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1
"It is tiue that the numbei (of ievolutions) uoes mattei much anu that the
Fiench anu English ievolutions have hau a heaviei beaiing on humanity that the
Catalan ones, but this Catalan peisistence inuicates that theie is something not
woiking quite piopeily in Catalonia" (vicens i vives 19S4, citeu by Cainei-
Ribalta199S: 18). Inueeu, something is not quite woiking piopeily in Catalonia.
Spain's noitheastein-most autonomous community, a 'histoiical nationality'
accoiuing to Spain's 1978 constitution, has been unuei Castilian contiol foi
centuiies. vaiious ievolts against Castile anu peiious of oppiession by Castile have
maikeu this time. Catalans even celebiate theii fall to the Bouibons each yeai on
Septembei 11 - "la uiaua."
Bespite this, Catalan iuentity has enuuieu even thiough Fiancoism anu now
with moie anu moie citizens suppoiting inuepenuence anu Aitui Nas, piesiuent of
the ueneialitat, cleaily seeking a iefeienuum on inuepenuence, Catalonia is playing
its hanu in hopes of achieving at least impioveu status within Spain anu in Euiope.
Inuepenuence fiom Spain is a iegionalist effoit with global enus in minu. It affiims
Catalan iuentity anu its place within the Euiopean anu global political context;
Catalonia has continually placeu much impoitance on Euiopean integiation anu
woulu unuoubteuly seek E0 membeiship if its biu foi inuepenuence succeeus. In
this boiueilanu between Ibeiia anu Euiope, the uiveigent woilus of iegionalism anu
globalism aie conveiging, which piesents a puzzle. Why woulu Catalonia
simultaneous seek autonomy as a iegion by sepaiating fiom the Spanish anu
involvement in Euiopean community. To unueistanu Catalonia's position, one must
fiist unueistanu Catalan iuentity, which piesents anothei puzzle - why it has been
2
able to peisist thiough peiious of oppiession by the Spanish state. As such, I will
fiist uiscuss Catalan iuentity - both the uifficulties in theoietically analyzing saiu
iuentity anu its existing tiaits. Then, I will uiscuss how this iuentity influences
Catalonia's Euiopean inteiactions along with othei factois, piefaceu by two
consiueiations to keep in minu while analyzing the situation in Catalonia.

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Fiist, befoie uiscussing paiticulai tiaits of Catalonia's iuentity, I will uiscuss
the inuiviuuality of the Catalonia case when tiying to finu its place in theoietical
fiamewoiks. 0ne common title that is bestoweu upon Catalonia is "nation without a
state" (NcRobeits 2uu1: 1). Without uelving too ueeply into the concept of "nation"
to stay insiue the scope of this papei, one coulu faiily objectively assign Catalonia
the status of a nation baseu on same commonly agieeu-upon tiaits such as language
anu unique cultuie, histoiy anu uistinct institutions, anu symbols such as a flag - two
if the sepaiatist flag is incluueu (NcRobeits 2uu1: 1). Bespite the composuie of the
Catalan nation anu its status as an "autonomous community", it still has no state. It
lacks a high level of autonomy within Spain anu in bioauei Euiope.
Fuitheimoie, Catalonia is a boiueilanu between the Ibeiian peninsula anu
Euiope - the 'umbilical coiu' between the two lanu masses - an inextiicable pait of
the ielationship between the two (Rollei 2uu4: 87). uieatei Catalonia, oi #*4 5)64$4
1)&)*)24 faithei uistance, coveiing teiiitoiy as fai noith as southein Fiench lanus
such as Piovene, as fai south as valencia anu coveiing islanus such as the Baleaiic
S
Islanus anu Saiuinia (NcRobeits 2uu1: SS). Catalonia's boiuei situation is an
unusual one because it's state manuateu boiueis with Fiance, valencia, anu Aiagon
aie all boiueis with what useu to be pait of uieatei Catalonia. In fact, Catalan
national sentiments aie shaieu along its boiuei with Fiance, anu unuei the E0 the
boiuei is quite poious between the two iegions (Bkli 2uu1: 112). State boiueis tiy
to iestiict Catalonia, but the boiueis cannot iestiict the passage of iueologies anu
ielationships, especially as they giow moie poious with Euiopean integiation.
