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Running head: THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE 1

The Role of Stem Cell in Geneti! and Medi!ine
"ian!a Ha#old
"a$ide High S!hool

THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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A&t#a!t
In thi 'a'e#( I )ill )#ite a&out the #ole of tem !ell in geneti! and medi!ine* The 'a'e# )ill
mention ho) tem !ell e+it th#oughout the &od$ ,Stem Cell in the S'otlight*( %--.( No/em&e#
%01* In the 'a'e#( I )ill define tem !ell a !ell )ithout a 'e!ifi! fun!tion in the &od$ &ut !an
'#odu!e man$ 'e!iali2ed !ell( u!h a hea#t o# mu!le !ell ,C#ota( 3*( %--0( Se'tem&e#1* I
)ill mention the #egene#ati/e a&ilitie of tem !ell ,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$ -11* I )ill alo
add#e the !ont#o/e#$ of tem !ell #eea#!h a )ell a the 'e#'e!ti/e of ome ide ,"lendon(
R*( 4im( M*( "enon( 5*( %-11( No/em&e# 161 ,C#ota( 3*( %--0( Se'tem&e#1* I )ill in!lude
'oi&le ue of tem !ell in the futu#e a )ell a the !u##ent ue of tem !ell in the medi!al
'#a!ti!e ,Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation*( n*d*1* O/e#all( I )ill mention )hat a tem !ell i( )hat
it !an do and )ill do( and the 'a'e# )ill in!lude the /a#iou o'inion of tem !ell*
Keywords: stem cell, genetics, medicine, controversy, uses, in, future, current, uses
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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3a'e# O/e#/ie)
Imagine a )o#ld )he#e the#e i no illne o# dieae8 a )o#ld )he#e an am'utation of the leg
!ould eail$ &e 'e#fe!tl$ #eto#ed8 a )o#ld )he#e 'eo'le )ho died &efo#e thei# time &e!aue of a
&odil$ ailment )e#e ali/e8 a uto'ia &e!aue of an e+!e'tional t$'e of !ell !alled a tem !ell* Stem
!ell e+it th#oughout the &od$* Stem !ell a#e !ell )ithout a 'e!ifi! fun!tion in the &od$ &ut
!an '#odu!e man$ 'e!iali2ed !ell( u!h a hea#t o# mu!le !ell ,C#ota( 3*( %--0( Se'tem&e#1*
"e!aue of thei# e+!e'tional #egene#ation a&ilitie( tem !ell ha/e &een #eea#!hed &$ !ientit
in ho'e of !u#ing ailment and in9u#ie that ha/e 'lagued human ,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$
-11* "ut all thing !ome )ith a '#i!e8 man$ 'eo'le ha/e a fie#!e o'inion on the #eea#!h of tem
!ell and )ant it di!ontinuation ,"lendon( R*( 4im( M*( "enon( 5*( %-11( No/em&e# 161*
De'ite the negati/it$ tem !ell #e!ei/e( tem !ell ma$ &e the an)e# to mot dieae and
in9u#ie ,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$ -11* Stem !ell a#e /e#$ hel'ful in geneti! and medi!ine
&e!aue of thei# #ema#:a&le #egene#ation a&ilitie( and( although the$ ha/e mi+ed 'e#'e!ti/e(
tem !ell ha/e a /e#$ '#omiing futu#e ,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$ -11*
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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Stem Cell Defined
Stem !ell a#e !ell )ithout a 'e!ial fun!tion &ut !an '#odu!e othe# !ell that do ha/e a 'e!ial
