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MIAA 360

Spring 2014

Curriculum Analysis

I. Alignment of the unit to the CCCSSM and MPS

There are three main concepts that students will encounter during this unit course. Those

three concepts are the following: (1) Data and decision-making (2) Graphs and modeling and (3)

Algorithms, variables and notation. Each of these three major concepts are followed by several

skills that students are asked to demonstrate throughout this unit.

A. Correct Grade Levels identified for each standard AND

B. Focus Standards are correctly identified

Using the CCCSSM, I have been able to identify a few grade levels that align

with the concepts found in this course design.

1) Expressions and Equations This standard is heavily found throughout

this lesson design. I was able to identify it with both 8

th

grade and high

school algebra grade levels. Students in 8

th

grade learn about the

connection between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

(essentially an overview for algebra). Algebra focuses on seeing structure

of equations, creating equations, and reasoning with equations and

inequalities (NOTE: Star symbol represents modeling standard).

2) Functions- Like the previous standard, I was also able to connect this

standard with both 8

th

grade and High School Algebra. In 8

th

grade,

students are able to define, evaluate, and compare functions as well as use

functions to model relationships between quantities. In High School,

functions are analyzed using different representations and applied in

different contexts (including real world applications).

3) Statistics and Probability- This is present in both 8

th

grade and high school

algebra. In 8

th

grade there is an introduction of investigating data and

collecting. In high school, students are able to summarize, interpret, and

represent data on single and multiple situations and variables as well as

interpret linear models.

C. Supporting standards correctly identified

1) Expressions and Equations-

a. 8.EE.5: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate

as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional

relationships represented in different ways.

b. 8.EE.8: Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

c. 8.EE.8a: Understand that solutions to a system of two linear

equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of

their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations

simultaneously.

d. A-CED.1: Create equations and inequalities in one variable

including ones with absolute value and use them to solve

problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic

functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. CA

e. A-CED.2: Create equations in two or more variables to represent

relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate

axes with labels and scales.

f. A-CED.3: Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and

by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions

as viable or non-viable options in a modeling context. For

example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost

constraints on combinations of different foods.

g. A-REI.3.1: Solve one-variable equations and inequalities

involving absolute value, graphing the solutions and interpreting

them in context. CA

2) Functions-

a. 8.F.1: Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input

exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered

pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.

b. 8.F.2: Compare properties of two functions each represented in a

different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or

by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function

represented by a table of values and a linear function represented

by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the

greater rate of change.

c. 8.F.4: Construct a function to model a linear relationship between

two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the

function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y)

values, including reading these from a table or from a graph.

Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in

terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table

of values.

d. 8.F.5: Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between

two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is

increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that

exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been

described verbally.

e. F-BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two

quantities.

f. F-LE.1 Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with

linear functions and with exponential functions.

3) Statistics and Probability-

a. 8.SP.1: Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate

measurement data to investigate patterns of association between

two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers,

positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear

association.

b. 8.SP.2: Know that straight lines are widely used to model

relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots

that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and

informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data

points to the line.

c. 8.SP.3: Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the

context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and

intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment,

interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour

of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in

mature plant height.

d. 8.SP.4: Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in

bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative

frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way

table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from

the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or

columns to describe possible association between the two

variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on

whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or

not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those

who have a curfew also tend to have chores?

e. S-ID.1: Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot

plots, histograms, and box plots).

f. S-ID.2: Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data

distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread

(interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more

different data sets.

g. S-ID.3: Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the

context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of

extreme data points (outliers).

h. S-ID.5: Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-

way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the

context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional

relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and

trends in the data.

i. S-ID.6: Represent data on two quantitative variables on a

scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.

j. S-ID.7: Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept

(constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data.

D. MPS identified for at least three activities

i. MPS #3 : Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of

others. Presentations- Presenting the POW 9: Around the Horn. Students

will discuss the different strategies that students had in order to counting the

ships from the trip from New York to San Francisco

ii. MPS #5: Use appropriate tools strategically Day 19 Calculator In-Out.

