~i Z0
+ZkZ azDLZ6,
gg
$H~
yZ,G xE{z=\vZ )'' ^q ^ ojm

Z9#
~ m,
Z, H Za lzy

zl0 bSZ~x Zy yZgzY 1857


Xy~ !*
Wha) WX

98

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

D% Z e {6,6, g @*
0 , Z ` Wv

97

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

+Z
+ ~ Zi Wk
B gzZ W: t x Z**
g : yZ, @*

( '''GqY f~
G
~ \WVzt p }uz q
-Z ] Zz ] !

@W .x **
g YgzZ g7 Za Y c s

+Z ]g D W DtC
J
- ` WT q w{z ~ [ Z

gzZ c*
x
V 6,Vzg 
Z Vzm,
Z VM ~ Zi W

Z Zi WZx**
~_vZ z { 
]|~y Y fwVT

V g 0#
ZJ
- ` W{ i $T Z hg *q
-Z~sZ I
D CZ :mvZ G*9g ~ !*
Wha)+Zg?y Y f'
, Z

X D W7~w'
,
_gZx ZgzZ

e Vzm,
Z]Z| .x **
6,

zg $~qg KZ
{ ZeKZ~V` W
) ) V26, yZXg W~ e
$gzZ
| ,_ g @*
\WZ
# 1 CW C7k
,
z '!*

{z, Ve *
*7]Z W,
@*
]\ W~X Y ZzgzZ s
H~}g !*
:)
y*qZg+Zx Z.
} { izg8g W- ~y *
0
:V5] ZP
YgzZg hi mY +Z +ZCq LZ kZ g @*
Z'
,L L

z ~gz LZ VM w b |zVo]
EE
}
9
G
mvZ *g hL **
3 7"gzZ z sp" V Hz!
" z hgzZ z ]P`
X ~ +@Wg&
+
gzZ%VZ0 yZg @*
Hy
yc*
yZ~],g @*

1c*
wZ e~] * !*

:s Vzm,
Z

a);{ 
g t] V0 !*
WJ
-Z **
q
L LgzZ H{gt y{h wgzZmvZ G*9g ~ !*
Wh
~ Zi Ws Vzm,
ZX c*
gZ Z (,q
-Z ^kZ)gzZ ~ ^
t, c*
0*
gzZ H{gt y{h w ;{ 
g n O
mvZ G*9g ~ !*
Wha)X Y~~ !*
Wha)]|~g Z)f
yZgz[- ~ KY a x $Z **
g ]g @*
kZ
gzZ ~y
W F,LZ gzZ k
,
W [p s 0z ~ m,
Z
?6,T c*
7 ~ 0 x ZZ Y f'
,
Z :s Vzm,
Z
Z ;~ ~ vZ ;g Z~ gz }NZ {gi W,Zg
6, :kZ ~gZg { 
ug I ~ !*
W Z V{k
,
iz ~Z e - Z$
+
( 215my*y!*
!ZfvZY f g @*
)X G \

100

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~ }g !*
} :pg q
-Z q
-Z x ZZ
gzZ cp
Zg ~
z kZgzZ ZZgzZ 9 :{z,g} h ZJ
-y
W
( 92mY 1970~ Zi Wq
-g7wz
Z L L E )

: ,
656y*Z yZgzZ hfvZx OZ ?
E
/WZg { 
Z ~k
B gz
vc*
+Z Z {z WJ34 {
&

99

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

EE
}
'' m7(
yhI {ZaZ ~ !*
WhL **
**
''~g 2
+x Zz {~ y &
+Z m,
L,KZ gzZ H Z Z9
Y
EE
}
`
c*
lZ 0*
:~g Z z mX g Z
!*
L LhL
E
ha**
L Ly*) XX J34 g7 !fp **
~ ]z
Y 62B 23g +Z x Z}
.{ izg8- ~q Z
i Z ~ !*
W

yZ haz **
X g Za
/
u~ Y fs g ZMZ
W OX ZzgY 1857)uX g ZuF,
i 5~ ugzZZ
#

:y$wgx

s g X 3 ^Vy{hwVX A { 
g

_6, V ~ !*
Wha**
L L

-Z$
+Z ; ~ {gi W+ Zg ?6,kZ gzZ c*
**
:

-Z {!*
q
n{ W6,~ Zi Wk
B V **
X 3g
EE
hL }**
:t, w Z a \ Y f6,T Z A
$% :

X Z\{)z~ !*
W Zy{k
,
iz~
/Z e
\ W kZ Z7{ Z~g u~ 0\ Wt Q L L
Ug \ W }uz {z c*
: VM 7ha{zt L L
{zX
HHZ
+x`
06,X ;g[Z 9kZ q :Z `Qw1

( 9 10m

a \ 6,XG m,
?x **
Y f VrZ gzZ Z g }gt
( 206m$
wgxi Z @ WY 1857L L ) X
:5kZ ~ Zi WqZ {+
h
`gy *
0
E
E
s Vzm,
Z ~KY- i y q
-Z hL } **
L L

/ x Zz { Q L L z Zg ~` WgzZ : ~
g
E
5B+E
X y &
+Z 
wJ %
O{ E
0 m,
?Zwgc*
gg

{gi W+Z?6, :kZX


) !*
aV c*
| 7,
:

:~ h :) ~[ ~uz KZ r
# ?

gzZ Zgzi *q
-Z 4z]
., **

kZ\Y f0*
}uzgzZ

}:JTgzZ c*
3gxZZ6,
zZ LZ**
L L

: kZ . _ vZ Y f g @*
^g Vzm,
Z ((

}gt}gzZ ZZX V@*


}~[ZykZ

VrZ~Vz ~g u { 3g ZD
( 90)} ~ s

102

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

1 01

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x yg !*
gzZe0 `gY 6,
Vz
ZL L

~t
Z[Z1 Z^g7g s {ZkZ G \ Yf

~LZY 1859 ag B4
Z,kZ yn,
ze !*
W

<
]!*
**
YgZ}
.= X1 ^ [% ]g

D 3 ~]gzxF6,
kZ, "
$U*
~
Zwq

(53m!vZxOZ?iZ)Y f!*
gzZvc*
+ZZ)Yw17~A
&

]c*
W yW
kZ X b (F, O T c*
: (Z s
# Z
gzZ D
+
'Nz
xi 5Vzm,
Z, HgZZgzZK p yZgzZ 7,

T g
q
-Z q
-Z a x ZZgT6,
zZ LZ **
L L

?, J
-Vg Zu!*
kZ OZwyZq
- 4,
</G]Z

s { ZkZL Lc*

X }z & ykZ X :J

y0 q
- L)
L x ) X x ~ Z}
.? D 7O7Z

H[%N ]g~~

Z[Z Z9!*
^g7ggzZ

( 117 118m ~g7!x **


i Zxg Wx **
!Zf) ( Y 1960

Zg z ~
z kZ ` WgzZ Z ZX 9 :{z 1 ^gzZ

zz :s Vzm,
Z

HyZ
s Vzm,
Z
/Z~yg @*
`N ~ yZ y \W yZ X y {z
! q
-Z X D p , B
WX
c*
zg ZMZ0 c*

4z]
.{zX ZgzZ gzZ4z]
.X pT
[ZX~ **
Z}
. 7nc*
x Z c*
}Z
+ CZ f
"gzZ Z', `  wZgzZ ZZ Zx X H Z}
., W
X ~0
+
zZ}
.X **
XxgzZVzgz$ **
gz
: H H*yZ
W[Z
[gz$yZgzZ 7D~3ZgvZ ?,
H H ?gzZ L L ( 1)

:g
H *
!i Z@[

gzZ cg
ZJ g H\ W, zg)g !*
g !*
Q X
t, c*
Dm,
/

|
# N^g z6,
z
)g !*
)
E
E
Z" ] 0*
gzZ]gEj8N{ ZX}uz {z 7hL }**
{z
:{z H `
/
Z}
. Yy!*
w4Z 

)1[W,
O
X
Zg z~
zkZ ` WgzZX ZZ 9
1:g /
, ik\Zp Z r%+: ;g$i Z!*
*
E
G
I$
( 462mZ@i Z ] L )
X @*
"
$U*
H )l6,)Z
# , t ~y
W[ZgzZ
E
E
s yZ 6,

C :hL })
X Mg g 2
+
zq
-Z
X Zw 0*
7ZgzZ Z

1 04

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

C c*
i6,yZgzZ hyZ ^
,Y**
6,VzyVX( 2)
X e**
nyZA
$}
x CZ 7ZgzZ} ^
,Y**
6,o c*
x }uz x Z
# ( 3)
X e**
s yZ
0
+
i ._Z
+DI V Y| (, Z 0z Z
# ( 4)
X e*
* Y~ ~ Zi WIyZgzZ Yg Z **
**
gZ
/

103

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

wkZggz6,
}gZ, 0{VgzZVggzZVz%
(76X74Y Z)
vV
[Y,Z
# ,:k
B ~5ZgvZ,
HHgzZ(2)
(246{Z)VzzZKZgzZzLZ
yY%OyYT, c*
6,
LZuZ:
L kZ ( 3)
c*
yYq
-Z TgzZ HOV
kZ c*
G Y~}i c*
$
+

m,
Z Z
# ] uZz yZ y g @*
gzZ x Z !*
zgq

V zg wg}g k0*
yZ " gzZ c*
V
c*
kZ

@*
Yn
*
* 7]qyZ V c*
izgzZ *6,y*zy

vZ0 {z Zz C c*
i~}inZ~yZ"Q WB

Z 7q
-Z {z
Hc*
s #
~ m,
Z :7T

, !$
+yZ DQ D Y~ogzZ D wgkZgzZ

-{z c*
q
~ !*
W ha) :0 ~ Y 1857 q
-16,V Z

s~uzgzZB; sq
-ZyZ c*
Y~ Mc*
N YG O

X
rgg Z~
/
%~y~ Zi W

]y
WgzZ Zg yZ ~ *t X N Y gz }i c*
L V 0*

( 33X 31{Z
+ {g)[ZZ(,
nyZ~
gzZ Z6,yZ,6, kZX D 
X7Z ]i YZ ( 4)
s h**
VzyLZ0 {zX g gz6, yZvZG
( 39Z )XvZ[g Zg VrZ,6,
]!*
Z
:
3x Zt]c*
WW
!*
zgq
n yZ Y C c*
iz6,agzZ]gz%gz$Z
# ( 1)
X ^
,Y( ) k
B

106

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

KZ ~ g ~ m,
Z kZ kZ X c*
WW~ V\W kZ
~ !*
W ha)O ZX lg\g7n ;g ) +
$Y
i X y &
+Z pp: Zz6, ;g)/Z**
} Z
~(,
BT~ 7,6,{ i q
-ZxPX 4Z~F,
Z
#B 12. Y 86 ~ZB 2, Zx6,c*
g X v~ Z
g Y u {47Z [ ZX
H wZ ~ !*
Wha)| 1278
)~ zZ7 B y &
+Z {k
,
)gzZ q
b
-~} i t X
TX
HHu {4V;z q
-Z ( #~ x s
Y xz Y f6,V {k
,
{z X d
b
$
{k
,
Ross {g ) ~gq
b
-Z
#
~ m,
ZX D Y} h h N 6,yZgzZX @*
Y Zg @*
Z i
x ZZg ~ Zi WgzZ% e] V2!*
X : ;{ 
g
6,X c*
~gzZ Hg
/
k0*
GV-{ 
!*
Vzm,
Z~
{
!*
VrZ Z e h ,ux +
M
KZ Vzm,
Z ~ p 0*

VyZ{ 
!*
~ **
gzZX c*
O ~g" ~(,
V
Y 1657m20kZgzZ c*
7 =~ q
-ZVzu
o{ 
!*
gzZ c*
Z0 2-g @*
Z_6, hV VzgZ- w
X
HwZ yZ~Y 18646,
VX c*
ygC
!*
E
H&
{ L ,
L ~k
,
KZ x **
g yYu E4h GZ eg