fun!tion ,C#ota( 3*( %--0( Se'tem&e#1* A!!o#ding to one ou#!e( <Stem !ell a#e a !la of
undiffe#entiated !ell that a#e a&le to diffe#entiate into 'e!iali2ed !ell t$'e= ,C#ota( 3*(
%--0( Se'tem&e#1* <All tem !ell( #ega#dle of thei# ou#!e( ha/e th#ee gene#al '#o'e#tie:
the$ a#e !a'a&le of di/iding and #ene)ing themel/e fo# long 'e#iod8 the$ a#e
un'e!iali2ed8 and the$ !an !hooe to &e!ome one of man$ diffe#ent t$'e of !ell '#eent in
the &od$ &aed on ignal ,inte#nal o# e+te#nal fa!to# that !ont#ol !hange in !ell t#u!tu#e
and fun!tion1 f#om thei# en/i#onment= ,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$ -11*
In addition to the definition of tem !ell( tem !ell !ome in th#ee fo#m ,Ga/aghan( Helen(
%--1( 5anua#$ -11* <The th#ee t$'e a#e found at diffe#ent tage of an o#ganim> de/elo'ment
and in diffe#ent 'la!e in the &od$= ,Ga/aghan( Helen( %--1( 5anua#$ -11* Stem !ell !an !ome
in th#ee fo#m8 em&#$oni!( adult( and indu!ed 'lu#i'otent tem !ell ,Co+( C*( n*d*1* The fi#t(
em&#$oni! tem !ell a#e found in the ea#l$ tage of em&#$oni! de/elo'ment ,Co+( C*( n*d*1*
The e!ond( adult tem !ell a#e found in de/elo'ed tiue ,Co+( C*( n*d*1( )hi!h alo in!lude
!hild#en not 9ut adult ,Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation*( n*d*1* The thi#d( indu!ed 'lu#i'otent
!ell a#e not found di#e!tl$ in the &od$( &e!aue the$ a#e #e'#og#ammed f#om adult tem !ell in
la&o#ato#ie ,Co+( C*( n*d*1* Stem !ell ha/e th#ee fo#m of #egene#ation( )hi!h a#e toti'otent(
'lu#i'otent( and multi'otnet ,Ga/aghan( Helen( %--1( 5anua#$ -11* Multi'otent i mo#e 'e!ifi!
than the othe# t)o fo#m &e!aue the !ell !an onl$ !#eate othe# !ell li:e itelf ,Ga/aghan( Helen(
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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%--1( 5anua#$ -11* Toti'otent tem !ell !an !#eate a full human &eing ,Ga/aghan( Helen( %--1(
5anua#$ -11* 3lu#i'otent !annot !#eate all the !ell fo# all the tiue in the &od$ ,Ga/aghan(
Helen( %--1( 5anua#$ -11* Em&#$oni! tem !ell a#e toti'otent( and adult tem !ell a#e
multi'otent ,Ga/aghan( Helen( %--1( 5anua#$ -11* F#om the name( indu!ed 'lu#i'otent !ell a#e
'lu#i'otent ,Ga/aghan( Helen( %--1( 5anua#$ -11*
Stem !ell !an !ome in th#ee fo#m8 em&#$oni!( adult( and indu!ed 'lu#i'otent tem !ell* T)o of
the th#ee tem !ell fo#m di#e!tl$ !ome f#om the human &od$ )hile the thi#d i !#eated in a
la&o#ato#$* ,Co+( C*( n*d*1* Stem !ell alo 'la$ a /e#$ im'o#tant #ole in unde/elo'ed and
de/elo'ed &odie ,Stem Cell in the S'otlight( %--.( No/em&e# %01*
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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Stem Cell the Human "od$
Fu#the#mo#e f#om the th#ee t$'e of tem !ell and thei# a&ilitie( tem !ell 'la$ an im'o#tant
#ole in the de/elo'ment of an em&#$o and th#oughout the matu#e tage of life ,Stem Cell in the
S'otlight( %--.( No/em&e# %01* A!!o#ding to one ou#!e( #ega#ding the de/elo'ment of an
em&#$o &e!aue of tem !ell( <A fe) )ee: late#( the !ell of the oute# la$e# ,o# e!tode#m1 ha/e
