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Internship Report

Anser Shakeel(Internee)


InterLoop Limited
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Index


Sr. no. Contents Page no.
1 Acknowledgement 2
2 Introduction 3
3 HD-III overview 5
4 Knitting 12
5 Toe Closing 13
6 Processing 14
7 Finishing 15
8 Engineering 17
9 Conclusions 26
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I am very thankful to Interloop Limited for having given me the opportunity to undertake my
summer internship at their Hosiery Division 3 (HD-03), Lahore. It was a very good learning
experience for me to work at this division as this division involved many practices and
challenges. I would like to convey my heartiest thanks to Mr. Faraz Mehmood, Sr. Officer. HD-
03. I would also like to give my heart-felt thanks to Mr. Abdul Hanan, D.m of finance
department HD-03and Mr. Ejaz, Mr. Tanvir, Mr. Usman, and Mr. Nadeem auditor HD-03 who
guided and encouraged me all through the summer internship and parted in-depth knowledge
of the Finance department activities Also, I like to thanks Mr. Zeeshan, Mr. Musawar and Mr.
Monam who helped me whenever I needed help. Last but not the least I would like to thanks
Mr. Sajid HD-03, for being so helpful throughout this internship.


Name: Ansar Shakeel
Dated: 24-08-2013










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Introduction
Interloop started out in 1992 with just 10 knitting machines, now has 3500 machines and a
workforce of more than 14000. Interloop Limited has transformed itself into SOUTH ASIA'S
largest Socks Manufacturer and Exporter offering the highest quality socks at a level of service
unknown in our industry. It is located in Pakistan's Industrial hub Faisalabad; also known as
the "Manchester of Pakistan". Interloop is an integral part of this business community,
continuously striving to revolutionize business practices in this region. Interloop has 1 plant in
Bangladesh and also in Lahore.

Capacity
Knitting per month 2.5 Million dozens
Dyeing per month 2.7 Million dozens
Packing per month 2.7 Million dozens
Minimum order qty. 2,500 dozens( variable as per terms)
Minimum Lead time
45-60 days after approvals
Short lead time possible for repeats




It is one of the very few firms in Pakistan with an impressive Social Responsibility Portfolio,
realizing that a commitment to sustainability in all areas of commercial activity endorse the
long term interests of a business.




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HD-III overview
Finance
This is the main department of the InterLoop which makes the whole purchases in the
organization. Financing is also included in this department. There are 7 employees in
fianc department which do different activities related to their work or assigned to
them. There is a process of purchasing any good.

o Requisition:
First of all requisition is made of any good or thing which is not available in the
store and required by the staff members or employees. Any employees who
require any thing (yarn, cotton, ploy bag etc) tell to their head department and
head of the department sent a request thru mail to the finance department.
In finance department there is a employee who will receive this mail sent by
head of that person and make a not approved quotation of required thing. This
not quotation is checked or audit by the other person, who compare the prices of
current bill with the past. If there is a great difference in the goods rate then he
attach a comparative statement and sent it to the head department to make sure
that he allow buying this thing at new rate. In this way requisition end to its
process.

o Purchase order (PO):
After the completion of requisition. PO is made against the vendor from whom
InterLoop want to purchase the goods. This PO is approved by the head of the
department or Head of the plant to make sure that this thing is required by the
Organization not by the person for his personal use and sent it to the vendor to
deliver the goods as soon as possible. Vendor also checks the signature of the
head of the company to check that they really required this thing.

o Gate entry:
Vendor sends the goods to the organization and when goods arrive at the gate of
the organization. Security makes a gate entry of goods to make a proper record
that these things are entering in the factory.



