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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

UNIVERSAL AXLE COUNTER


FOR RAILWAYS

CENTRAL ELECTRONICS LIMITED


SAHIBABAD (U.P.) INDIA

SUBMITED BY:

KIRAN NAUTIYAL
III-Year
(ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING)
HINDUSTAN INSTIUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

1
GREATER NOIDA.

CONTENTS

1. Certificate

2. Acknowledgement

3. Company Profile
(a) The organization – CEL
(b) Divisions of CEL
(c) Products of CEL
(d) Nation’s Pioneer & World leader in SPV
(e) Innovative Electronic System
(f) Quality Policy of CEL

4. Universal Axle Counter


(a) Introduction
(b) Flow chart of manufacturing
(c) Principle of working
(d) Brief description
(e) Specifications

5. Description of various modules of Axle Counter System

6. Other products of CEL


(a) SPV products
(b) Cathodic protection system
(c) Ferrite Products

7. New Products

8. Self Evaluation

2
3
PROFILE

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF CEL

CHAIRMAN &
MANAGING DIRECTOR

GENERAL GENERAL
MANAGER MANAGER
(CP & HRD) (PROJECT
MANAGEMENT)

Jt. GENERAL Jt. GENERAL


MANAGER MANAGER
(FINANCE) (MATERIALS
MANAGEMENT)

EXECUTIVE AGM
DIRECTOR (QUALITY
(OPERATIONS) ASSURANCE)

GENERAL Jt. GENERAL AGM


MANAGER MANAGER (FERRITE)
(SYSTEMS) (MICROWAVE)

GENERAL Jt. GENERAL Jt.GM


MANAGER MANAGER (CERAMICS)
(SPV) (R&D)

4
DIVISIONS OF CEL

Five business groups handle the total commercial operations of the


Company. These are as follows:

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC GROUP (SPV):


CEL, backed by an integrated production facility, has opened up new
horizons in the field of Solar Photovoltaics. It fulfils the various demands
from rural & urban areas, thus, harnessing the solar energy. The products
of this division are Solar Cells, Modules and systems, which serve the
industrial needs of Railway Signaling, Microwave Repeaters, Defence
equipments, Obstruction warning lights at airports, etc. and rural needs
such as pumping systems for irrigation, street lighting systems, solar
lanterns and rural telecommunications.

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS GROUP (ESG):

The Company is a pioneer in manufacturing of Railway Signaling and


Safety Equipments. It manufactures Axle Counters, Railway Level
Crossing Warning System, Solid State Interlocking System for Railways.
The other products of this division include Electronic Switching System,
Cathodic Protection System for underground pipelines and VSAT.

5
COMPONENTS GROUP:

A large range of products is manufactured here using state-of-art


technologies to meet the requirements of communications, defense,
consumer and industrial sectors.

It is divided into three sub departments. Their products and applications


are as follows:

(a) Professional Ferrites:

This department manufactures different types of ferrite cores for


high frequency applications. The different types of cores
manufactured are Pot cores, E, U, I, RM, torroids etc. These are
called professional because they require highly sophisticated
techniques for their manufacture and give a superior performance.
The various applications of ferrite cores include TV sets,
Communication equipments, computers, electronic ballasts, switch
mode power supplies (SMPS) and Microwave equipments.

(b) Electronic Ceramics:

This department manufactures piezo-electric transducer elements,


high temperature crucibles, high speed bearings and other alumina
products. These products are used in Defense ammunitions,
Ultrasonic cleaners, Buzzers, Sonars, Gas Lighters, Automobiles,
etc.

(c) Microwave Electronics:

This department manufactures microwave components such as


Phase Shifters used in Radars, Direction Finding Systems,
Frequency Correlators, Antennas, etc.

6
PRODUCTS OF CEL

The organization manufactures different products that can be classified


according to the divisions of CEL as follows:

Solar Photovoltaic Group :

• Solar Cells/Modules
• Solar Lantern
• Street Light System
• Home Light System
• Water Pumping System

Electronic Systems Group :

• Single / Multiple Entry / Exit Axle counters


• Universal Axle counters
• Block proving system
• Railway Level Crossing Warning system
• Solid State Interlocking System for Railways
• Cathodic Protection system
• Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT)
• Electronic Switching Equipments

Components Group :

• Different types of ferrite cores like Pot, RM, E, U, I, etc


• Piezoelectric transducer elements
• Special Bearings used in Heavy Water Plants
• Microwave Ferrite Phase shifters
• Direction Finding Systems
• Frequency / Phase Correlators

7
NATION’S PIONEER & WORLD
LEADER IN SOLAR
PHOTOVOLTAIC

In an era of growing energy needs and rising concern for environment,


solar energy, the abundant and pollution free non-conventional energy
source, offers the best alternative solution.

CEL, with its commitment to harness the solar energy, has opened up
new vistas in the field of solar photovoltaics; CEL is the poignant and
the largest producer of solar photovoltaics.

Backed by an integrated production facility, CEL has made accumulative


supply of over 1.5 lakhs SPV systems (20 MW) spread over 28 different
types, covering both rural and industrial applications. The company has
not only given a fillip to the Indian SPV market but also exported
products to Indonesia, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Cuba, Nepal,
Mali, Columbia and Costa Rica.

CEL has successfully transferred technology for manufacturing SPV


Modules and Systems to Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Ltd. India
in 1985 and very recently to Scientific Studies and Research Center
(SSRC), Syria in May 1997. This is the first case of SPV Technology
Export from the Developing World.

CEL’s SPV Modules conform to the international specifications – JPL


Block V and IEC specification No. CEI / IEC 61215. CEL SPV Modules
were certified by European Solar Test Installations (ESTI), JRC,
Ispra, Italy.