&e!ome :in( ne#/ou $tem( and 'a#t of the fa!e and ne!:* The middle la$e# ,o# meode#m1
ha &e!ome mu!le( &lood( &lood /eel( and the &eginning of &one and !onne!ti/e tiue* The
inne# la$e# ,o# endode#m1 ha &egun to fo#m the digeti/e and #e'i#ato#$ t#a!t and the gland
that feed into them( in!luding the 'an!#ea and the li/e#= ,Stem Cell in the S'otlight( %--.(
No/em&e# %01* Stem !ell in the em&#$oni! 'hae &egin to !ont#u!t the human &od$( o the$ a#e
!ontantl$ at )o#: ,Stem Cell in the S'otlight( %--.( No/em&e# %01*
Additionall$ to the '#og#eion of tem !ell in the em&#$oni! tage( the ame ou#!e had
e+'lained the #ole of tem !ell in adult &odie( <A )e g#o) f#om fe#tili2ed egg into full$
fo#med human &eing( tem !ell gi/e #ie to all of ou# diffe#entiated tiue and o#gan* Stem
!ell !ontinue to 'la$ an im'o#tant #ole th#oughout ou# li/e a the$ hel' to heal and maintain
ou# &odie= ,Stem Cell in the S'otlight( %--.( No/em&e# %01* A!!o#ding to the ame ou#!e(
)hen add#eing adult tem !ell in the &od$( <Some tem !ell it @uietl$( )aiting fo# a ignal to
tell then to di/ide( othe# a#e !ontantl$ at )o#:( #e'la!ing !ell that a#e lot th#ough dail$ )ea#
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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and tea#= ,Stem Cell in the S'otlight( %--.( No/em&e# %01* Not onl$ do tem !ell g#o) in the
&od$( the !ont#o/e#$ of tem !ell !ontinue to g#o) a )ell ,"lendon( R*( 4im( M*( "enon( 5*(
%-11( No/em&e# 161*
The Cont#o/e#$ Su##ounding Stem Cell
Mo#eo/e# to the matu#ation of tem !ell( 'eo'le a#ound the )o#ld ha/e o''oing thought
a&out the #eea#!h of em&#$oni! tem !ell &e!aue the #eea#!h in/ol/e the det#u!tion of
em&#$o ,C#ota( 3*( %--0( Se'tem&e#1* <The main !#iti@ue of thi #eea#!h i that it #e@ui#ed the
det#u!tion of a human &lato!$t* That i( a fe#tili2ed egg )a not gi/en the !han!e to de/elo'
into a full$Ade/elo'ed human= ,C#ota( 3*( %--0( Se'tem&e#1* A!!o#ding to one ou#!e(
#ega#ding the 'oi&ilit$ of human !loning( The National A!ademieB fi#t 'anel /oted in fa/o# of
!ontinuing #eea#!h on em&#$oni! tem !ell e/en if the #eea#!h in!lude human !loning* The
e!ond 'anel /oted againt an$ human !loning that ma$ o!!u# in the #eea#!h of em&#$oni! tem
!ell &e!aue of the 'oi&ilit$ that g#ou' might a&ue the a&ilit$* ,Ceiman( L( I*( %--%( Ma$
1.1*
<Eu#o'ean and Ame#i!an Attitude a&out Fo#&idding Reea#!h In/ol/ing Human Em&#$o(
E/en if It Mean That 3oi&le T#eatment A#e Not Made A/aila&le to Ill 3eo'le*
Among the 7; !ount#ie )e e+amined( thoe )he#e the la#get '#o'o#tion of #eident a$ that
u!h #eea#!h
hould not &e fo#&idden a#e I!eland ,61D1( No#)a$ ,.ED1( S)eden ,.6D1( and "#itain ,.?D1* In
fou# !ount#ie( the ma9o#it$ of the 'u&li! &elie/e that u!h #eea#!h hould &e fo#&idden: Aut#ia
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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,.-D1( Lu+em&ou#g ,?;D1( G#ee!e ,?;D1( and Slo/enia ,?;D1* In fou# othe# !ount#ie
,Ge#man$( Slo/a:ia( Lat/ia( and Tu#:e$1 a 'lu#alit$ )e#e of thi ame o'inion ,HS3H %-118
