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Young's Modulus of Soil

The modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus of a soil is an elastic soil


parameter most commonly used in the estimation of settlement from
static loads.
Young's soil modulus, Es, may be estimated from empirical
correlations, laboratory test results on undisturbed specimens and
results of field tests. Laboratory tests that may be used to estimate the
soil modulus are the triaxial unconsolidated undrained compression or
the triaxial consolidated undrained compression tests. Field tests
include the plate load test, cone penetration test, standard penetration
test (SPT) and the pressuremeter test. Empirical correlations
summarized from USACE EM 1110-1-1904 is presented below:



E
s
= K
c
C
u

where: Es =Young's soil modulus (tsf)
Kc =correlation factor
Cu =undrained shear strength, tsf

Typical Elastic Moduli of soils based on soil type and consistency/ density, (from USACE,
Settlement Analysis).
Soil Es (tsf)
very soft clay 5 - 50
soft clay 50 - 200
medium clay 200 - 500
stiff clay, silty clay 500 - 1000
sandy clay 250 - 2000
clay shale 1000 - 2000
loose sand 100 - 250
dense sand 250 - 1000
dense sand and
gravel 1000 - 2000
silty sand 250 - 2000