8
INNOVATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

Signalling & Safety Systems for the Indian Railways :-

CEL is the pioneer Public Sector Company supplying Railway


Signaling and Safety equipments to Indian Railways.

CEL continually identifies new requirements of the Railways and


develops / manufactures the same in association with Research, Design
and Standards Organization (RDSO) and Railway Board.

The Company is currently engaged in development of Digital Axle


Counter in association with RDSO and Department of Scientific
Industrial Research (DSIR).

The product is undergoing extensive field trials in different zones of


Indian Railways and software validation is under progress. The product
is expected to be deployed in Indian Railway’s Signalling network in
large numbers by the end of year 2002.

Cathodic Protection Systems :-

CEL supplies Automatic Cathodic Protection Systems for the protection


of oil / gas pipelines to organizations like Indian Oil Corporation,
ONGC and GAIL.

The Company supplies different types of Cathodic Protection Systems


operating with solar photovoltaic or thermoelectric power sources or
operating on grid supply.

9
QUALITY POLICY

The complete manufacturing operation, marketing and installation


services of the company is certified under ISO 9002 : 1994. The
company has enunciated the following quality policy to meet customer
needs and expectations through supply of quality products and services.

“CEL is committed to strive for leadership in the product marketed


by the way of continuous improvements in the quality of its products
and services and meeting the consumers needs in time and every time
at a competitive price.

These shall be achieved through continuous upgrading of


technology and process improvement by involving all the employees,
vendors, dealers and customers.

Quality is our basic business principle.”

10
UNIVERSAL
AXLE COUNTER
FOR RAILWAYS

11
INTRODUCTION
Axle counters were developed as a substitute for track circuiting. Initially
axle counters were imported from Germany to gain experience and to
evaluate their suitability for adoption on Indian Railways. Having gained
acceptability for introduction on a wide scale on Indian Railways, it was
considered to take up indigenous development of axle counters, which
was taken up in collaboration with IIT, Delhi and DOE. Two models of
axle counters known as single entry/exit axle counter and multi entry/exit
axle counters emerged and after extensive laboratory and field trails
under various conditions, the design was finalized and commercialized
through private sector as well as public sector.

Based on the feedback from field, a new axle counter has been developed
by RDSO, known as “UNIVERSAL AXLE COUNTER”.

NEED FOR AXLE COUNTERS :

The track circuits are considered as the vital components of signaling


system to achieve safety of train operations. Various Accident Enquiry
Committees have recommended to bring more and more tracks under
track circuiting to safeguard against reception of trains on occupied lines.
The track circuiting could not achieve desired progress due to virtual
scarcity of wooden sleepers, prohibitive cost and environmental
consciousness in the country and the world at large. Availability of
concrete sleepers have solved the problem to some extent but track
circuiting on loop lines, points and crossings still suffers for want of
adequate supply and insertion of concrete sleepers.

ADVANTAGES :

The advantages of Axle Counter over a conventional track circuit are:


(i) It does not require wooden sleepers (where concrete sleepers
are not available) except for short track circuits to suppress the
counts due to movement of insulated trolleys.

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(ii) An Axle Counter System can cover a very long section of upto
15 km as compared to 750 mtrs. of maximum length of
operation of conventional track circuit.
(iii) It does not get affected either by flooding of track or poor
maintenance of tracks unlike track circuits, which is highly
susceptible to these conditions.
(iv) It does not require insulating joints, thus, rails can be
continuously welded. This reduces track maintenance cost,
lower wear and tear of tracks and vehicles and to increase
traveling comfort.

APPLICATIONS :
Axle counters are finding more and more uses on modern safety
signaling systems in the railways. These are being used presently for the
following applications:

(i) Monitoring of berthing tracks in station areas and yards.


(ii) Monitoring of point zones in station areas and yards.
(iii) Automatic signaling systems.
(iv) Block section monitoring (between stations) through axle
counters using multiplexers with cable or radio communication
(18 GHz).
(v) Level crossing warning system.

13
FLOW CHART FOR
MANUFACTURING OF AXLE
COUNTER
Fabrication Electronic Components
Raw Materials
PCB
COMPONENT MOUNTING
CABINET FABRICATION

INSPECTION
INSPECTION

Rejected Accepted
Rejected Accepted
WAVE SOLDERING

Mechanical
Components CLEANING
REWORK
MECHANICAL FITTING STATION

INSPECTION

Rejected Accepted
CABINET WIRING
CARD TESTING

LACQUERING

SYSTEM INTEGRATION

SYSTEM TESTING

INSPECTION

SHIPMENT
14
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
Signal aspect for train movement is controlled based on clear or occupied
status of the track section. If a train occupies the track section, signal at
the entry point of the section is made RED and the next train is stopped
from entering into the section. When the track section is clear the signal
is made GREEN and the train is allowed to proceed into the section.

The clear or occupied condition of the track section is decided by Axle


Counter by counting the number of axles of train at entry and exit points
of the section. The axle counter compares the IN and OUT counts and in
case of count equality TRACK CLEAR signal is given. In all other
conditions TRACK OCCUPIED signal is given.

Signal Signal

R1 R2 Railway Track R3 R4

T1 T2 T3 T4
Entry Point Track Section Exit Point

Signal Control
Relay Output

Cable EVALUATOR
Cable

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AXLE COUNTER INSTALLATION

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BRIEF DESCRIPTION
The Axle Counter is an electronic device and the complete system
consists of :

(i) Track mounting and trackside equipment.

(ii) Transmission media between trackside equipment and central


evaluator.

(iii) Central evaluator with EV relays and SUP relays as its output.

(iv) Reset box.

(v) Line verification box.