Eu#o&a#omete# %-1-1* In a tud$ done in Ame#i!a and Eu#o'e( #eea#!he# found out that
#eligiou 'eo'le a#e mo#e li:el$ to fa/o# the di!ontinuation of human em&#$oni! tem !ell
#eea#!h( and 'eo'le )ho )e#e not #eligiou )e#e mo#e li:el$ to u''o#t the !ontinuation of
human em&#$oni! tem !ell #eea#!h ,"lendon( R*( 4im( M*( "enon( 5*( %-11( No/em&e# 161*
Stem !ell a#e not onl$ a '#ima#$ di!uion among 'eo'le( &ut the$ a#e a '#ima#$ fun!tion in the
&odie of human*
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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Stem Cell in Medi!ine
"eide the diffe#en!e in em&#$oni! tem !ell #eea#!h( tem !ell 'la$ a ma9o# and de/elo'ing
#ole in medi!ine: toda$ the$ a#e ued in e/e#al the#a'ie( and !ientit a#e t#$ing to in/ent mo#e
the#a'ie ,Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation( n*d*1* The#e a#e th#ee '#o!edu#e that in/ol/e the ue
of tem !ell: &one ma##o) t#an'lant( 'e#i'he#al &lood t#an'lant( and um&ili!al !o#d &lood
t#an'lant ,Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation( n*d*1* The &one ma##o) t#an'lant and 'e#i'he#al
&lood t#an'lant '#o!edu#e 'e!ifi!all$ ue adult tem !ell )hile the um&ili!al !o#d t#an'lant
ue em&#$oni! tem !ell ,Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation( n*d*1* "one ma##o) t#an'lant a#e
mainl$ ued fo# 'atient )ith leu:emia ,Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation( n*d*1* Human &lood
!ontain ome tem !ell( and thoe tem !ell a#e ued fo# the 'e#i'he#al &lood t#an'lant
,Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation( n*d*1* Fm&ili!al !o#d t#an'lant a#e fai#l$ ne) in!e the$ )e#e
initiall$ th#o)n a)a$ afte# the &i#th of a &a&$ ,Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation( n*d*1*
A!!o#ding to one ou#!e( <Some othe# a''li!ation of tem !ell a#e &eing in/etigated in
!lini!al t#ial( in!luding the ue of tem !ell to #egene#ate damaged tiueA u!h a hea#t( :in(
&one( 'inal !o#d( li/e#( 'an!#ea and !o#neaA o# to t#eat &lood o# olidAo#gan !an!e#= ,Eu#o'e>
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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tem !ell hu& G Eu#oStemCell* ,n*d*1* <On A'#il ;( %--. the fi#t human #e!i'ient of
la&o#ato#$g#o)n o#gan )e#e #e'o#ted &$ Anthon$ Atala( M*D*( di#e!to# of the Intitute
of Regene#ati/e Medi!ine at Ca:e Fo#et Fni/e#it$ S!hool of Medi!ine* Atala de!#i&ed the
longAte#m u!!e in !hild#en and teenage# )ho #e!ei/ed &ladde# g#o)n f#om thei# o)n !ell*
The '#o!e fo# g#o)ing ea!h 'atient> o#gan &egan )ith a &io'$ to get am'le of mu!le !ell
and the !ell that line the &ladde# )all* Thee !ell )e#e g#o)n in a !ultu#e in the la&o#ato#$
until the#e )e#e enough !ell to 'la!e onto a 'e!iall$ !ont#u!ted &iodeg#ada&le !affold ha'ed
li:e a &ladde#* The !ell !ontinued to g#o)* Then( e/en o# eight )ee: afte# the &io'$( the
enginee#ed &ladde# )e#e utu#ed to the 'atient> o#iginal &ladde# du#ing u#ge#$* The !affold
