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Integrales por cambio de variable

Soluciones:

1.


+
+
=
+
+
=

=
=
=
+
+
dt
1 t
t t
2 dt t 2
t 1
t 1
dt t 2 dx
t x
dx
x 1
x 1
3
2
2 2

Por ser el numerador de mayor grado que el denominador, se divide por el mtodo de la caja para
simplificar la expresin.
=
+
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
+
+

dt
1 t
1
2 2 t 2 2
2
t
2
3
t
2 dt
1 t
2
2 t t 2 dt
1 t
t t
2
2 3
2
3

( ) ( ) = + + + =

=
=
= + + + = C 1 x Ln 4 x 4 x x
3
2
x t
t x
C 1 t Ln 4 t 4 t t
3
2 2 3
2
2 3

C 1 x Ln 4 x 4 x x
3
2
3
+ + + =

2. ( ) ( ) ( ) = + = + = + =

+ =
=
=
=

dt t 2 t 2 dt t 2 2 t dt t 2 t 2 t
2 t x
dt t 2 dx
t 2 x
dx 2 x x
2 4 2 2 2 2
2
2

( ) ( )
( ) C 8 x 2 x 3
15
2 x 2
C
3
2 x
4
5
2 x
2
2 x t
t 2 x
C
3
t
2
5
t
2
2
3 5
2 3 5
+

= +

=
=
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

3. ( ) =

+ =
= +
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

=
=
= +
=
+

1 x t
t 1 x
C t
3
t
2 dt 1 t 2 dt t 2
t
1 t
1 t x
dt t 2 dx
t 1 x
dx
1 x
x
2 3
2
2
2
2
2

( )
( ) C 2 x
3
1 x 2
C 1 x
3
1 x
2
3
+
+
= +
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=

4.
( )

=
+
=
+
=
+
=

=
=
=
+
dt
1 t t
t
2 dt
t t
t 2
dt t 2
t t
1
dt t 2 dx
t x
dx
x x
1
2
2 2
2

C 1 x Ln 2
x t
t x
C 1 t Ln 2 dt
1 t
1
2
2
+ + =

=
=
= + + =
+
=



5.
( )
=

=


=

=
=
=


2
t cos
2
t cos
1
dt
t cos
sent
2 t sec 2 t sec 2
dt
t cos
sent
2
dt
t cos
sent
2 dx
t sec 2 x
2 x x
dx
2
2
2
2
2
2

= + = =

=

C t
2
1
dt
2
1
t cos
sent
dt
t cos
sent
2
1
t cos
t sen
dt
t cos
sent
2
1
t cos
t cos 1
dt
t cos
sent
2
1
1
t cos
1
2
dt
t cos
sent
2
2
2
2
2

C
x
2
cos ar
2
2
x
2
cos ar t
x
2
t cos :
t cos
2
t sec 2 x
+ =

=
= = =
=



6.
( )

+
=
+
=

=
=
=
+
1 t t
dt
1 e
t
dt
t
dt
dx
Lnt x
1 e
dx
Lnt x

Mediante el cambio se transforma en una integral racional de races simples, que se resuelve
descomponiendo la expresin en fracciones simples.
( ) ( )
C 1 t Ln B t Ln A dt
1 t
B
t
A
1 t
B
t
A
1 t t
1
1 t t
dt
+ + + = |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
)
`

+
+ =
+
=
+


Calculo de constantes:
( )
( )
( )
( ) t B 1 t A 1
1 t t
t B 1 t A
1 t
B
t
A
1 t t
1
+ + =
+
+ +
=
+
+ =
+

( )
( )
( ) ( )

= + + = =
= + + = =
+ + =
1 B 1 B 1 1 A 1 : 1 t Para
1 A 0 B 1 0 A 1 : 0 t Para
: t B 1 t A 1
sustituyendo en la integral
( )
C
1 e
e
Ln
e t
Lnt x
C
1 t
t
Ln C 1 t Ln t Ln
1 t t
dt
x
x
x
+
+
=
)
`

=
=
= +
+
= + + =
+



7.

=
=
=

dt
t 1
t
2
t 1
dt t 2
dt t 2 dx e
t e
e 1
dx e
2
x
2 x
x
x

Descomponiendo la expresin mediante la divisin de polinomios:
( ) =

=
=
= + =

+ = |
.
|

\
|

+ =

=
x
2 x
e t
t e
C t 1 Ln t 2 dt
t 1
1
1 dt 2 dt
t 1
1
1 2 dt
t 1
t
2
C e 1 Ln e 2
x x
+ =

8. =
+
=
+
=

+
= = =
+ =
=
=

dt
1 t
t
2 dt
1 t
t 2
t
dt
1 t
t 2
dt
e
t 2
dx : dt t 2 dx e
1 t e
t 1 e
dx 1 e
2
2
2
2
2 x
x
2 x
2 x
x

=

=
=
= + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

+
=
+
=

1 e t
t 1 e
C t arctg 2 t 2 dt
1 t
1
1 2
1 t
1
1
1 t
t
x
2 x
2 2 2
2

C 1 e arctg 2 1 e 2
x x
+ =

9. ( )
( )


