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# Aritz Cardenas

## Dr. Sylvia Turner

MIAA 360
Spring 2014

Curriculum Analysis

I. Alignment of the unit to the CCCSSM and MPS

There are three main concepts that students will encounter during this unit course. Those
three concepts are the following: (1) Data and decision-making (2) Graphs and modeling and (3)
Algorithms, variables and notation. Each of these three major concepts are followed by several
skills that students are asked to demonstrate throughout this unit.

A. Correct Grade Levels identified for each standard AND
B. Focus Standards are correctly identified
Using the CCCSSM, I have been able to identify a few grade levels that align
with the concepts found in this course design.

1) Expressions and Equations This standard is heavily found throughout
this lesson design. I was able to identify it with both 8
th
grade and high
school algebra grade levels. Students in 8
th
grade learn about the
connection between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations
(essentially an overview for algebra). Algebra focuses on seeing structure
of equations, creating equations, and reasoning with equations and
inequalities (NOTE: Star symbol represents modeling standard).
2) Functions- Like the previous standard, I was also able to connect this
standard with both 8
th
grade and High School Algebra. In 8
th
grade,
students are able to define, evaluate, and compare functions as well as use
functions to model relationships between quantities. In High School,
functions are analyzed using different representations and applied in
different contexts (including real world applications).
3) Statistics and Probability- This is present in both 8
th
grade and high school
algebra. In 8
th
grade there is an introduction of investigating data and
collecting. In high school, students are able to summarize, interpret, and
represent data on single and multiple situations and variables as well as
interpret linear models.

C. Supporting standards correctly identified
1) Expressions and Equations-
a. 8.EE.5: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate
as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional
relationships represented in different ways.
b. 8.EE.8: Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
c. 8.EE.8a: Understand that solutions to a system of two linear
equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of
their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations
simultaneously.
d. A-CED.1: Create equations and inequalities in one variable
including ones with absolute value and use them to solve
problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic
functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. CA
e. A-CED.2: Create equations in two or more variables to represent
relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate
axes with labels and scales.
f. A-CED.3: Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and
by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions
as viable or non-viable options in a modeling context. For
example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost
constraints on combinations of different foods.
g. A-REI.3.1: Solve one-variable equations and inequalities
involving absolute value, graphing the solutions and interpreting
them in context. CA

2) Functions-
a. 8.F.1: Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input
exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered
pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.
b. 8.F.2: Compare properties of two functions each represented in a
different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or
by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function
represented by a table of values and a linear function represented
by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the
greater rate of change.
c. 8.F.4: Construct a function to model a linear relationship between
two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the
function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y)
values, including reading these from a table or from a graph.
Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in
terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table
of values.
d. 8.F.5: Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between
two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is
increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that
exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been
described verbally.
e. F-BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two
quantities.
f. F-LE.1 Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with
linear functions and with exponential functions.

3) Statistics and Probability-
a. 8.SP.1: Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate
measurement data to investigate patterns of association between
two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers,
positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear
association.
b. 8.SP.2: Know that straight lines are widely used to model
relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots
that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and
informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data
points to the line.
c. 8.SP.3: Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the
context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and
intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment,
interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour
of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in
mature plant height.
d. 8.SP.4: Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in
bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative
frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way
table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from
the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or
columns to describe possible association between the two
variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on
whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or
not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those
who have a curfew also tend to have chores?
e. S-ID.1: Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot
plots, histograms, and box plots).
f. S-ID.2: Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data
distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread
(interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more
different data sets.
g. S-ID.3: Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the
context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of
extreme data points (outliers).
h. S-ID.5: Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-
way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the
context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional
relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and
trends in the data.
i. S-ID.6: Represent data on two quantitative variables on a
scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
j. S-ID.7: Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept
(constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data.