Students learn to graph functions on their graphing calculators to answer

questions. (pg. 143)

iii. MPS # 1: Make sense of problems and persevere to solve them. Day 2.

Students are asked to answer Homework 2 by determining how many hats

each family will need to have to keep the sun off Students will need to

question and solve the minimum and maximum amount of hats that might

be needed for the wagon train for each family type. Students will explain

their reasoning.

II. Development of the Learning Trajectory

Shown below is the learning trajectory looking at CCCSSM from Kindergarten through

High school based off of the curriculum found on the Overland Trail Course Unit.

K 1

st

2

nd

3

rd

4

th

K.CC.4 1.OA 2.OA.1 3.OA.1 4.OA.1

1.MD4 2.OA.3 3.OA.2 4.OA.2

1.NBT.4 2.OA.4 3.OA.8 4.OA.3

2.4NBT 3.OA.9 4.OA.5

2.7NBT 3.MD.3

2.10MD

5

th

6

th

7

th

8

th

ALG

5.MD.B.2 6.SP.1 7.RP.2 8.SP.1 A-CED.1

5.OA.A.2 6.SP.2 7.RP.3 8.SP.2 A-CED.2

5.OA.B.3 6.EE.1 7.NS.1.A 8.SP.3 A-CED.3

6.EE.2 7.EE.1 8.SP.4 A-CED.4

6.EE.5 7.EE.3 8.EE.5 A-REI.1

6.EE.6 7.SP.1 8.EE.8 A-REI.3

6.EE.7 8.EE.8.A A-REI.10

6.EE.9 8.F.1 A-REI.11

6.RP.2 8.F.2 A-REI.12

6.RP.3.B 8.F.4 F-IE.1-7, 9

8.F.5 F-BF. 1-3

F-LE. 1-3,5

S-ID.1-3,5-9

High School Standards

A-CED: 1-4

A-REI: 2, 3, 11

F-IF: 4-9

F-BF: 1-2

S-ID: 4

III. Discourse for increasing learning

A. Examples varied levels of cognitive demand in 5 tasks

i. Day 2: Creating Families Quadrant A, B, and C. Students are asked to

create examples that fit constraints and interpret ambiguous problems

ii. Day 3: Sharing Families Quadrant A. Students are asked to find

numbers that fit certain conditions and compile data.

iii. Day 9: Ox Expressions- Quadrant B and C. Students will be developing

and writing algebraic expressions and interpreting them.

iv. Day 17: HW Basic Student Budget- Quadrant B and D. Making

predictions using graphs and data.

v. Day 18: To the end of the Sublettes Cutoff- Quadrant A and D. Making

predictions based on graphs or data and finding algebraic expressions for

linear approximations.

B. 5 pre-planned questions that encourage critical thinking

i. Day 6 (pg. 43)- How did you decide how much to charge each person?

ii. Day 10 (pg. 70)- What makes an expression meaningful?

iii. Day 14 (pg.102)- What assumptions did you make? and How could you

generalize your results?

iv. Day 16 (pg. 122)- What was your prediction for 2020?

v. Day 27 (pg. 198)- How would the results change if the time given for the

journey to the river had been different?

C. 5 opportunities for varying group configurations and opportunities

i. Day 1 and 2: Creating your family groups and creating your families (this

is the major group for the unit).

ii. The unit design gives roles to each group member by assigning them a

playing card symbol (hearts, spades, diamonds, clovers)

iii. Day 4: Discussion of Homework 3: The search for dry trails, (pg. 31).

What you can do as a teacher is you can divide the class into groups based

on what dry trail they chose on the homework. You can have the groups

share their reasoning and be prepared to share their finding with the class.

iv. Day 15: Students can be configured into pairs to discuss the Homework 14.