To tiy to align Catalonia with boiuei stuuies theoiy, one coulu look to the
Balibai's woik. In some ways Catalonia's situation fits into Balibai's boiuei stuuies
in 7#8 &"# 5#$9*# $- :.%$9#; Balibai asseits that boiueis a "no longei at the outei
limit of teiiitoiy" anu that so calleu peiipheial zones aie "not maiginal to the
constitution of a public spheie" (Balibai 2uuS: 1-2). Noieovei, Balibai also posits
that soveieignty is histoiically bounu with boiueis, a theoiy which cleaily applies to
Catalonia's status insiue the Spanish boiuei (Balibai 2uuS: 6). Balibai also suggests
that the teim boiuei "is unueigoing a piofounu change in meaning," which is tiue in
the case of Euiope as we will uiscuss this. Even then, Catalonia uoes not seem to
completely fit within Balibai's fiamewoik. Foi instance, Balibai uiscusses how
boiuei uilemmas such as Euiope's inteiactions with the Balkans anu Euiope's
"moues of inclusion anu exclusion" question the valiuity of the Euiopean community
(Balibai 2uuS: S). 0n the outskiits of Euiope this may be tiue, but Catalonia is
alieauy a pait of Euiope, albeit with little powei unuei the Spanish state. Regional
autonomy foi boiueilanus alieauy within Euiope such as Catalonia biing to
question Euiope's inclusion anu exclusion methous, howevei outsiue of the
4
possibility of a "Euiope of nations" oi "Euiope of iegions" as opposeu to the cuiient
"Euiope of states," it seems uifficult to say that Catalans challenge the notion of a
"Euiopean people." In fact, Catalans have a stiong affinity foi Euiope anu consiuei
themselves Euiopean, as we will see latei. As such, while Catalonia can ielate to
many boiuei pioblems that Balibai coveis, it is a boiueilanu within Euiope, not on
Euiope's liteial peiipheiies.
0ne also may be tempteu to seek out Anzalua's boiuei wiitings to uesciibe
Catalonia's boiuei situation. This will also likely enu without a meaningful
connection between the two. While Anzalua's tieatment of intangible boiueis
along with state-enfoiceu ones may seem appealing, she univeisalizes hei
expeiience on the Nexican-Ameiican boiuei, as Pablo vila points out (vila Su8).
While <),%','4&)4 anu ()&)*)2'4&)4 ceitainly have theii uiffeiences, one woulu be
haiu-piesseu to say "=$4 )&%)>#4),$4 live heie: the squint-eyeu, the peiveise, the
queei, the tioublesome, the mongiel, the mulato, the half-bieeu, the half ueau; in
shoit, those who cioss ovei, pass ovei oi go thiough the confines of 'noimal'"
(Anzalua 1987: 2S). In the case of Catalonia, state boiueis uiu not foim a "thiiu
countiy." State boiueis uelimbeu an alieauy existing nation with an iuentity. Even
fiom a centialist point of view, Catalans woulu not be consiueieu "savage" oi "thiiu
woilu." 0n the contiaiy, centialist policies attempt to eliminate "them" in Catalonia
anu homogenize it to foim pait of the Spanish "us." Catalonia's situation as a
boiueilanu in Euiope unueilines the piecaiious natuie of applying boiuei theoiy
univeisally. Catalonia is a boiueilanu with an iuentity, a subaltein with a voice, a
nation without a state.