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o Inspection and audit:
After entering in the factory, they are being transferred to the store to make the
inspection of the things. First of all they check that these are the really things
which were required by the staff. Then they check the quality of the goods that
they are of good quality or not. They physically count the goods to check its
quantity. Auditor makes the whole audit of the goods. Quantity, quality etc and
then finally goods receipt note (GRN) is made.

o Goods receipt note :

After making the audit, GRN is made. Its a proper format of recording n
maintaining the record of the goods received. This record is make save in their
computers to make sure that these goods have been delivered. After this, Finance
department check the GRN and made correct recording of the goods and save
the record of the goods on their computer.
All the GRNs is send to the HD-I Faisalabad. Email is also send to the HD-I that
having the information about the GRNs send by the finance department.

o Store rejection note:
When goods are being checked in the store. If they are not according to the
expected quality then goods is send back to the vendor with the store rejection
note. This note is consist of reason that why goods are rejected. And this rejection
note is attached to the GRN to do not make a payment of rejected goods.

o Bills payment:
After making the record, Finance department make a voucher of goods amount
and sent it to the auditor to check or make audit of the voucher. After auditing
work flow is completed and Cheque is made against the vendor to do the
payment of the goods purchased.

o Dispatch report:
This report is being made on daily basis. In this finance department sent the mail
to HD-I that is consist of the information of the GRNs that are send to them.


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o Debit note:
When the purchaser returns the goods to the seller the Purchaser sends a Debit
Note to the seller (i.e. the purchaser debits the seller in his books i.e. Purchasers
Books)

o Credit note:
The Seller sends a Credit Note to the purchaser (i.e. the seller credits the
Purchaser in his Books i.e. Sellers Books).

Support Services

o Human Resource:
InterLoop has been able to recruit the best professionals, who have taken the
Company to the new heights. Their HR philosophy is based on the belief that
they can increase overall Human Capital by improving the following:
Intellectual Capital: Processes which will improve specialized
knowledge, skills, tacit knowledge, and imagination of our people.
Emotional Capital: Developing a culture which breeds self confidence,
ambition, and courage. Developing Leadership capabilities and
encouraging team based environment is an essential ingredient.
Social Capital: Leveraging social contacts for business and personal
gains, strengthening networks of our people with outside world,
trustworthiness etc. are the hallmark of this process.
It has a strong people development process, which enable us to plan career paths for our
executives. It also helps us to identify areas of improvement for further training by
developing a gap analysis. The assessments are done continuously so that our people
are ready to face the ever increasing challenges of the Corporate World.


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o Admin
Office administration includes planning work assignments for staff, supervising
staff, and requesting new office equipment and repairs on existing equipment.
Office administrators also handle duties such as customer service, payroll, and
implementing department policies and changes. They also discuss performance
problems with employees and work with higher management to hire new
employees or fire current employees

o IT
The IT department controls the networking in the InterLoop. All the senior staff
has think pro which are all connected by a server. This department controls all
the activities on the internet performing by the employees. The emails are
Director
Deputy General
Manger
Sr. Manager Manager
General
Manger
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scanned before they reach to the employees server think pro system. In this way
all the computers are free from hacking and viruses.

o Security
The security of the InterLoop is much tight. There is a strict check and balance in
the goods which are coming or going of the InterLoop. They check every
employee having any illegal thing which is not being allowed by the
organization. Everywhere security cameras are installed to reduce the risk of any
terrorist activity to minimum. Security guards are well trained and do their duty
as a responsible person.

o EHS
Interloop is committed to operate in a manner that reduces the EHS risks to all its
stake-holders. It continuously reviews its processes and makes improvements
that reduce the EHS risks. It tries to protect and conserve the environment and
devotes adequate resources that are required to achieve this goal.

Interloop invests in equipment that conserve energy, make workplace safe and
reduce risks to the environment.

Interloop will arrange to develop and implement EHS Standards that conform to
National / International Standards. It will arrange to impart proper training to
its workforce for implementing these standards. Line Managers are responsible
to maintain EHS Standards. However, a dedicated EHS Department has been
established to facilitate and train the Line Managers in implementing EHS
Standards.

Interloop has successfully qualified and received relevant EHS Certifications like
ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007 for its facilities. Interloop complies with
all relevant EHS Standards, as required by law. A continuous review of EHS
issues is ensured through internal audits and efforts are made to improve the
system.