)a deigned to deg#ade a the &ladde# tiue integ#ated )ith the &od$* Teting ho)ed that the
enginee#ed &ladde# fun!tioned a )ell a &ladde# that a#e #e'ai#ed )ith intetine tiue( &ut
)ith none of the ill effe!t= ,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$ -11* Stem !ell hel' a !onide#a&le
amount in the field of medi!ine( and )ith the 'otential of tem !ell the$ !ontinue to do o
,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$ -11*
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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The Futu#e of Stem Cell
Mo#eo/e# f#om !u##ent t#eatment in/ol/ing tem !ell( in the futu#e( !ientit '#edi!t( )ith
fu#the# #eea#!h( that tem !ell )ill &e a&le to t#eat a /at amount of in9u#ie and dieae ,"ai#d(
Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$ -11* <One 'otential a''li!ation i the gene#ation of diffe#ent t$'e of
neu#on fo# the t#eatment of A52heime#> dieae( 'inal !o#d in9u#ie( o# 3a#:inon> dieae* The
'#odu!tion of hea#t mu!le !ell fo# hea#t atta!: u#/i/o# ma$ alo &e 'oi&le* The gene#ation
of inulinA'#odu!ing !ell fo# the t#eatment of dia&ete( and e/en the gene#ation of hai# folli!le
tem !ell fo# the t#eatment of !e#tain t$'e of &aldne might &e a!hie/ed* Stem !ell !ould alo
&e ueful fo# a num&e# of tiue enginee#ing a''li!ation u!h a the '#odu!tion of !om'lete
o#gan in!luding li/e#( :idne$( e$e( hea#t( o# e/en 'a#t of the &#ain= ,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0(
Ma$ -11* Stem !ell di#e!tl$ !ome f#om eithe# the em&#$o o# adult tiue* Stem !ell in adult
tiue ma$ not di/ide to &e!ome an$ othe# !ell in the &od$( &ut em&#$o !an* ,C#ota( 3*( %--0(
Se'tem&e#1*
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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<Fu#the# 'otential a''li!ation a#e in the 'i'eline* Reea#!he# in &oth He!o/i> la&o#ato#$ and
M!4a$>( fo# e+am'le( !an !oa+ fetal &#ain tem !ell into ma:ing do'amineA'#odu!ing neu#on
)hi!h might &e ued to t#eat 'atient )ith 3a#:inon dieae= ,Ga/aghan( Helen( %--1( 5anua#$
-11* <Though u!h )o#: :ee' ali/e the e+!itement o/e# the 'otential of human
em&#$oni! tem !ell( inte#et in adult tem!ell i alo mounting* Reea#!he# ha/e di!o/e#ed
that tem !ell ao!iated )ith 'e!ifi! tiue t$'e( a$ &#ain( !an &e I#e'#og#ammedI to ma:e
mu!le* Thi o'en the 'oi&ilit$ AA till ditant AA that one !ould ta:e tem !ell f#om one 'a#t of
a 'atient> &od$ and #e'#og#amme them to '#odu!e tiue g#aft fo# damaged o# degene#ating
tiue ele)he#e( thu #edu!ing the #i: of #e9e!tion= ,Ga/aghan( Helen( %--1( 5anua#$ -11*
Stem Cell Con!luion
Fltimatel$( tem !ell a#e un'e!iali2ed !ell lo!ated in em&#$o and omati! tiue that(
th#ough di/iion( !an !#eate 'e!iali2ed !ell ,C#ota( 3*( %--0( Se'tem&e#1* Stem !ell initiall$
de/elo' the &od$( and in late# $ea#( #e'ai# it( and aid the &od$> fun!tioning ,Stem Cell in the
S'otlight*( %--.( No/em&e# %01* Cithout thee 'e!ta!ula# !ell( em&#$o )ould ha/e ne/e#
&een fo#med( and de/elo'ed human &odie )ould ne/e# e+it* Stem !ell( 'e!ifi!all$ em&#$oni!