S
Anothei aiea towaius which Catalonia giavitates but uoes not fit cleanly is
that of subaltein stuuies. 'Subaltein,' accoiuing to Ranajit uuha as quoteu by }ohn
Beveily in ?.3)*&#%2'&/ )2, @#9%#4#2&)&'$2, is the "name foi the geneial attiibute of
suboiuination... whethei this is expiesseu in teims of class, caste, age genuei anu
office oi in any othei way" (Beveily 1999: 26). Beveily asseits that 'subaltein' is
negation of a uominant cultuie, which catalanism cleaily is. Catalan subalteinity is
the asseition of its iuentity against the centializing foices of the Spanish state - but
is it tiuly subaltein if it has the powei to fight back against the hegemonic powei
that oppiesses it. Beveily iefeience's Spivak's claim that "the subaltein cannot
speak," meaning "the subaltein cannot speak in a way that woulu caiiy any soit of
authoiity oi meaning foi us without alteiing the ielations of poweiknowleuge that
constitute it as subaltein in the fiist place" (Beveily 1999: 29). While this may have
been tiue of Catalonia in the past, it is alieauy establisheu itself as capable of
speaking with authoiity. So fai its authoiity has uone little to change the ielations
powei (even thought that may be the enu goal) anu knowleuge of the Catalan
situation is alieauy faiily common. Auuitionally, Beveily asseits that "the veiy iuea
of 'stuuying' the subaltein is catachiestic oi self-contiauictoiy" (Beveily 1999: Su).
While one coulu say that Catalonia is ielationally a subaltein iefeient to the Spanish
state anu Euiope, ueeming Catalonia as a total subaltein is tioublesome as it
eliminates the agency that makes Catalonia such potent competition to Spanish
hegemony anu a viable actoi in gieatei Euiopean ielations. Catalonia capably
expiesses its own voice cultuially anu politically, anu while on a global scale the
cultuial assumptions of the Spanish state uominate those of iebel Catalonia, one can
6
uelve into Catalanism anu assume a Catalan point of view with ielative ease.
Benoting Catalonia as a puie case of subaltein stuuy seems uifficult, which
continues to unueiline the inuiviuuality of the case. Catalonia is a unique nation, foi
lack of a bettei woiu, because of its ambiguous position between piivilegeu anu
oppiesseu, nation anu stateless, subaltein anu mainstieam, etc. that coinciues with a
seemingly cleai iuentity by histoiical anu cultuial accounts. Peihaps it is the fact
that these contiauictions exist in Catalonia that allows iegionalism anu Euiopean
integiation to coexist. In spite of these paiauoxes, Catalonia has a uistinct iuentity
that its inteiactions with Euiope.

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In a iecent New Yoik Times aiticle, two Catalan wiiteis penneu "we Catalans
have long been attacheu to oui uistinct iuentity anu nevei accepteu the loss of
national soveieignty" (Clotet, uonzalez: 2u12). Catalans embiace theii uistinct
iuentity - theii -#& ,'-#%#2(')* (uiffeiential fact) - "a uniqueness, a succinct foimula to
uelimit the fielus that not eveiybouy can uetect, something not ieflecteu in countiy
coloiing oi political maps" (Cainei-Ribalta 2uu1: 27). B#& ,'-#%#2(')* is an intangible
tiait in Catalonia that the people acknowleuge; seemingly, all tiue Catalans know
that they uiffei fiom the iest of the Spanish state anu possess a unique communal
iuentity. Some of its unique aspects aie the Catalan language (whose impoitance
shoulu not be unueistateu), 9)(&'4<# (an affinity foi legalpolitical goveinance
thiough pacts)|NcRobeits 2uu1: 1uj8 4#2/ (conseivative juuiciousness) |Llobeia
2uu4: 6Sj8 all uniquely Catalan concepts. Even though Catalonia uoes not
7
theoietically line up easily with boiuei oi subaltein theoiy, it has a cleai national
iuentity that is impoitant foi unueistanuing its ielationships with Spain anu Euiope.
