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1

Ecuaii difereniale
--
1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 f x g y y f x g y ' + = ,
1 2
2 1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
g y f x
dy dx C
g y f x
= +
} }
, Ce
--
y
y f
x
| |
' =
|
\ .
,
y
u
x
= , ln ln
( )
du
x C
f u u
= +

}
,
*
Ce .
-- ( ) ( ) y P x y Q x ' + = ,
( ) ( )
( )
P x dx P x dx
y e C Q x e dx

| |
= +
|
\ .
} }
}

-- ( ) ( ) y P x y Q x y

' + = , { } \ 0,1 e , ( ) ( )
1
z
P x z Q x

'
+ =

,
1
z y

= .
--
2
( ) ( ) ( ) y P x y Q x y R x ' = + + ,
1
p
y y
z
= + .
-- ( ) y xy y ' ' = + , y p ' = , ( ) y C x C = + ,
( )
( ) ( )
x p
y p p p


' =

' = +

.
-- ( ) ( ) , , 0 P x y Q x y y' + = ,
P Q
y x
c c
=
c c
, ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
0
, , d , d
x y
x y
F x y P t y t Q x t t = +
} }
, ( ) , F x y C = .
--
( ) ( 1)
0 1 1
( ) ( ) ... ( ) ( ) ( ),
n n
n n
a x y a x y a x y a x y f x x I

' + + + + = e ;
GO p
y y y = +

1
0 1 1
... 0
n n
n n
a r a r a r a

+ + + + = ,
1 1 2 2
...
GO n n
y C y C y C y = + + + .

1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) y x y x y = + ,
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
( ) ( ) 0
( )
( ) ( )
( )
x y x y
f x
x y x y
a x


' ' + =

' ' ' ' + =

.
( )
1 2
( ) ( ) cos ( ) sin
x
f x e P x x P x x

= + :
-- fr rezonan: ( )
1 2
( ) cos ( ) sin
x
p
y e Q x x Q x x

= + ,
1 2 1 2
max( , ) grad Q grad Q grad P grad P = = .
-- cu rezonan: | |
1 2
( ) cos ( ) sin
m x
p
y x e Q x x Q x x

= + .
--
( ) 1 ( 1)
0 1 1
( )
n n n n
n n
a x y a x y a xy a y f x

' + + + + = ,
t
x e = .

Ecuaii cu derivate pariale de ordinul nti:
-- ( ) ( )
1 1 1
1
, , , , 0
n n n
n
u u
P x x P x x
x x
c c
+ + =
c c
,
1 2
1 2
1
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
x x x
P x P x P x
' ' '
= = = = .
-- ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1
1
, , , , , , , , ,
n n n n n
n
u u
P x x u P x x u P x x u
x x
+
c c
+ + =
c c
,
1
1 1
n
n n
x x u
P P P
+
' ' '
= = = ,
( )
1
, , , 0
n
V x x u = .

Serii Fourier
2
--
}

x x f a d ) (
1
0
,
}

x nx x f a
n
d cos ) (
1
,
}

x nx x f b
n
d sin ) (
1
, 1 > n .

=
+ +
1
0
) sin cos (
2
n
n n
nx b nx a
a
;

=

= + +
1
2 2 2 2
0
d ) (
1
) (
2
1
n
n n
x x f b a a

.
-- = ) (x f

=
+ +
1
0
) sin cos (
2
n
n n
x
l
n
b x
l
n
a
a
, x e,

}

=
l
l
n
x x
l
n
x f
l
a d cos ) (
1
, ne,
}

=
l
l
n
x x
l
n
x f
l
b d sin ) (
1
,
*
ne .

Ecuaii cu derivate pariale de ordinul al doilea
0 , , , , ) , ( ) , ( 2 ) , (
2
2 2
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
+
c c
c
+
c
c

y
u
x
u
u y x D
y
u
y x C
y x
u
y x B
x
u
y x A .
( ) ) , ( ), , ( ) , ( y x y x v y x u = ,
x
v
x
v
x
u
c
c

c
c
+
c
c

c
c
=
c
c

,
y
v
y
v
y
u
c
c

c
c
+
c
c

c
c
=
c
c

,
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2

2
x
v
x
v
x
v
x x
v
x
v
x
u
c
c

c
c
+
c
c

c
c
+ |
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
+
c
c

c
c

c c
c
+ |
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
=
c
c

,
y x
v
y x
v
y x
v
x y y x
v
y x
v
y x
u
c c
c

c
c
+
c c
c

c
c
+
c
c

c
c

c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
+
c
c

c
c

c c
c
+
c
c

c
c

c
c
=
c c
c

2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2


2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2

2
y
v
y
v
y
v
y y
v
y
v
y
u
c
c

c
c
+
c
c

c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
+
c
c

c
c

c c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
=
c
c

.