Environment
Keeping in view the climatic changing scenarios of the World, Interloop
Management is very much concerned to put in their best for the
conservation of environment to make this globe a worth living place.
Nijhuis Water Technology from Netherlands was engaged to install
Waste Water Treatment Plant for Interloop Limited. First Effluent
Treatment Plant of the Company was operational in 2005 with a capacity
of 100m
3
/hr. In 2007, with the increasing demands of business, another
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Waste Water Treatment Plant with a capacity of 120m
3
/hr. was set up in
cooperation with Joseph Igly Italia, an Italy based company dealing in
water technology.

The effluents from these Water Treatment Plants are being monitored by
the Scientists from "National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic
Engineering (NIBGE, www.nibge.org)". To make a contribution in
bringing "Green Revolution", plantation has been carried out on
experimental basis with NIBGE since 2007. This plantation is irrigated
from treated water. The Company intends to intensify this exercise on a
larger scale as soon as the desired results are obtained.

A comprehensive plan was carved out in 2007 to meet the legal
requirements regarding air pollution. Emissions from all sources were
calculated throughout the facility in management with SGS Pakistan.

All sorts of wastages are segregated from manufacturing processes into
recyclables and non-recyclables. Wood is recycled within the facility. 17.8
Tons of Wood has been recycled in 2009.

Health and safety:
Interloop Limited is exemplary as far as Health and Safety issues
are concerned. The Company has standardized itself in line with
the National Laws of Pakistan and requirements of our valuable
customers/stakeholders.

A comprehensive Occupational Health and Safety Management
System are in compliance with recently revised Standard of
OHSAS 18001:2007.

Management has intensively invested in Health and Safety related
issues. All manufacturing areas are equipped with Fire Alarm
System compatible with British Standards. Keeping in view the
dual safety of employees and the environment, four Auto
Chemical Dispensing Systems with Italian Technology have been
setup in place to avoid human interaction with the chemicals and
land contamination. Management is keen to train the employees
effectively and efficiently in their respective service areas. The
initial focus was to impart training according to local laws and
various customers requirements, yet to the fact, the existing
training programs are over and above these necessities.
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Use of Personal Protective Equipment and Safety Devices according to
the site activities

o Ear Protection
Ear plugs are provided at the sites working with high sound levels.
o Eye Protection
The workers carrying out grinding, cutting and welding works are provided
with safety goggles and face shield.
o Hand Protection
Cotton and rubber gloves are provided to the workers for their hands protection.

Supply Chain Logistics

o Raw material store:
It is the store where all the purchased raw material(cotton, thread) is kept in the store.

o Accessory store:
All the goods related to the packing to finishing department are kept in accessory store. Like
poly bags, Polystyrene bags.

o Chemical store:
This store is linked with the processing department and all the chemicals which
are being purchased or itself made by the InterLoop in their organization are
kept in it.

o Spare store:
All the things which does not come under the head of any store or extra thing are
kept in spare store. Like food, steam pipes etc.

o Waste store:
All the wastage of the InterLoop is kept in the waste store, like burned rice husk,
waste of socks and waste of carton.

o Finished goods store:
All the socks that are ready to deliver are kept in this store and there is very tight
security here.

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o Fair Price Shop:
This project aims to reduce the cost of living for Company's employees by
providing certain articles of daily use at very cheap rates. All workers can
purchase necessities of life on a quota base determined by the Managing
Committee. The shop includes items like Cooking Oil, Sugar, Tea, Detergent,
Wheat Flour and Company Products etc.

Knitting

The Knitting Plant is made up of 2300 Fully Computerized Machines from Lonati,
Sangiacomo, Matec and Uniplet from 72 needles to 168 needles. We feature:
72N Single Cylinder (for Infant/Toddler)
84N Single Cylinder (for children sizes)
84N Single Cylinder (5 heavy gauge)
108-120N Single Cylinder
132N Single Cylinder
144N Single Cylinder
168N Single Cylinder
84N Double Cylinder (heavy gauge for casual socks)
168N Double Cylinder
They have wide range of Machine diameters which include 3.25, 3.50, 3.75, 4.00, 4.50 & 5.00 inch
and wide range of needle selections.
Gauge 24 72, 84, 108 & 120 needles
Gauge 36 120, 132, 144, 156 & 168 needles
Interloop's Knitting Team comprises of highly skilled and trained professionals
including qualified engineers. Interloop has also established a Technical Training Centre
to provide trained manpower for its on going expansion programs. This work force is
being continuously trained through Training Courses in Italy and training on job by
Italian and Local Experts.
Interloop's fleet of 2300 Knitting Machines is being continuously updated with latest
state-of-the-art equipment. Interloop has massive knitting capacity, spread over several
specialized areas.