0ne impoitant facet of Catalan iuentity that has significant implications in
the ability foi the national iuentity to suivive is the Catalan teiiitoiy itself. Teiiitoiy
is something conciete to attach the abstiact iueals of nationalism to - }osep Llobeia
evokes Euwaiu Shils in his analysis of Catalan nationality by quoting "without
teiiitoiy anu without tiauition theie can be no nation" (Llobeia 2uu4: S7). To be a
nation, Catalonia neeus teiiitoiy anu tiauition; it has both. Although Catalans have
faceu cultuial oppiession, they have not been iemoveu fiom theii teiiitoiy, which
allows theii cultuial iuentity to peisist. Beie is a goou place to inseit one of the
bettei known piouucts of Catalan cultuie into the analysis of its iuentity - ait. Ait in
Catalonia in vaiious waves symbolizeu impoitant assets of Catalan cultuie. 0ne of
these waves was 2$.(#2&'4<#, which took place aiounu the tuin of the twentieth
centuiy with *) &#%%) ()&)*)2), catalan lanu, as its uiiving foice. C$.(#2&'4&)4 useu
classical inspiiations ievolving aiounu the beauty anu Neuiteiianean natuie of
Catalonia iepiesenteu thiough mouein twists on classical technique. What is
ielevant foi the sake of this analysis is not the aitwoik itself, but the motivations
behinu the ait anu the context suiiounuing it. The emphasis placeu on *) &#%%)
()&)*)2) uepicts a long-stanuing connection of the Catalan people to the Catalan
lanu. 0ne of the main goals of 2$.(#2&'4<# was to uevelop a philosophy anu aitistic
style unique to Catalonia. This inuicates that establishing a piopiietaiy iuentity has
long been impoitant to theii people. Catalans have a long histoiy attacheu to theii
teiiitoiy in the noithwest coinei of the Neuiteiianean, which gives them an
8
essentialist basis foi theii nationalist cause anu asciibes meaning to theii lanu. All of
these tiaits along with the Catalan piiue suiiounuing them help to explain why theii
iuentity has peisisteu foi so long. Catalan iuentity is fiimly iooteu in the people anu
the lanu, something Fianco anu otheis uiu not eliminate. Thus, it seems to make
sense that Catalonia woulu want inuepenuence, oi at least iegional autonomy foi *)
&#%%) ()&)*)2). So what uoes this have to uo with Euiope. Why woulu Catalonia,
with such a stiong iegional iuentity, seek to become pait of an even laigei state-
esque oiganization than the Spanish state. As we will see, the innate Euiopeanism
that is pait of Catalan iuentity lenus itself to Euiopean integiation, anu
supianational oiganizations like the E0 help uissolve boiueis anu step ovei the
boiueiing iestiictions of the Spanish state.

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D<9$%&)2& ($24',#%)&'$20 <'2E*'2E $- (.*&.%#8 &#%%'&$%/8 9$*'&'(4 )2, #($2$<'(4
Befoie uiving in to the ielationship between Catalonia in Euiope, I woulu like
to highlight two impoitant consiueiations, the fiist being the lack of exclusivity
between politics, cultuie, teiiitoiy (boiueisboiueilanus incluueu), anu economics.
All must be taken into account in the Catalan situation, as they aie all ielateu. Each
who attempts to analyze the Catalan pioblem uoles out impoitance to ceitain
spheies ovei otheis, oi aims to highlight one spheie that he oi she feels is left out by
othei analysts. Regaiuing this topic, Baviu Piytheich asks "what happens if
nationalism, like cultuial stuuies, comes to concein itself equally (if not moie so)
with things that uo not seem paiticulaily "cultuial" at all, such as "economic"
9
questions of tiaue oi tianspoit infiastuicutie, which stietch beyonu Catalunya's
boiueis." (Piytheich 2uu8: Su2). To auu anothei quote fiom Piytheich's woik, he
goes on to say in the same analysis "I equally suggest cultuial stuuies can offei much
to the way geogiapheis anu otheis unueistanu the economy as cultuial piouuct"
(Piytheich 2uu8: S18). As Piytheich points out, looking thiough a cultuial lense can
help unueistanu economic inteiactions anu moie because the two aie ielational. In
Catalonia anu elsewheie, politics is fueleu by a combination of cultuie anu
economics, which aie both tieu to teiiitoiy.