105

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

b&{ iVzm,
ZgzZ W,
Z ~ :
bhZ ]!*
t Vzm,
Z W,
Z~ Zi Wq
-Y 1857
Vzm,
Z Z Y
ZZg
HH: ZQv WkZ
/Z,
{ i $bVzm,
ZX c*
qz **
:
KV Zzh
ez~q
-Y 1857
o : ~ !*
W ha)X Z 7,V ZgzZ F,
{ c*
i
n ~ Zi Wo {z, c*
bkZ m Z r
# /_
.~ V
V Vzm,
Z6, TXg77~q
-~g7 gzZW~yZy
0 J e bi+
M
KZgzZ 
bzg, ZgzZ 3g
zu~ :
KCZ
SSgzZg1Z~ ypC
T
H0 [ !*
+F,
{ (gzZ u oq
-Z g @*
~ !*
W ha) #
~ m,
Z6,
~g Y :X ~ c*


)l li O]z 6,) ~ ~gzZ Hg
/Y 1859 ~gB 30
t^g~ m,
ZX Zw 0*
)
ZY 1859ag B4gzZ
Hc*
`
H
45
1G
G
7 yg ~ y: { gzZX ~ sAy #
` W
y &
+Z {k
,
x ZY fvz)kZX p)558Y 1820m
b
h@WkZ1h
e :Zz :gzZ
HHu" 6,yZ VZgz Zw~
-Z,0 .
q
$4y &
+Z {k
,
NDz t Z )X c*
b
g Z s

wzggzZg6,\WX <Zz xE 0 X m,
Z p

108

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

ZYV Wg e~yZ D7{ Zz6,


m{ {z]nkZ
X
Hc*
Z h Z|0
+!*
V7

107

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

g ^J
-V lZy

wzgu{zJ e 0z0 ` ~g
$ m
4GG
-Z \N*
q
egzi
+Z~ Y 1925 X c*
] { 
g **
SE
5G

TX} 7,
-a i ZzW, }} (,
7
\ q
-Zizgq
-ZO
&**
6,c*
g X ~ m u**
D z1 y LE

-Z B
q

The Other Side of MedalL L x **T 


[

t Z~ \q
-Z X {g 0Z [ e
$.q
-Zt, c*
C fZq
-Z

c*
W6,x ~Y 1947 ~gz
ci
+Z Zuz gO Zzg Z H~Y 1930

{ m,
g { m,
g
xF$
+Y`T ZZ{ c*
izg !*

gzZb~ m,
Z] Zt g YG {] Z[ {g

kZgzZX}
/
}
gzZ:
yp6,V
gzZ Zh Z~ Wc

X,Y Dy\Wy*Z b Zz ~Y 1857[zZ


"
1E

j
G
E
kegze Z x qZ LZ ( N i c h o l s o n )

(Miss Coop

X W^a kZ, Z
/ gzi kZ 6,zg { Zg q
-Zu

Land a lady's ascape from Gewaliar. p.

( cg Zuz k
,
X 85m ) 233)

LZ c*
+Z s WZN*
&
i
+Z (Delean) A ~ e`
q
-Z C],
W

[ u]%Zcg7g+Zx F,
zg Z [ kZ ( cg Zuz k
,
)

V VgzZ Vgm,
Z ~ L L: q~ (Edwards)
{0
+
i c*
{0
+
iyZ zTce **
k0*
y (Zq
-Zs
X g@*
Z^v+yZ}e
$f ZVpsx
/c*
g @*
Zw3yZ

yZ Mc*
#~w3gV {0
+
i L L: q~g Wq
-Z

K: Z-= w uh ZwM V>,Z

}uzq
-Z {z, *
*g6VE*y c*
**
~v W{0
+
i c*
N! l
g6,
I
G
7]i YZ Ld
$" * ]w: )3!gzZ {z(+ZX ,L$
+
B

ht=VV Y`~x ,*~l, Zp ~X


Kaye, X VjwkZw x Z ]gz
L i8~,q
E

$ gzZ CY#
4GG
x **
|]w+Z SE
5G
Z0
+
zx3
/~g X

X } 7,
*
*Z Zyq
-Z 6,
gi{g XX E
0$
+
-Z6,
q

:gzZ7h N Zw gzZ Ku**


g nkZ
(Russel,

X M
h ]P`
N Zw +Z ~ \g-

(cgZuzk
,
X 16m) Book VI. ch.1
e
$f Z u **
D z Zz Y ~ VE*y { ~g 0*

-Z
q
X C7bkZk
,
~iz0
+Z
,6,
xtgzZX
Hc*
d6,
\
MV- {6,
x !ZZ L L

110

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

{g !*
zZzgOkZOX
Hc*
9z Zhax Zg Wn kZ

109

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

( cg Zuz k
,
X 96m ) ( Diary, II, p. 43 May 1858)

~ q :Z fZq
-Z VJ
- (237)?z ZZ
# gzZ
HH qz
%N!*
6,gg ]P,V Dg Z WC
!*
`E
!*
,

g
/!*
Z
# L L: ~i Z0
+Z: e
$.~~g 0*
-Z
q

%N6,kZ X b
e
$.q
-Z } i Zzg `E

kZZ uQ Bs ] ZmI LZx nkZ

w s ; T X c*
W~ u**
g

ux kZCQe
$.V W~yZX
HHg66,
x H

X { i @*
c*
Black Hole

{z,VYX"pN Y$ Mh

+
,wkZc*
x $Z

Holwell's

gzZ"
$^
/sp0 IC
!*
/{%V
KZ:

( cg Zuz k
,
X 91 90m) Xuh
/
g
/
gVc*
l,
Zzz
x
G
H-#G
/ wg6,Z VE*y n ~ {
yY V2!*
0*
n OVzm,
Z z L L: q (Greathed)
( cg Zuz k
,
X79m ) X n: lZ
L0!$
+u +p (Zq
-Z
8
, @*
e B 5 (Renaud) e bg 0fZ q
-Z

vt,t0z!*
1X ,s l
Y
/{z,
Hc*
Z

(A lady's Escape From

X b \
d6,M

( cg Zuz k
,
X 47m ) Gawaliar,

p. 243)

(Renaud) e bgg ~gz (Neill) Bw


c*
nnx 6, ]w: yZ] L L:~ e
$Z@t
4)9E
3E
g|Z 3, Zx V H
g!*
X bO~ !*
Z W%x V
H

g0
+ZyzXC
!*
y 0
Hc*
d6,MB]kZVE*y
\

X : ]ojyEZ0weLZ0 N Yb \
d6,
M
NkZY Y c*
$G
L! ~ {~ !*
Wx g7 N

V W (12) {g !*
gzZ ~M6,
}g )uvV W (42) :

g|Z Vux g7 m<!*


Vux V2!*
X 1~O 8~]z

~g
/
t yZ C ag ` Z
# ,BZwM6,x`
kZs

X N Y b \
d6,]g q~(, V;z ^u yZgzZ X Y ~ } M

g Z0z[
V;zG Z 7,
` VV ?VYs~uz}nyZ

( cgZuz k
,
X 57m ) (Kaye, Book v chapter.ii)

Russel, Dairy.p.221,222 X ] x

( cg Zuz k
,
X 89m )

O
Hc*
Z h Z VC bkZ V2!*
| l,
Z
# LL
3 Jh1
~ V Zz uh0 Z 7,
/
3q
-Z~ V Zz

112

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

X"pXYc*
spZwM3g6,
V!*
**
y,
Z
VpZnkZ~X]uZz,Zg" ~exkZ
X
HHO$g"V
KZ{k
H"gzZ
HHm,
/

kZ V2I V1I: Zg g n Vl
M
y MByZ~
qkZX H{gz~] n

111

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

E
r
zM W L z>s~uzgzZ
Hc*
yZ f y Y sq
-Z

H
/
u~g7 6,XG k0*
2Z u +pe
$.~y0gzZ #2Z
$g " VE*zy Z 3p yZfZ wgzZ VgzZ
H

Z .x **
~ ]q c*
qz **
g @*
Z ^v]
X g: Zzg]gz%~XX I~Vl
M

-Z ~ yZO X /Zz ~g7 i : gzZ :


q

pg0*
`WOgzZy/yv W~m,
gVp!,!*

M , @*
g Zt bkZ Vxg Z0
+
KZ WpL L

V2!*
, tX pZc*
x{z y g~hkg

XDwEZ;gzZ|
# gx W6,
gx
z

Hc*

d6,
\
V"MJ
-Vh1gzZVVz%Vg~~!*
Wx{z

wZ e `Og 6,
zZgzZ D Yn |
# g 6,; xF
Z ~
q 0yYgzZ LG,bkZ xF,J
-V @*
Y c*
7
- ;;
ye,

X @*
Y {g 0 ^N y (8) J W ~ m,
Z ]zZ
( cg Zuz k
,
X 105104m ) Book v, Chepter.ii

~v W~VkLZyZ~]
HH rZ6,
s:X
X1gq
-Zg**
zf
gzZX
Hc*
{
KZ p HgZ t VZw u+p nkZ s: Vzm,
Z
~f ykZ , Df ]uZzu**
gyZ~VZc*

0 }F, Zx pOX s 0*
g Z3gyxQx

#6,Vi V
KZ x { ( yZ, J
-V X c*
g 7{0
+
i~!*
W bzg

X
Hc*
} Zw]gzZ ~ x`

s
K7

X g D iz0
+Z u k\ 
WVpKZ Vzg 1r

: ZizgmZb gzZ 0*
V a q
-Z06,x q
-Z

( cg Zuzk
,
X120130m) Chepter.ii Kaye, Book v,
G
E
E
L 4$V,,
E
Z ~ZwM6,
kZVyZ0P6,
q
-Z LL

D Zh Z6,f
$ryZfZ m,
Z d
$
T CY ~ M
Holmes.p.386

X 3 "~ Vzg LG,


V
(cg Zuz k
,
X 801m )

]ZwX~Z~o~VzgZi!*
VZVc*
}V2!*
6,
gT
%NfZq
ZpgYk0*

fZ8
-&
+V\WF
-Z
Zq
-ZZz

114

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

113

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

]ZgyZ, Zk
,
+gn kZX q u**
5
gt, Zx6,c*
g

G
L!$g" C |zZ c*
3{z,kZs *zy, ZC
LL

X,~gyZ{zIW~1V3m,
Z, Vz0
+
z{
GLbnZ
V,ZT
H
oiDk**
LZ{0

@*
Y3g Zzg1 n:gzZ @*
YHwZ :,J
-VX
HH $
h gzZX CY ? nxkZ g { (

~ V Vz0
+
z{ yZ O X p p

tz: Zt
/ZX @*
Y HwEZ c 
|
# ggzZ`Ogq
-Z n

X @*
Ye z {zgzZ CY Co r y
KZ { k
H" q
-Z

(cgZuzk
,
X 114m) Martin

( cg Zuz k
,
X 111X m ) Majerdia P.195, 196

Times,Latter,Dated 19.11.57,Mantgumary

~Kua0
+e kZ,Z
# x OgzZ^]g @*
{ 
g **

g0
+Z~gZ-gX0v,Zx6,
4Z~`~g LL

sZg ZV~
` W{g u **
g (ZX c*
~
/]g

XZV
KZ$
+
,ZXb zVWDQ

( cg Zuz k
,
X Z 44m ) Times, 16.11.57 X 7L

mZ k3 c*
:e ~ yq
-Z, M
h {iZ0
+Z !lZz kZ \W

!*
lZ 0*
{ c*
i {k
Hg ZD
~ Z`
V2!*

x,}ggzZ~d
$:!*
p
/Z0,
/{Csp}g

gzZ V !*
,V{ { k
'
H" VgzZ ]gz% ;g ZD
X ~ 7,
Z'
,

k- J{z,V Le **
C
t p~ 0 X 6,

yZ hg {z [ Z z w AgzZ X ~ 7,$Y u { V Zk
,
z
Z x VzyV3,VYX} 7,B; yZ n
hY 7 VZ {z X c*
M
[ Zy

hY h y !*
gzZ 1~
( cg Zuz k
,
X 116m ) Holmes, p.386X

(cgu
Z zk
,
X112m) Xc*
eVKZyZ(Z,VY
: qR,
g7gq
-Z c*
+Zs WZN*
&
u **
gq
-Z,VY c*
hg ~Vzg Zi !*
x , ~ L L
X D Y} 9zgy$
+Tc*
W~ Zz

W~ ~^VjwVgpgzZ",ZiF

yZ ~ Y3(20)fZq
-ZZ
#

%{g/BgzZX$
^VZV~ge"Z~X

Z7,
~gZi!*
a
e~VVg(14) {a~5 ZggzZ 1{Z_

reathed, p.285.