2
( ) 2 ( ) 0 A y x B y x C ' ' + = .
2 2
2
2 2
u u
a
t x
c c
=
c c
,
( , 0) ( )
( , 0) ( )
u x f x
u
x g x
t
=

c
=

c
.
1 1
( , ) [ ( ) ( )] ( )d
2 2
x at
x at
u x t f x at f x at g z z
a
+

= + + +
}

3
--
2 2
2
2 2
u u
a
t x
c c
=
c c
, (0, ) ( , ) 0 u t u l t = = , [0, ) t e ; ( , 0) ( ) u x f x = , ( , 0) ( )
u
x g x
t
c
=
c
,
[0, ] x l e .
1
( , ) cos sin sin
n n
n
a a
u x t A n t B n t n x
l l l

=
| |
= +
|
\ .

;

0
2
( ) sin d
l
n
A f x n x x
l l

=
}
,
*
ne ;
0
2
( ) sin d
l
n
B g x n x x
n a l

=
}
,
*
ne .
--
2
2
2
u u
a
t x
c c
=
c c
, (0, ) ( , ) 0 u t u l t = = , [0, ) t e , ( , 0) ( ) u x x = , [0, ] x l e .

2 2
2
2
1
( , ) sin
a
n t
l
n
n
u x t A e n x
l


=
=

0
2
( )sin d
l
n
A x n x x
l l

=
}
,
*
ne .
--
2 2 2 2
{( , ) ; } G x y x y r = e + < ,
2 2
2 2
0
u u
x y
c c
+ =
c c
, ( , ) x y G e ,
C
u f = ,.

0
1
( , ) ( cos sin )
n
n n
n
u A A n B n

=
= + +

.
2
0
0
1
( )d
2
A f

=
}
,
2
0
1 1
( ) cos d
n n
A f n
r

=
}
,
2
0
1 1
( ) sin d
n n
B f n
r

=
}
.

Calcul variaional
( ) ( , , )d
b
a
I y F x y y x ' =
}
;
d
d
F F
y x y
| | c c
=
|
' c c
\ .
.
( , ) ( , , , , )d
b
a
I y z F x y z y z x ' ' =
}
;
d
d
d
d
F F
y x y
F F
z x z
| | c c
=
|
' c c

\ .

c c | |

=
|

' c c
\ .
.
( )
( ) ( , , , , ..., )d
b
n
a
I y F x y y y y x ' '' =
}
;
2
1
2 ( )
d d d
... ( 1)
d d d
n
n
n n
F F F F
y x y x y x y

| | | | | | c c c c
= + +
| | |
' '' c c c c
\ . \ . \ .
.
( ) ( , , , , )d d
D
u u
I u F x y u x y
x y
c c
=
c c
}}
; 0
x y
F F F
u x u y u
| |
| | c c c c c
= |
|
|
c c c c c
\ .
\ .
,
x
u
u
x
c
=
c
,
y
u
u
y
c
=
c
.

Variabile aleatoare

4

1 2
1 2
... ...
... ...
n
n
a a a
f
p p p
| |

|
\ .
,
1
1
n
n
p

=
=

.
1
n n
n
m a p

=
=

, ( )
2
2
1
n n
n
a m p

=
=

.

: [0,1] F , ( ) ( ) F x p f x = < . ( ) lim ( ) 0
x
F F x

= = , ( ) lim ( ) 1
x
F F x

= = ;
( ) ( ) ( ) p a f b F b F a s < = ;
( ) ( )d
x
F x t t

=
}
, xe; ( ) 0 x > , x e; ( )d 1 x x
+

=
}
; ( ) ( )d
b
a
p a f b x x s < =
}
.
( )d m x x x
+

=
}
;
( )
2
2
( )d x m x x
+

=
}

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