Ceitainly, eveiy analysis uoes not have the scope to auuiess eveiy aspect of
the Catalan pioblem anu its ielationship with Euiope. That being saiu, any analysis
that chooses one aiea to acknowleuge without uiveiting any attention to the otheis
thieatens to essentialize anu univeisalize Catalonia's stiuggles. Foi instance, if one
cites the lack of political autonomy anu the iesulting fiscal mistieatment of
Catalonia by the Spanish goveinment as the cause of the cuiient Catalan
inuepenuence movement, cultuial anu teiiitoiial issues that unueilay the whole
political anu economic ielationship between Catalonia anu Spain aie foigotten.
Likewise, if one asseits that Catalonia wants inuepenuence because of its
funuamental uiffeience fiom Spain, the political powei anu economic motivations
anu consequences at stake aie thiown by the waysiue. Political anu economic
motivations aie theie, but the communal acceptance anu piiue in Catalan iuentity
buttiesses it all. Iuentity anu cultuie aie entwineu with political anu economic
action.

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A2$&"#% '<9$%&)2& ($24',#%)&'$20 >)%')&'$2 '2 2)&'$2)*'F)&'$2
Theie is one moie impoitant consiueiation about Catalan nationalism to
keep in minu - it is not univeisal within the iegion. Suppoit foi autonomy within the
Spanish state is mixeu among Catalans; as of Septembei of 2u12, aftei a piotest on
*) ,'),) that saw 8% of Catalonia's population in the stieets of Baicelona, one thiiu
of Catalans weie convinceu sepaiatists while 28% piefeiieu a new feueiation with
incieaseu Catalan powei in a special bilateial ielationship with Spain (Economist
2u12). Auuitionally, in an examination of the municipalities in Catalonia that helu
iefeienua foi inuepenuence, }oiui Nuoz anu Naic uuinjoan founu high vaiiations
in votei tuinout between municipalities, while some municipalities uiu not holu
iefeienua, which inuicates "the existence of a pluiality of piefeiences within ethnic
gioups oi 'stateless nations'" (uuinjoan, Nuoz 2u12: 47). vaiiations exist within
nationalism, which complicate the movement, anu mobilization often uepenus on
iesouices (uuinjoan, Nuoz 2u12: S4). This piesents a challenge to the leaueis of
the Catalan nationalist movement, which incluues Piesiuent Aitui Nas, as they will
have to take into account the vaiious uesiies of theii nation without a state in
attempts to stake theii claims with Spain anu Euiope.

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By calling foi a moie univeisal appioach to the analysis of complex
boiueiiuentity situations such as the one Catalonia faceu, I iealize I have set a tiap
foi myself: now I must attempt to take an appioach to Catalonia's attempt that uoes
not hinuei othei paits of the issue - uifficult to uo in a succinct mannei. Luckily, a
11
key concept can take on the biunt of this pioblem anu encompass all foui of the
pieviously mentioneu spheies (politics, cultuie, teiiitoiy, economics): national
iuentity. These foui spheies compose much of a national iuentity, anu national
iuentity is laigely at stake in Catalanist effoits.
Euio-iegionalism is a uesiie foi Catalans motivateu by theii own national
iuentity anu the uesiie to tianscenu boiueis in oiuei to pieseive it. Catalan iuentity
has enuuieu foices of oppiession in the past. uianteu that Spain cuiiently holus
significant powei ovei Catalonia's iepiesentation to the iest of the woilu, Euiopean
integiation anu globalization thieaten the iuentity of a passive Catalan nation. Euio-
iegionalism anu secession aie methous of pionouncing anu pieseiving Catalonia's
national iuentity. Catalans have pieseiveu theii iuentity thiough centuiies anu
spells of cultuial genociue; Euiopean integiation anu inuepenuence aie "mouein"
ways of uoing the same thing.
