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Running head: EFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 1

Effectiveness of Different Classroom Management Techniques in an Elementary Classroom in


Northeast Texas

by

Duston Brown, B. G. S.

A Proposal Presented in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Education


SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
EAST TEXAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY


May 2014


Running head: EFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TABLE OF CONTENTS 2
CHAPTER
1. Introduction. 3
Theoretical Framework 5
Purpose of Study.. 5
Research Questions.. 5
Definition of Terms.. 6
Classroom Management... 6
Modeling.. 6
Discipline. 6
Significance of Study... 6
Limitations of Study. 6
Conclusion.7
2. Literature Review. 8
Discipline.. 8
Reward. 10
Authoritarian Management.. 12
Management by Democracy. 13
Conclusion 14
3. Methodology 16
Research Question 16
Explanation of Research... 16
Procedures. 16
Setting and Participants. 17
Sampling 17
Data Collection.. 17
Observations.. 17
Interviews.. 18
Reflections. 18
Timeline of Data Collection...18
Trustworthiness...18
Running head: EFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 3

Data Analysis. 19
Conclusion. 19
REFERENCES.. 20


















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Chapter 1
Introduction
As a future teacher/coach and a former athlete, I know the importance of discipline.
Discipline in a classroom, whether they know it or not, helps student achieve their goals. Once
leaving the school setting, discipline is just as important, if not more so. That is why it is
important for discipline to be taught at a young age. It seems sometimes that we forget students
need to be taught discipline. We as teachers go into the school year assuming students know
what is expected of them. We do not just assume that students already know how to do math or
other core subjects, so why is discipline any different? Some students might know how to be
discipline because of how they are raised at home, but we as teachers cannot assume that all
students know the importance of discipline.
While students need disciple in their classroom, teachers need to know how to implement
discipline into that classroom. Having a discipline classroom seems like an easy task, and it can
be, if the teacher knows how to get the students to do what is wanted. Discipline in the classroom
is a science that must be learned by teachers.
The reason for this study is to find out what form of discipline works best in an
elementary classroom. In order for teachers to know how to incorporate discipline in their
classroom, they need to know what kind of discipline is most effective. Without discipline, the
teacher cannot teach anything. A knowledgeable teacher may fail in teaching due to inability to
work effectively with pupils (Ediger, 2013). This quote is a very important part of my study.
Since a teacher cannot teach anything if they do not know how to work with their students, that
makes finding the most effective form of classroom discipline all the more important.
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Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework behind this study comes from Robert Taubers eBook,
Classroom Management: Sound Theory and Effective Practice 3
rd
Edition. This is a simple but
important framework; Philosophy, Model(s), Strategies. A philosophy is the base of classroom
management. Without a philosophy before models and strategies, you have nothing to base your
discipline strategies on. Keeping the framework in this order helps to ensure that compatibility of
these three factors.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find the most effective form of classroom management.
While the research initially is intended to see if students behavior is affected by different
classroom management techniques, the most useful information from this study will be finding
out what types of classroom management techniques are most effective in an elementary
classroom. Even though this study is of an elementary classroom, the findings should be useful
to secondary teachers as well.
Research Questions
1. How do different classroom management techniques affect the way students behave in
an elementary classroom in northeast Texas?
2. What causes students behavior to change from one classroom to another?



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Definition of Terms
Classroom Management
Refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep
students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task, and academically
productive during a class.
Modeling
An example for imitation or emulation.
Discipline
Training that corrects, molds, or perfects the mental faculties or moral character.

Significance of Study
The main purpose of this study is to find the most effective form of classroom
management. Classroom management is a crucial part of learning, so the more knowledge we
have on the subject, the better off we as teachers will be. If students are not under the control of
the teacher, it will be very difficult for students to learn and be successful in the classroom.
Limitations of Study
The limitations of this study will be that I am only covering one class in one
elementary school of one town. The smaller sample size might limit the results of the
study. The biases that I will have during this study is that I expect to find that better
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classroom management equals fewer disruptions and higher student performance. I
need to come in to the study with an open mind, expecting anything.

Conclusion
This study is meant to give teachers an effective way to improve their classroom and the
way their students learn. The information from this study will help teachers with the
management of their classrooms. It is important that teachers know effective discipline
techniques and enforce those properly. Before discipline, rules need to be put in place and
enforced for every student. If students know that the teacher takes the rules seriously that are put
into place, they will understand that the teacher takes their job seriously. Nothing can be taught
or learned if the class is out of control.