Toe closing:
Toe-Closing is a very important and sensitive operation of the socks making process.
Interloop is currently operating a very large Linking Section with the help of
Computerized Linking Machines and is able to offer the finest quality toe-close. It also
has Lin-Toe System on 40 sets of 108N Machines.
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Machine Type Qty
Roso/Conti Complete 110
Over Lock 10
Hand Linking 33
Flat Lock 06
Elastic Sewing 04
Lock Stitch 03


Processing:
Interloop is well aware of the World's day by day changing trends and demands.
Interloop is already one step ahead and operating a complete Wet Processing Unit with
the help of latest equipments and techniques, and is capable of meeting all desired
standards of the clients. Interloop can offer almost all types of colors to the customers on
competitive rates with the help of the Processing Department.


Machine Type Qty
Rotary dyeing machines 60
Hydro-Extractors 8
Tumble Dryers 24
Sample Dyeing/Bleaching 04
HT Rotary Dyeing machines 02

Processing Capacity Per Month
Process Tons Dozens
Dyeing/Bleaching 1,300 2,700,000





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Quality assurance
The Laboratory was set up to cater the requirements of Quality Assurance of production
processes like Spinning, Knitting, Processing , Boarding and Packing of Interloop
Limited. Now it performs tests, within the scope of its accreditation on products
manufactured by Interloop Limited (Socks, Ecru yarns and Dyed yarns). It ensures that
the products comply with the Company's own stringent guidelines and as per
International Standards. The tests are done as per various International Standards like
ISO / AATCC / ASTM / BS and validated through in-house methods. The tests are
conducted under standard environmental conditions.Interloop pleases to announce that
by the grace of Almighty Allah it has received the prestigious ISO/IEC-17025 Certificate
of Accreditation from Pakistan National Accreditation Council (PNAC), Ministry of
Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan. QA Lab of Interloop Limited has
received the globally recognized accreditation for its Textile Testing. This milestone is
seen as a major endorsement of the Quality of Testing performed at this World Class
facility. The Laboratory was set up to cater the requirements of Quality Assurance of
production processes like Spinning, Knitting, Processing , Boarding and Packing of
Interloop Limited. Now it performs tests, within the scope of its accreditation on
products manufactured by Interloop Limited (Socks, Ecru yarns and Dyed yarns). It
ensures that the products comply with the Company's own stringent guidelines and as
per International Standards. The tests are d one as per various International Standards
like ISO / AATCC / ASTM / BS and validated through in-house methods. The tests are
conducted under standard environmental conditions.

Maintenance and improvement in the quality of our product (Socks) and our Quality
Management System is the corner stone of our Quality Policy. Interloop established a
Quality Assurance Department, which is operating with more than 380 Experts and
Qualified work force and this Department is the most important for Interloop

Interloop Limited established in 1992, has set up a separate and independent Quality
Assurance Department (QAD). This Department has been functioning since 1997 and
ensures that Quality Standards are maintained and customers requirements are fully
met.

The Process Consists Of
Inspection and Testing of incoming material
Inspection and Verification of correct issuance of materials and accessories against
requirement
Independent in-line Inspection at every stage of the product manufacturing e.g. Knitting
, Linking , Processing , Boarding , Finishing / Packaging
Final Inspection before Delivery


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Finishing:
Interloop has both, human and technical skills to offer all types of packaging services to
its clients, while the accessories have been sourced from the World's best resources,
locally as well as from Hong Kong/China etc. Interloop has a special facility to keep
huge stocks of accessories in order to offer more efficient and quick deliveries to its
customers.
Machines
Steam Boarding (Ghibili) 33
Electric Boarding 122
Thread cutting Machines 48
Heat transfer machines 04
Needle detector (Cintex) 02