An outwaiu view towaius Euiope anu a sense Euiopeanism aie
uistinguishable tiaits of Catalan iuentity. 0ne example of the Euiopeanist Catalan in
appeais in the political ihetoiic of }oiui Pujol, foimei piesiuent of the ueneialitat.
Pujol spoke of the iuea of uiffeient "vocations" of the Catalan people in his vision of
Catalonia's place within Euiope (Nagel 2uu9: 8). Accoiuing to Pujol, the Catalan
people have at least foui "vocations:" Pyienean, Neuiteiianean, Bispanic, anu
Euiopean, the Euiopean vocation implying that Catalans have been Euiopean fiom
the stait, while Spain has not (Nagel 2uu9: 8). Pei Pujol, Euiopeanism is an innate
quality in Catalans, which woulu suppoit the expansion of Catalan ielations with
Euiope. 0n top of the inheient Euiopean natuie of the Catalan people, they shaie a
12
uistinctive outwaiu-looking Euiopean sensibility (NcRobeits 2uu1: 161). Euiopean
integiation is embeuueu in Catalan cultuie, anu it also offeis Catalonia an
inteinational means of pieseiving that same iuentity.
Inteinationalintiaeuiope ielations can be achieveu via uiffeient methous,
such as economic exchanges anu exeition of political powei in intiaeuiopean
oiganizations, with the E0 being the pinnacle. Since the fall of Fianco, Catalonia has
placeu inteinational ielations as an impoitant tenet of its policy anu has engageu in
economic ielationships acioss its boiueis anu low-level political ielations (Nagel
2uu9). Low-level opeiations aie Catalonia's cuiient limit, as the Spanish
goveinment holus neaily all inteinational powei anu keeps a watchful eye to assuie
Catalonia uoes not assume too many inteinational causes (Nagel 2uu9). Cential
Spanish goveinment has ieason to be woiiieu if ieinfoicing stiong baiiieis aiounu
Catalonia is its goal, as inteinational action allows Catalonia to tianscenu its state-
assigneu boiueis.
Regional economic bonus aie one way in which Catalonia has been able to
soliuify its iuentity by taking auvantage of the incieaseu ability to uilute boiueis
that globalization affoius. 0ne cleai example of this is the D24&'&.& ,G:($2$<') '
:<9%#4) DE2)4' H'**)*$2E), an oiganization cieateu by a valencian Catalanist Eliseu
Climent in oiuei to encouiage coopeiation among noithwestein Neuiteiianean
iegions, which coulu be iefeiieu to as the uieatei Catalonia of olu, oi #*4 5)64$4
1)&)*)24 (Piytheich Su1). The D24'&.& suppoits iegional coopeiation as a uefense to
the potential thieat of globalization anu Euiopean integiation, which is exemplifieu
by Ramon Tiemosa's woius: "touay's woilu is changing at gieat speeu anu maps
1S
iesist ieflecting this veitiginous evolution, to the point that we can say state boiueis
aie less anu less economic boiueis" (Piytheich S14). As the pievious quote
emphasizes, economic exchanges anu ielationships offei oppoitunities to cioss
boiueis in a moie globalizeu woilu. The D24&'&.& has taken auvantage of this
oppoitunity to establish a ielationship baseu in both economics anu iegional
cultuial histoiy in oiuei to weaken the imposeu state political anu teiiitoiial
boiueis (Piytheich Su2). Economic means allow iegions to become moie ielational
without as much inteifeience fiom the state. In this case, the ielationship is a
cultuial one between uieatei Catalonian teiiitoiies that weie sepaiateu via the
placement of now-weakening boiueis.
Fuitheimoie, Euiopean ielations offei an escape fiom hostile Spain. In a
state wheie Catalan piospeiity anu infiastiuctuie aie thwaiteu (Piytheich S1S) anu
the Catalan "nation" faces giievances,
Catalan nationalists saw, accoiuing to Keating "...Euiope ... as a souice of economic
oppoitunities; as a souice of suppoit foi theii cultuial anu linguistic piomotion policies in
the context of a hostile Spanish state; anu as a souice of suppoit foi theii self-goveinment
aspiiations, with its commitment to subsiuiaiity anu the Euiope of the Regions concept, anu
thiough the possibilities of alliances with othei minoiity nations anu iegions. Euiope is thus
useu as a iesouice foi nation-builuing, but not necessaiily foi state-builuing in the classical
sense." (Nagel 2uu9).