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Chapter 2
Literature Review
Classroom management is one of the most important aspects of teaching. Thirty percent
of new teachers leave the profession after three years and nearly 50 percent leave after five
(National Commission on Teaching and Americas Future 2008). As deciding factors for their
flight, many teachers cite uncooperative student behavior, insufficient or nonexistent
administrative support, and minimal success in positively influencing students lives (Xenos,
2012, Pg. 248). This chapter will review literature about different forms of classroom
management procedures and ideas. The literature that is being reviewed will cover four types of
classroom management/discipline techniques. Those four categories are discipline, reward,
management by dictatorship, and management by democracy. By reviewing these pieces of
literature, I can find out what people who have done this type of study think about the topic. I
can find out what worked for them as well as what did not work. The more I know going into the
study in the classroom, the more prepared I will be for the experience at hand.
Discipline
Through research over discipline, corporal punishment is one of the main, hot topics, as
far as discipline in the school. The following is from an article from Hashmi, Zeshan, Saeed &
Zulfiqar examining the effectiveness of corporal punishment.
Teachers and school administrators attribute that corporal punishment is used to control
the undesired behavior of children. Agbenyega (2006) revealed in his study that the
overwhelming majority of teachers use corporal punishment to enforce school discipline.
Cameron (2006) questions the effectiveness of corporal punishment and pointed out the
Running head: EFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 9