Capacity
Packing capacity per month 2,700,000 dozen pairs
Packing capacity per day 90,000 dozen pairs
Number of employees in Packaging/Finishing 2,700











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Engineering

Chillers
The absorption chiller is planted in InterLoop. The mechanism is explained below

Absorption Chillers:
An absorption chiller is a chiller that uses a heat source (e.g., solar, kerosene-fueled flame, waste
heat from factories or district heating systems) to provide the energy needed to drive the
cooling system.
There are two types of absorption chillers

1- Water-Ammonia chiller
2- Water-Li Br chiller



Water-Li Br Chiller
In water-lithium bromide vapor absorption refrigeration system, water is used as the refrigerant
while lithium bromide (Li Br) is used as the absorbent.
Process Cycle:
The heat is supplied to the refrigerant water and absorbent lithium bromide solution in the
generator from the steam or hot water. Due to heating water gets vaporized and it moves to the
condenser, where it gets cooled. As water refrigerant moves further in the refrigeration piping
and though nozzles, it pressure reduces and so also the temperature. This water refrigerant then
enters the evaporator where it produces the cooling effect.
Lithium bromide on the other hand, leaves the generator and reenters the absorber for
absorbing water refrigerant. Water as the refrigerant enters the evaporator at very low pressure
and temperature. Since very low pressure is maintained inside the evaporator the water exists
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in the partial liquid state and partial vapor state. This water refrigerant absorbs the heat from
the substance to be chilled and gets fully evaporated. It then enters the absorber.
In the absorber concentrated solution of lithium bromide is already available. Since water is
highly soluble in lithium bromide, solution of water-lithium bromide is formed. This solution is
pumped by the pump to the generator.


Applications:
The water-lithium bromide vapor absorption system is used in a number of air conditioning
applications. This system is useful for the applications where the temperature required is more
than 32 degree F.

Ammonia-Water Absorption Chiller:
The working of ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is based on the simple vapor
absorption refrigeration system. In this system ammonia is used as the refrigerant and water is
used as the absorbent.
Process Cycle:
The Cycle is shown below.
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Ammonia vapor is extracted from the NH3 strong solution at high pressure in the generator by
an external heating source. In the rectifier, the water vapor which carried with ammonia is
removed and only the dried ammonia gas enters into the condenser, where its condensed.

The pressure and temperature of cooled NH3 solution is then reduced by a throttle valve below
the temperature of the evaporator. The NH3 refrigerant at low temperature enters the
evaporator and absorbs the required heat from it, then leaves it as saturated vapor.

The low pressure NH3 vapor is then passed to the absorber, where its absorbed by the NH3
weak solution which is sprayed also in the absorber as shown in Fig. After absorbing NH3
vapor by the weak NH3 solution (aquaammonia), the weak NH3 solution becomes strong
solution and then it is pumped to the generator passing through the heat exchanger.

In the pump, the pressure of the strong solution increases to generator pressure. In the heat
exchanger, heat form the high temperature weak NH3 solution is absorbed by the strong NH3
solution coming from the absorber.

As NH3 vapor comes out of the generator, the solution in it becomes weak. The weak high
temperature NH3 solution from the generator is then passed through the throttle valve to the
heat exchanger. The pressure of the liquid is reduced by the throttle valve to the absorber
pressure

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Air handling units

An air handler, or air handling unit (often abbreviated to AHU), is a device used to condition
and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Usually,
an air handler is a large metal box containing a blower, heating and/or cooling elements filter
racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect to duct work
that distributes the conditioned air through the building, and returns it to the AHU. Sometimes
AHUs discharge (supply) and admit (return) air directly to and from the space served, without
ductwork.
Small air handlers, for local use, are called terminal units, and may only include an air filter,
coil, and blower; these simple terminal units are called blower coils or fan coil unit. A larger air
handler that conditions 100% outside air, and no re circulated air, is known as a makeup air
unit (MAU). An air handler designed for outdoor use, typically on roofs, is known as a
packaged unit (PU) or rooftop unit (RTU)




Compressors

Pressure Generation: Compression
The pressure exerted by a confined gas results from rapid and repeated bombardment of the
container walls by the enormous number of gas molecules present. The pressure can be
increased by increasing the number or force of the collisions. Increasing the temperature does
this by speeding up the molecules (Charles' Law). Another way is to increase the average
number of molecules in a given volume. This is compression. It can be done by either
decreasing the volume (Boyle's Law) or increasing the amount of gas.
Liquids and solids can be compressed only with difficulty. But gases are easily compressed
because their molecules are relatively far apart and move freely and randomly within a
confined space.