=

=
=
= +
=
+ 1 t
dt
2
t 1 t
2
1
dt t
dt t dx
1 t
2
1
x
t 1 x 2
1 x 2 x
dx
2
2 2
2
2


Integral racional con races reales simples, se resuelve descomponiendo la expresin en
fracciones simples.
( ) ( ) 1 t
B
1 t
A
1 t 1 t
1
1 t
1
2
+
+

=
+
=



Clculo de constantes
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 1 t 1 t
1 t B 1 t A
1 t
B
1 t
A
1 t 1 t
1
+
+ +
=
+
+

=
+



identificando numeradores se calculan las constantes
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

= = + + = =
= = + + = =
+ + =
2
1
A A 2 1 : 1 1 B 1 1 A 1 : 1 t Para
2
1
B B 2 1 : 1 1 B 1 1 A 1 : 1 t Para
: 1 t B 1 t A 1
la descomposicin queda:
( ) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+

=
+ 1 t
1
1 t
1
2
1
1 t
2
1
1 t
2
1
1 t 1 t
1

sustituyendo en la integral
= +
+

= + + =
+

= |
.
|

\
|
+


C
1 t
1 t
Ln C 1 t Ln 1 t Ln dt
1 t
1
dt
1 t
1
dt
1 t
1
1 t
1
2
1
2
1 t
dt
2
2

C
1 1 x 2
1 1 x 2
Ln
1 x 2 t
t 1 x 2
2
+
+ +
+
=

+ =
= +
=

10.
( )
( )

= =

=

=
=
= +
=
+

=
+
dt 1 t 2
t
dt t 2 1 t
dt t 2 dx e
1 t e
t 1 e
1 e
dx e e
dx
1 e
e
2
2
2
x
2 x
2 x
x
x x
x
x 2

( ) C 2 e
3
1 e 2
C 1 e
3
1 e
2
1 e t
t 1 e
C t
3
t
2
x
x
x
3
x
x
2 x 3
+
+
= +
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

+ =
= +
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

11.
( ) ( ) ( )
= =

=
)
`

=
=
=


t sen
dt
t cos t sen
dt t cos
t sen 1 t sen
dt t cos
dt t cos dx
t sen x
x 1 x
dx
2
2 2 2 2 2 2

C
x
x 1
x 1 t sen 1 t cos
x t sen
C
t sen
t cos
C t ctg dt
t sen
1
2
2 2
2
+

=
)
`

= =
=
= + = + =

=



12. ( )

= =
)
`

=
=
= dt t cos dt t cos t sen 1
dt t cos dx
t sen x
dx x 1
2 2 2

Integral trigonomtrica que se resuelve transformando la expresin mediante igualdades:
( ) ) t 2 cos 1
2
1
t cos : s expresione ambas Sumando ;
t 2 cos t sen t cos
1 t cos t sen
2
2 2
2 2
+ =

=
= +

( ) = + + = + = + =

C 2t sen
4
1
t
2
1
dt 2 t 2 cos
2
1
2
1
dt
2
1
dt t 2 cos 1
2
1
dt t cos
2

= + + =
)
`

= = =
= =
= C x 1 x 2
4
1
arcsen x
2
1
x 1 x 2 t sen - 1 2sen t t cos 2sen t 2t sen
arcsen x t : t sen x
2
2 2

C x 1 x arcsen x
2
1
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

13.


=

=
= +
= =

=
=
= +
=
+
2 t
dt
2 t x 3
t 2 x 3
x 3
dt
t x
x 3
dt t
x 3
dt t
dx
dt t 2 dx x 6
t 2 x 3
x 3 2 x
dx
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2

Integral racional que se resuelve descomponiendo la expresin en fracciones simples
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 2 t 2 t
2 t B 2 t A
2 t
B
2 t
A
2 t 2 t
1
2 t
1
2
+
+ +
=
+
+

=
+
=


Identificando numeradores:


( ) ( )

= = =
= = = =
+ + =
4
2
2 2
1
A A 2 2 1 : 2 t Para
4
2
2 2
1
A A 2 2 1 : 2 t Para
: 2 t B 2 t A 1
( ) = + + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+


C 2 t Ln 2 t Ln
4
2
dt
2 t
1
2 t
1
4
2
dt
2 t
4
2
2 t
4
2
2 t
dt
2

C
2 2 x 3
2 2 x 3
Ln
4
2
2 x 3 t
t 2 x 3
C
2 t
2 t
Ln
4
2
2
2
2
2 2
+
+ +
+
=

+ =
= +
= +
+

=

14. =

=
=
= =

=

=
=
=
=


dt
t 5
t
x t 5
t x 5
dt
x
t
x
dt t
x
t
x
dt t
dx
dt t 2 dx x 2
t x 5
dx
x
x 5
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2