XD7,
/

33,^0DW

@
vq
-ZOXb Z]
.p Vz0
+
z{yZ VzPuXX c*
0*

116

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x OVz!*
 m,
ZYg Z
V2!*
L L
\
d6,M~Vzg ZD
VpZ~ m,
Z"gzZ H
( cgZuz k
,
124 m ) 7mgz]zyZ q
g~xz [!*
cg Zuz k
,
L L[kZ KZ \N*
egzi
+Z
qyZ] Z W,
Z

115

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

( cgZuz k
,
X 116m ) Letter Datted 18.09.57
*y {z Z
# 4% x Z gzZ V yp m,
Z q
-Z
x V YZ c*
g @*
*ypX
7Zz O]gm,
Z V;
VVgx ,gzZx9g " yZ {zZ
# H]!*
.VE*y
_
x Z { C"m,
Z0V F
g c*
_7,]qO$g"Vz%gzZ

[ 6,
~p
/Z,VLeb C~6,
VL L

gD \e
$.

c*
hgQ]uZz{fggzZh
+{c*
iyZ~p K]uZz

D Y 0*
r Zl
w> Z
Zx LZ bT G

X CyZVZ c*
i~gwqy!*
i]Zm,
z*x 0g

V D W,
OgzG
g ] uZz,Z r VE*y bZ

x **
q
-Z ~XX N 
z6,]qg~Y 1923

( cgZuz k
,
199 m ) Book V Chapter II Kaye

x **
~uzgzZ Letter of Lord Roberts F'
,
Zg eg L L

HxO~g"T
z ( Neill )Bwm<!*
LL

~zyZ Miss Sammerville's Wheel Treck

,V}Y6,
gCZf~,iZ{z Y7g~t
gkZ
H

~ [ ~uz p C
w Vc*
!*
V c*
i ~g

byZBwZ
# OX
Hc*
d6,
\
MV
KZZ" ~ !*
W[Z

1~ m,
gVp Z"0 G
o{zyYR
( cgZuz k
,
124 m )

"e
$.~5ZgkZ H:Zzggzq
-Z LZkZ [rg
X:g]yZC
qZg@*
Z^v]Vj: !*

gz0c*
hg!*
V**
gyZ(Neil)Bw~q

{k
H" kZZ
# @*
~g7Bw~y
W]g zO

p:ig (Hadson)A2{c*
ig/Pq3p

*y ~yZ,
HHuh yY} ;h
+V
KZ

0]Zm,
z* Vz@
vk0*
}p
/ZXZC7~Zzgg

Cambell,1.P.280

Hc*
{~
z,Z ] g",
HHyt~X

h77Zz q
M
-Z e
$'
,
,gzZ >
'
( cg Zuz k
,
121 m )

118

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

117

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

0
+e { i Zzg ~gw X u **
g Z(,
% {z a

zzkZ ge
$.~pX0g0
+ZVzyh1gzZa 'g

V7eVzhLZ}g X @*
xV
wX}g* ua

( cg Zuz k
,
129 m) 3g{e[kZKZ]uZzu+pyZ

: ~g t{0
+
i q
-Z X CZ: i ZzZ Z i ZzZ

G ]uZz ~,V Le b Zz t ~6,V

]0 ~g
q {z6,C
X ~ 7,~)sC
X ~g
/

f
~VW'
,
+'
h
X 7Z y!*
i c*
*yq
-Z~yZ

X ~iZ%ZztC
X ~~g
g'!*
k

,
i { Zg Z ",c*
X g Y \ e g
#

kZ c*
]Zg Z+&
+ZCZ{ ` We
$'
,
,
'
z
D L L{Lq
-Z g **
z
c*
V,Z
zkZ0 nkZ H]Zg Zo LZ6,
zg

oXX} 7,
: ~s
# Z,Z ]!*
u **
gyZ +
M
KZ, @*
X


on0: igzZ [1**
[Z bs sZ}g{z

A^', }X Z
Z g } (,{z Ng e z @Z ~g

Z'

,
{]uZz{fggzZ t$
+pYw]Zk
,
yZ,

D Z hg Z
rKZ 6,d
$
}g | } ;g h

0*
,
k
i>W c*
yZJ
-
zkZ r x ~g7q
-Z,n kZ M
h YG 7

X Y: h Z, [ ZkZp@*
Y`gz Zg fVz6,
`Z6,
zZB; XDx{0
+
i}%~VpqZ
X;g{g 
Z

( cg Zuz k
,
130 m )

: N 
5 3*Z 0
+
g ~ m,
Z Zz } 9zg

: ~
Z c*
KZ( Major Thomson)\

, @*
xX YZ 7~ y, 7
- zg kZ Zg7 t Zg

v,Z~ yZ,VqX ~ Z~ ox OV L L

g \gzZgu$
+{z n kZ ~g sp6,Vzh b~g
&**
X m,
_ 1$
+gzZ ~gF ~(,0 7
-J
-uy LE
c~g7 X

Z}g 1Zp#
~g {z, D0X

2 z ]uZz ! ~ Zi Z k
B Y 1857X 203 202mzX g @*
)
"
5F
5E
4G
.nIG
( Y 2 005X 5k ;~ eEE
$g ZX Vx
d
:, @*
y(Henery cotton)H~{fZY m,
Zq
-Z

*y ` KZ n ~g7 Zp ypyZ0
X `g Z6,
g 6Z Zh ZVzg ! g7gzZVCg Z
D zq

-Z (Lard Roberts)F'
,
Zg egg&
+m,
Zq
-Z
~ zg ZZ L L: @*
y Du +pgzZ u **

120

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

119

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Z ~
q 0VYgzZ \G,bkZ xF,J
-V @*
Y c*
t ;

lp h
+
+
$Y Vzezg7
-R,
h
/J
-gz? {iZzg L L

tZg)**
izg ) @*
Y {g0^N 8 c*
5swy!*
i ~ m,
Z ]zZ

z c*
-Z n_ZgzZgY 1857[zZ6,T|
q
# g

( 9mY 2006~ Zi Wk
B Zg

X ~MfgZD
K!*
._{iZ0
+Zq
-ZXc*
d:6,
\
M+

4E
C&D{E
5G
K
gtL L q~ HE
+g{z

: q cg )q
-Z~[ KZ x **
+@Wy

yZ g
/
( X0~
GgzZ!Z ZI~{tZz

0X I~Vl
MV 0*
~Y 1857._{ i Z0
+Zq
-Z

kZs?~ ZwVY~KyZ
HHx OZ M~K 
n

n |
# ggzZ
Hc*
6,; kZ
HB; Vzm,
Z yid

wt n(]!*
.V gzZ yt,6,Y
_

w~ } / X
H*
c J(,W; wZ e ~ y
/ kZ Z X

X ;g Yc*
yp Vk
H" ~TX g Zig ,cgzZ

-Z c*
q
HK

X ZC
!*
y!*
iX ,7,
Z@ZX I
.

-Z c*
q
wC
!*
~ !*
W Vzm,
Z6,
L L

n x Z l0 V3 m,
Z ~ ~ m,
3,
p~

B]i YZ Z #
k
z KZ Vy {
6, Z Z
z KZ~Y 1858 s6,
Z{ ]Z V

6,M{z, H{ W6,]!*
C
kZ}]gVz Zz M
&
a **
{z&G
u **
g LG,
l, @*
,g \
dJ
-k
,
{ c*
ix

'g qJ
-
/
g eg Z- wI ZZ
+YVe

r
# [ ZeX y p n Sg Z pKZ

)**
izg L L X xz V WLZ Vz%zz g U `
Y
58EZg tZg
-Z
q
/
%~ Zi W4z]
.y*Y 2006~Z {gGX 19 m~ Zi WL E

X Q~yY

X Dk
,
!*
y*Z&gzkZcg*y

kZVMIV1I: Zg gnM
: gzZ : y MyZ~
qkZ H{gz ] n

0, t
q Vzm,
ZgzZ 
9Vl
M ~ Va L L

KZ Wpq
-Z ~ yZO /Zz ~g7 j M

yzq
-Zx Ot \
d6,M}g Z
!*
Z @*
Y7,yZ0

; gzZ |
# g x W6,gx
z M , @*
g Zt ! x

0
Hc*
d6,
\
M~sV Z0 gZD
X ;g ~g YV 7

wZ eEg6,
zZgzZ D Yn|
# g 6,; xFDwEZ

122

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

121

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

kWq
-Z6,(|zZg7!I!*
Wz${g )(/Z) **
~!*
W

} h b{z6,V Zz m,
Z]7g yZ L VC

wk3 }g7 bkZgzZ ZpB6,Gp~qB

( 104X m g @*
p[ zZ ) X ~g @*
*IkZ0

)l12m)YZ4ZvZ{ZX~g7z{~m,
Z

( 1946|
/Z,zZz@IZiZ G*C Z>h
+
i

~ !*
',
V{gzZVgV {

Z y*q
-Z ~ g Y 2009 ~gBZ )x 6,q!*
zgq
X gV&Zg* r
# ~g [-ZWz6,
6,
yZ
~ }iukZ
/
% * d
$"!]h V
gzZ y.z xE Ny {gzZ kg Z G Za Y f} (,} (,
V
KZVzg ZD
Vzm,
Z~ Zi Wk
B Y 1857 ;g
/
%[ Zzg @*
z yZk
,
zggzZ kg X c*
J eVg qVzg ZD
gzZ HO$g"
gzZ 4:
KVCd
$ Zz ZgzZ Y fVz !*
,
'
k',Vz%vs !*
,{ }g : i Z f *Z
'
X N !*
, *Y fgzZ}f
'
T : {{zt X Z(,
~ !*
,{
'

{ gzZ F,
V- ~T],
{fV-~
: { Z(,q
-Z,tn%~
/~g gzZ)#V~T

}g )c*
g Vzm,
Z| m
6,^1*Zq
-Z d
$
!*
W!Z L L
B ~ Zi W~(,J
-gz !*
W!ZO XZ e { nV g "
X
H|g DVgzZVg*y
V Z
# ~ v W~V }(,q
-Z L L: qh
+'
w m,
Z
X c*
Zh ZVC7Znvv W}!*

x Z Vzm,
Z L L: D|s Z Z yYu
HHx ObkZ Vk

H" V: :Vg0
+Z~ l0
VE*yX g Z)f]z kZ0
HH $MyZ bT
@*
WZ (,
Vzm,
ZIx Z~Z h Z
VZgzZg@*
t \W]uZzP!*
zgq
~ZiW+@WVzm,
Z, x,_y g@*
\W
/Z X3g
~!*
W/Z**
bVzm,
Z6,V m{ HH6,
WX g6,xZz LZ ~!*
Wha)]|}Z
Zz@IZ **
X g z yZ0 mZ r
# yZ
G~N Yy*zym,
ZZ
# ,
z~y
W**
L LX
~gr
# dZ**
xH=gY 1947~ZB15OX Y~6,