Track mountings and track side equipments :

The track mounting equipment consists of a pair of transmitter and


receiver coils housed in specially designed housings, which are fixed to
flange of a rail section by means of suitable rail clamps using bolts and
nuts. Each detection point has two sets of such tracks devices mounted on
same rail with a fixed stagger between them. The two transmitter coils of
a detection point are connected in series to 5 kHz oscillators housed in
electronic junction box which is installed in a location box by the side of
the track. The output of two receiver coils of a detection point serve as
inputs to two receivers amplifiers housed in the same electronic junction
box through cables which are part of the track mounting equipment.
Electronic junction box is powered by 24 V DC supply.

Transmission media between trackside equipment and central


evaluator :

The connection between trackside equipment and central evaluator is


made using balanced twin twisted quad cables of specification IRS:
TC/41/90. The output of electronic junction box and input of central
evaluator are matched for an impedance of about 180 ohms at 5 kHz.

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There is attenuation of signal from electronic junction box to central
evaluator, which limits the length of the cable. Other media such as optic
fiber and wireless system may also be used in place of cable by
incorporating appropriate interfacing equipment at transmitting and
receiving ends.

Central evaluator with EV relay and SUP relay as its output :

The signals received from electronic junction boxes are processed in the
central evaluator first by analog circuits and then by digital circuits to
produce suitable output in terms of picking up or dropping of EV and
SUP relays. The Dip’s generated by wheels as they pass over the track

devices installed at detection points, after they get processed, generate


count pulses in a fail safe manner.

These pulses are identified as ‘IN COUNTS’ or ‘OUT COUNTS’


depending on the direction of movement of vehicles over the monitored
section. The counts are also displayed through the 7-segment display on
the front panel of the evaluator. The display unit is useful in fault
localization and initial and periodical adjustments.

The evaluator is provided with its own power supply unit known as DC –
DC converter mounted in the same rack and requires 24 V DC supply for
its operation. The output of the EV and SUP relays are used to indicate
“TRACK CLEARED” or “TRACK OCCUPIED” conditions.

Reset Box :

This equipment is installed in the station master’s room to enable


resetting of central evaluator in case of failure of system after observing
prescribed procedure. The reset unit consists of a RESET key (which gets
actuated after inserting, turning and pressing), the counter and 3 LED
indications (Red, Yellow and Green). This unit requires 24 V DC supply
for its operation. This unit functions in conjunction with the line
verification box.

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Line Verification Box :

This box is required to be kept near monitored track portion outside


Station Master’s (SM) office for achieving co-operative feature. This is a
box consisting of a lock with a key fixed inside. The lock gets actuated
only when the key is inserted, turned and pressed. Whenever there is a
failure of axle counter, SM will depute his ASM/Switchman to verify
whether the track section controlled by axle counter is clear or not.
ASM/Switchman after verification of the track, if found clear, will report
to SM who in turn will handover the key of line verification box for
operation.

TYPE OF SYSTEMS :

There are four types of system used in the Indian Railways. They are
named below :

(i) One Device (1-D) System.

(ii) Two Device (2-D) System.

(iii) Three Device (3-D) System.

(iv) Four Device (4-D) System.

1-D System:

In this system, there is a common detection point at entry and exit point
of monitored section. This system is useful for monitoring the berthing
track of terminal yard. A train after passing the detection point generates
pulses equal to axles in it and these pulses are counted and stored by the
evaluator as ‘IN COUNTS’.

At the time of exit of train, the same detection point will be encountered
and it generates the same number of pulses as that during the entry. These
pulses are counted and recorded as ‘OUT COUNTS’ by the evaluator.
When the IN COUNTS and OUT COUNTS are equal, the system gives a

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“Track clear” indication, otherwise it gives the “Track occupied”
indication.

2-D System :

The principle of working of this system is similar to 1-D System except


that in this system there are two detection points, one at each end of the
monitored section. This system is useful for providing track circuiting on
berthing track.

3-D System :

In this system, there are three detection points. The principle of working
of this system is similar to 2-D system. This system is useful for
providing track circuitry on points, crossings and sidings.

4-D System :

In this system, there are four detection points. The principle of working
of this system is similar to 2-D system. The system is useful for
providing track circuiting on branch lines, sidings and points and
diamond crossings.

The design of 4-D system is such that it can be converted into a 2-D
system or a 3-D system and vice–versa.

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SPECIFICATIONS
Universal Axle Counter System mainly comprises of following
equipments :
1. Rack, ACS-55/56/57 -- (Common type for all models) 1 No.
2. Evaluator -- EV – 542 / 543 / 544 1 No.
th
3. DC-DC converter -- (inside Evaluator only as 10 Card) 1 No.

4. Electronic Junction -- for 2D system (ACS-55-2D) 2 Nos.


box , JB-533 -- for 3D system (ACS-56-3D) 3 Nos.
-- for 4D system (ACS-57-4D) 4 Nos.

5. Reset box -- RB – 257B 1 No.

6. Track Device -- for a 2D system (ACS-55-2D) 2 Nos.


Assembly -- for a 3D system (ACS-56-3D) 3 Nos.
TR – 556 -- for a 4D system (ACS-57-4D) 4 Nos.

7. Line verification box -- LV – 261 1 No.

PARAMETER SPECIFICATIONS
1. No. of Detection Points
ACS-55 / 56 / 57 2/3/4

2. Maximum Train Speed 200 kmph

3. Counting Capacity 1023

4. Max. Line Attenuation (over cable) 20 dB

5. Signal Input (5 KHz) sinusoidal Min. 150 mv.rms


Max. 1500 mv.rms
6. Relay Drive Voltage for 1000 ohm
Shelf type 4F / 4B relay or Q Style > 10 V
Plug in Relay 1000 ohm, 4F / 4B

20
Power Requirement :

Powers required by various units are as follows :

DC – DC Converter 1.5 Amp max.