+ =

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

= dt
5 t
5
t dt
5 t
5
dt dt
5 t
5
1 dt
5 t
t
2 2 2 2
2

Integral racional con races reales simples, se descompone la expresin en fracciones simples
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 5 t 5 t
5 t B 5 t A
5 t
B
5 t
A
5 t 5 t
5
5 t
5
2
+
+ +
=
+
+

=
+
=


Identificando los numeradores, se calculan las constantes:
( ) ( )

= = =
= = = =
+ + =
2
5
5 2
5
A A 5 2 5 : 5 t Para
2
5
5 2
5
A A 5 2 5 : 5 t Para
: 5 t B 5 t A 5
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+

=
5 t
1
5 t
1
2
5
5 t
2
5
5 t
2
5
5 t
5
2

Conocidas las constantes se integran las fracciones
( ) C
5 t
5 t
Ln
2
5
C 5 t Ln 5 t Ln
2
5
dt
5 t
1
5 t
1
2
5
dt
5 t
5
2
+
+

= + + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+



Con lo que es obtiene la primitiva de la funcin.
C
5 x 5
5 x 5
Ln
2
5
x 5
x 5 t
t x 5
C
5 t
5 t
Ln
2
5
t dt
5 t
t
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
+
+

+ =

=
=
= +
+

+ =



15.
( )
( ) ( )
=

= =
=
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
+
+

4 Ln
dt
dx 4 : dt dx 4 Ln 4
t 4
dx 4
4 1
4 5 1
dx
4 1
4 5 1 4
dx
16 1
16 5 4
x x
x
x
2
x
x
2
x
x x
x
x x

=
+
+
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
+
+
=

dt
t 1
t 2
2
5
4 Ln
1
dt
t 1
1
4 Ln
1
dt
t 1
t 5
t 1
1
4 Ln
1
4 Ln
dt
t 1
t 5 1
2 2 2 2 2

( ) { } ( ) = + |
.
|

\
|
+ + = = = + + + = C 4 1 Ln
4 2Ln
5
4 arctg
4 Ln
1
4 t C t 1 Ln
4 2Ln
5
t arctg
4 Ln
1
2
x x x 2

( ) C 16 1 Ln
4 2Ln
5
4 arctg
4 Ln
1
x x
+ + + =




16. =

=
=
=


dt t cos sen t 2
t sen 1
t sen arcsen
dt t cos sen t 2 dx
t sen x
dx
x 1
x arcsen
2
2 2

( )
= = = =

dt sen t t 2 dt t cos sen t 2
t cos
t
dt t cos sen t 2
t cos
t sen arcsen
2

Integral por partes:

( ) ( ) = + = =
)
`

= =
= =
=

tdt cos 2 t cos t 2 dt 2 t cos t cos t 2
t cos v dt t sen dv
dt 2 du t 2 u

C sen t 2 t cos t 2 + + =

Para deshacer el cambio se deben expresar todas las razones trigonomtricas en funcin del sen t
=

=
=
=
= + + = + + =

x arcsen t
x sen t
x t sen
C t sen 2 t sen 1 t 2 C sen t 2 t cos t 2 dx
x 1
x arcsen
2
2 2
t sen x
2

C x arcsen x 1 2 x 2 C x 2 x 1 x arcsen 2 + = + + =

17.
( )
( )
( ) = =
(

=
=
= +
=
+

dt t 1 t
8
3
dt t
2
3
t
1 t
2
1
dt t
2
3
dx
1 t
2
1
x
t x 2 1
dx
x 2 1
x
2
3 2
3 3
2
3
2
3
3
3
2

( ) =

+ =
+ =
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
3
3 2 5 8
4 7
x 2 1 t
x 2 1 t
C
2
t
5
t 2
8
t
8
3
dt t t 2 t
8
3

( ) ( ) ( )
= +
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+

+
=

+ =
+ =
= C
2
x 2 1
5
x 2 1 2
8
x 2 1
8
3
x 2 1 t
x 2 1 t
3 2 3 5 3 8
3
3

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
= +
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+ +

+ +
= C
2
x 2 1
5
x 2 1 x 2 1 2
8
x 2 1 x 2 1
8
3
3 2 3 2 3 2 2

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) C 9 x 12 x 20 x 2 1
320
3
C 20 x 2 1 16 x 2 1 5
40
x 2 1
8
3
2 3 2 2
3 2
+ + + = + + + +
+
=

18.
( )

=
+
=
+
=
+
=
+
=

=
=
=
+
dt
1 t
t
6 dt
t 1 t
t
6 dt
t t
t
6 dt t 6
t t
1
dt t 6 dx
t x
dx
x x
1
3
2
5
2 3
5
5
3 6 6
5
6
3

Se descompone por la divisin
( ) =

=
=
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
6
6 2 3
2
x t
x t
C 1 t Ln t
2
t
3
t
6 dt
1 t
1
1 t t 6
( ) ( ) C 1 x Ln x
2
x
3
x
6
x t
x t
C 1 t Ln t
2
t
3
t
6
6 6
6 2 6 3
6
6 2 3
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

=
=
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
( ) C 1 x Ln 6 x 6 x 3 x 2
6 6 3
+ + + =