Compression decreases the volume available to each molecule. This means that each
particle has a shorter distance to travel before colliding with another particle or the wall. Thus,
proportionately more collisions occur in a given span of time, resulting in a higher pressure.

Why do we need compressed air?

The importance of compressed air is often over looked, but in reality it plays a vital part in most
modern manufacturing processes and modern civilization. Although we may not realize it most
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products we use today could simply not be made without compressed air. Compressed air
accounts for about 10% of the global energy used in industry today.
Compressed Air is clean, safe, simple and efficient. There are no dangerous exhaust fumes or
other harmful by products when compressed air is used as a utility. It is a non-combustible,
non-polluting utility.

Uses of Compressed air:
In industry, compressed air is so widely used that it is often regarded as the fourth utility, after
electricity, natural gas and water. However, compressed air is more expensive than the other
three utilities when evaluated on a per unit energy delivered basis.
Compressed air is used for many purposes, including:
Pneumatics, the use of pressurized gases to do work
Pneumatic post, using capsules to move paper and small goods through tubes.
Air tools
HVAC control systems
Vehicle propulsion
Energy storage
Air brakes, including:
railway braking systems
road vehicle braking systems
Scuba diving, for breathing and to inflate buoyancy devices
Refrigeration using a vortex tube
Gas dusters for cleaning electronic components that cannot be cleaned with water
Air-start systems in engines
Ammunition propulsion in:
Air guns
Airsoft equipment
Paintball equipment
Air Compressors: Basic Operation

An air compressor operates by converting mechanical energy into pneumatic energy via
compression. The input energy could come from a drive motor, gasoline engine, or power
takeoff.

Modern compressors use pistons, vanes, and other pumping mechanisms to draw air from the
atmosphere, compress it, and discharge it into a receiver or pressure system.
Rotary Compressors
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They are commonly used to replace piston compressors where large volumes of high pressure
air are needed, either for large industrial applications or to operate high-power air tools such
as jackhammers.
The gas compression process of a rotary screw is a continuous sweeping motion, so there is very
little pulsation or surging of flow, as occurs with piston compressors.

In a rotary compressor the air is compressed by the rotating action of a roller inside a cylinder.
The roller rotates eccentrically (off-center) around a shaft so that part of the roller is always in
contact with the inside wall of the cylinder. A spring-mounted blade is always rubbing against
the roller. The two points of contact create two sealed areas of continuously variable volume
inside the cylinder. At a certain point in the rotation of the roller, the intake port is exposed and
a quantity of air is sucked into the cylinder, filling one of the sealed areas. As the roller
continues to rotate the volume of the area the air occupies is reduced and the air is compressed.
When the exhaust valve is exposed, the high-pressure air forces the exhaust valve to open and
the air is released. Rotary compressors are very efficient because the actions of taking in air and
compressing air occur simultaneously.


Multistage Compression

Compression may be accomplished in one or more stages. That is, air can be compressed once
or several times before it reaches the compressor outlet and is delivered to the system devices.
Each stage provides a proportional increase in the output pressure.
Positive displacement compressors have the advantage of providing relatively large pressure
changes in a single stage, and very large pressure changes in a few stages.
However, the pressure output of non-positive displacement compressors can also be raised by
staging.