24 V (-10% to +20%)

Evaluator 24 V 1.5 Amps


(21.6 – 28.8 V DC)

Junction Box 24 V < 250 mA


(21.6 – 28.8 V DC)

Reset Box 24 V 500 mA


(21.6 – 28.8 V DC) (only when reset key is
pressed)

Environmental Conditions :
Relative Humidity 95 % - 98%
Non Condensing
Temperature range :

Universal Evaluator 0 to + 60 ˚C

Junction Box & Track Devices 0 to + 70 ˚C

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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
The approximate dimensions and weights of various units of Universal
Axle Counter are given as follows :

Name of UNIT WIDTH DEPTH HEIGHT WEIGHT


(mm) (mm) (mm) (kg)
SINGLE 570 650 1065 70
RACK
DOUBLE 600 650 1460 100
EVALUATOR 482 439 310 21
JUNCTION BOX 208 280 170 5
RESET BOX 255 175 115 2.3
TRACK DEVICE 515 330 170 15
ASSEMBLY
LINE
VERIFICATION 150 135 80 1.20
BOX

Colour :

The rack is painted in a combination of light and dark grey colours.


Evaluator, Junction box and Reset box are also painted in the same
colour combination. The track devices are painted in black colour.

IDENTIFICATION :
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Rack :

The identification label of the rack is put at the left hand top on the front
side of the rack with inscription.
a) For a 2D system Universal axle Counter, ACS – 55 with EV –
542 Evaluator.
b) For a 3D Universal Axle Counter System, ACS – 56 with EV –
543 Evaluator.
c) For a 4D Universal Axle Counter System, ACS – 57 with EV -
544 Evaluator.

The serial no. label is mounted on the right hand top side of the rack at
the back.

Evaluator :

The label “Evaluator, EV - 542”, “EV - 543” or “EV - 544”, for a 2D, 3D
or a 4D system respectively is marked on the front side of the evaluator.
The serial no. label is on the back side.

Junction Box :

On the top (front) of the Junction Box the label “JUNCTION BOX, (JB-
533)” given whiles the serial no. label is on the back plate.

Reset Box :

The label “RB – 257B” is given on the front side. The Sr. No. label is on
the back side.

Line Verification Box :

The label “LINE VERIFICATION BOX, LV - 261” is put on the front


side and the Sr. No. label is on the right side cover.

Track Devices :

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Labels indicating the Tx and Rx coil of the Track Devices are given on
each track transducer.

DC – DC Converter :

It is the 10th Card Module inside the Evaluator and it is marked as


“POWER SUPPLY”.

24
DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS
MODULES OF AXLE COUNTER
SYSTEM :

1. EVALUATOR :

The Evaluator consists of 10 PCB modules. The interconnections


between the various PCB cards are made with the help of a
motherboard. The polarization arrangement (to avoid wrong insertion
of modules) is provided on the aluminum modular sheets in each.
Hence it is important to ensure correct fitting of modular shield in
each card. In the Universal Axle Counter System manufactured by
Central Electronics Limited , relevant card number has been number
punched for easy identification to ensure correct fitting of modular
shields. A brief description of each P.C. assembly is given below.

(a) Attenuator/Amplifier & Rectifier Card (Card no. 1) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It contains four


identical channels , each comprising of a 5 kHz high pass filter , a line
matching transformer, attenuator pads, a two stage amplifier and a full
wave rectifier. The output of each channel can be set precisely by
means of a lockable shaft potentiometer mounted at the front end of
the PCB module. Typical output is 300 mv (P-P) or 105-mv rms.

(b)Attenuator/Amplifier & Rectifier Card (Card no. 2) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It contains four


identical channels , each comprising of a 5 kHz high pass filter , a line
matching transformer, attenuator pads, a two stage amplifier and a full
wave rectifier. The output of each channel can be set precisely by
means of a lockable shaft potentiometer mounted at the front end of
the PCB module. Typical output is 300 mv (P-P) or 105-mv rms.

25
For 1D and 2D Systems, there will be one such card (Card no. 1)
while for 3D and 4D Systems, the evaluator will have two nos. of
such cards (Card nos. 1 & 2).

(c) Pulse Shaper Card (Card no. 3) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It contains four


identical channels, each consisting of a low pass filter, a Schmitt
trigger, an impulse time filter and a 10 V to 5 V level converter. The
outputs of these channels are TTL compatible. In addition to above,
each channel comprises of a Trolley Suppression Circuit.

(d)Pulse Shaper Card (Card no. 4) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It contains four


identical channels, each consisting of a low pass filter, a Schmitt
trigger, an impulse time filter and a 10 V to 5 V level converter. The
outputs of these channels are TTL compatible. In addition to above,
each channel comprises of a Trolley Suppression Circuit.

For 1D and 2D Systems, there will be one such card (Card no. 3)
while for 3D and 4D Systems, the evaluator will have two nos. of
such cards (Card nos. 3 & 4).

(e) Logic – I (Card no. 5) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). This card


generates ‘IN COUNTS’ and ‘OUT COUNTS’, depending upon the
direction of the train movement, due to the dips caused form the track
transducers E, F, G, H. In addition to main count pulses, duplicate
incount and outcount pulses are also generated here for supervision
purpose. The ‘IN COUNT’, ‘OUT COUNT’, ‘Duplicate In count’ and
‘Duplicate Out count’ pulses are fed separately to different combiner
gates housed in card 6 (Logic II) and thereafter fed to the counter card
(Card 7) for further processing.

26
As E, F, G, H channel inputs are used only in case of 3D or 4D
Systems, card 5 will be used only with the 3D and 4D Evaluators.

