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Sub topic: Solution

L.O: To analyze the components of a mixture and its properties



A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
A solution has two components solvent and solute.
1. Solvent:
o The component of the solution that dissolves the other component
(solute) in it.
o It is usually the component present in larger amount.
2. Solute:
o The component of the solution that is dissolved in the solvent.
o It is usually the component present in lesser amount.
Eg:
Solution Solvent Solute
Solution of sugar in water Water Sugar
Solution of iodine in alcohol
(Tincture of iodine)
Alcohol Iodine
Aerated drinks (soda water) Water Carbon dioxide

Properties of a solution
1. A solution is a homogeneous mixture.

2. The particles of a solution cannot be seen by naked eyes.
(size is less than 1nm in diameter)

3. The path of light is not visible in a solution.
(Due to very small particle size, solutions do not scatter a beam of light passing through it).

4. A solution is stable.
(The solute particles do not settle down when left undisturbed and cannot be separated
from the mixture by filtration)






Sub topic; Solubility
L.O: To classify solutions on the basis of amount of solute present in it.
To analyze the solubility of a solution
....................................................................................................................
Classification of solutions on the basis of amount of solute present in it:
1. Dilute solution & Concentrated Solution

Dilute solution

Concentrated Solution


Small mass (amount) of the solute
is dissolved in a certain quantity of
the solvent

Large mass (amount) of the solute is
dissolved in a certain quantity of the
solvent.


2. Unsaturated solution & Saturated Solution

Unsaturated Solution

Saturated Solution

A solution which has lesser
amount of solute than it can
dissolve at a given temperature is
known as unsaturated solution.


A solution which has maximum
amount of solute than it can dissolve
at a given temperature is known as
saturated solution.
More amount of solute is able to
dissolve at a given temperature.

No more solute can be dissolved at
a given temperature.
The amount of solute contained
in the solution is less than the
saturation level.
The amount of solute contained in
the solution is equal to the
saturation level.

Solubility
The amount of solute present in the saturated solution at a given
temperature.
Different substances in a given solvent have different solubilities at the same
temperature.


Sub topic: Concentration of Solution
L.O: To estimate the concentration of a solution

Concentration:
It is the amount of solute present in given amount (mass or volume) of solution.

Concentration of a solution =
Amount of solute
Amount of solvent

OR Amount of solute
Amount of solution

The concentration of a solution can be expressed as:
1. Mass by mass percentage of a solution =

Mass of solute x 100
Mass of solution
Mass of solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent

2. Mass by volume percentage of a solution =

Mass of solute x 100
Volume of solution
Problem:
A solution contains 40 g of common salt in 320 g of water. Calculate the
concentration in terms of mass by mass percentage of the solution?
Ans:
Mass by mass percentage of a solution =

Mass of solute x 100
Mass of solution
= 40 g X 100
(40g + 320g)
= 40 g X 100
360g
= 11.1%

HW Text book question 3, page 18,