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Running head: THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 1

The Evil behind the Mastermind


Marissa L. Rochefort
Baker College of Jackson

THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 2
The Evil behind the Mastermind
On the early morning of January 24
th
, 1989, in Starke, Florida, a crowd of people eagerly
awaited for a mans death sentence to be confirmed. After a long morning, the anxious crowd
finally got to cheer in victory as the man died by the electric chair. He was served the death
sentence after being found guilty for admitting to the murders of at least 30 women and young
girls. It is believed he brutally murdered up to 100 victims, but he only confessed to committing
30 of the horrendous crimes. The man was known best for the unspeakable, gruesome, and tragic
ways he killed his victims including kidnapping, raping, and dismembering body parts. Out of
the 30 victims found, 12 of them were found with their heads decapitated. The name of the man
responsible for these chilling acts was Theodore Robert Cowell, better known as Ted Bundy. Ted
is one of Americas most popular serial killers whose actions leave society wondering why. Why
would a person commit such nasty crimes? What would compel a person to even think to do
such awful things? If a good look is taken at Teds past, some answers begin to appear. Many
factors led to Teds evil ways. Ted was a troublesome human being from the start. His young and
single mother could not raise him alone. He grew up with her as his sister, but she was actually
his young mother. He was also unaware that his parents were his grandparents. He did not find
out the truth until much later in his life. At a young age Ted was known to have a fascination
with knives and sharp objects. He was known for his odd and aggressive behavior, and was
referred to as a bully. Ted had been arrested on more than one account for battery and suspicion
for stealing. In his teen years, Ted was quite introverted and unsociable, yet was very charming
and witty when he needed to be. He was a smooth talker when it came to ladies and had
numerous girlfriends at one time. He began taking an unhealthy liking to alcohol. He would
spend his time spying on women from a distance. Then he began approaching women appearing
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to have a handicap. He would have his arm in a sling or crutches. He would wait until they were
alone before kidnapping them. He would murder these women, and then drop off their bodies.
According to psychologists who evaluated Ted Bundy after his first arrest, the events that led Ted
to commit such ghastly acts were due to ASPD, Antisocial Personality Disorder. They classified
him as a psychopath. They also diagnosed him with Bipolar Disorder. They concluded that some
of the factors in Teds life, (his odd upbringing, and his use of alcohol, etc.), led to his Antisocial
Personality Disorder and the associated disorder. The main result was a person who does not lack
remorse, or have empathy toward others- a killer. (Psychological Analysis Ted Bundy., n.d.).
According to the survey, (Personality Disorders. 2004. p. 1), an estimated 30.8 million
American adults (14.8%) meet standard diagnostic criteria for at least one personality disorder as
defined in the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders. More males than females are diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder.
(Personality Disorders.2004.). Antisocial Personality Disorder is not an uncommon disorder. In
fact, it is linked to many other disorders, and is the reason for many appalling actions carried out
by a person. The reason most people, like Ted Bundy, commit sordid crimes is because of this
disorder or a factor linked to this disorder. Antisocial Personality Disorder has several identifying
characteristics and causes, and is linked to a handful of other disorders.
What It Is:
First, Antisocial Personality Disorder has many characteristics and is classified into
clusters depending on the severity of the condition. Antisocial Personality Disorder can be
characterized by repetitive behavior, which mainly includes manipulating and violating the rights
of the people around them. It is a psychiatric condition based solely on behavioral patterns. A
person can be diagnosed with this disorder at any point in their lifetime, but is usually diagnosed
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early in their young adult years. One can be diagnosed with this condition at age 15 if one
exhibits certain behavioral patterns that fit the criteria for the disorder. Examples of these
characteristics include the following: repeated criminal acts, impulsiveness, disregard for the
safety of others, and lack of remorse. One can also be diagnosed with this condition at age 18 if
they have similar characteristics, but their actions are more powerful. For example they are
deceitful and dishonest (they repeat lies so much that they become reality to them), they are very
aggressive and are involved in physical fights, they are reckless (to the point where they feel they
are invincible), and they are constantly irresponsible. (Cooper, 1994).