124

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

123

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

zgZ]gzZPO Lg@*
Z
Pz~0 +ZYM[Z

,
k
+
2
VxbkZD Zjm,
+Z{ 
]|]zZ

[zggZD
V;gnge{{z~{kZ

($wgx%
o) ;g7tgzq
-Z
HHNq

X ;g: y
Kzx **
, S(Z: {tD{ .ZV1@

gzZ0
+
i
y{g +Z x 0 Zi%@} Zi Kg q
-Z
]m{} (,
Zi% X Z V{1!zZg 3Zzf [Z
H !*

',b~'
,
{z : { YZ Z (,
yZVzm,
yZ
g ~y r
# Zi%@**
gzZr
# +ZY M L L:
"Zi%

?X H {0
+
i VrZ YZgZEg Z
/ **
+Zg ?
p
Z
/ZzZZ
+Y SW ~(,`)l g
/r
#
J
&
Zpg~ekZgm{ gegZ: :Zz: {
E
9
m, 0L i J\W~g ~ Y 1273L L: iZ gZu
gu Za~#
i5wM0 u5ZZZ
+Yx gzZ
HB;gizg
4]IZ } : ~
g 0*
;gy
Wg { P ~ { E
5G

Qzh 6,VzyVz yZD 1 ]ZzPz


4$
( $wgxE
0G
o) ;g[Z: g[ :

~^0 [zg&q T{LZWZzgzZ p=

{{v~ {{ yZ z
Ha
Z { ~!*
WVvZ

gzZ r[
zkZ k0*
gyYegg
Hx8

]r~!*
,
'
# {)zx j{zkZ: { b
Z

x8!ZZ
+Ya p Hc_ ` {gy!*
$~bz@**

3BZZu) :[x~LZnkZgE
3!**
G
( 483:mG
0EE
:Zz

Z ~ q
-ZY 1863cJ
Zi%X
H!*
,: {gzZ
'

~!*
WV iZq
-Z
Ha
Z { ~!*
WVvZ L L: ~z

5 g {yZ zg;0
+
i
jZ [Zy{+ZY M[Z

$ZzgV;z k
,
+5
$j~kZx vV yZ

n
pgkV
"g~ ggzZ.
"~zgZ
zd
$ZgzgZ C

x jk0*
yZ V V, }Y Z}
.f

V1z Z(, W{z :{ YZq


-Z k0*
yZ }(,
g@*

( 138mxz
"o) Vg7 7v{z[Z]r

{gzZ ],
{fd:gzm y
KV{yZtn
Xy
KyZ `W,!*
,
'
,Z

[Z~JWVrZ Zg@*
?y*y Ds6,
bZ

kZ~,^WkZ B {c*
i
Z {+ZY M
oq
-Z ZL L ~q
-Zr
# Zi%+ZYM[Z HsZZ

1 26

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

{
e{={{kZ !*
,
'
{{V**
YyYZi%]|{zkZ

zkZr
# DZ{
LgyZgzZ r
# {
r
# GZ
X~Y fgzZY x{gzW'
,
u
Vz yZ ]i s Vzt
H Vzm,
Z6, Z
#
X YVg )
,
/Z 3gt \WV**

x ZY fgP~sfzgq
~ ~ Zi Wq
- x ZY fgZD
75, x , _ g @*
\W
y*yqD kg Z VM vzt X c*

l] x Y
` W,k\Z1Z ey!*
noV Y KZ{ o Zi Wq

-Z
Z` W, H| (,
kZgzZ ;g Y { e Z ~
/ckg ZZ
7f yZ c*
>s:g ZV z x ZY fL x ZY f
{z, lg Z* +gHz IZ zeZ z x ZY f]Z|m{X D
, @*
N Z<Zz ]uZz~ Zi WVm{zx ZgzZ,_ g @*
gzZ! f:gz Za ~wyZ
)**
g VzLo
# 7gz y {zgzZ Y0x6,g6f Zz Wze~
Z
N Yb >6,Y V@*
~g s sZ}g gzZ Y0x{g !*
zo
kZ,YV- YHx **
+V m<!*
$
7g @*
q
-ZgzZ
X 7B p _]z

125

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

Zk
,
zV{gzZVg
}gZZ DpzR"gzZ
/Z%d {zV{yZ
{giW+ZZg? {zkZ f .
gm{ ~ yZ
Vg)
,
{zyZ
3rgD
Vz%TZY YZgZEg
X]isY xgzZ vg)
,
g**
FI!*
,
'
{gzZ
/Z%qzg
f ~ !*
,kZ { {g { { ~ !*
'
WV vZ]|
b~'
,yZ0
+{ +Z{ 
]|{zkZ [Y H6,
zZ~

VzgZD
yZc { 
!*
+Z{ 
{r
# ]| Z !*
,
'
X ~z@Z
Zi%0yZ0
+{kZ q]o
~zh Z { nbkZ y gar
# V p L L
( 138m2`
o) ;g: !*
w!*
qg @*
{ i6,
VzgzZ2~])J+ZxVx0
+
i
r
# V
(460m2:`gZpZ)}Q}g}gVz
+ Z x V x } Zi r
# wq L L: !zZg Z Z
Zi%
vt V;z'
,
Z
V,t ( Vx0
+
i
)
V~Vzh Y
/g~ !*
Wgg~ !*
W8
-gzZg~{z(,

( 56m2`
o) VYspyZg u W

128

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

D YD Wk0*
;{ 
g ~w{gi W?yZgz[zZX p
g D Y D W y \ Wq e
$Z@ \W+@W! zZ gzZ g
( ,Z/ **
izgz,wy/ **
izg )
x**
YZgZ V~
{
!*
h~[KY ~

{
g{giW+Zg?Z
HyZk
,
z:il
/
0 c*
ZEgq
-Z
(u2h
+
E
5{ZgU*
WX328m)XHqzuiZgzZH!*
W;
?~ ~ ;  Z ZgzZ ~ +Z **
Zz Zi WxZ1Z **

~g7 yg dZ ; **
~ !*
W Z%vZ?bZX
/
{gi W
V{ [ Z. y{ +Z M [ Zg7 x Zg
c*
g Zz V{ Z- [Z
9
<XE
- f'
,
ZZz gzZ + M~ ~vZ ~3
F \ WX
/
\ W{)z {
qZ g **
~ **
**

X
+4\Wy!*
izg Z {zg z! X K
]z 0%ls \ W W
Z
# m,
Z ~ YY 1857[zZ
~O 8Z (, ZZ
+Y1X B]$\W b z{gzZ ~zc~(,X `
3E
KZ g **
z Z e
$.9zg & \Wtu CZ f LZX
H E
X I yZgz[zZ0 ~~k
,
$CZ f
ZZ **
[zZ Vzm,
ZKY
T ~gZ* Zz kZBh
+q {gi W?X c*

127

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x ZY f@Wg**
Py~ Zi Wq
-
:~ {gi W+Zg?X 1
( Y 1868B 1285 X Y 1789B| 4021) ~ {gi W+Zg?
~ _ m,
+Z { 
]| X z ~ ~
\ W ( Y 1824B| 1240 ) ~ !*
Wzg x Za)gzZ ( Y 1824B| 1239)
Y 1846gzZ }Zg \WJ
-Y 1846 Y 1827 X q
**
gz Zg ~ #
~ m,
Z X gz Zg J
- Y 1857
Zz!*
Zzzf {
z \ WX { Z (,

ny
]g @*
gKZ ( 1898B| 1315 {zf ) V{ZuX U%gzZ
/
%
]Z Y i LZ\ W~ ,( 425m ) h
+ E
5{Zg U*
W L L[
**. ( Y 1923| 1341 ) ~w'
,Zg tZX z
E
Zz yZ0
+{ g y{ +Zg ?L L, J34 {z0
+xZg Z
X [Z0 CZ \ W~ S Z y.gzZ wz ay*y li **
uy z
(|
/WZ,gX 227)
:q
-ZX c*
:(FgzZg !*
F s Vzm,
ZY f~Y 1857
G
EE
E
t kZQ ~ Zg Z 0 B-d {gi W+Zg ?6,
~ E ig WDg Zt X 
~ Y 18570B26Qgg Z

130

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

VyyZ . ypV* !*
W Z%*6, !*
W Z%Z
# m,
Z

129

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

6,X I~ tf Z u **
g~ {{gzZ
H1{g
/\WX I

X 48m)X Hg*ZzZVzm,
Z){@q
-Z~Y 1863~
I
~gZ*ZzK~
A
$kX ( ,! \vZxOZ2 fPg

D Z\Wtf Z x t @*
Y r#6,Vi ~,Z x
/x
/

LZ V,Z~Y 1846,t)**
g Z(,q
-Z {giW?X f

X c*

l] x Yxa{Mg y
W D YD
Z'
,

L L V,Z V 5{
/W ( Y 1858B| 1274) Zg {
vZZ **
B

:Zg{ vZZ)]|WZL X 3

gzZ ` q
- u0*
y*y Vzm,
Z f >

( Y 1859B| 1274X Y 1787B| 1204)

X HWVzm,
Z6,
f ZfyZ~Y 1857[zZ

u| m
| (, y
KZ T
~ [zZx **
Y 1857
g 1ZgzZ H{gz Y ZgzZ\g- VrZ{ 
vZZ ~{zH Z Zwzg

~ ~ Y 1868 0B 16B| 1285wzZ gB 24~/w H Z


X
HHu {4\W~ r Zl
gzZ ZwZ {gi W?

Z **
Dv
zi -~KY{
/W{
/W

:~ *
!W Z%Z$
e*
* L X 2

L,
L Vx**
q Z gZD
k k~ >Z{ 
vZ

X % w !*
+ q
-Z \W ( Y 1858B| 1275)

kZ[ Z D~i 25X 20oizg-KY T{


/Wz
E
E
43{!m,
~g r
# { 
EG
ZX @*
xWVz%~Kq
-Z

{
!*
X x Z Z \W ~ w;{ 
g g Z]
.@*
~y
Wm

r
# { 
{zs~Y 18570 m,
Zq
-Z\N*
w} Hs Z Z

!*
W Z%g
u e
$w/_
.{ C"gzZ
/
u~ \WX 
x **

kZ sp, q (Z {z
rg /gzZ
1 ~(,{ 
~L,
L q0

jaZ y{ h w X c*
x Zw  Vzm,
Z ~g Z0 z [
gzZ

um,
Z%z kZ x} Zg ZgzZ x t X 7@*
WJ
-q
- 4,

77~ Zg W,c Vzm,


ZBZg { 
Z **
gzZ Zy4**

B[ ZzWkZ ~~g *X 3gx **


~k
B yZy

g5 wzZ \W !*
W Z% +@WZ
# y { h w X g

, c*
kZ {zTgzZ in
Zz
) 0

6, <Z \W Z V0 +6, !*
W Z%Z
# X ZgzZ

{z @*
Y ~ !*
W;XL,
L y 7g m,
Z}uz q
-Z

\W~yZ 1{gtVgXm s Vzm,


Z

%~uzX sz^~4z]
.s Vzm,
Z { c*
i gzZ ^
,

132

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

D ]!*
.]zs g ZM Z ~ m,
_
Z~VVLZ
( 114m@WY 1857) (Holmes. Page. 81) Lg

131

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

zz]g 'mgzZ zz
qzg ~zz!*
E
p=J34 ~ Y 1857 8 { gkZ m,
ZC
g (gzZ 3

~Vzg Zi ZggzZV6ygZ[Zz\W

zyHZ(,q
-Z VrZ,qz,k
,
s Vzm,
Zx AgzZ

\WX [ Zgk
B gzgzZs+ZY Mx **
ZZ \WX

0*
ZwgzZ n{1 : Zzgs !*
W ;gzZ 1 gzZ

X S igzZ ~ { 
Z[ ZcY 1zZ ` ZugzZ { 
Zy!*
%zc

6,3r
# ~
H qz[zZ yz*Y z Z ,g

V yZX H Z9~g Zig yZy\ W g + yg)