(f) Logic – II (Card no. 6) :

This is also a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). This card
houses the logic circuitry to generate ‘IN COUNTS’, ‘OUT
COUNTS’, ‘DUPLICATE IN COUNTS’ and ‘DUPLICATE OUT
COUNTS’ due to the dips caused from channel inputs from the track
detection points A, B, C and D. It also has combiner gates, which
combine the count pulses generated from all the detection points AB,
CD, EF and GH. The outputs of these gates are fed to the counter card
(Card no. 7) for counting and counts supervision.

Card 6 also has an ‘INTERROGATOR’ circuit. This generates four


clock pulse trains. All these four pulse trains are staggered in phase,
with each of these pulse trains having a phase difference of 25 µ secs.
As compared to the subsequent one.

The interrogator ensures that even if more than one incount or more
than one outcount are fed simultaneously from different detection
point, the final count pulses fed to the counter card get staggered and
thus counts are not missed.

In addition to above, this PCB also houses the IN/OUT supervision


circuits, both counter checking each other. In case of any malfunction
the system latches to failure condition. This card also houses the 1st
outcount inhibit circuit which ensures latching up of the system in the
event of 1st count getting registered being an ‘OUT COUNT’ instead
of an ‘IN COUNT’.

(g) Counter Comparator (Card no.7) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). This card


houses two 10 stage digital counters. One for counting the ‘IN
COUNTS’ and the other for ‘OUT COUNTS’. It also has count super-
vision circuits, both for in counts as well as the out counts, to check
the integrity of the counters. In addition, there are two comparators;

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one being a duplicate of the other, to compare the counts from the two
counters the ‘IN COUNTER’ and the ‘OUT COUNTER’.

The outputs of the comparators are further compared with EX-OR


chain to ensure integrity of the comparators.

(h) General Supervision Card (Card no. 8) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It houses the


following evaluator circuits :

(i) Comparator Supervision.


(ii) A series of monoshots forming a chain for static supervision
i.e. to prove the effectiveness of a number of DC levels of
the system and a few ground points.
(iii) Pulse Shaper (Card no. 3 and 4) supervision for all the eight
channels.
(iv) Failure Supervision.

(j) Relay Driver (Card no. 9) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm) and it houses


the following circuits :

(i) Level detector circuits for all the 8 channel inputs to


ensure the presence of proper channel input levels.

(ii) The ‘VOLTAGE MONITOR’, which serves as, a


‘WATCH DOG’ for the +5V power supply to the
Evaluator.

(iii) Relay driver outputs for driving the EV relay and the
supervisory relay.

(k)Counts Display Card :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm) containing four


seven segment LED’s for ‘IN COUNTS’ and four seven segment
LED’s for ‘OUT COUNTS’ and it can count upto 1023 counts in both

28
the display. This card is mounted on front panel of evaluator and
counts are recorded in decimal system.

(l) EV & SUP Relay Indication LEDs :

The output of the Evaluator is used to drive two 12 Volts DC, 4F/4B
shelf type relays or 12 Volts DC, Q-style 4F/4B plug-in relays which
are used to indicate the track clear or track occupied indications to
control signal aspects. Two 10 mm dia. LEDs (Green and Red) have
been provided in the front side of the Axle Counter Rack in a metallic
strip for locally displaying the position of the above relays. These
LEDs have to be suitably wired at the time of installation as per
requirements from the terminal strip connections provided at the rear
side of the Axle Counter Rack.

(m) Mother Board :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 420 mm X 260 mm) mounted at the
back of the Evaluator. The PCB is mounted at right angles to the other
10 PC Cards and serves the purpose of providing various
interconnections between them. The female parts of the Euro
Connectors are mounted on this PCB and corresponding male parts
which are mounted on the PCBs (Cards 1 to 10) mate with them when
the card modules are inserted in the unit. The mother board also
provides access, through MS Couplers, to feed various inputs like
channel inputs from the tracks, power supply and trolley protection
and to feed outputs to the EV and the Supervisory Relays kept in the
rack.

(n)Reset Relay :

This is mounted at the back of the Evaluator on the motherboard. A


67DP-24-4C3 OEN Relay is mounted on this PCB with a mounting
socket. This Relay resets the System whenever required to do so.

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ELECTRONIC JUNCTION BOX (EJB) :

The Electronic Junction Box houses PCB modules which are inter-
connected through motherboard. All the incoming / outgoing signals

are terminated on the MS Couplers (7 pin) mounted at the back of the


junction box. Two types of outputs are available from the EJB. The
output of the EJB is sent to the Evaluator either through a 4 wire or a
2-wire system.

(a) 4-Wire System :

In a 4-Wire System, two pairs of under ground cable are required to


send transition signal to evaluator for counting the dips. In this system
there are three PCBs consisting of common oscillator feeding to two
transmitter coils in series and two number of receiver amplifiers, one
for each receiver coil. The sequence of cards is, regulator and
oscillator in first position, first amplifier in 2nd position and second
amplifier in the 3rd position from left to right.

Detail of individual cards :

CARD No. 1 :
Regulator / Oscillator Card. (Size : 200 mm X 110 mm)

This is a single sided PCB (size : 200mm X 110 mm), which


generates 5 KHz ±20 Hz sinusoidal signal which is fed to the
transmitter coils in series. The output voltage is 60 V ± 10% (rms) and
current supplied is 420 mA ± 10% in the coils in series.

CARD No. 2 :
Receiver Amplifier-1. (Size : 200 mm X 110 mm)

This is a single sided PCB of size same as that of card 1 and it rejects
any noise over riding in the signal by means of a two stage tuned
amplifier. The output of the receiver coil (1) is fed to the input of the
amplifier. The output of the amplifier is connected to the Evaluator
and voltage is more than 1.2 V (rms).

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CARD No. 3 :
Receiver Amplifier-2. (Size : 200 mm X 110 mm)
This card is exactly similar to card no. 2 and is used for receiver
coil(2).