Second, Antisocial Personality Disorder has such a wide range of characteristics that they
are divided into clusters. Cluster A is the less severe. It involves individuals who demonstrate
abnormal behavior and are usually not involved in the social norm. The individual may be
perceived as just the odd one out. They seem as though they would rather be alone, and when
spoken too, they do not make eye contact. They have odd behavior, sometimes aggressive, but
they are strange more than anything. Cluster B is more severe. An individual may seem dramatic
and emotional. Their attitude may seem aggressive toward others for no particular reason, and
this makes them questionably dangerous. Drug and alcohol problems are commonly linked to
people with the disorder at this stage. Cluster C is the most severe cluster of the three. An
individual at this stage may always seem anxious or fearful. They often worry and are always on
edge. This may make the person more likely to snap and be aggressive. That may be dangerous
to be around. (Managing primary care patients with personality disorder, 2004).
Third, Clusters B and C are commonly linked to individuals with severe characteristics
who are sometimes labeled as a sociopath or a psychopath. According to Borges (September
2013),
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The 4
th
and 5th editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (DSM) of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), which states: The essential
feature of antisocial personality disorder is a persuasive pattern of disregard for, and
violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and
continues into adulthood. This pattern has also been referred to as psychopathy,
sociopathy, or dissocial personality disorder. The term psychopath if often associated
with a malignant narcissist or a sociopath and some people often wrongly diagnose one
for the other (p.3).
There are around 21 extra traits one must have in order to be considered a sociopath or
psychopath. These traits are in addition to the characteristics that meet the criteria for diagnosing
one with Antisocial Personality Disorder. Some of the extra traits include the following: a
superficial charm, manipulative ways, no emotional reactions, severe lack of empathy, poor
control of behavior, and sexual promiscuity. Depending on the percentage of a trait, one then can
be diagnosed as either a sociopath or a psychopath. Borges states, Psychopathy and sociopathy
are both anti-social personality disorders. While both these disorders are the result of an
interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors, psychopathy leans towards
the heredity whereas sociopathy tends toward the environmental (September 2013, p.4).
In other words, sociopathy is characterized by actions that vary from violence and impulsivity. A
sociopathic individual has more of a controlled behavior, and this allows him/her to minimize
his/her risks. They better blend in with society by controlling themselves and can give the
impression of being normal socially by maintaining relationships with others. They fall into the
Cluster B group. A psychopathic individual cannot control anger and impulsivity. They are
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unable to maintain themselves and cannot appear normal in society. They fall into Cluster C
group. (Borges, 2013).
Disorders Associated With ASPD:
Antisocial Personality Disorder has many disorders associated with it. One disorder that
is the most closely associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder is Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD has characteristics including hyperactivity, impulsivity,
and inattention. (Antisocial Personality Disorder Related Diseases & Conditions, 1996).
According to a study, (Gudjonsson, et al. 2013), there is a big link between Antisocial
Personality Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This group of
psychiatrists provides information from an experiment and survey taken from 90 Icelandic male
prisoners, all serving sentences for criminal offences. Most prisoners were around the age 30.
The experiment was to illustrate the connections between the disorders. The results concluded
that all 90 male prisoners met the criteria resulting in ADHD. 58% of those with ADHD were
also cases that were associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder. Some of the behavioral
patterns associated with ADHD closely resemble those of Antisocial Personality Disorder.
ADHD is closely associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder as illustrated from the
experiment. Sometimes the two disorders are so closely associated that an individual may only
be diagnosed with ADHD or mistaken to only have ADHD alone. (Gudjonsson, et al., 2013).
In addition, ADHD isnt the only disorder linked to Antisocial Personality Disorder.
Anxiety disorders (Obsessive Compulsive Disorders), and Depression are some disorders that are
associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder in the Cluster A group. Borderline Personality
Disorder, Schizophrenia, and Mental Illness are some disorders that are associated with
Antisocial Personality Disorder in the Cluster B group. Bipolar disorder and Severe Mental
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Health Disorders are associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder in the Cluster C group. The
severity of the associated disorders impacts the severity of Antisocial Personality Disorder, and
can also help determine any additional causes of the disorder. (Antisocial Personality Disorder
Related Diseases & Conditions, 1996).