,gzZz

X 1ZzZiW VR
!*
W;~!~(,
gzZX
H1Z ZiW7ZgzZ} 7,
^I

\
# :t
K: 
yZ \WX x
/
u~ ~g ` + V{h w

X g !*
W;s W~~x Zt=Z
H5_
~Vz@W{ 

Z ~ , w E4F
\gzZ B**
ggu

Vz!*
*y{gz {)z`{zq HZ98 - \WgzZ
E
4&
\Wh E
w@g cgg Zg Z6,h
ez| m
| (,~q
-~ Zi W
~ Zi WBq
-Z~V zy { 
Z ~L L ~}g!*

XW,
Z !*
gzZx H{ c*
i
Vzm,
Z [zgg ZD
k3 7ur
# ~Vzm,
Z

Z ~ Zi WY 1857X c*
qzg e6,VZg s Vzm,
Z6,x **

r
# ~ 0*
(Raja of Pawain) 7 s WzZgg Z z q
-Z

]{ c*
i yZ0 t
m{ ~ { 
Z ~gzZ V 0
C}uz

gzZ[zggZD
k3 Vzm,
Z Z]
. uyZgzZ c*
:
K KZ
3r
E
w (Holmes) m,
Zwz9 G
B

bkZ ZY 1857Z
+
B { 
Z ~0
C g Z,
( 22X 4m ) C7x **
~ZgzZ
5!9fZ m,
p z Bc*
46,z
/Z L,
L s Z Z G
Z

@*
H, k
,
0 {z ;g @*
Q ] ~q
-Z L L

w6,yY KZgzZ}, D
+
0
+!*
/az ~ Zi W{z,

g Z MZyZ, 7'
,
Z'
,
{g fVzm,
Z
zkZ H
1{g
/

Qa z Z LZ KZgzZ}k
B a ~ Zi W

F n : { i Z0
+Z 9
A & ~ Y ~q
-Z {z X Y Y c*
h

z IZkZ d
$
c*
, 4'
,
igzi0q

0 Z"
$U*
g7V- YyZ W{zgzZ Wt Z tV

Z c*
qz **
1
@ Y~ V V kZ D W~ !*
W;

134

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

133

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

q ZsVzg ekZ MJ W { F,
T~}^Gq
-Z

IzoC
6,
gD c*
46,
zgzZ z
uyZzBF q
-Z {z

^j
+X b ~{ F,
12ZhagzZ4{g VZ M

0*
(~wV26,
ZgzZVzg

~ !*
W;{ 
vZZ ~/ szck
B gz ZZ~L
L k
,
]g 6,
~fB 2 q
-~ Y 1857 )u { 
**
@*
dZ1Z { kZg { Zi [Z

Vug IuX L| 1272{Z


Y 1859y{vZx*
* ( 4)
g  u',n% C
!*
y*y Vzm,
Z { 
Z ~sq
-Z
X ~g YVx
/
uvZx~s~uz
-vZ x~~ yz*L L[ KZ z1wC
q
Z0 ]H
{z Zgy**<Zz bhZ `
@ Z ({z Htg7Zuz ~ ZiW
,0 e
$z~ Y 1857 y0 {z)lr
# **
**
gzZg b &
IE
"
5F
w Vpgm,
Z FH{gz \g- gzZkzg6,3Zz X Z(, Ej4G
yZ
X 1{@Y y*ykzgvZx~ Vkzg,

]o` Zy

~ p Z yZ 7Z ~ Y 1857 [ KZ gzX ~ eX ~z
: H7
{~xsZ {oLZ, ]o|kZ0
+
iyg kZL L
C xsZ X 7x }~ Zz C!*
.~" zgzZ
_
{

&t Z CZ] { zg gzZ~ + LZg zc
]~g7 Z
# Vzm,
ZgzZg L e J
-V 6,pgg7 V
zZg yxg kZX 7yZ **
{z A
$c*
g66, {7Z
6,yZ Yyz kZ6,] (
c*
gKgq
-Z g7V~
) Z7
kZgzZ IB1zZg pX g 6,Y B V z LZ
G4)\
GL7EgzZ Bzgg ZD
-F
7 u r
# {
0 ) {y

k3 I-
c*
LY 1857 y0 15 7ZgzZ ~g Zn( gH +
$Y g

x **
F,
yoFvZ x kZ, ~( Year In India

y Z n ug IuX c*
Zj1 g7 V { 
^u yZgzZ
-dZugzZ {
px ZZ~}g
lag @*
Za *G

Y 1859 zgzZ w{
CBr
# **
**
g7 V { 
{zy
WX H

K{g7Z !*
WyDg 0*
kZ]R
cc*
gC
!*
g @*
ZkZVZi Z

Fifty ) c*
+Z yZJZ [ KZ Lord Robertion '
&
,
Zg eg

~g Y g Zq
-Zx **
~ Zi Wx \ L L~Y 1856r
# ~A

( 75X 47m V ~~ Zi Wk
B 68mY fPg) 0*
]z

Hc*
VZ m,
zW6,} i Zzgg Z ugzZ ~ } }
!*
Z {)z ~gZ ~ Y 1937 X
Hc*
Z k0*

136

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

135

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

:~w,
'#
ry{Zg { X 6

:- Z+
$Z;)]|xsZ@WX 5

G*9g ~w',V{ gZ\ W ( Y 1869B| 1286X Y 1809B| 1224)

#zx ZY 1zZzY f0dR'


,\W ( Y 1808B| 1223)

H6, !*
W Z%Z
# y{hwgzZ Zg { 
vZZ **
Z ZmvZ

zwxEx ~/w{agzZ Za ~Y Z808~}iuklkZX

\W77~` kZ w@Wx
/
uq
-Z \ W
zkZ

V m<!*
+DVE*y Z
Z
# #
~ '
,n qw

~g nZzu\ WAw~ '


,
Wb
V
/
u

et m,
Z n T V|, @*
;e **
wzN CZ6,{oz yZZ

5 kZPkZZjgZ~g )x X c*
gx Z

~{
/W
@V gzZV|~Y 1856~Y z Z kZXg} yz

ggu',
s %
/Xgx~ Zi Wk
B \W L LX 

YH4X
45 eg X3u !*
G
V**
u"x **
\ W5E
"gzZ+4q
-Z\ W

~'
,VnZgzZg -~g 0*
~T Z{o]g @*
yIZxq
-Z
-dyZ~nZgzZ
Zzg{okZ Vx; /)X Z 7,
**
g$
+oV E

[zg 0*
x Z Zz u \ W w ~ '
,A w X ;g

~ Y 1856 xsZ fgzZg- ~g 0*


OL,
L Dk
,
s Z e zg6,

;gx **
/~LZ {z1HgH

r
# vZ g **
gzZ V{k
,
iz Z e ~ kZ Z {o0 ~ {
/Wx

g6,ox 6'
,
L L q cgm,
Zq
-Z

g -] Z|ZgzZ0r
# Z;**
wSyz

**
jx Z **
Zg{ 
Z **
~ !*
Wha**

zkZ

Ug {z, ~ l+ZZgzZ H{o Zgs Zc{zBY NgyZgzZ


G
4
4E
5
-Z L L~g7 {okZ X Zg66,g$
3
E
G
IBE
+o
Z ]mZ pZ

Xgg7KZs ~ '
,~~w'
,
Zg
:~zgZ$
e?X7

,ZvZq x Z !*
A
$% +Z k
,
iz x **
pZz

{- ( Y 1863B| 1279 X Y 1813B| 1228E) ~g Z e


$ ?
# **
-E
jZzLZ~( ~ ) ~gw G
KZgzZ Za ~( |zZ{g !*
)

sg r]
)
Zz
) S kZ 
z T~ | 1270 ~g7 V~

Vg7 x ZgZZ~ ~ggzZ {- X k


,
+;gxB
5
\
( Y1848B|1262) BW Z{
~kZXqy.zxEZ

Z ; **
{znZ 293m g Z x Z ~g )x ) Zz

j~o} g7 gz Z G Z Z xj%Zi% z;{ 


g ]|
X
\ W~ VcFgzZgHg 7hZi% r
#

138

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

137

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

54XzgV{g y{[Z H: rZ 6,^+@W~gZe


G
$

|7,
xEvgzZg
$ukg(Y1848B|1262) ~zC
gZvg)
,
**
~|
/ZgzZ

y)F,
)x X~ Zi Wk
B ) X 1~O 8~ VcZ wzi !*
z

GE
4O]IZ
( Y 19750 {g X cZ

?~Vz
/
\WX^
,
6,
?gzZkg~|
/Z

g
/
\ WVzm,
Z~x`
h
e ~O 8~~ Zi Wk
B gzZ :

~|
/Z X #
i 5 ~g u ~gZ e
$?

-ZX \ Wz{wg e V X ~ Zw 0*
q
gzZ c*
`)l

V;zX ~'
,0}ZgQg~ ( {zN*
Z )0
+
Q

\ W~A x $Z #
}
.F,
yZjZ * L L6, 
m,
Z

k& Zq
-Z \WV X Kdz FgzZgJ
-V { c*
i\W

( x ;)Egq
-Z~gz W:Zzy*y~Y 1806B| 1277gzZB;g

R'
,Z kZX
)
ZzZ +G @*
* L LZ gzZ

X sz^~] }
.dzgzZ Z e
C
gzZ ! Z gZ L L[q
-Z6,~
V #Z]\ W~0*

yZ X CY J 7,
~ Vg ` W0 k
,
E
G3{Z D L L[ s
X Xgzn \ W{z

X g{c*
i!*
WgIgZgzZg(Y1916|1334)S
/
ZvZ

c*
{
/Wgz Zg\W~ qz Y 1857 X @*
Y Z k& Z
~'
,
Y: {
/W\ WgzZ
H0*
,[ zZ~#{ ,~gY ~g ^ZX
'
H
X x
/
uw
6,
u yzzZVzZ~g7x Zgz
:q
-Z 6, s Vzm,
ZgzZ yzz ZZ n+@W

<}w]g c*
iz e \W#
}
. gzx ;Eg LZ

~g [- ZWz6,X \~gZ e
$?6,T Z ~g Y ~'
,

Hti ~dZ!~5 ZgX : Zzg6,

^kli s+
M

~X 0g i z q
-kZ ~ ~'
, [ zZ X

X gd& gzZL\ W~Y 1863s6,


ZB71B| 1297wZB 17gzZ

( c Z,X Y 1857~ Zi Wk
B ) ~gZe
$?}uzgzZZi Z
u

B| 1308 X Y18 71 B|1233) ~ZP vZg **


}w0*

$?) \W g
e
z Z)**
izgg ZVx
54Xzg V{g V{ [ Z~ ~'
n ^e
$w ~ ] G
,( Z

q
-Z~ zZ ( | 567) 0*
+Zwxz$1zZL ( Y 1981

gZ **
X
/
% Z ~ Zi W+@W~'
,dzgV yZXgx
/
u

]EgZZ~( 8 - ! f{0): ZPX +t0*

?X ~ +Z
+ q
-kZ ~w'
,V{ g **
Z Z ~w'
,V{

:~ ZPvZg *
* X 8

140

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

139

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

vZ g **
B+@W}uzgzZ;{ 
g n kZ ]

B| 1294 ) ~ !*
W Z%Z? Y ~QX q \W~

V{k
,
iz~Z eX 

~k
B gzZ 1z u ~ Zi Wk
B

dZ P ( ~ {gi W+Zg ?z ~ _ m,
+Z{ 

/
X Y 1877

X q
-~ ~ Zi Wk
B B - Z$
+Z ; **
gzZ ~ !*
W Z

~tg
$u( Y 1878| 1296) ~ ~DZ{ 
X 1kg V1

( ,gg U*
WX 319m )

X 7,
F

{ IkZ : ZPZ g ~wzZ


: ~ vZ Y f

V-g 0*
gzZVjZ ~X *
c J 7,
~K: ZPJ
-wF~qz

X x576 m ) X } (,{z ? ]g H ~ , W~
4$E
( ,pIG
Z `zg @*

DZ{ 
K ]Z Z6,xsZ V,ZgzZ '"(,{ c*
iZ
# Vx
/
u

~ ZPZ g ~ !*
WIZ z X ~ Z/ **
izg

]Z Z}g /Z yZL L[ g- ~g 0*
m<!*
V|

/ **
izgX 87 m )X :ZzQX g  WgzZ W~ ]
( ,Z

~ T [ ?q
-Z \W x **
x JzZ!Zi Z L L6, ~
X c*
[ Z0 jyEZ
-Z ~ {
q
/Wyxg g - ~g 0*
gzZ ~ ZP: ~ Y 1845| 1207

