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GECN: Primary Voltage Control for Active Distribution

Networks via Real-Time Demand-Response


SmartGrid
RTD 2013
K. Christakou, D.-C. Tomozei, J.-Y. Le Boudec, M. Paolone
Laboratory for Communications and Applications LCA2 ,Distributed Electrical Systems Laboratory DESL
Why?
PQ variations can control voltage

Benefits
Increased availability
(small residential loads)
Flexibility of control
(Spatially distributed resources)

Feeder #1
Feeder #2
Network Controller (Generic)
Every S seconds
1. Obtain network state (e.g., via state estimation)


2. Compute optimal PQ and OLTC variations that lead to the desired operating point


3. Map

to GECN signal ()[-1,1]


(+ inhibits consumption, - encourages consumption)



Local Controller Design (e.g., TCL)
Operating Modes



GECN control

min
(,,)

(, )

(, )

2
+

+(
,,
, , )

2
+
+
2

The Grid Explicit Congestion Notification Mechanism
Voltage Problem in ADNs

Aggregated response of mixed
populations under the same
signal (e.g., storage/loads)
Inclusion of different ancillary
services (e.g., lines congestion)
Further Applications
Setting
IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder
Non dispatchable PV production
10% and 30% of elastic demand
GECN signals sent every 16
Simulation Results

Feeder #1
passive
Feeder #2
active
HV network
CP
CUB 1 CUB 2
G1
G4
G3
G2
Voltage Control via Demand-Response
Problem: Point-to-point communication not tractable
Solution: Design of control schemes based on broadcast signals


10% of elastic demand
24hr Voltage profile
30% of elastic demand
24hr Voltage profile
GECN signal TCL Power TCL Power
Z=1
Y=1
React? ~(( , ()))
(accounts for internal state)
Normal
Operation
(i.e., do
nothing)
Switch mode and ignore signal
for T steps (avoids mini-cycles)
Participate? ~( )
(reflects DNOs desire)
G=
(

(1))(

1 (1))

( 1)
( 1)

()

+
1
1

= (

)(1

/
)
0
1
(0, ) (1, )


---- OFF mode
ON mode
()
Z=0
Y=0

=1.05 p.u.

=0.95 p.u.
Primary Substation
Distribution
Substation
Distribution
Substation
Distribution
Substation
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Distance from primary substation
Network voltage profile [p.u.]
Primary
substation
Slack bus 1
bus 2
bus 7
4
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

bus 4 bus 3
2
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

2
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

bus 5 bus 6
4
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

6
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

3
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

bus 9 bus 8
5
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

2
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

2
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

bus 10 bus 11
8
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

2
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

bus12
4
0
0
K
v
a
,
2
0
k
V
/
0
. 4
k
V

.

.

.

.

bus13
Measure
B-cast
Start


1. K. Christakou, D.-C. Tomozei, J.-Y. Le Boudec, and M. Paolone, GECN: Primary Voltage Control for Active Distribution Networks via Real-Time Demand-Response, IEEE Trans. on Smart
Grids, vol.5, no.2, pp.622-631, March 2014
2. K. Christakou, D.-C. Tomozei, M. Bahramipanah, J.-Y. Le Boudec and M. Paolone, Primary Voltage Control in Active Distribution Networks via Broadcast Signals: The Case of Distributed
Storage, in press, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids, 2014


References
GECN signal