(b) 2-Wire System :

In 2-wire system, a 4th card is inserted in the EJB, which converts the
frequency of the second receiver amplifier signal to 3.5 KHz with the
use of converters. Thus, 2-wire system is having output on 2-wire and
consists of 4 cards, namely the regulator / oscillator card, the receiver
amplifier card-1, the receiver amplifier card-2 and 4W / 2W card. This
is used in block working at Advance starters only.

The sequence of cards is :

(i) Regulator / Oscillator Card.


(ii) Receiver Amplifier Card-1.
(iii) Receiver Amplifier Card-2.
(iv) 4W / 2W Converter Card.

2. RESET BOX :

This box houses one 12 way PIRI terminal strip for terminating IN /
OUT signals. The indication LEDs of the reset box are fitted in LED
holders and projected to the front for indication. Green and Red
indications are given for track clear and track occupied conditions.
The Yellow LED indicates co-operative permission for resetting the
Axle Counter.

3. TRACK DEVICE ASSEMBLY :

The Single Rail Track Device Assembly consists of two transmitter


and two receiver coils assembly, which are fitted with suitable
mounting arrangements on the rail camp, which in turn is fitted to the

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rails. The two transmitter coils at each of the detection point are fed in
series by a 5 KHz sinusoidal signal from the junction box, which
forms an electromagnetic field across the receiver coils. The receiver
coil in turn generates induced voltage. The induced voltage drops to a
minimum whenever there is an axle between the transmitter and the
receiver coils.

(a) Track Device Transmitter :

The transmitter coil is placed in a FRP housing and it is potted in


place by m-seal compound. It is fixed on the rail clamp on the
outer side of the rail. Each transmitter coil will be provided with
a 10 meter, 24 / 0.2 PVC cable.

(b) Track Device Receiver :

The receiver coil is housed in a composite aluminium fiber glass


housing and is potted in place by the means of an m-seal
compound. The receiver housing is fixed on the base clamp on
the inner side of the rail. Each receiver coil will be powered with
a 10 meter, 24 / 0.2 PVC cable.

4. POWER SUPPLY :

The Power Supply, to the Evaluator is fed by a DC–DC Convertor.


The various output voltage of the DC–DC Convertor are as follows :

+ 5 V@ 5Amp. with ± 0.1% line & load regulation.

+ 5 V@ 5Amp. with ± 0.1% line & load regulation.

+ 10 V isolated @500 mA.

The DC-DC Convertor in turn derives its power from a + 24 V dc


source i.e. a battery bank.

The Junction Box (JB - 531) and the Reset Box (RB – 257B) are also
powered from + 24 V dc battery bank.

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PRODUCTION TESTING & TEST PROCEDURE :

The semi – conductor devices like diodes and transistors used are of high
reliability type. The other vital components like ICs mostly are the
commercial grade ICs which will undergo burn in at 60°C with dc power
‘ON’ for 72 hours.

This will eliminate the failure of critical components after the assembly
of the PCB.

WAVE SOLDERING :

All the PCB’s assembly will be wave soldered for good reliability and
also coated with lacquer to withstand climatic conditions.

INSPECTION :

Each unit will be examined for proper workmanship, fitness, finish and
proper markings. Also each unit will be tested thoroughly as per the test
schedules mentioned in the test report before the final shipment.

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SPECIAL FEATURES

The Universal Axle Counter has the following special features :

PCB LAYOUT :

Better PCB layouts to have supply feeding and decoupling for better
noise immunity.

MOTHER BOARD :

The use of mother board gives extra noise immunity as compared to back
panel wiring.

RACK :

The Evaluator is housed in a rack fabricated out of M.S. sheet. This gives
good noise immunity against electromagnetic interference.

SHIELDING :

The Rack is well shielded for better noise immunity. All the metallic
frames of the rack are interconnected to the main frame by means of 34 /
0.3 wire. Shielded cables will be used in system, shield of which is
connected to the back panel of the Evaluator.

CARD INSERTION :

Each Card alongwith a module is guided separately.

CARD MODULES :

Each Card is provided with a module alongwith the identification label.

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CARD POLARISATION :

Polarizing holes on the card modules and guiding pins from the Mother
Board side are used to provide card polarization to ensure correct card
slotting.

MODULE TIGHTENING SCREWS AND CARD HANDLES :

Module tightening screws are provided to fix the cards along with the
module in the unit smoothly. By loosening, the cards can be removed
from the unit. Two card handles are provided on each module. The
modules can be taken out with the help of these handles.

COUNTS DISPLAY :

The Counts display is given on a PCB and mounted on the front panel
inside and is viewed through display viewing plate at the front panel of
the Evaluator.

EVALUATOR MARKINGS :

In each unit input /output labels, the supply, channel markings and trolley
protection A / B, C / D are marked.

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36
OTHER PRODUCTS OF CEL

SOLAR WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS :

A Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System essentially consists of an


SPV panel or array directly powering a water pump. Water pumped
during the day can be stored in the storage tanks for use during the night.

CEL offers SPV Water Pumping Systems for both shallow as well as
deep well conditions. Such systems have been deployed all over the
country. The system has also been exported to many developing
countries.

The generated electricity from the SPV array is fed to the pump through a
switch. Normally low storage batteries are provided, as the water can be
stored in the storage tanks if required.

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS :

CEL’s Solar Photovoltaic Lighting Systems are ideal sources for


providing indoor/outdoor illumination in remote and unelectrified
settlements/ villages. The SPV Lighting System essentially consists of an
SPV panel battery, a charge controller and lights. The SPV panel
converts the sunlight incident on it directly to DC electricity that can be
stored in the battery and used to energize the lights when required. The
charge controller prevents the overcharging and deep discharge of the
battery.