(pg. 110)Students will be able to compare their graphs. After students have

shared with their pairs, teacher will match up two pairs together to also

share graphs. The student with birthday coming up the soonest will present

the groups results to the class.

v. Day 18: Discussing Homework 17, The Basic Student Budget. This can

be a challenging task for some students. Students will be in groups based on

their performance level so far this year. Students that have been struggling,

teacher will check in with them first to make sure they understand concepts

and skills for this unit. Teacher can have each group briefly share their

graphs (starting with the group the might need the most help and end with

the group that is closest).

vi. Day 18: Facilitating the introduction of graphic calculators; Teacher can

introduce to a few students how to use the graphic calculators. These

students then can go to their groups on Day 19 and demonstrate to their

family groups how to use the calculators for the lesson.

IV. Assessments

A. Formative assessments

i. Day 7 (Pg. 48-50) Questions are asked to students that go over homework

6 throught a class discussion. This allows for a discussion on variables.

Teacher can ask students, how can you abbreviate these verbal descriptions

by using variables?

ii. Day 11(pg. 76-82)- Questions are asked to students that go over homework

10 . Students can take part in a think pair share through a class discussion.

This allows for a discussion on the interpretation of graphs. Teacher can ask

students how they came up for the equation for Question 1.

B. Summative assessments

i. Day 7 Homework Laced Travelers (pg. 51) This assessment does a good

job in summarized knowledge students learned from the past few days.

Students practice in developing numerical algorithms and why they came to

that conclusion. Students are able to develop questions from the given data.

Students use new data and information to determine how much shoelace

each man, woman, and child needs.

ii. Day 11 Homework Graph Sketches (pg. 83) Students are able to

demonstrate their understanding of graphs through intuitive interpreting.

Also, students need to interpret graphs by focusing on dependent and

independent variables. In this assessment, students are given four graphs and

need to describe a situation that is illustrated in the graphs depicting the

relationship between two quantities. Also, students must create a situation

between two quantities and create a graph.

V. Intervention and differentiation for all learners.

A. EL Strategies

i. One general strategy that you can do throughout the unit is making sure

youre asking level appropriate questionings. For example, if you are

teaching students that are newcomers or beginners in English, you want

to ask direct questions with precise answers.

ii. When introducing the homework for Day 3 (The search for dry trails),

you can provide visuals of each of the three trails so students can get a

better understanding on what is a trail.

iii. Bringing physical products for students to utilize while working on

their Overland Trail Price List. For example, bringing flour, eggs, sugar,

beans, as examples, so students can see the products that they are

purchasing.

iv. Appendix B has a number of visuals that can be used as transparencies.

Graphs for specific lessons are found for Days 11 and 13 and

homeworks 11 and 15.

v. Having a glossary with visuals will help students who are learning the

English Language can benefit from having a clear and concise glossary.

B. Gate/ Special Ed Learners

i. Appendix A- For students who need additional help. Pick Any Answer

(reinforcement problem). This activity reinforces the importance of

the sequence in which arithmetic operations is done on Day 6.

Students can get additional practice on this skill by practicing on this

activity after day 6. (pg. 232)

ii. Appendix A- Possible for GATE students and students who need

additional reinforcement. Spilling the Beans. This activity involves

proportional reasoning. It allows for students to gain reinforcement on

a previous unit as well as gives a new problem for students to grasp and

explain their reasoning. (pg. 244)

iii. Appendix A- Possibly for GATE students. Integers only (extension). This

extension introduces students to the greatest integer function after

students learned of a function whose outputs should only be integers .

This goes directly with homework 10, however, it can be assigned

anytime after it. (pg. 241-242)

iv. Using manipulatives while working for POW 8 The Haybaler Problem.

This can help students solve the problem instead of doing it on their

paper.

v. (also used with ELs) Appendix B has a number of visuals that can be

used as transparencies. Graphs for specific lessons are found for Days

11 and 13 and homeworks 11 and 15. Using graphs to display distance

can help students see the mathematical concept through a graph.

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