Single Stage - Fig. 3 is another way of illustrating how the compression process is carried out in
a single pass through a pumping chamber. This piston-type compressor has two cylinders, but
the compression action occurs in a single stage. The cylinders are connected in parallel between
the atmosphere and the discharge manifold.
The normal maximum pressure rating for single-stage compressors is about 100 psig.
Operation above this level increases the heat of compression (caused by leakage and
recompression) to levels that could harm the compressor and the overall system.
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Multiple Stage-In multiple-stage compression, the gas moves from one chamber to another.
This sequential action provides the final pressure.
For general utility and process purposes, two-stage compression is usually justified when the
compression ratio (Rc) exceeds six. When Rc exceeds 20, compression is usually accomplished in
three stages. To put this in pressure units, the upper limit for utility two-stage compressors is
between 280 and 300 psig. A gauge pressure of 500 psi has an RC value of 35.
Some multistage compressors eliminate the problem of increased heat of compression above 100
psig. This is done by:

Compressing the air to an intermediate pressure in the large-diameter low-pressure
cylinder.
Removing a portion of the heat of compression before the air is fed to the next stage (this
is known as "intercooling" and is normally done by an air-cooled or water-cooled heat
exchanger).
Further compressing the air to final pressure in a smaller high-pressure cylinder.

As Fig. 20 shows, these two cylinders are connected in series through the intercooler (compare
with Fig. 19). Intercooling greatly decreases both the total temperature rise of the compressed
air and the amount of work required for its compression. But the added cost of an intercooler
cannot always be justified on a small compressor.
Some two-stage compressors have three cylinders: two low-pressure cylinders connected to one
high-pressure cylinder through an intercooler.


Lubrication and Exhaust Air Quality

Contamination in the air can affect many applications. A laboratory process, for example,
powered by compressed air may be extremely sensitive to moisture, oil, or dust particles. Or in
such places as food processing plants, even the air exhausted from the pneumatic system may
have to be entirely free of oil vapor and contaminants.
A variety of filters, generally expensive, have been developed to solve such problems.
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An alternative is to use oil-less air compressor.

Oil-Less Compressors - Compressors designed with "dry" self-lubricating materials, such
as graphite or Teflon, produce oil-free air both in the line and at the exhaust. They effectively
eliminate the presence of air/oil vapors in applications where even a very fine oil mist can
cause contamination, stains, deterioration, or a safety hazard.
Oil-less pneumatic systems are particularly useful in the food, textile, paper, pharmaceutical,
and chemical industries. And since no maintenance lubrication is required, these units can be
mounted in the best, rather than the easiest to reach, location.

Oil-Lubricated Compressors - if, for some reason, an oil less air compressor is not
practical in an application where contamination is prohibited, then an oil-lubricated unit must
be used and equipped with appropriate filters to remove the oil after the air is compressed.
In an oil-lubricated compressor, a thin film of oil is maintained between the walls of the
pumping chamber and the pistons, vanes or other moving parts. Siphon or wick-type
lubricators are used in light-duty operations. Pressure type lubricators are used in heavy-duty
or continuous-duty applications. In general, oil-lubricated compressors have higher pressure
ratings than oil-free compressors.
They also run cooler and may therefore have longer service lives. The relative value of these
factors versus the convenience of inherently oil-free operation dictates whether oil-less or an oil-
lubricated compressor should be used.






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Boilers

Packaged Boiler: The packaged boiler is so called because it comes as a complete package. Once
delivered to site, it requires only the steam, water pipe work, fuel supply and electrical
connections to be made for it to become operational. Package boilers are generally of shell type
with fire tube design so as to achieve high heat transfer rates by both radiation and convection
Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
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The features of package boilers are:
Small combustion space and high heat release rate resulting in faster evaporation.
Large number of small diameter tubes leading to good convective heat transfer.
Forced or induced draft systems resulting in good combustion efficiency.
Number of passes resulting in better overall heat transfer.
Higher thermal efficiency levels compared with other boilers.