Causes:
Antisocial Personality Disorder can be caused by a number of factors. Antisocial
Personality Disorder can be caused by genetics. The inherited characteristics that make up a
person can be passed on from the parent (Mayo Foundation, 2013). Genetics can include
anything from a type of brain deficiency to the region of the brain that causes such characteristics
of the disorder. As stated by Pemment, (The neurobiology of antisocial personality disorder.
2012), from looking at the development in those with antisocial personality disorder (from
functional integrity of the brain to genes and neurotransmitters), it is not difficult to see why
classifying APD has been a difficult and arduous task (p.4). Pemment explains that the
deficiencies and abnormalities in the brain associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder are
hard to recognize, and pinpoint, due to the fact that there are a lot of factors that come into play
involving brain activity. He compares it to a needle in the haystack. He theorizes that the
abnormality could be due to the lack of a neurotransmitter (a chemical in the brain that allows
neurons to communicate). He says that this could be due to the lack of a protein in the brain.
Another cause is possible past head injury or trauma. This could have resulted in damage to the
brain causing the disorder.
Other than genetics, other possible causes can include the environment and past
experiences. These can be anything from the upbringing of the child to the types of behaviors a
child has acquired through his/her lifetime. Some examples include the presence of siblings, any
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physical or mental abuse, the type of home the child was raised, and they types of choices the
child made for itself. As Black states, (What Causes Antisocial Personality Disorder. Psych
Central, 2006),
Social and home environment also contributes to the development of antisocial
behavior. Parents of troubled children frequently show a high level of antisocial behavior
themselves. In one large study, the parents of delinquent boys were more often alcoholic
or criminal and their homes frequently disrupted by divorce, separation or absence of a
parent (p. 1).
It is also believed that an individual that has suffered from drug or alcohol abuse is more likely to
have Antisocial Personality Disorder. This abuse easily allows for the onset of aggressive and
impulsive behavior, resulting in the diagnoses of the disorder. A combination of these factors
could have contributed to the cause of this disorder.
Treatment & Prognosis:
The treatment and prognosis for Antisocial Personality disorder is dependent on the
severity of the condition, what factors cause it, and what type of other disorders are associated.
There are such a wide variety of factors that could possibly cause this disorder. It is hard to
pinpoint the exact cause, making it hard to find a direct course of treatment. In order to treat
Antisocial Personality Disorder there are a series of tests. An individual must be evaluated and
meet all criteria in order to have an accurate diagnosis. This allows for the person to be put into a
category based on the severity of the disorder. Once this step is complete, one may have to
undergo many types of therapy in order to be placed in one that benefits the individual the most.
The prognosis depends on the person and the situation. Most people with Antisocial Personality
have committed crimes and may be serving time as a result. Most people have this disorder
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because they abuse drugs or alcohol. Other actions may be taken to help these people in these
specific situations. Sometimes certain medications can be given to control mood swings, anger,
or depression. The prognosis is negative. Not only because the direct cause of ASPD is unclear,
but because these characteristics may define the person. There is little help for a person who
cannot be changed.
Conclusion:
Antisocial Personality Disorder is one reason behind evil. A close look at the brain
indicates there are genetic and environmental components which cause this disorder. It could be
caused by nature or nurture or a combination of the two. It is linked to other disorders. There are
treatments, but there is not much of a good prognosis. Mainly due to the fact that a person
acquires antisocial characteristics and that is who they become. Antisocial Personality Disorder
essentially engrosses a persons brain. The person attempts to become in control, and the people
around them just become game pieces in their version of Life. They will do anything in their
power in order to win, even if that means hurting people in their path. This is harmful in many
ways, not only to others, but to the person with Antisocial Personality Disorder. The evil actions
of people cannot always be explained, but in most cases ASPD is a pretty good explanation.
ASPD can explain tragedy, like Ted Bundys crimes, but it is tragic in itself because it is a sad
way to live life. It would be exhausting to live life obsessing over how to control people. This
makes it impossible to maintain healthy relationships. Antisocial Personality Disorder essentially
separates the person from reality. They become a monster, destroying life rather than living it.