SPV INDOOR LIGHTING SYSTEMS :

Two types of indoor lighting systems are available (DLS-02 and DLS-04)
depending on the lighting requirements. DLS-02 has two numbers of 9W

37
luminous efficiency lamps with wall mounting fittings. DLS-04 has four
such lamps. Each lamp can give the output of 60-watt incandescent lamp.

SPV OUTDOORS LIGHTING SYSTEMS :

These systems use a weather proof 18-watt or 20-watt fluorescent tube


light fittings. Two models SLS-03 and SLS-06 are available depending
on hours of operation in day. Switching ON at dusk and OFF after
specified hours of operation is automatic. The SPV panel, battery and the
tube-light fittings are mounted on a 4M long pole.

SOLAR LANTERNS :

CEL Solar Lantern is a versatile and a reliable source of lighting. It


consists of a lantern, a SPV module and a connecting cable. The SPV
module when exposed to light charges the battery in the lantern. This
stored energy in the battery is used to operate the lamp when required.

SPV MODULE :-

A number of high-grade crystalline silicon solar cells, interconnected in


series combination and hermetically sealed with a toughened glass
cover, form a SPV module.

SALIENT FEATURES :-

 ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY
 PORTABLE
 RUGGED AND DEPENDABLE
 SILENT OPERATION

APPLICATIONS :-

 EMERGENCY LIGHTING SOURCE


 LIGHTING SOURCE IN REMOTE VILLAGES
 LIGHTING AT PICNIC SPOTS AND FARM HOUSES
 GARDEN LIGHTING

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MILESTONES OF SPV SYSTEMS
DEVELOPMENT AT CEL

 SPV operated Radio set in Jammu & Kashmir - 1978


 SPV Irrigation Water Pumping System installed at Kalyani, West
Bengal – 1979
 SPV Pumping System for drinking water near Jaipur – 1980
 SPV Community Lighting Systems installed at SOS children’s
village, Leh, Ladakh, J&K – 1980
 SPV Community Television Systems installed at Kalyani, West
Bengal – 1980
 Special SPV Power Pack for the first Indian scientific expedition
to Antarctica – 1981
 First SPV Power System for unmanned off-shore oil well
platform of ONGC – 1982
 SPV operated Diesel Dispensing Pump – 1982
 Export of SPV Water Pumping and other System – 1983
 First SPV powered stand-alone Street Lighting System in
Salojipali, Andhra Pradesh – 1983
 SPV foldable modules for Everest-84 Expedition – 1984
 SPV systems for Direct Reception community TV sets of
Doordarshan – 1985
 SPV Systems for Cathodic Protection of oil pipelines – 1985
 SPV systems for Vaccine Refrigeration in village Health
Centers –1985
 Design and supply of first SPV Systems for very low powered
unmanned TV transmitter (VLPT) & TV Receiver Only (from
INSAT) (TVRO) terminals of Doordarshan - 1986
 Supply of SPV Power System for weather monitoring, lighting and
entertainment at an Avalanche Study Station at Rohtang Pass
(ALT : 3600 mtrs/12000 ft.) in the Himalayas – 1986
 SPV powered Lighting and Television System for army at
Siachin (ALT : 3600 – 5500 mtrs / 12000 ft.) in the Himalayas –
1987

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 Supply of first 2 KW power SPV Village Power Pack – 1987

 SPV systems for warning signals at Unmanned Railway Level


Crossings – 1988
 SPV Rural Deep well Water Pumping Systems for National
Drinking Water Mission - 1989
 SPV Power System for Rural Telecommunication transmission
and switching equipments – 1989
 Supply and installation of SPV Systems in village Hitam-ulu,
Sumatra, Indonesia – 1990
 SPV Lighting Systems for Adult Education under National
Literacy Mission – 1990
 Supply and installation of 6 KW Power Plant at Kariawali village
in U.P. – 1990
 Supply and installation of Asia’s first 100 KW SPV Power Plant
at Kalyanpur village near Aligarh, U.P. – 1992
 10 KW Power Generator for M.S. Swaminathan Foundation at
Taramani, Madras – 1993
 Supply of Foldable Lightweight SPV modules for powering Man
pack Communication – 1993

 Equipments for the defense services to operate in the temperature


range from –30°C to +55°C.

40
CATHODIC PROTECTION
SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION :

M/s Indian Oil Corporation Limited is presently laying 18” dia., 437 Km.
long pipe line in 2 segments for augmenting the capacity of existing OD
498 Km. long Haldia-Barauni Crude Oil pipeline from Haldia to Barauni.

Owner intends to provide permanent cathodic protection system


consisting of 13 nos. of impressed current cathodic protection station to
cathodically protect the underground coated pipeline for a design life of
35 years.

BASIS IN BRIEF :

Permanent CP System has been designed for CTE coating having coating
resistance of 7000 ohm / m factor of safety as 1.3. Designed life of anode
bed is 35 years and that of the CP system is 20 years.

SUMMARY OF PERMANENT CP SYSTEMS :

Designed current density considered for design : 125 microA/sq. mts.


Total no. of CP stations : 13 Nos.
Total designed current for entire span : 103.8 A
Max. design current of CP station : 10 A
Total no. of 22 Kg high silicone chrome anode : 250

PROJECT INFORMATION :

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The Haldia – Barauni Augmentation pipeline is starting from Haldia and
it terminates approximately 473 Km. away at HBPCL near Barauni.

Coating Details :

The pipelines shall have yard coated coal for tar coating with fiberglass
reinforcement. The coating resistance in normal soil shall be 7000 Ω/m.

Depth of pipeline :

Generally the HBPCL has proposed the pipeline to be laid at minimum


depth of 1 mt. from the ground level. Depth may increase to 9 mts. or
more depending on the soil.