D. MPS identified for at least three activities
i. MPS #3 : Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of
others. Presentations- Presenting the POW 9: Around the Horn. Students
will discuss the different strategies that students had in order to counting the
ships from the trip from New York to San Francisco
ii. MPS #5: Use appropriate tools strategically Day 19 Calculator In-Out.
Students learn to graph functions on their graphing calculators to answer
questions. (pg. 143)
iii. MPS # 1: Make sense of problems and persevere to solve them. Day 2.
Students are asked to answer Homework 2 by determining how many hats
each family will need to have to keep the sun off Students will need to
question and solve the minimum and maximum amount of hats that might
be needed for the wagon train for each family type. Students will explain
their reasoning.

II. Development of the Learning Trajectory

Shown below is the learning trajectory looking at CCCSSM from Kindergarten through
High school based off of the curriculum found on the Overland Trail Course Unit.

K 1
st
2
nd
3
rd
4
th

K.CC.4 1.OA 2.OA.1 3.OA.1 4.OA.1
1.MD4 2.OA.3 3.OA.2 4.OA.2
1.NBT.4 2.OA.4 3.OA.8 4.OA.3
2.4NBT 3.OA.9 4.OA.5
2.7NBT 3.MD.3
2.10MD

5
th
6
th
7
th
8
th
ALG
5.MD.B.2 6.SP.1 7.RP.2 8.SP.1 A-CED.1
5.OA.A.2 6.SP.2 7.RP.3 8.SP.2 A-CED.2
5.OA.B.3 6.EE.1 7.NS.1.A 8.SP.3 A-CED.3
6.EE.2 7.EE.1 8.SP.4 A-CED.4
6.EE.5 7.EE.3 8.EE.5 A-REI.1
6.EE.6 7.SP.1 8.EE.8 A-REI.3
6.EE.7 8.EE.8.A A-REI.10
6.EE.9 8.F.1 A-REI.11
6.RP.2 8.F.2 A-REI.12
6.RP.3.B 8.F.4 F-IE.1-7, 9
8.F.5 F-BF. 1-3
F-LE. 1-3,5
S-ID.1-3,5-9

High School Standards
A-CED: 1-4
A-REI: 2, 3, 11
F-IF: 4-9
F-BF: 1-2
S-ID: 4

III. Discourse for increasing learning
A. Examples varied levels of cognitive demand in 5 tasks
i. Day 2: Creating Families Quadrant A, B, and C. Students are asked to
create examples that fit constraints and interpret ambiguous problems
ii. Day 3: Sharing Families Quadrant A. Students are asked to find
numbers that fit certain conditions and compile data.
iii. Day 9: Ox Expressions- Quadrant B and C. Students will be developing
and writing algebraic expressions and interpreting them.
iv. Day 17: HW Basic Student Budget- Quadrant B and D. Making
predictions using graphs and data.
v. Day 18: To the end of the Sublettes Cutoff- Quadrant A and D. Making
predictions based on graphs or data and finding algebraic expressions for
linear approximations.

B. 5 pre-planned questions that encourage critical thinking
i. Day 6 (pg. 43)- How did you decide how much to charge each person?
ii. Day 10 (pg. 70)- What makes an expression meaningful?
iii. Day 14 (pg.102)- What assumptions did you make? and How could you
generalize your results?
iv. Day 16 (pg. 122)- What was your prediction for 2020?
v. Day 27 (pg. 198)- How would the results change if the time given for the
journey to the river had been different?