tem !ell( ha/e #e!ei/ed mu!h good and &ad 'otlight &e!aue of it #ema#:a&le a&ilit$ to
'#odu!e othe# 'e!iali2ed !ell &ut at the !ot of ending a 'oi&le human life ,C#ota( 3*( %--0(
Se'tem&e#1* Stem !ell ha/e '#o/ided a &ig lea' in medi!ine and !ontinue to do o )ith #eea#!h
,"ai#d( Ste'hen( %--0( Ma$ -11 ,Ga/aghan( Helen( %--1( 5anua#$ -11* In 'ite of the !ont#o/e#$
!i#!ling tem !ell( tem !ell ha/e an au'i!iou futu#e*
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
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Refe#en!e
Ame#i!an Medi!al Ao!iation* ,n*d*1* Basics of Stem Cell Research* Ret#ie/ed 5anua#$ 1.( %-1;(
f#om htt':JJ)))*amaAan*o#gJamaJ'u&J'h$i!ianA#eou#!eJmedi!alA!ien!eJgeneti!A
mole!ula#Amedi!ineJ#elatedA'oli!$Ato'i!JtemA!ellA#eea#!hJ&ai!AtemA!ellA
#eea#!h*'ageK
"ai#d( Ste'hen ,%--0( Ma$ -11* Regene#ati/e Medi!ine: A G#o)ing Futu#e* Technology Teacher(
,01( 1-( Ret#ie/ed f#om htt':JJ!ien!e*&ig!hal:*!om Ret#ie/ed f#om
htt':JJlea#n*geneti!*utah*eduJ!ontentJtem!ellJ!int#oJ
"lendon( R*( 4im( M*( "enon( 5* ,%-11( No/em&e# 161* The 3u&li!( 3oliti!al 3a#tie( and StemA
Cell Reea#!h* Ne) England 5ou#nal of Medi!ine( ,%-1( 10?7( Ret#ie/ed f#om
htt':JJ!ien!e*&ig!hal:*!om
Co+( C* ,n*d*1* Stem !ell #eea#!h L the#a'$: t$'e of tem !ell and thei# !u##ent ue G Eu#o'e>
tem !ell hu& G Eu#oStemCell* Eu#oStemCell* Ret#ie/ed 5anua#$ %1( %-1;( f#om
THE ROLE OF STEM CELLS IN GENETICS AND MEDICINE
1;
htt':JJ)))*eu#otem!ell*o#gJfa!theetJtemA!ellA#eea#!hAthe#a'$At$'eAtemA!ellAandA
thei#A!u##entAue
C#ota( 3* ,%--0( Se'tem&e#1* Chat a#e Stem CellK* In Medical News Today* Ret#ie/ed 5anua#$
1;( %-1;( f#om htt':JJ)))*medi!alne)toda$*!omJinfoJtemM!ellJ
Ga/aghan( Helen ,%--1( 5anua#$ -11* The '#omie of tem !ell* World ealth !rgani"ation(
,1%1( 0--( Ret#ie/ed f#om htt':JJ!ien!e*&ig!hal:*!om
Stem Cell in the S'otlight* ,%--.( No/em&e# %01* In #ro$uest %ditorial Science We&sites '*
Ceiman( L( I* ,%--%( Ma$ 1.1* Stem !ellAA!ientifi!( medi!al( and 'oliti!al iue*Ne)
England 5ou#nal of Medi!ine( ,%-1( 1?6.( Ret#ie/ed f#om htt':JJ!ien!e*&ig!hal:*!om