CONTINUOUS-FLOW RICE HUSK GASIFIER FOR SMALL-SCALE:
Rice husk gasification can now be done in a continuous mode with the latest design of a
continuous-flow down-draft rice husk gasifier. Instead of using a dual reactor, continuous firing
can be achieved using a single reactor. With this development, a more convenient and lower
cost rice husk technology can be made available to people who wish to use rice husks as fuel as
a replacement for the high-cost LPG fuel. The gasifier has the following components: a 0.25-m
diameter by 110- cm high single reactor where rice husk is gasified using limited amount of air
for combustion; a -sack capacity feeding hopper situated directly above the reactor that feeds
rice husks by gravity mode; a char chamber positioned directly beneath the reactor used to hold
burnt rice husks and also served as an exit duct for combustible gases to the burner; a char
separator attached to the char chamber for cleaning the gas leaving the reactor before the gas
enters the burner; and an air injector positioned beneath the char chamber to gradually remove
the char from the chamber pneumatically through a cyclone separator. A 2-inch electric blower
supplies the air needed for gasification and a 2-inch electric motor drives the pneumatic
conveyor. Gasification of rice husks in this gasifier is accomplished in a downdraft mode. Rice
husks are fed at the top of the reactor and are burned at its bottom. Air is introduced into the
bed of rice husks from the top of the reactor and moves downward through the fire zone. Fire
zone is maintained by gradually removing the char from the char chamber employing a jet-type
pneumatic conveyor installed right beneath the reactor. The gas generated in the reactor during
gasification is directed to the burner passing through the momentum separator. Char is
separated from the gas by a 30-cm diameter cylindrical shape momentum separator. The gas
produced is burned either in a jet-type, a gas pipe-type, or a drum-type burner. The air that is
used to convey the char is also used to cool the reactor at the same time. At the end of the
conveyor is a cyclone separator to separate the char from air. A water container is provided at
the bottom of the cyclone to immediately cool the hot char that is leaving the reactor.
Performance testing and evaluation showed that the gasifier can be successfully operated in a
continuous mode. Firing of the reactor can be start-up evenly by using only few pieces of
paperand by sprinkling kerosene at the bottom of the fuel bed. Once spontaneous combustion
of fuel is attained, combustible gases are generated. Tests have shown that the gasifier
consumes rice husk fuel at an average rate of 8.3 kg per hour. The amount of air used to gasify
rice husk was measured at 13.2 m3/hr giving an equivalence ratio for the gasifier reactor of 0.4
The temperature of the gas leaving the reactor using a type k thermocouple wire thermometer
was measured at 117 to 205C whereas the air used to cool the reactor and, at the same time,
used to convey the char was measured at 50 to 87C. The computed specific gasification rate of
the reactor is 169.2 kg/hr-m2. Based on the airflow and the cross-sectional area of the reactor,
the computed superficial velocity of gas in the fuel bed is at 7.5 cm/min. The pneumatic
conveyor operates well at a char-to-air ratio of 16.5 and for a terminal velocity of air inside the
duct pipe of 11.5 m/s. Based on the energy generated from the gas and the energy available
27


from the fuel, the overall efficiency of the gasifier is 63%. And, the computed power output is 19
kW. The gasifier can be used to supply combustible gases and effectively burns fuel either in a
jettype, pipe-type, or drum-type gasifier burner. The char that is produced from the gasifier is
completely black (40% of rice husk), which is good for soil conditioning. The cost of the gasifier
is P35,000.00 per unit (1 US$ = 55 PHP). It requires a single person to attend its entire operation.
Operating the gasifier entails a total electric power consumption of 0.4 kW. The computed
payback period is less than 1 year when compared with LPG burner. The continuous-flow rice
husk gasifier is of more advantage than the dual reactor rice husk gasifier primarily in terms of
current investment cost. Instead of using two reactors, only one reactor is used which means
lesser material cost. Other features of the continuous-flow rice husk gasifier are: (1) It is
convenient to operate in which reloading of rice husk and unloading of char are eliminated; (2)
It saves space since it has only one reactor; and (3) The size of the reactor can be scaled up or
down, depending on the requirement of the client.

Conclusions

InterLoop has a dynamic environment with strong relationship amongst the employees.
It normally prefers individual task outcomes, and evaluates the performance of its
employees to identify the training and development needs, performance rewards and
employees correction.

Its production rate is quite high. This is due to the hard work and dedication of the
employees. The engineering department makes sure that the machines are working
properly, EHS department makes sure the safety of environment and workers while QA
makes sure that the product is according to the standards.

It was a good experience for me to learn about Purchasing, Financing, Working on ERP
project oracle and excel. I enjoyed my time here in InterLoop.