~ZP **
, H yZ gzZ c*
` )ls6W Vzm,
Z ~

]{oZX c*
[ Z0 \ Wg - ~g 0*
~T Z {o]g @*

1XYc*
xZ9zggZD
q
-ZZz!ZjVzm,
ZZg
/

Z e **
gzZ - Z$
+Z;**
~{okZX I 
~V1
zZ

\W~:ZPX V)(l DXbgzZnYG:g


/~ZP:

XyzS\ W~ !*
W Zy{k
,
iz

X~x8ZZ
+YOg\WbZX~x8!zZZ
+Y
4Eg \ W V)(l
sz^~ g D
+z kg gzZ H G
0G

**
X Zg Wf s Vzm,
Z \W Z qzY 1857[zZ

yX c*
Zg \W Vw
y'z i gzZ V`
'vZ ZZ Y qX

@*
yZgzZ @*
YH V6,
i ZzW{g 6,
VKY: ZPn

M Zg \W6,ZpZX H^ \ Wg !*
+
F6,] F,
X c*
8**
V- g 0*
~)(l /Zg Z L L[ Zg s Z cKZ ~

M F,
z^+@Wi )~: i kZ, ~'
,
ZZ
( ,gg U*
WX 246m )X vZg ~gzZ Z}
.o,

yZgzZ W,
Z6,Vz ZPwgzZ 6 d r
# vZg ~

142

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

**
Zz\ yZg Z'
,Z6,T c*
W q
-~gZ z 6'
,
fZ q
-Z

141

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

X @D
+\ W~ W .Z
A gzZ ZwZ \W~)(l~Y 1918

Vzm,
ZgzZ yZZ 0 0 I W ( {Zz yZg Z'
,Z ) V Z ! 7
-eZ Le

ZyYzZp]|-Z$
++Z g **
4jx Z **
{znZ

: !*
#
L}g L Lg 
~ y!*
i ~ ]zZ
,\6,
}@okZa}
/Z
rgqzZ9
sZp

**
~!*
W WZ Z
1 **
]|~!*
W{
a@Z
&
@Wv z ~!*
WZ%/?**
~RZ +Z **
C%
~g]Z

$ VzyZ~, }
.
t~V; }V-L}\vZ

LZ VzZ 1zs:~~ZiWq
-x ZY f
~ZiW

X9
sZ **
]$Vzm,
ZZ}
.c*
Vz

X 1Zx **
CZ~ VzLy!*
J

-yYKZgzZ zZ y\!*
V

*
* 
gZ zgZ x**
g^L L u
Z z \W p= Z
# gzZ

Y 1931*
@Y 1878C0 Z*
* X 9

Z}
.gzZZ}
.{
!*
Z(,

ZL,
L Z~i
+%gzZg^ Hqz

Z7Z !*
w Vz Z
**
gzZ Z **

H Za ZiWb R.
$ eggzZ} egX `gYQ`gY =

\ WC
~[ Z ~ m,
ZC
0 Z**
@*
Y**
Yx **
yZg Z'
,

X xZa?,n,:tVE*y, @*
e~ZiWnkZ

~ kZ <%ZY 1919c 13 Dk
,
\W

Z Zi kZ\WQ ~ Zi W\ W @*
ypz Gi L,
L

x Z Zz]~[ Z ~ m,
Z&g Zi
+%q
-Z~~ m,
Z
x  n Zzy ~g Z LZ\W @*
Y {

{ c*
i {k
HF kZ0 , c*

/ c iz @
/~ Vz ~ 3

xKY gzZ
# @*
YH
g ZtD c*

H!
Z 0*
,
'
)u Z (, c*
` E4h 3,
g6,Z'
V ~ e
H!
E4h 3,
gB1~g W~WgzZ Y Z LZ~i
+%Z**

~ Zi Ww3y$
+LZBBVz) W
z
/Z

H Ug i

+% Zwi **
[ u#
~ m,
Z6,kZ Z e

X } 7,
n

w=} (,zz Z y!*


i ~ m,
ZgzZ
Z
KZ0 Z{zgzZ

\W} 7,
zkZ yp gzZ@Vpx Zg W CZn

**
Zjv WVzgzZ y )~ y*y }g7 k
,
kZ
Zi W **
g 
~ gzZ w~ Y 1919 X c*
qz

ZZz x Z
/8| l,
e
H 0*
,y ~ o}g7 X
'
X c_ c~~X yk
,
izgzZ6'
,

144

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

143

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

7,gF z\Wy 57: Zz6, ~ZiWZ


# \W;gE- |
/Z

kZ G g ~ kZZC
0 Z~ Y 1923

wZ ~ yT
#
ug0*
; ~ Y 1931 ~gB4g0*
g]gzZ

g] \WZ
# ~x $Z#
}
.J
-wq
-Z \W6,}

4\WV 5 ( wZ ) kYZ
M l yZ ay
LZ 6'
,
X u {

X CWi ZzWyy
bkZz}? g
CyY Z
}B ZV Z 1

@*
c*
yZ ` WtyZ
E
_&
g ~VZ P
L }
+
e H

{ ~ Zi WL,
L Zg cgq
-Z Tgg yY6,}uz

Vm8
-g{z Vm{z[Z

c*
6,}g )~0
+
wzZgz1wC
Z0 ]H~Y 1929~gB 26wk

!Zj C
0 Z~ J
-w2

L L[KZ ZZg'k
,
izZ

-Zzy~&
q
+ ~ggzZ &
+ Zga~ga;ggz Z ZzyJ
-Y 1930

q ~ Zi WC
0 Z c*
} wJ WC
0 Z&

H Z Z ay
Zg yZ D Y6,^Z
# S0
+ ', }

~&
+ ZggzZ ~Y 1929~yx gVzm,
Z n

C Z Z w ay
Vzgz yZ V~{ e @*
Y

~y*y x~ e: Zz6, ~ Zi W~V; }L L `


/ \W

ay

x S0
+ '
zD Bzg hzq
-Z n,J
-V

}iZ n }M
h} 7: Zz6, ~ Zi W= \W
/ZgzZ V Y 7:Zz

X H Z Zw

X \W (Gq
-Z~

3gx~"
$~ ZzZ
#
nWzc*
-gz
J
: Y 1933*
@Y 1873Z
*
* X 10

V Y JN L
Z 7, 0*
7
7~B Zg f
J
-V ~ OE
T H wEZ V/J~ k
,
KZ C
0 **

H k0*
} Z! ~ Y 1895 |
/Z;gE- Z
**

L,
L Y7 \W m,
Zq
-Zk
,
Z7,
8Zg ~eVzm,
Z

y{ WuX ^
,6,}iZ ~Y~gu f
$5
/

y*zy, c*
[Z0 C
0 Z?-VZhZZ\WC
0

~ Zi W Sn#
}
.x gzZog ~ f
$Z6,

c*
[Z0 \WQ ?V N*
Y7 Q m,
Z V Lgq
-Z

146

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

x **
zz Y S0
+0 g~Y 1921 kZ!*
WZ]!*

145

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

B;g~Y 1919c gzZ g


/
~Y 1915#301~O 8: Z%~q
-

gzZ Zw !*
{wz 7Z `)l]zZ
# 6,]**

wz { Z_ Y NgvgzZ
Zw~ cZ6, q
-Q

X{yZ6,: Z Z g : `

HHZ
+: `

Bzg 5006,yZ

BC
"0 Z**
LgLZ\W~: iZg~cZ

, p **
,
@~[zgJs[c*
**
Vkzg 4000~

kZgzZ gx **
yZg Z'
,
ZVzzzkZ 1~O 8~q
-

IY7
yZ $
7(~uzX N{z [c*
**
{z L L

X YJ 7,
t6,
y!*
i^^~Vao
z

X
gY~VyZ0
} (,
z kZ Z
# X
HHg
/
\W~ Y 1908
\WX n {{g !*
z **
~ Y 1916g 0
+
i x Zg Wg7} (,
H~{]Z
# g<zn~ Zi W0
+
i ~g Y Zo
K
H
B Vg y*yB yZ ]5 y k
,
iz ]
~ x`
]z s 
` @*
6'
,~ Y 1924Q ] **
X c*

;]**

Hc*
:7)} ZX 124i7ZgzZ
H1g
/
X _~

O7~g YKw
F

]uZ
~ ~ Zi Wq
-L,
L (**
~}g !*
;]
yZ ~gO
cg g Y Y H 7lZ
V**
g ]
w ;]~ g @*
wJ e wzg Z L,
L 0~

26\Wz}9g
CyY Z
}B ZV Z 1
X wZ~Y 1833B

:Y 1951*
@Y 1878;]*
* X 11
y;~ Y 1894 \W Za ~ y;N~ Y 1878 \ W
|
/Z~Y 1903 \W Hqzg w Z~ wjZ}g7 gzZ Hk0*
w
g u~ m,
ZgzZ 
gzg Z \WX Hk0*
c5
/ ;gEXg 7 L\W ]!*
h1~g
/~ R/~g \ WX
{ x Z ZgzZ ]& !g WO!zg Z~ Y 1903 **

CY q ~
/e ~ eX ZX 8 a^g6,~
yZ @*
Y
Vzm,
Z **
@*
3 Zg w2yZ V Z ~ Zi W!gt **

Za Zg ~ Zi W L L{yZgzZ.6~
(gzZ
L Y S0
+yZ n kZX7]yZS0
+ '
h
~ Zi W
;**
X x
/{zgzZx3,
Y S0
+Y k
7

148

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

147

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

$JkZ~Y 1914B18VrZgzZ~Z
+~0*
6,
gZkZ~Y 1914

> ~ Y 1921 c B 30 ;] L
L
rg g 6U*
o
Kq
-Z

zy gZX H qz gZ x **
r ,Z L L \WkZ

6'
#
, >L,
L D]g ZkZ ,a

kZ VrZgzZ 1 {z~WVzm,
Z1
Hc*
Za l0 ge

^!*
y ) ] **
L
L **
~ Zi W o zg

X + ]g! x ~(,
Z~/Z ~Z
+~0*
6,
g Z

Y 1951wZ \W g:Z w +~|


/Z
n
7Zg **
GiE
4F
X
`'
,
zkZ Z~~~

X 7 c*
W6,**
L,
L yZ~}g !*
yZ
Z 3g r Z(,q
-Z
@ V+z LgLg, ;g kC(Z

$
+wYV w

-Vzm,
J
Z wt yZ | (, ~ Zi Wg e zy **

$
+ xz g 0 B:

yZt} 96,g fgzZ WF,


Z y W
q
-Z ` W
/Z L,
L
HV
g e zy y*y $
g0
+Z ] 24~ Zi W,}
y*yY: ~ Zi WY 7 Z1Vz Z~ Zi W~Y Zi W
X yv+
M
KZ ~g7t Z ~g pyv
~ kZ q
-Z Zi W **
~ Y 1923~/w 34
~uz **
%~uzg ^
,6,}kZJ
-wq
-ZgzZ n `g
w]gzZ g~ kZ|
/x Zg~ Y 1939
zxk
B
\ WJ
-Y 1946 k
B g ^
, 6,{ kZ J
B 15gzZ X ~ ,
$z1]H]g ZKZ p \WkZ ]g Z
**
, s bgZu
H Zi Wy*y Y 1947 ~Z
gJ
-w]g @*
0, Z7i Z Zt{z Zi W