High silicon-chrome anode and anode beds :

The anodes shall be High Silicon Chromium cast iron, cylindrical type.
Anodes shall be provided with encapsulated heads and heat sink caps
connected at top.

The technical data of the Hi-Si-Cr-Fe anodes assembly shall be as


under.
 ANODE TYPE : Hi-Si-Cr-Fe Anode
 DIMENSIONS : 65 mm. Dia. & 1 mt. long
 WEIGHT : 22 Kg.
 COMPOSITION: -

Si : 4 % to 15.5 %
Mn : 0.8 %
C : 1.4 %
Cr : 4.5 %
Fe : remaining

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PROFESSIONAL FERRITES

INTRODUCTION TO FERRITES :-

Ferrites are dense homogeneous ceramic structures having a general


molecular formula MFe2O4 where M is an oxide of a divalent metal.
When M has more than one metal than it is called Mixed Ferrite.

Ferrite has a process flexibility, which permits easy and economic


moulding into much different geometry. Besides there, Ferrites are
advantageous because they have high electrical resistivity resulting in
some eddy current loses over a wide frequency range, high permeability
and time and temperature stability as compared to other metallic
magnetic materials such as silicon steels.

The ferrites are used in Transformers, Telecommunications, TV industry,


Antennas, Defense Equipments, etc.

Application of different types of Ferrite cores :-

The ferrite cores that are produced in CEL are available in different sizes
and their uses are as follows :

a) Pot cores & RM cores :

These are used in stable low loss Filters, Inductors requiring high
Q, Chokes, Proximity switches, R.F. Transformers, low power
Converters & Inverters etc. for Telecommunications, Axle Counter
System for Railways and other Professional electronic
applications.

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b) Toroids :

They are used in Pulse Transformers, Delay lines, Chokes,


Converter / Inverter Transformers, Wide Band Transformers,
Impedance matching Transformers, etc.

c) Blocks :

They are used for Transmitter and Receiver application of Axle


Counters. They can also be used as building blocks for making
high power transmitters.

d) E, EI, ETD & EC Cores :

These types of cores are used in the Inverter/Converter Filters,


Chokes, Inverters for Fluorescent Lamps and Flash Light Inverters,
Switch Mode Power Supply for Television and Computers, etc.

e) U & UI Cores :

These cores are used in Insulation Testers, DC-to-DC Converters,


DC halogen lamp Inverters, Ultrasonic Cleaners and high voltage
Inverters. By stacking of these cores, high power transformers in
Kilowatt range can be manufactured.

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FERRITE PROCESS FLOW CHART

Iron Oxide
Batch CALCINATION
Zinc Oxide (PREFIRING)
Mixing

Manganese
Oxide

LUBRICANT BINDER

GRANULATION
PRESSING MILLING
(SPRAY DRYING)

PRODUCTION
SINTERING LAPPING TESTING

AIR GAP
PRINTING
ADJUSTMENT

STORES
QUALITY
AND
ASSURANCE
DESPATCH

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46
NEW PRODUCTS

SINGLE SECTION DIGITAL AXLE


COUNTER

A state-of-the-art Digital Axle Counter has been developed by CEL for


track monitoring of single section in railways.

The system is designed with :

• High frequency track coils.


• Track side electronic counting unit including vital relay drive.

The system has two detection points for monitoring either end of the
section. When the train is entering the section the wheel counts are
registered and stored in the 1st SSDAC unit. When the train is entering
the section the wheel counts are registered and stored in the 2nd SSDAC
unit. After exchange of counts stored in both SSDAC1 and SSDAC2
units, the section is declared as ‘CLEAR’ in case the counts are equal.
Otherwise the section is shown as ‘OCCUPIED’.

The health of SSDAC1 and SSDAC2 units are continuously monitored


and proved in vital relay drive circuits.

The vital relay drive is available independently at either end of the


section from SSDAC1 and SSDAC2 units.

47
SOLID STATE INTERLOCKING

Solid State Interlocking (SSI) is Signaling System to select and operate


the routes in station for guiding the movement of the trains. The system
replaces the conventional Route Relay Interlocking. The system is
designed with “2 out of 2” Microprocessor with hot standby. The system
has software redundancy.

The operator panel is used to control and command and display the status
of SSI.

FEATURES :

• System capacity: 450 Input, 72 Output.

• Dual Microprocessor Based (2 out of 2) Fail-safe design.

• Hot standby for High System Availability.

• On Line self-diagnostic facility.

• Data Logging with Time Stamping of all SSI Inputs and Outputs for
Off-line analysis.

• Opto Isolated Inputs and Outputs.

• Modular design for easy maintenance and expansion.

48
SOLAR POWERED RAILWAY
LEVEL CROSSING RADIO
WARNING SYSTEM

(SOLARGUARD ™)

CEL has developed this system, in association with Research, Designs


and Standards Organization (RDSO) for providing early warning of a
train / locomotive approaching unmanned level crossing, to the people
and road traffic crossing the Railway line.

SYSTEM OPERATION :

A track device actuated solar powered VHF transmitter located 3-4 Kms,
from the level crossing (i.e. Far End) sends a coded radio signal towards
the level crossing when an approaching train crosses the Far End. The
radio signal is received by solar powered receiver located at the level
crossing (Gate End) which after decoding the signal actuates an Audio-
Visual Alarm for forewarning the traffic. The system is ideal for remote
railway level crossings. The ruggedized system is under extensive field
trials.

49
SELF EVALUATION

These 45 days Industrial Training has led me to understand the various


designing, assembling and the manufacturing processes of equipments in
the industry, CEL.

It has also enhanced my knowledge about the functioning and


management of an industry, which I am sure, will be beneficial to me in
my career.

KIRAN NAUTIYAL
III-Year
(ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING)
HINDUSTAN INSTIUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
GREATER NOIDA.

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