harmful effects on students. In line with Robinsons findings, Ramsburg (1997) argues
that spanking children may produce harmful effects, such as increasing the chances of
misbehavior
Most of the research found has been along the same line. Corporal punishment is still being used
in schools, but after studies, its effectiveness has been minimal in correcting misbehavior. A
2011 study by Seunghee Han, as you will see in the quote, points out some of the benefits of
enforcing corporal punishment.
Some supporters of corporal punishment claim that school administrators and teachers
use corporal punishment when they have urgent needs to promptly control students risky
problem behaviors, and these proponents believe it is effective. Furthermore, the
supporters believe that using corporal punishment has some advantages for school
practitioners: There is no cost involved, it is easy to administer, and there is no
organization of training needed. Supporters assert, too, that cultural or religious beliefs
address physical punishment as necessary or even beneficial to the students.
Another factor that can come into play in forms of discipline in the classroom is what kind of
discipline certain students respond to. For instance, the following article covers the different
parenting styles in different cultures.
Research to date suggests that African American and European American parents may
differ in the frequency with which they use several types of discipline strategies, although
corporal punishment has received the most attention. For example, Day, Peterson, and
McCracken (1998) examined the number of times during the past week that a parent
reported using corporal punishment for the target child. African American mothers said
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they spanked more frequently than European American mothers for older children, but
only single African American mothers said they spanked more frequently for younger
children.
The significance of this is that parenting styles can determine the effectiveness of a certain type
of punishment. If a student is used to being spanked at home, getting spanked in school may
have no impact on how he acts. On the other hand, if a student does not receive spankings at
home, receiving spankings at school might be so traumatic that it could correct the behavior
problem.
Reward
Rewards play a major role in todays parenting styles as well as in the classroom. This
reward as a form of a management style is simple, if you do this for me, I will do that for you.
Not only is receiving a reward used as an incentive to act in a desirable behavior, but not
receiving a reward while others in the class do is used as a punishment for the undesirable
behavior shown. For example, if one student has to sit out from recess while the other students
play because the student was acting out or disruptive, that form of taking away the reward is used
as a punishment. Another example of rewards for good behavior is having a points system in
place. A point system is designed to achieve two outcomes: (1) improved classroom
management and (2) improved academic achievement (Xenos, 2012, Pg. 249). The way a point
system works is, students get points for desirable behavior and points taken away for undesirable
behavior. Once students get enough points, or reach a certain position, they receive some kind of
reward. The idea behind the point system is that by giving points for desirable behavior and
taking points away for undesirable behavior, students will stop the undesirable behavior in order
to not lose any points. Not only are rewards used for attaining desirable behavior, but rewards are
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also used to achieve classroom participation. This idea is explained in an article by William
Guinee.
Several years ago, for no reason other than my contemplation of video games, I began
awarding students in my introductory class bonus points for particularly interesting or
well thought-out contributions to the class discussion. These bonus points have absolutely
no effect on the students course grade. I note in the syllabus that the bonus points mean
nothing, and I make announcements in class to that effect
The desire to receive any form of external reward will drive students to do things that they would
not normally do, even if the reward is bonus points that count for absolutely nothing. However,
not all researchers feel that rewards can make all students do everything that is asked of them.
Even within the same group of researchers, some are still undecided if rewards play a major role
in the classroom. In a 2008 study, Shiller, O'Flynn, Reineke, Sonsteng & Gartrell said
Ryan and Deci (2000) note that when researchers looked specifically at the effect of
rewards for dull or unattractive tasks, they did not find them to have a detrimental impact
on motivation. Fabes (1987) found that rewards do not undermine interest when offered
in a permissive rather that a controlling context. McGraw (1978) identifies several studies
that found that rewards enhance performance, and he notes that the studies were
conducted with groups of children (ranging in age from approximately 4 through 13) who
likely had a history of not having experienced much success. Several groups of
researchers have found that when rewards provide evidence of competence, they can
enhance motivation with individuals as young as kindergartners and as old as college
students.
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Authoritarian Management
Intimidation is another form of classroom management. Intimidation can be very
effective, but can also drastically harm a student/teacher relationship. In an authoritarian style of
classroom management, the teacher is often seen as an unapproachable person because students
fear of what the teacher will do. Authoritative teaching is a style comprised of both high levels
of teacher caring and high levels of academic press authoritarian teaching is composed of high
levels of academic press but relatively low levels of teacher caring (Dever & Karabenick, 2011,
Pg. 132). Sometimes, teachers become an authoritarian classroom manager without even trying.
In an article by Mano Singham, he talks about a conference he attended where the speaker
handed around his syllabus and how it made him feel.
The professor at the conference handed around a copy of his class syllabus to illustrate
how he had implemented his teaching innovation. He seemed a gentle, polite, and
concerned teacher, someone who would be well liked by his students. And yet, viewed
through the lens of his syllabus, he appeared a tyrant. The arrogant tone of the document
was all too familiar. Instructions to the students read like imperial commands.
The way a teacher speaks or writes, especially at a younger grade level, can scare students off
even before one thing has been taught. After reviewing an article by Higgins and Moule, one
reason some teachers may choose an authoritarian classroom management style is because they
might have students from different cultures that they do not know much about and feel that is the
only way that they can get the students to understand they mean business.
According to Sleeter (2001), the majority of prospective teachers are White, female,
mono-lingual, middle class, and have very little contact with other cultures or children of color.
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In addition, she believes that the cultural gap between teachers and students is growing, and that
perspective teachers have limited visions of what multicultural teaching entails. Unfortunately,
when you couple this with teaching in urban settings, which typically involves schools that are
heavily populated with students of color, classroom management is considered to be one of the
greatest obstacles.
Management by Democracy
One of the main points that I have come across during this study is the idea of democracy
in the classroom. The thought is that the class has meetings and students have a say in what
happens, they will be proud of their class and want to do what is right. Educators must find
ways to create a climate of cooperation in order to teach students the academic, social, and
emotional skills they must possess to function successfully at home, at school, and in the
community. Classroom meetings serve as an excellent vehicle for teaching this type of
cooperation (Edwards, 2003, Pg.1). An article that I found from Okutan talks about the role of
the new teacher in classrooms today.
If democracy is present in the class, students and teacher altogether are worthy of love
and respect. Teachers role has changed in the class where democratic management is
dominant; the role of being the source of teaching and knowledge has disappeared for this
teacher. Teacher is just the leader teacher in this classroom. Todays teacher, who cant
manage its class as a leader, will continue to hinder freedoms of students by continuing to
adopt classic management.
This type of management allows students to express themselves. Students in a democratic
classroom have the freedom to discuss in order to learn. The teacher is no longer a lecturer who
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stands at the front of the room speaking in a monotone voice. They are simply the starter of the
discussion. A 2011 study by Glassman and Kang looks at views of democracy in the real world
as it compares to democracy in the classroom. The general theme of this early democracy was
that a general population cannot be left to its own devices, but must be controlled by an
overarching (if democratically elected or appointed) institutional power (in other words political
avatars of ... the Founding Fathers) (Glassman & Kang, Pg. 366). This relates to the classroom
because this is really how classrooms have been viewed. Students are seen as citizens that cannot
govern themselves, this is one reason teachers are needed in the classroom. This view on
democracy is the basis of democracy in the classroom. By teachers acting as an overarching
power, it still allows students to have a freedom that they would not typically have in a
traditional classroom.

Conclusion
This chapter began by reiterating the importance of classroom management. Without
effective classroom management, it is very difficult for learning to occur. A teacher who is an
effective manager of the classroom is the building block for knowledge.
The literature review started by taking a deeper look into what is said about discipline in
the classroom. Corporal punishment as a tool to correct unwanted behavior has been shown to be
minimal to ineffective.
The review continued as we studied about rewards to reinforce desirable behavior. Along
with rewarding students who exhibit the sought-after behavior, we found that not rewarding a
student whose behavior is undesirable can be almost just as effective as rewards.
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As we looked at an authoritarian style of classroom management, we found that some
teachers feel that this kind of management is the only way to communicate with students if the
teacher is unsure of their way of life. This style can be very effective for managing the
classroom, but can also be detrimental to the relationship between the student and the teacher.
The final area we studied was the idea of democracy in classroom management. If
students feel that they matter and that their input is valuable, they will be more prideful of their
classroom and exhibit a more desirable behavior while in the classroom. In this democratic
classroom students can feel free to express themselves and join in on discussions in order to
learn. The teacher can start a conversation and keep the conversation going, all while learning is
occurring.