C. 5 opportunities for varying group configurations and opportunities
i. Day 1 and 2: Creating your family groups and creating your families (this
is the major group for the unit).
ii. The unit design gives roles to each group member by assigning them a
playing card symbol (hearts, spades, diamonds, clovers)
iii. Day 4: Discussion of Homework 3: The search for dry trails, (pg. 31).
What you can do as a teacher is you can divide the class into groups based
on what dry trail they chose on the homework. You can have the groups
share their reasoning and be prepared to share their finding with the class.
iv. Day 15: Students can be configured into pairs to discuss the Homework 14.
(pg. 110)Students will be able to compare their graphs. After students have
shared with their pairs, teacher will match up two pairs together to also
share graphs. The student with birthday coming up the soonest will present
the groups results to the class.
v. Day 18: Discussing Homework 17, The Basic Student Budget. This can
be a challenging task for some students. Students will be in groups based on
their performance level so far this year. Students that have been struggling,
teacher will check in with them first to make sure they understand concepts
and skills for this unit. Teacher can have each group briefly share their
graphs (starting with the group the might need the most help and end with
the group that is closest).
vi. Day 18: Facilitating the introduction of graphic calculators; Teacher can
introduce to a few students how to use the graphic calculators. These
students then can go to their groups on Day 19 and demonstrate to their
family groups how to use the calculators for the lesson.

IV. Assessments
A. Formative assessments
i. Day 7 (Pg. 48-50) Questions are asked to students that go over homework
6 throught a class discussion. This allows for a discussion on variables.
Teacher can ask students, how can you abbreviate these verbal descriptions
by using variables?

ii. Day 11(pg. 76-82)- Questions are asked to students that go over homework
10 . Students can take part in a think pair share through a class discussion.
This allows for a discussion on the interpretation of graphs. Teacher can ask
students how they came up for the equation for Question 1.

B. Summative assessments
i. Day 7 Homework Laced Travelers (pg. 51) This assessment does a good
job in summarized knowledge students learned from the past few days.
Students practice in developing numerical algorithms and why they came to
that conclusion. Students are able to develop questions from the given data.
Students use new data and information to determine how much shoelace
each man, woman, and child needs.

ii. Day 11 Homework Graph Sketches (pg. 83) Students are able to
demonstrate their understanding of graphs through intuitive interpreting.
Also, students need to interpret graphs by focusing on dependent and
independent variables. In this assessment, students are given four graphs and
need to describe a situation that is illustrated in the graphs depicting the
relationship between two quantities. Also, students must create a situation
between two quantities and create a graph.

V. Intervention and differentiation for all learners.
A. EL Strategies
i. One general strategy that you can do throughout the unit is making sure
youre asking level appropriate questionings. For example, if you are
teaching students that are newcomers or beginners in English, you want
to ask direct questions with precise answers.
ii. When introducing the homework for Day 3 (The search for dry trails),
you can provide visuals of each of the three trails so students can get a
better understanding on what is a trail.
iii. Bringing physical products for students to utilize while working on
their Overland Trail Price List. For example, bringing flour, eggs, sugar,
beans, as examples, so students can see the products that they are
purchasing.
iv. Appendix B has a number of visuals that can be used as transparencies.
Graphs for specific lessons are found for Days 11 and 13 and
homeworks 11 and 15.
v. Having a glossary with visuals will help students who are learning the
English Language can benefit from having a clear and concise glossary.

B. Gate/ Special Ed Learners
i. Appendix A- For students who need additional help. Pick Any Answer
(reinforcement problem). This activity reinforces the importance of
the sequence in which arithmetic operations is done on Day 6.
Students can get additional practice on this skill by practicing on this
activity after day 6. (pg. 232)
ii. Appendix A- Possible for GATE students and students who need
additional reinforcement. Spilling the Beans. This activity involves
proportional reasoning. It allows for students to gain reinforcement on
a previous unit as well as gives a new problem for students to grasp and
explain their reasoning. (pg. 244)
iii. Appendix A- Possibly for GATE students. Integers only (extension). This
extension introduces students to the greatest integer function after
students learned of a function whose outputs should only be integers .
This goes directly with homework 10, however, it can be assigned
anytime after it. (pg. 241-242)
iv. Using manipulatives while working for POW 8 The Haybaler Problem.
This can help students solve the problem instead of doing it on their
paper.
v. (also used with ELs) Appendix B has a number of visuals that can be
used as transparencies. Graphs for specific lessons are found for Days
11 and 13 and homeworks 11 and 15. Using graphs to display distance
can help students see the mathematical concept through a graph.