:Y 1958*
@Y 1888 Zi WxZ1Z *
* X 12
Za ~O$~Y 1888~ZB 17 Z + OZ [x **
-Z Zi W**

Wy*y { Z_ r
# +Z **
]|Zz LZ ~ /w k
yZz~ pxw{z, c*
x **
gkZ~O$ +Z **

W,
O azDyZ Z7iZZt *y
B+Z**
~ 
DKZ~ F,
zC
Z ?g{g
V Z0
+{ i y*y gzZ [~ yZ0
+{ ZiW **
bkZ ~
GJ$
4

(10mZiW**
)X I 
kZ H qz w8
-.L!L gq
-Z~/w11~Y 1899
}g7 x T H qz **
gZ w'ZL L~ Y 19120B 13 \W
Vzm,
Zy
WX Tg} 9~gOZgZ v ~ wX

150

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

**
n
~{ i Z
# *^ * kZ~Y 1943s6,
ZB9~
7;gZiW**
Q15fZg@*
-ZWZz;gZi W
q
-i DzggzgZi VE*y VzgZD
}uzgzZ ZZ i}i @E

G
X 7]o` Zy

VW7ZV<
Z

149

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

S7,
~ m,
ZgzZ 
g ! ;gE- C
iZ G
!Y^ Zi W**
;g
x Z Zz]0 ~Y 1903B 30 t Qy hO L!
L gq
-Z \W
t Zy, ZxZ
# q **
, Zi W**
@*
Y{
]5~+Zz**
X Z7Z V~i
+Z

;g ~ Y 1945 y0B15 w 3 Zi W **
Z
#

x **
Z (**
c*
/~pg ZgzZ /~ VrZ

y*G ;g **
VVzg ZD
6,Z Zhz;
-i ;g^ByZxW Zg s
VWP gzZ S7,B 6,G@E
G

W, Y7 VrZ
d
z D Y ]5 yZ ~Z
# 1 3g

H Zz ]g @*
t X I@WVVzg ZD
ByZ '
,C
-i
X g c*
B!*
@E

X ZZ (,
7Z

- w~/w 12~ 
Zi W **

LZ {z H @E
G

K
zi - ~Y 1915~Zg Zi W**
Z
#

Zi WZ
# i Zy~(,gzZ gz CZ ~ #
}
.C

ZpG
gk
,
**
vYC c*
YV Zz6,~ Zi W~

L LZ
# g 1ZY 1942~ZB8 C H 67Z\WA
$

=Z Dk
,
} 9q
- 4,
Mg0
+ZK**
a Dq

Zi W **
gzZz1]H ng
/
Zi W **
` q
-zhg]g

-Zh gZ- q
q
- 4,
M **
n kZ D 0*
N 7Zv

}g7s Vzm,
ZYI7,
g FJl
zZ
H3g~Z

l0 Z X k
,
yZgzZ NyZ 9), @*
9

g} VE*y ~ m,
ZgzZ g^]z ~ o
-i
yZgzZY**
~C
{z ~g F! KZIg e { c*
igzZ@E
G

`)l]z Z
# 6,**
~Y 1922 Z yZgzZ V Z~ Zi W
$ L,
4GG
5G
:t~
/Z #
{0, ~ SE
L ~
Z\W
X Vzg:x **
-ZkZqkZ, CYyZ?VHQ V
rg 6,Z'

,g kZ~, Z
# V @*
g Z C ~

V~ Zi W**
7Y ~? r
# Zz\ W Zi W**
Q

g ` yZ Ze}uzgzZ Zg! Ze Se **
xe
$
nZ}
., ' Z Zg ! Ze Z
# Y 1943s6,
ZB3
-i G,G,
/w49@E
W **
y
3:gzZQZz7Z6,
z:X z 3**

15 2

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

15 1

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

kZ^q
-Z H qz^ y*y ?
HWx \ z{Zz HQ { Zg

n
gzZ Za Z**
{g kZx gzZ &7^
,Y#
{0X V

! x gzZ Z
y Z VY^q
-Z

~ Zi W\W ~ 7,
~t ZgzZ~ Zi W 0
+
i ~g7 Zi W**

~Vz
)P
zkZ^0, c*
0*
gZ
t& s 6,! x}uz

c*
wwYVjZ~gzZ k
,
izy*y

0 N YZa ,Zi mYVzg ZD


VzgzZ {CZox jZ z

ZgzZ_" Zi W **
:Zx Z y #
~ Y 1992~gB 23

~VyZ bzgwZziyZZ, aB!*


gzZz

+Zg[gzZX ZiZ @g]gL L~sZZ]}


. gVZ
/

i )z =g yZt}~gyZ G~V Z
T
ZgzZZ

7ZiW**
Hwz s **
egZ-Z ( v%iZ) @g]g

~y
WZ
# QgzZ}s 3 Zg| (,
W J (,6,xxx

o~,
gwz1wC
Z0 S0
+ ':egTZu,k
,
,)
E
wG
5BZZ{,) yWZy)F,
]!*
V Zx,{)z F,
gzZ^
r ,ZgzZ w'Z tZ ytZj %8
-u 8
-. b E
5{.Z

c kZxVzg ZD
, (Z ,wLZiz tg z{ YWw2
tz kZ w Vzg ZD
(,: AZz skZB; Vzg ZD
,hz: !*
s
y
KwD Zz Z%z Z%g o
KzG{z N Yg
kZ~bzgC
gzZ 3gnkZwC
X}Nzig WkZy
KZC

Zz{pN Y { Zz { Y ~g Z
"n

Zz ~p:B; n z ~N Z: {
h*Z0
+
i5q
-Z~V {y*yJ
-V: V;
!*
(pgVZ egzZVzga~V {gzZV-YkZgzZ Y !*
W
.t z
ugzZ !*
oZ

# Xg:
h.
**
kZQ `
dJ/ /_
Vx y Wn: kZ ` u: W,
Z6,kZg5Y

!*
Z

# N Y Z x ggzZ N WF,
Z
/Z

X Y Zg**
gzZbgZ

:~$
A%{/
Zi W*
*
# VrZ Zi W **
Z
~ V Zz A
$% 6 {
/

VrZ ~ ] 6,{ Zg kZVgzZ W +6,kZ 1g !*


-Z
q
yZywzZ L L:, gzZ ~i ZzWV m<!*
y*y}g7
z k
B kZ : {{w2~y
W4z]
.{0, H
Z ~ e ! Zgkew L L=Z ~V- Y{{:~ V Zy
SgzZ
{{Y H4Z~x Z
/
z6, 
**
w

15 4

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

bVzm,
Z6,
Y f~y~ Zi Wq
-
gzZ e
$kZ :x ZY f Vzm,
Z~Y 1857[zZ
``6,Y Z ny~ Zi Wx Zm<!*
ez| m
h
| (,~kZ
X c*
:
K
:<5!Zjsfzgq
Dy{@xCZ\N*
egzi
+Z cgm,
Z
w&tgzZ H Y fVzm,
ZJ
-Y 1867 Y 1864 L L
gZD
B14 Vzm,
Z~ V&yZ wuZ}'
,
g@*
y*y
Y f6,T : |
# g (Z J
-6 ua0
+eX c*
\
d6,gZY f
R ~ w3gX
HZ@*
Y fV 
9: 3
/
c*
7
-; nV;|0
+!*
VgZ96,
V;X
HZe~gzH
kC1$
+gZ%=
H~+LZ ~Z
# , qh
+'
\N*
H

Y fB40gzZ gH}gZv W,V8


H`~
gzZ
Hc*
Y fgzZB40 }X
Hc*
wZe6,VzgZyZg@*
}
Hc*

40yZ bT !- m,
Z }g@*
Z} yZt }
B Y 1857zt Wq
k
-Zs ~ ?Y c*
"bkZ
nZzZa}X hgZ"7q
-~~ ZiW

15 3

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

]gzZ Y Y 7c*
x **
{V
KZ Y Y H7

Eg!
sp" ]gzZ qzig W{py
KZ0p @*
Y ?O {z} Zsp
**
F,
Z LZgy
s !*
?Y Hg eZ
X **
hgZnc*
DWs ZzhgzZ

xZ1Z **
:Zx Z@Wy ~ Zi WgzZ!Z ~ Zi W Zg gy
W
Vox y*zy ~}g !*
yZ hg *~Y 1958 Zi W
X H bkZ
yZ[ZgzZ
H{g8
-NDyZ 5 Zi W**
g !*
~Z
# ( 1)
( yWZk
,
izz1wC
0 ]H) ~ zg r
X D7ZaizgizgvxZ1Z ( 2)
4E
7ZgZ e )
5G
( ytg/g 6,
g E

( JZgZe)Xg
Z
gzZhN#
/Zxj%**
(3)

( tg eZ )Xg@*
-Z 7,]g@*
q
(ZiW**
){z(4)

Xk'
,
k3
z]zyZ/ZiW**
(5)
( z**
zuy)
Z z %: w
Wzp~

15 6

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

155

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

zY f~yZX
Hc*
k1}i:|ykyZgzZ

-6,v W}g}gXXyYKZgZ0 **
<
(Z~yZ

0*
G,0*
G,
: Zz[W" ~{MVNY:gzZ
Hc*
~ !*
{0*

(124m@WY 1857)X q7y


/
t Vz0Z1

x
/x
/~ %F t6,VzgZ B
Y fFgzZ
HZeg
bzVZj!*
zgqX
HZ0
+
zg V7N*
Vzh Ze~VZ
/

k
,
Y 1857g ) we ~ s W [
+g Z ~ L L[ KZ \N*
egzi
+Zu
: q~( cg Zuz

V ~ ~ZiWy*y, Wzg b[W]!*


t 7,

Y
gX;gJ
-wA 7J
-izgzq
-Z~gtLL

F,
p ~ZiWogzZ ~ V*!*
~(,X kgZgzZ Y fm<!*

V-g1Yf~~zZg c*
ggCY~ M
z Yf,Z,Z~K

Y fztX |m
6,MD ZgzZZC
Vzm,
ZY fn

B ZgtZg)**
k
izg) @*
Y c*
:
KVC6,
zZ @*
Y Ze ~

mZ r
#/_
.V kgZ ztgzZ q kgZ VM

bkZgDe
$'
,
,
'
zxZYfVYy
W, ZtwZV(34Xm~ZiW

VZz"7,~ kgZ Hc_ yp hLZ


# , c*
J 7,bkZ $

Y^\W<5!Zjsfzgq5W[Z0 eZp g@*


Hc*

W V*!*
bC

zZzw LZ **
{Zz6,yYKZ :

X;gxyu**
gk,
Z

!*
xZ Y f VMV7ZgzZ V26,`Wk\Z1

o Zg7 `WgzZX 5Y 1947 ~ZB15 : Zz6, ~ ZiWy*y{qT

C , Zg V- *y LZ g 0*
6'
,L L
G
'
~ y*y ~ [Z0 kZ ? $
{g #
~g +~ y*y

F,
x yZX g Y ~oZiWq
-Z gzZ [ ZiW
/Vzm,
Z

kZ~kZ 7^g7g0 g@zufZ(} (,


-Z Zzg
q

pt gx ZZ ~
/c6,
kgZgzZY fg)gVE!*
gzZ]**

gzZ @*
Y c*
: /_
.,J
-Z
#M
h7#
6,yZJ
-
z kZ,

sgzZ s ZZ \!*
gzZz
/xO yZ, x ,_ g@*
/Z

Y f y*y {z ~gz**
qgzZ q
-Z /_
.