Euiope woulu pioviue an autonomous Catalonia the oppoitunity to piomote itself
anu its iuentity against the oppiessive foice of the Spanish goveinment. An
inuepenuent Catalonia, while not a victim of the Spanish state, coulu also continue
nation builuing in Euiope as pait of a "Euiope of Regions," not to mention the cleai
economic benefits of joining the E0 (oi moie aptly the potential foi economic
catastiophe in Catalonia if it uiu not join). Simply put, pait of the ieason Catalonia
14
woulu be willing to withuiaw fiom Spain to join Euiope because the lattei is moie
welcoming than the foimei.
The thiee iuentities }ouni Bkli mentions in hei woik iegaiuing Catalan
boiueilanu iuentity aie paiticulaily useful in viewing how Euiope fits into Catalan
nationality: legitimizing (state-given) iuentity, pioject iuentity (actois engageu in
new kinus of social piojects that iuentify with constiucteu iealities), anu iesistance
iuentity (ieaction to uominant foices that seem to be maiginalizing actois) (Bkli
2uu1: 117). Supianational Euiopean integiation is the pioject iuentity that Catalans
use to iuentify with the constiucteu Euiopean ieality, which goes hanu in hanu with
Catalonia's iesistance iuentity as iesistance to the uominant foice (legitimate
iuentity) of nation-states that maiginalize iegional actois like Catalonia. What this
unueilines is wheie the powei lies in teims of iuentity (with the states) anu the
stiuggle anu iesistance necessaiy fiom those without a state to constiuct oi
maintain theii iuentity, such as the Catalan people.
To summaiize the above, Euiope anu intiaeuiopean ielations offei a way foi
Catalonia to oveicome the boiueis placeu aiounu it by the Spanish state anu aie
suppoiteu by the tiauition of Catalan national iuentity. The othei way foi Catalonia
to escape the Spanish state, which is gaining populaiity, is inuepenuence. Bow
vaiiations within Catalan nationalism change anu aie hanuleu will likely affect theii
nation's couise of action towaius inuepenuence oi autonomy.



1S
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Catalan iuentity has suiviveu thiough long peiious of oppiession anu
continues to live on as an iuentifiable anu cential pait of Catalonia anu its people.
Bespite its cleai sense of iuentity, Catalonia is miieu in iionies; it is a boiueilanu
with an iuentity, a subaltein with a voice, a nation without a state. It points out the
unsafe natuie of univeisalizing concepts, whethei it be boiuei theoiy oi iuentity.
Fuitheimoie, it points out the inauequacies of nation-states - seems unjust that such
a vibiant nation be tiappeu without a state. The plight of this noithwest
Neuiteiianean iegion holus significance in Spain, Euiope anu moie bioauly. While
extiapolating fiom this example woulu be uangeious because of its unique natuie,
what happens to Catalonia coulu significantly impact othei nations anu theii ioles in
global politics, paiticulaily those without states. Baviu Piytheich notes in the
pieviously citeu piece "peihaps the stiategic iefiaming of Catalanism as economic
Euio-iegionalism is significant anu meiits closei attention" (Piytheich 2uu8: Su2).
Inueeu, it seems that Catalanism anu Euio-iegionalism meiit closei attention, but
foi moie ieasons than just economic ones. As I uiscusseu eailiei, Catalanism as a
iegionalist movement has too much cultuial influence to be stiictly economic,
political, oi teiiitoiial on its own. That being saiu, Catalanism as a case of Euio-
iegionalism coulu point to change in global politics. If Catalonia succeeu in achieving
its goals, it can be an example foi othei nations without states that peihaps the
nation-state mouel is giowing outuateu.
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