This is a prime example of a losing winner. The bad guy seems to have won, but did he really?


THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 10
References

Antisocial Personality Disorder Related Diseases & Conditions. (1996). Retrieved from
http://www.medicinenet.com/antisocial_personality_disorder/related-conditions/index.htm
Black, D. (2006). What Causes Antisocial Personality Disorder. Psych Central. Retrieved
from http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-causes-antisocial-personality -disorder/000652
Borges, A. (September 2013). What makes someone a psychopath. Retrieved from
http://www.dnaindia.com/health/report-what-makes-someone-a-psychopath-1891082
Cooper, A. (1994). Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). Retrieved from
http://www.health.am/psy/antisocial-personality-disorder/
Gudjonsson, G. H., Fridrik, J., Sigurdsson, Einarsson, E.B., Olafur, O., & Newton, A. K.
(April 2010). Inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and antisocial personality disorder: Which is
the best predictor of false confessions. In Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 48,
Issue 6 (pp.720-724). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.012
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Antisocial Personality
Disorder. (April 12, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/antisocial-
personality-disorder/DS00829
Pemment, J. (2012). The neurobiology of antisocial personality disorder: The quest for
rehabilitation and treatment. Aggression and Violent Behavior. Retrieved from
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.10.004
Psychological Anaylisis Ted Bundy. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://tedbundyproject.weebly.com/psychological-analysis.html
THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 11
U.S. National Library of Medicine. (November 10, 2012). Antisocial Personality
Disorder. Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder antisocial. Retrieved from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001919
(2004, August 29). Personality Disorders; Survey reported on the prevalence of
personality disorders in the United States. Medical Letter on the CDC & FDA, 91. Retrieved
from
http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.bakerezproxy.palnet.info/elibweb/elib/do/document?set=search&dict
ionaryClick=&secondaryNav=&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standard&resultid=2&edition=&ts=9
8E8DAE9D7F05CD82FD93A0D1EA199B2_1384269455662&start=1&publicationId=&urn=ur
n%3Abigchalk%3AUS%3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B121471560
(2004, November 01). Managing primary care patients with personality disorder. Pulse,
60. Retrieved from
http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.bakerezproxy.palnet.info/elibweb/elib/do/document?urn=urn:bigchal
k:US%3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B102008908#citation









THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 12

Annotated References

Antisocial Personality Disorder Related Diseases & Conditions. (1996). Retrieved from
http://www.medicinenet.com/antisocial_personality_disorder/related-conditions/index.htm
A group of doctors and psychiatrists present information, on Medicine Net, Inc., an
online source, that is based on Antisocial Personality Disorder and the Related Diseases and
Conditions. The source lists and explains how each disease and its conditions are related to
ASPD. In my paper I intend to use the list of related diseases to explain what disorders ASPD
can usually be linked to. I will just mention some disorders that appear on the list.
Black, D. (2006). What Causes Antisocial Personality Disorder. Psych Central. Retrieved
from http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-causes-antisocial-personality -disorder/000652
From an article on Antisocial Personality Disorder, Dr. Donald Black,
Professor of Psychiatry of University of Iowa City, IA, research factors that can lead to causing
ASPD. Black provides theories, some based on environmental factors, which can lead to the
development of ASPD. I intend to use these theories to help explain the causes of ASPD.
Borges, A.What makes someone a psychopath. (September 2013). Retrieved from
http://www.dnaindia.com/health/report-what-makes-someone-a-psychopath-1891082
From an article on what makes someone a psychopath, Andre Borges, a media writer for
DNA Web Team of Diligent Media Corporation, in Mumbai, explains the differences between a
psychopath and a sociopath. Borges provides a chart indicating the differences between them. I
intend to use the information to help explain the types of disorders associated with ASPD.
THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 13
Cooper, A. (1994). Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). Retrieved from
http://www.health.am/psy/antisocial-personality-disorder/
From an article on Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), Dr. Anne-Marin B. Cooper,
from the American Psychiatric Association, researches Antisocial Personality Disorder. She lists
all factors that are related with the disorder. Cooper provides great detail about characteristics
involving ASPD. I intend to use some of her detailed descriptions to illustrate what the disorder
consists of.