$ ~gZz V t `WgzZ g ~ e Vzm,


Z
E
o-!
6,g g@*
`W, ;g7,IBk\ZX 5

~q
-Y 1857 Vzm,
Z nz)YiZg !*
zgq

gzZ ke Vzm,
Z X qz gzgzi ]zT g Y

ZZ
+YyZ
Hc*
\
dgZ7Z Z
6,
Xc*q
-Y f0

( 125X 124m@WY 1857)X Yc*


yW
gzZ

158

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

/c,:G Za c kg Z

E+G
z sZ kgZ, "
$U*
]!*
t [Z6,_ y L g@*

kgZlzy

l0mZr
# ~VXXG Za@WimYZz%{
z~ZiW+@Wq&XW,
ZsZ kgZtgzZXH Za

{z CY~0~kgZ: VYXc*
t
gzZ@CZ{
(Z H:I L~
/cgzZ Z**
x`
L xsZgzZX CsZ
XmV-Y@*

HyW
X c*
ZwJVZz

(777Z)X
rg7
zV-YvZ"{e:Y~}i(1)
vZTyYkZgzZ77q}uzBvZ0 {zgzZ(2)

(68Xy
)X0*
Zw{z}xt0gzZD~g$
+
:gzZDgh:g#
w

%X OyY T, c*
6,LZuZ :
L kZ ( 3)

-ZTgzZX HOV
q
kZ c*
X G Y~}i c*
$
+yY

Vzgwg}g k0*
yZGgzZ c*
V
c*
kZ c*
yY
Zz C c*
i~ }i kZ ~ yZ " X WB
!$
+yZX DQ D Y~ogzZ D wgkZgzZvZ0 {zX
B; sq
-Z yc*
Y ~ Mc*
N Y G O,X

Zg yZ~ *t N Ygz }i c*
X L V 0*
s~uzgzZ
( 33X 31{Z
+ {g)X [ZZ (,
bwyZ~]y
WgzZX

157

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

X ;gYH7 gzZ gZz=gfc*


zz6,
`WVzgZz
Y g7 Z V m{ g V*!*
VX

X *
@Y7VZgLyp VzL egc*
7Z1Xg
W y p g @*
~ C g
~ V Y
: YZ &],
S z n (
` z $? t g z C
C

1 60

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

a sZgzZ hyL ggZc*


y!*
i {zeXH La
L
xy IZgzZ *6,y*zy o}gm,
Z Z
# zz X;g:

{ze6,
fC
gzZ W~yZyysTXc*
qzz

VMC
0 Z**
wVT%~ZiW)gfgZV;gN
a}9sVzm,
ZgzZJ(,
Zzy=gfgZ
**
z~!*
Wha)W~k
,
"
$Z
# X~g7 ~VZyIZ

#
~m,
ZZ
# gzZeC
=gfk
,
zk
,
{)zZg{
vZZ

:s#
~m,
Z ~!*
Wha) W]!*
k
B s

Vzm,
ZF,
Z~ k
B yZyVm{ !z yZgZ'
,
gzZ c*

z {zgzZ Z7,
**
Y 0*
Zw7ZaTX c*
gzi6, ~ZiWy*zy

gzZ ~L{zTkgZgzZxsZtXL
ckgZyZ6,
~KZ
/Z[ZXG Za@Wao

X{zYH:VY ?H6,
=zakZ {eZ~
/

g6,
*
*OL:gzZ(w@*
)a
E
-Z7ZL:szzo~kgZ

'!*
xts:\W k4gzZV-gE- *\W.
kZXH

~ VzgZZ yZb w Kg0*


-Z KZ Kg0*
q
(C
n A
y WX DY2 Z6,
(~VzgZZ (yZgzZ
~TX DWDVZgW)u~#q}:}
G4)\
Vz
/c yZ \W {z kZX@*
yv -F
gzZ }gZZ

15 9

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

bkZX H7t \ W]c*


WPklyW

xsZ, @*
C
s TX A \W~,g Ig
$ugzZ klyW

g kZ0 <
(Z xsZ ~ c*
Y ~
/c L

b C>X CZtzgJ Z6, Z **


z ~
/c

gzZ ?
xsZ {zX(qsZ0 kZg ZkZ

xsZ, N 0*
\W , {@x g @*
* ? } q
!Z V- {V {)zxzg\g- X ~~
/c *

o }g X @*
Y c*
D Za V {0
+
i ~ [X @*
Yc*

~ TX @*
Y c*
!Zjg >
6~ kZ6,wZC
~ y*zy

xVzgz$gzZg YVX @*
Yc*
~kZ {0
+
iBlC

~gz6,
, ZX :7yY
KZXD YGbb
x Zwu0*
vZ) !v^e ] ] u oj] ]jiL LxsZ

HbkZD+
M
KZ Ch x~*gzZ (Oh%yY
KZH
VgzZ c*
VZiZzWsZ**
zgzZ gY ~gz6 q
-Z * `W,

gzZ7D ~5gvZ ?,
HH?gzZL LX c*
bkZ
ggz6,}g} Z, 0{VgzZVggzZVz%[zgz$yZ
( 76X74X Y
Kg) X vVwkZ

}V zg s**
V Z xsZ

Sb~g7 VrZ n uzg{z,g kZ ygzZZ

1 62

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

?zzW6,
kg Z
M
+
KZgzZzxsZ, Zz]!*
t_}p*
w~* a ]$ Vs V Zz !*
,
'
~k
,
~k
,
e c*
4z]
. bC
a s Zz
7 +
M
KZ0 }g
/g Z **
]Z|yZ ]!*
t [ ZX yZy k
B c*

/Z6,
gwVX T e 0*
t yZgzZx CZV
KZ T e
tV Zz{[ ZgzZ! Z,]!*
{[ZZ'
,
[ Z
} 9s V Zz #[ Zp{z 7hZ !*
]!*
x ZZ bba-i ZzW ZzZs [ZgzZN Y
(V Zx

6,
n bZX g ~~/gzZ
g ZMZ CZ Za t
z8
-g] 0*
] Z f <
0 VgzZV Z
~ wj Sy Zz Z~* Z Z}
.gzZX Tg ~
~B; Is Z g ZMZ, M
h7
Z'
,
Lt T e **
;]
kjKZgzZ D
6,ptYg u 0*
VZ'
,`  c*
W
kZx Z, @*
ZzJ (,
ngzZ Z'
, bC
~ ` t a
(Z H7
Z'
,L xsZ & XnwzN6,yZtgzZ Y ~
zz Z xsZX c*
4z]
. bC
s V Zz

161

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

~ ],
WCF,
WXc*
gZ
^
/c UNnZe6,
B0*

~yzcM%Z !Irish Republicon ArmygW

~uThe red bigadB'


,
+g ~ ~ OZThe shining pathe
i
E
&
wqNoxlite h ULFAZ~o}gLTTE~Z KK sZ~]
d
yZfZ YdZvz:z6,9x
/ ~ V `
d IZg'~
qV{)z}0
+
gyZgzZl6,
~}&
+0*
#c*
ZtgeW
Xqz;gE- 7kgZVxyZX

Yo}g6,
x`
fZ Y:z6,9m{VzgZZ yZH

t 7Z VzgZZ (yZ,VY7?Y ZeZ cVjZ

g;cgzZ
/c6,
$;fgzZ]KZ
t ~:
,T~: ~
/c LkgZ, {Z g@*
,Z
# X
~ yZ } c*
}gY }
/c 0 X ` N \W

m n yZ Z "
$U*
6,
/ZgzZ Z 7"
$U*
x`
6,
Z
ky
/ZgzZrg}gZZ(v
tYX ;g7kgZ

X;gn.gVzgZZ (gzZ,X ~ 7 kgZ t yZ


~
/c6,kgZakZX nsZkgZbZ
X**
xZZ6,
VzgZZ(vgzZ+
M
KZc*
**
xZZ

164

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

163

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

w x ` 
KZ, @*
N Y kg Z b,X D

kgZY X gWG
qzsZ kgZ ~ VzVyZ

KZ ; ~ ` -gzZ Y -Z Zz Z a s Zz

x,_ g @*
\ W
/ZX (uZz q ]xsZ

aTX} 7,
Z e: VY^Y~VaTY#

Z V kg I ~ rz
e
$g/gzZ s Z'
,C
~ b,

|Z
# 1 g Y ;=g f c*
z|
/^ bC
` Wt

V Zz pg mc*
rg Vog I,VY X ;g g Z

g6, ~ !*
, t ZX @*
'
Ws !*
gzZ h CWt

a Tk~ Zi Wy*zy6,
g wV ] [ zZC

yZ {)z ]Z Y3h ZgzZ ]Z|g6,VZ ~ o }g

-Z ~ d
q
$
X rg kg Z0 , V*!*
{ C " x Zf

X |Vz
/c
6,

I q
-Z [zZtX
H{ V;z e
$%WZ
gzZ ZB ~r [zZ
E
45kZ +g Z { 
g (Zg Z
{ Zg#
LZ
V;zgzZ HiG
{g
[ zZ kZ [ zZ Zk
,
ZZz B IwP b~uz X ~ 7,
!*
[ zZ kZX Z 7,k
H hg
~U { 
g yZk
,
Z~
LZ VMX @*
Y**
Yx **
vZe
$W{gIq
-Z7gzZ
e
$g/ { : yZk
,
Z [zZ =g f Vz
/

6,N ~ g @*
\ W]uZz F bkZX
D]!*
kZ 7ZX K]Vog I a LZgzZ`Z ,
$ VZx
tVrZakZ M
h}7
ZgZ'
,kg ZyZ {z,
ZX Y$
+ kg Zx Z, @*
Yc*
qz **
x ZZ6,kg Z yZ,
~)6,kg Z L D x ZZ
C" 6,sZ kg Z {z6,
0*
Z
] ZZ ]{ CZ e Z ~
/c L ]

1 66

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

,g6,]xVC
6, yZX DEg q
-Zp{
DEg{x **
L gzZ Dgz$ ~Dpt, x
g J
-u ]c*
Zzg KZ0 kg Z z} Zg Z {z}g zz XX
F,
yZX g} [ Z0 6C
gzZ gg + Dx gzZ

r
# x ~g s ~uz Dx ^zgt~
@
yzg7kg Z 6,i s sZ LZ {z J
-Z
# k ]Z|
kg ZVrZzz~gz<
gzZ ~yZ1D WD

> 2ig !*
-Z~ wkg Zt 6,x **
q
yzX c*
n b yz
,qv c*
R,
~Eg , D7it L{zkZ
yZgzZ D q0g skg Z CW06,yZ Z
# 1,yz}
b & YZx Vg6,Y@*
[Z0 wZ
kg ZtX D Y {g tW!*
is6,x **
b & Zk\Z1

4gzZ ~g h
+]
. kZ k\Z 1 @*
!*
x Z + D{z, +
, @*
x6,_ g @*
D7yztag

[z[ WgzZ e~g Z)f kg Z VM ~g


/]+Z +Z
0 ` W17gZ)f #
~g X H Za ]zg Db

Z (,
aV tgzZX s7gzZ g Z)f kZ ]qkgZ
X e**
bT g7bkZyzkg Z{z,
///

1 65

gZkgZgzZ~y~ZiWq
-

[Zq)kg Z~q)

D~* TX xsZ {z *
@Y
/Z
Z g D *

V
KZ0C
y.zxEx ]~zgTbkZ

kg KZ xsZ
z DV
KZX ~gzaF,
zyYgzZ qzg
c*
gzi { c*
i6,qxEvzb~gz kZ xsZX c*
kgZL L{

**
x`
7,[I)c*
**
qxE~z*~V G~gzT

**
qVg 7 Vz%s:xsZ~gzq
-g@*
, Z *
@Y
kgZ sZt, C "
$U*
]!*
t _ V1 ]g@*
X c*
g Z
n

gW gz0*
6,
3 ZgW Y(h
+]
.M%Zz \g- `W0 +

kgZ 7Z ;g B2 ,~ Vz0
+Z
\g- Z
# X
X HgD7ZgzZ{ZgS7Z
*t ` W, Hg bkZ y.zxE\g- IZ sZ kgZ
g o* ~g7 e
$ Z X g7]Z XZ 6 t
wZzi yZ y kZ ~ qzS0
+Zh Z
# V X
{z ` W c*
Zzsg VZ TsZ kg Z X
H qz
g Z)f Z(,
q)sZ kg ZX
H{gJ
-{ kg s
KZ0 Y f .x **
` Wst X A 7gzZyZ\W
W{ Z'

,
u .x **
gzZ WyW]z gLZzz46,