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Chapter 3
Methodology
The purpose of this study is to determine how different classroom management
techniques affect students behavior and to, in turn, determine what classroom management
techniques should be used in every classroom to ensure the desired student behavior. Without
discipline in the classroom, it is very difficult for learning to occur. By finding what classroom
management techniques work best and applying those techniques, getting students to behave in a
desirable way should follow.
Research Question
How do different classroom management techniques have different effects on students
behavior in an elementary classroom?
Explanation of Research
This study will be an action research case study. I will be an active part of this study
because I will be in the classroom with the students while the research is being conducted. While
in the classroom, I will observe, take notes and other forms of data, and reflect on that data at a
later time. I will also allow my peers to go over the data that I collected and give me their
feedback.
Procedures
I will observe one class of fourth grade students at an elementary school in northeast
Texas that ranges from kindergarten to fourth grade. I will follow this class all day, every day of
the fall semester. As they change from class to class, I will follow them to two of their classes
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and observe the classroom management techniques that their teachers have in place, along with
how the students behave in that classroom. The reason I will follow the same class from teacher
to teacher instead of switching classes to observe other teachers is to ensure that it is the
classroom management that is the only thing changing, not the students. As students encounter
different classroom management techniques, I will write down how their behavior differs. At the
same time, I will have a voice recording that I can go over at a later time.
Setting and Participants
The setting of this study will be at an elementary school in northeast Texas that has
classes from kindergarten to fourth grade. The participants in this study will be one class of
fourth grade students, their teachers, and myself. This study will not take place in a self
contained classroom in order to see the different classroom management techniques incorporated
by different teachers. In the fourth grade, switching classrooms throughout the day is still a fairly
new concept. It is because of this that I chose to do this study over a fourth grade classroom.
Sampling
For this study, the class that I will be researching is the sample. Since I will not study the
entire school, the study that I will be conduct will act as the sample for the class.
Data Collection
Observations
I will observe the class from the back of the classroom in order to be as little of a
distraction as possible. As something takes place in the classroom, I will record it in writing. I
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will record how the student is behaving, what the teacher does in return, and if it affected the
students behavior in any way.
Interviews
Along with my observations, I will take the time to interview both teachers and students.
While interviewing teachers, I will try to find out why they chose to react like they did in a
certain situation or why they think that a classroom management technique that they have in
place is important. While interviewing students, I will try to find out what made them act the
way that they did, how the teachers reaction made them feel, and what they think about the rules
in place in the classroom. The interviews will be recorded and I will make notes on these as well.
Reflections
After school is out, I will reflect over the notes and audio recordings from each day and
each interview. Not only will I reflect by reading over the notes that I have made, but I will
rerecord them into my computer. I will also type out anything that I find helpful from the audio
recordings. By doing my reflections this way, it will help to ensure accuracy.
Timeline of Data Collection
The data will be collected everyday for an the fall semester of one school year. I will
conduct interviews on the last day of every week. As stated before, the data will not only be
collected in person then left alone, but I will reflect and rerecord that data at the end of each day.
Trustworthiness
To ensure trustworthiness, I will frequently have my peers look over my notes and
recordings and have them give me feedback. By having the collected data peer reviewed, this
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allows my biases to be canceled out. Not only will my peers reflect on the data that I have
collected, after reviewing the data, they will also reflect on my reflections in order to ensure that
I am doing the study in a trustworthy way.
Data Analysis
While observing, recording data, and reflecting on my work, I will look to find patterns
of student behavior through constant comparison. I will compare their behavior in one classroom
and one style of classroom management to another classroom and another style of classroom
management. I will be looking for both positive and negative student behavior that might
possibly stem from different teachers management techniques. The reactions I find from these
data collections will be what this research is happening to find. The teachers management
techniques that have mostly positive student reactions will be the management techniques that
need to be implemented.
Conclusion
This methodology chapter described my study. I stated my research question and its
importance. In order to know what styles of classroom management works best, we must see
what is happening in classroom and find out what is working, and what is not working. I also
explained the procedures, the setting and the participants for this study. Each participant in this
study plays a very important role. Without each of these participants, a result would not be
possible. I also described how I will collect the data for this study and how I will remain
trustworthy in analyzing the data that is found. By having my notes and the study as a whole peer
reviewed, this study will gain credibility and become more trustworthy.

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