Gudjonsson, G. H., Fridrik, J., Sigurdsson, Einarsson, E.B., Olafur, O., & Newton, A. K.
(April 2010). Inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and antisocial personality disorder: Which is
the best predictor of false confessions. In Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 48,
Issue 6 (pp.720-724). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.012
From an article on Personality and Indifferences, Gisli H. Gudjonsson of Department of
Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London, United Kingdom, Jon Fridrik
Sigurdsson of Division of Psychiatry, Landspitali-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland, Emil
Einarsson of Division of Psychiatry, Landspitali-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland, Olafur
Orn Bragason of the Office of the National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police, Reykjavik,
Iceland, and Anna Kristin Newton of the Prison and Probation Administration, Reykjavik,
Iceland, all researched the importance ASPD has on ADHD. They provide information from an
experiment, and a survey, taken from prisoners to illustrate the connections between both of the
disorders. I intend to use the information provided from the article to help explain the
connection between ASPD and ADHD.
THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 14
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Antisocial Personality
Disorder. (April 12, 2013). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/antisocial-
personality-disorder/DS00829
From online source, from Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research,
information is presented by a group of doctors and psychiatrists. Within the information provided
there is an overview about Antisocial Personality Disorder. Source provides general information
about the topic including symptoms, causes, and prevention. I intend to use some of the general
information, not provided from other sources, to help explain ASPD.
Pemment, J. (2012). The neurobiology of antisocial personality disorder: The quest for
rehabilitation and treatment. Aggression and Violent Behavior. Retrieved from
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.10.004
From the article on Aggression and Violent Behavior, Jack Pemment of The University of
Mississippi, Biology Department, United States, researches the neurobiology of Antisocial
Personality Disorder. Pemment explains the differences between the brains of people that are
diagnosed with ASPD psychopathy. He also looks at the possible genetic factors included.
Pemment explains current treatment and asks about future treatment. I intend to use this
information presented in the article, to help explain the causes of ASPD. I also intend to use the
information to explain treatment types available to those with this condition.
Psychological Analysis Ted Bundy. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://tedbundyproject.weebly.com/psychological-analysis.html
This website is a generic summary on Ted Bundy. It does not give an author or date. It
just gives basic information in a list. I intend to use the information provided for details in my
introduction.
THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 15
U.S. National Library of Medicine. (November 10, 2012). Antisocial Personality
Disorder. Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder antisocial. Retrieved from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001919
From an online source from A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia that is based on Antisocial
Personality Disorder. The source gives general information about ASPD. Some of the topics
include risk factors, symptoms, and treatments associated with the disorder. I intend to use some
of the general information to help explain characteristics that relate with ASPD.
(2004, August 29). Personality Disorders; Survey reports on the prevalence of personality
disorders in the United States. Medical Letter on the CDC & FDA, 91. Retrieved from
http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.bakerezproxy.palnet.info/elibweb/elib/do/document?set=search&dict
ionaryClick=&secondaryNav=&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standard&resultid=2&edition=&ts=9
8E8DAE9D7F05CD82FD93A0D1EA199B2_1384269455662&start=1&publicationId=&urn=ur
n%3Abigchalk%3AUS%3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B121471560
From a survey report on Personality Disorders, a Medical Letter on the CDC & FDA, the
survey reports numbers on people in the United States, that meet criteria for having ASPD. I
intend to use the data in my introduction to help make a point about the importance of the
disorder.
(2004, November 01). Managing primary care patients with personality disorder. Pulse,
60. Retrieved from
http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.bakerezproxy.palnet.info/elibweb/elib/do/document?urn=urn:bigchal
k:US%3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B102008908#citation
From an article on managing primary care patients with Personality Disorder, Dr. Philip
Sugarman and Dr. Antony Walters GB United Kingdom, EU, research patients that have a
THE EVIL BEHIND THE MASTERMIND 16
personality disorder. Sugarman and Walters explain the different types of personality disorders
and the characteristics that define them. I intend to use the research and information to help
define the differences ASPD has compared to other personality disorders.